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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 5

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Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 5

1

In none [of the following situations] is a [forgotten] sheaf [of grain] considered as shichichah. It was forgotten by workers and not forgotten by the owner of the field;1 it was forgotten by the owner of the field, but not the workers; or both these individuals forgot it, but there were others passing by2 who observed them at the time they forgot it. [To be shichichah] it must be forgotten by all people. Even a sheaf that was hidden away [purposely], if it is forgotten, it is shichichah.

א

הָעֹמֶר שֶׁשְּׁכָחוּהוּ פּוֹעֲלִים וְלֹא שְׁכָחוֹ בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה. שְׁכָחוֹ בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה וְלֹא שְׁכָחוּהוּ פּוֹעֲלִים. שְׁכָחוּהוּ אֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ וְהָיוּ שָׁם אֲחֵרִים עוֹבְרִין וְרוֹאִין אוֹתָן בְּעֵת שֶׁשְּׁכָחוּהוּ. אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁכְּחוּהוּ כָּל אָדָם. וַאֲפִלּוּ עֹמֶר הַטָּמוּן אִם נִשְׁכָּח הֲרֵי זֶה שִׁכְחָה:

2

When the owner of the field was in the city and he said: "I know that the workers forgot a sheaf in this-and-this place," [but afterwards, the owner]3 forgot it, it is shichichah. If he was in the field and made such statements, but then forgot [the sheaf], it is not shichichah. [The rationale is that,] in a field, [only a sheaf] that was forgotten at the outset4 is shichichah.5 In a city, by contrast, even if one remembered it and afterwards forgot it, it is shichichah, as [indicated by Deuteronomy 24:19]: "If you forget a sheaf in the field," [i.e., in the field,] but not in a city.6

ב

הָיָה בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה בָּעִיר וְאָמַר יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהַפּוֹעֲלִים שָׁכְחוּ עֹמֶר שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי וּשְׁכָחוּהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה שִׁכְחָה. וְאִם הָיָה בַּשָּׂדֶה וְאָמַר כֵּן וּשְׁכָחוּהוּ אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה שֶׁהַשָּׁכוּחַ מֵעִקָּרוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶה הוּא הַשִּׁכְחָה. אֲבָל בָּעִיר אֲפִלּוּ זָכוּר וּלְבַסּוֹף שָׁכוּחַ הֲרֵי זוֹ שִׁכְחָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יט) "וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה" וְלֹא בָּעִיר:

3

If the poor stood in front of [the sheaf]7 or covered it with straw and he remembered the straw,8 or he took hold of it to bring it to the city, but left it in the field and forgot it, it is not shichichah.9 If, however, he moved it from place to place,10 even if he left it next to a gate,11 a grainheap, cattle, or utensils,12 and he forgot it, it is shichichah.

ג

עָמְדוּ הָעֲנִיִּים בְּפָנָיו אוֹ חִפּוּהוּ בְּקַשׁ וְהוּא זוֹכֵר אֶת הַקַּשׁ אוֹ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיק בּוֹ לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לָעִיר וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶה וּשְׁכָחוֹ אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. אֲבָל אִם נְטָלוֹ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ סָמוּךְ לַגַּפָּה אוֹ לַגָּדִישׁ אוֹ לַבָּקָר אוֹ לַכֵּלִים וּשְׁכָחוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה שִׁכְחָה:

4

[The following rules apply if] he took a sheaf with the intent of bringing it to the city,13 put it down on another [sheaf], and then forgot both of them. If he remembered the top sheaf before he sees it, the bottom one is not shichichah.14 If not, the bottom one is shichichah.

ד

נָטַל עֹמֶר לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לָעִיר וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי חֲבֵרוֹ וְשָׁכַח אֶת שְׁנֵיהֶן. אִם זָכַר הָעֶלְיוֹן קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּפְגַּע בּוֹ אֵין הַתַּחְתּוֹן שִׁכְחָה וְאִם לָאו הַתַּחְתּוֹן שִׁכְחָה:

5

If a person's sheaves flew into a field belonging to a colleague because of a strong wind and he forgot a sheaf there, it is not shichichah, for [Deuteronomy 24:19] states: "[If you reap] your harvest in your field."15 If, however, the wind scattered the sheaves within his own field and he forgot them, it is shichichah.

ה

עָפוּ עֳמָרָיו בְּרוּחַ חֲזָקָה לְתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ וְשָׁכַח שָׁם עֹמֶר אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יט) "קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ". אֲבָל אִם פִּזֵּר הָעֳמָרִים בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְשָׁכַח הֲרֵי זוֹ שִׁכְחָה:

6

[The following rules apply when a person] takes the first, second, and third sheaves, but leaves the fourth. If there was a sixth sheaf, the fourth sheaf is not shichichah until he takes the fifth sheaf.16 If, however, there are only five sheaves, when he bends down to take the fifth sheaf,17 the fourth is shichichah.

ו

הַנּוֹטֵל עֹמֶר רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי וּשְׁלִישִׁי וְשָׁכַח הָרְבִיעִי. אִם הָיָה שָׁם שִׁשִּׁי אֵין הָרְבִיעִי שִׁכְחָה עַד שֶׁיִּטּל הַחֲמִישִׁי. וְאִם הָיוּ חֲמִשָּׁה בִּלְבַד מִשֶּׁיִּשְׁהֶא כְּדֵי לִטּל הַחֲמִישִׁי הֲרֵי הָרְבִיעִי שִׁכְחָה:

7

When the sheaves in a field are mixed together,18 he forgot one of them, it is not shichichah19 unless he takes everything around it.

ז

שְׁנֵי עֳמָרִים מְעֻרְבָּבִין וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה עַד שֶׁיִּטּל אֶת כָּל סְבִיבוֹתָיו:

8

Although wild onions, garlic, onions, and the like are buried in the earth, the laws of shichichah apply to them.20 When a person harvests his field at night and forgets standing grain or he binds the grain into sheaves at night and forgets a sheaf and similarly, a blind man who forgets sheaves, the laws of shichichah apply.21 If, however, the blind person or the one harvesting at night only intended to take bulky [sheaves], the laws of shichichah do not apply.22

Whenever a person says: "I am harvesting the field on the condition that I may take what I forget," [his statement is of no consequence and] the laws of shichichah apply. [The rationale is that] whenever a person establishes a condition that contradicts the Torah, the condition is nullified.23

ח

הַלּוּף וְהַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן טְמוּנִין בָּאָרֶץ יֵשׁ לָהֶן שִׁכְחָה. הַקּוֹצֵר בַּלַּיְלָה וְשָׁכַח קָמָה אוֹ שֶׁעִמֵּר בַּלַּיְלָה וְשָׁכַח עֹמֶר וְכֵן הַסּוּמָא שֶׁשָּׁכַח יֵשׁ לָהֶן שִׁכְחָה. וְאִם הָיָה הַסּוּמָא אוֹ הַקּוֹצֵר בַּלַּיְלָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לִטּל אֶת הַגַּס אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. וְכָל הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי קוֹצֵר עַל מְנָת מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי שׁוֹכֵחַ אֲנִי אֶטּל יֵשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה שֶׁכָּל הַמַּתְנֶה עַל מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה תְּנָאוֹ בָּטֵל:

9

When grain was harvested before it fully matured with the intent that it be fed to animals, the laws of shichichah do not apply.24 Similarly, if a person [binds the grain into] small bundles [as] he harvests without binding them into sheaves or he uprooted garlic or onions and made them into small bundles to sell in the marketplace instead of binding them into larger sheaves to store in a storehouse, [the laws of shichichah do not apply].25

ט

תְּבוּאָה שֶׁקְּצָרָהּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה לְהַאֲכִילָהּ לִבְהֵמָה. וְכֵן אִם קְצָרָהּ אֲגֻדּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת וְלֹא עֲשָׂאָהּ עֳמָרִים. וְכֵן הַשּׁוּמִים וְהַבְּצָלִים שֶׁתְּלָשָׁן אֲגֻדּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת לְהִמָּכֵר לַשּׁוּק וְלֹא עֲשָׂאָן עֳמָרִים לְהַעֲמִיד מֵהֶן גֹּרֶן אֵין לָהֶם שִׁכְחָה:

10

When a person began harvesting from the beginning of a row [of grain] and forgot grain both in front of him and behind him, [the grain] behind him is shichichah,26 [the grain] in front of him is not shichichah,27 as [implied by Deuteronomy, loc. cit.,]: "Do not go back to take it." [Grain is] not shichichah unless [the harvester] passes it and leaves it behind him. This is the general principle: Whenever the adjuration "Do not return" applies, [the laws of] shichichah apply. Whenever the adjuration "Do not return" does not apply, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.

י

הַקּוֹצֵר שֶׁהִתְחִיל לִקְצֹר מֵרֹאשׁ הַשּׁוּרָה וְשָׁכַח לְפָנָיו וּלְאַחֲרָיו. שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו שִׁכְחָה וְשֶׁלְּפָנָיו אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יט) "לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ" אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר מִמֶּנּוּ וְיַנִּיחֶנּוּ לְאַחֲרָיו. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁהוּא בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב שִׁכְחָה וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה:

11

[The following laws apply when] two people began to harvest from the middle of the field, one facing north and the other facing south and they both forgot [sheaves] in front of them and behind them. [The sheaves] in front of them are shichichah, because what is in front of one is behind the other.28 A sheaf29 that was forgotten behind them in the place from which they began harvesting30 is not shichichah, because it is combined with the rows that run from east to west and they indicate that this is not shichichah.31

Similar [concepts apply with regard to] the rows of sheaves that were being moved to the threshing floor and two people began [collecting] them from the middle of the field and forgot a sheaf in the middle, between their backs, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply. [The rationale is that] it is in the midst of the row between the west and the east where they have not begun [collecting]. Its position indicates that it was not forgotten.

יא

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ לִקְצֹר מֵאֶמְצַע הַשּׁוּרָה זֶה פָּנָיו לְצָפוֹן וְזֶה פָּנָיו לְדָרוֹם וְשָׁכְחוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶן. שֶׁלִּפְנֵיהֶם שִׁכְחָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן זֶה שֶׁלְּפָנָיו הוּא לַאֲחוֹרָיו שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ. וְהָעֹמֶר שֶׁשְּׁכָחוּהוּ לַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ מִמֶּנּוּ אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְעֹרָב עִם הַשּׁוּרוֹת שֶׁמִּן הַמִּזְרָח לְמַעֲרָב וְהֵן מוֹכִיחִין עָלָיו שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁכוּחַ. וְכֵן הַשּׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל עֳמָרִים שֶׁפִּינוּ אוֹתָן לְגֹרֶן וְהִתְחִילוּ שְׁנַיִם מֵאֶמְצַע שׁוּרָה וְשָׁכְחוּ עֹמֶר בָּאֶמְצַע בֵּין אֲחוֹרֵיהֶן אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּאֶמְצַע הַשּׁוּרָה שֶׁמִּן מַעֲרָב לַמִּזְרָח שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִתְחִילוּ בָּהּ וְהִיא מוֹכָחַת עָלָיו שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁכוּחַ:

12

[The following rules apply when a person] harvests, binds [the grain] into sheaves, and then moves these sheaves - which are called omerim - from one place to another, and then from the second place to a third,32 and then from the third to the threshing floor. Should he forget a sheaf when he is moving it from one place to another, if he forgot it when he was moving to a place where work is completed,33 [the laws of] shichichah apply. Afterwards, when he moves it from the place where the work is completed to the threshing floor, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply. If he moved the sheaves to a place where work is not completed34 and forgot [them], [the laws of] shichichah do not apply. Afterwards, when he moves it from the place where the work is not completed to the threshing floor, [the laws of] shichichah do apply.35

יב

הַקּוֹצֵר וְאִלֵּם אֲלֻמּוֹת אֲלֻמּוֹת. וּפִנָּה הָאֲלֻמּוֹת וְהֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין עֳמָרִים מִמָּקוֹם זֶה לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר. וּמִמָּקוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי לַמָּקוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי. וּמִמָּקוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לַגֹּרֶן וְשָׁכַח הָעֹמֶר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁפִּנָּה מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם. אִם פִּנָּה הָעֳמָרִים לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא גְּמַר מְלָאכָה וּשְׁכָחָהּ יֵשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה וּכְשֶׁיְּפַנֶּה מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא גְּמַר מְלָאכָה לַגֹּרֶן אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. וְאִם פִּנָּה הָעֳמָרִים לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ גְּמַר מְלָאכָה וְשָׁכַח אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה וּכְשֶׁיְּפַנֶּה מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ גְּמַר מְלָאכָה לַגֹּרֶן יֵשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה:

13

What constitutes a place "where work is completed"? A place where one intends to collect all the sheaves and thresh them there or take them to the threshing floor. What constitutes a place "where work is not completed"? A place where sheaves are collected to bind them into larger sheaves to bring them to another place.

יג

אֵי זֶהוּ מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא גְּמַר מְלָאכָה. זֶה מָקוֹם שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְקַבֵּץ כָּל הָעֳמָרִין שָׁם וְלָדוּשׁ אוֹתָן שָׁם אוֹ לְהוֹלִיכָן שָׁם לִמְקוֹם גָּדִישׁ שֶׁהוּא הַגֹּרֶן. וּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ גְּמַר מְלָאכָה הוּא הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁמְּקַבְּצִין בּוֹ הָעֳמָרִים כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן אֲלֻמּוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת כְּדֵי לְהוֹלִיכָן לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר:

14

When two bundles [of grain]36 are separate from each other, [the laws of] shichichah apply.37 [If there are] three, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.38 When two sheaves are separate from each other, [the laws of] shichichah apply. [If there are] three, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.

יד

שְׁתֵּי כְּרִיכוֹת הַמֻּבְדָּלוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ שִׁכְחָה. וְשָׁלֹשׁ אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי עֳמָרִים הַמֻּבְדָּלִין זֶה מִזֶּה שִׁכְחָה. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה:

15

When two mounds of olives or carobs are separate from each other, [the laws of] shichichah apply. [If there are] three, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply. When two bundles of flax39 are separate from each other, [the laws of] shichichah apply. [If there are] three, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.

טו

שְׁנֵי צִבּוּרֵי זֵיתִים וְחָרוּבִין הַמֻּבְדָּלִין זֶה מִזֶּה שִׁכְחָה. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינָם שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי הוּצְנֵי פִּשְׁתָּן שִׁכְחָה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינָם שִׁכְחָה:

16

When there are two vines - or two of any other tree - are separate from each other, [the laws of] shichichah apply.40 [If there are] three, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply. [This is derived from Leviticus 19:10]41 "Leave them for the poor and the stranger." [Implied is that] even if there are two, one should be given to the poor and one to the stranger.

טז

שְׁתֵּי גְּפָנִים וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת שְׁנַיִם הַמֻּבְדָּלִין זֶה מִזֶּה שִׁכְחָה. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט י) (ויקרא כג כב) "לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם" אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם אֶחָד לְעָנִי וְאֶחָד לַגֵּר:

17

If all the sheaves contain a kab42 and one contains four kabbim, and it was forgotten, [the laws of] shichichah apply.43 If it contained more than four kabbim, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.44 Similarly, if [the sheaves] all contain two kabbim and there is one which contains more than eight kabbim, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.

יז

הָיוּ כָּל הָעֳמָרִים שֶׁל קַב קַב וְאֶחָד שֶׁל אַרְבָּעָה קַבִּין וּשְׁכָחוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה שִׁכְחָה. יֶתֶר עַל הָאַרְבָּעָה אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ שֶׁל שְׁנֵי שְׁנֵי קַבִּין וְאֶחָד יֶתֶר עַל שְׁמוֹנָה קַבִּין אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה:

18

[When one] forgets a sheaf that contains two se'ah45 [of grain, the laws of] shichichah do not apply, as [implied by Deuteronomy 24:19]: "When you forget a sheaf in the field," i.e., [a sheaf], but not a grainheap.46 [This applies] even if [one collects all the grain into] sheaves containing two se'ah.

When a person forgets two sheaves, [the laws of] shichichah apply even though together they contain two se'ah since each of them individually is less than two se'ah. It thus appears to me that [the laws of] shichichah apply even though together they contain more than two se'ah.

יח

הָעֹמֶר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סָאתַיִם וּשְׁכָחוֹ אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יט) "וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה" וְלֹא גָּדִישׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכֻּלָּן סָאתַיִם סָאתַיִם. שָׁכַח שְׁנֵי עֳמָרִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִשְּׁנֵיהֶן סָאתַיִם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שִׁכְחָה. וְכֵן יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהֵן שִׁכְחָה אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בִּשְׁנֵיהֶן יוֹתֵר מִסָּאתַיִם:

19

When there are more than two se'ah of standing grain [left unharvested], [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.47 If less than two se'ah [were left], we consider the thin stalks as if they were healthy and long and those with few kernels as if they were full. If, while such considerations were to be made, [the grain] would be sufficient to produce two se'ah48 and he forgot it, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.

יט

קָמָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ סָאתַיִם וּשְׁכָחָהּ אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה. אֵין בָּהּ סָאתַיִם רוֹאִין אֶת הַשִּׁבֳּלִים הַדַּקּוֹת כְּאִלּוּ הֵן בְּרִיאוֹת וַאֲרֻכּוֹת וְאֶת הַשְּׁדוּפוֹת כְּאִלּוּ הֵן מְלֵאוֹת. וְאִם הָיְתָה רְאוּיָה (לִהְיוֹת) הַקָּמָה אַחַר אֻמְדָּן זֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת סָאתַיִם וּשְׁכָחָהּ אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה:

20

When a person forgets a se'ah of grain that has been cut down and a se'ah which has not been cut down, they are not combined49 and [the laws of] shichichah apply to each of them. Similarly, with regard to garlic, onions, and fruit from trees. If a person forgot a portion of them in [- or attached to -] the ground and a portion of them detached, they cannot be combined [to form a single quantity]. Instead, [even though] together there are two se'ah, [the laws of] shichichah apply to each of them.

כ

שָׁכַח סְאָה תְּבוּאָה עֲקוּרָה וּסְאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲקוּרָה אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִים. וּשְׁנֵיהֶם שִׁכְחָה. וְכֵן בְּשׁוּם וּבִבְצָלִים וּבְפֵרוֹת הָאִילָן אִם שָׁכַח מִקְצָתָן בַּקַּרְקַע וּמִקְצָתָן תָּלוּשׁ וּבִשְׁנֵיהֶם סָאתַיִם אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין אֶלָּא שְׁנֵיהֶם שִׁכְחָה

21

When a person forgets a sheaf at the side of standing grain that was not forgotten, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply. [This is implied by Deuteronomy, loc. cit.]: "When you harvest... and you forget a sheaf...." [Implied is that when] a sheaf [is located] in an area that has been harvested, [the laws of] shichichah apply. When a sheaf [is located] in an area where there is standing grain, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.50

Similarly, if he forgot standing grain that was located next to51 standing grain that was not forgotten, even one stem, it rescues the forgotten [grain] and [the owner] is permitted to come and take it. If, however, he forgot a sheaf or standing grain at the side of a sheaf that was not forgotten, even if the sheaf contains two se'ah,52 it does not rescue the forgotten grain and that grain belongs to the poor.

Standing grain belonging to a colleague does not rescue one's own sheaves, nor does standing barley rescue a sheaf of wheat. [Instead,] the standing grain must be of the same species as the sheaf.

כא

הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ עֹמֶר בְּצַד הַקָּמָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שְׁכוּחָה אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יט) "כִּי תִקְצֹר וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר". עֹמֶר שֶׁסְּבִיבוֹתָיו קָצִיר שִׁכְחָה אֲבָל עֹמֶר שֶׁסְּבִיבוֹתָיו קָמָה אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה. וְכֵן אִם שָׁכַח קָמָה בְּצַד קָמָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שְׁכוּחָה אֲפִלּוּ קֶלַח אֶחָד הֲרֵי זוֹ מַצֶּלֶת אֶת הַשְּׁכוּחָה וְיִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְקַחְתָּהּ. אֲבָל אִם שָׁכַח עֹמֶר אוֹ קָמָה בְּצַד עֹמֶר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁכוּחַ אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בּוֹ סָאתַיִם אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל אוֹתָהּ וַהֲרֵי הַשָּׁכוּחַ לָעֲנִיִּים. אֵין קָמַת חֲבֵרוֹ מַצֶּלֶת עַל עֹמֶר שֶׁלּוֹ וְאֵין קָמַת שְׂעוֹרִים מַצֶּלֶת עַל עֹמֶר חִטִּים עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַקָּמָה מִמִּין הָעֹמֶר:

22

When a person forgets a tree among others - even if it carries many se'ah of fruit53 - or if he forgot two trees, [the laws of] shichichah apply.54 [If he forgot] three, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply.

כב

הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ אִילָן בֵּין הָאִילָנוֹת אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בּוֹ כַּמָּה סְאִין פֵּרוֹת אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁכַח שְׁנֵי אִילָנוֹת הֲרֵי הֵן שִׁכְחָה. שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה:

23

When does the above apply? With regard to a tree55 that is not well known and distinguished by its place, e.g., it was located at the side of the olive-press or an open portion [of a fence], by its yield, e.g., it produced many olives, or its name: e.g., the flowing olive56 among the olive trees, i.e., that it produces much oil, the outpouring olive, the shameful olive.57 If, however, it was distinguished in any of these three ways, [the laws of] shichichah do not apply. [This is derived from Deuteronomy, loc. cit.]: "And you shall forget a sheaf in the field." [Implied is that this command applies to] a sheaf that could be forgotten forever which you will not bring to mind unless you return and see it. It excludes this tree that you will remember afterwards even if you do not encounter it, because it is well known and distinguished.

כג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּאִילָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ וּמְפֻרְסָם בַּמָּקוֹם כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּצַד הַגַּת אוֹ בְּצַד הַפִּרְצָה. אוֹ בְּמַעֲשָׂיו כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה עוֹשֶׂה זֵיתִים הַרְבֵּה. אוֹ בִּשְׁמוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ שֵׁם יָדוּעַ כְּגוֹן זַיִת הַנְּטוּפָה בֵּין הַזֵּיתִים שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵף שֶׁמֶן הַרְבֵּה אוֹ הַשַּׁפְכָנִי אוֹ הַבֵּיְשָׁנִי. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בּוֹ אֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יט) "וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה" עֹמֶר שֶׁאַתָּה שׁוֹכְחוֹ לְעוֹלָם וְאֵין אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ בּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם תָּשׁוּב וְתִרְאֵהוּ. יָצָא זֶה שֶׁאַתָּה זוֹכְרוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא תִּפְגַּע בּוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא יָדוּעַ וּמְפֻרְסָם:

24

If [a tree] is distinguished in the mind of [the owner], it is as if it is well known and distinguished.58 If an [olive tree] was located next to a palm tree, the palm causes it to be distinguished.59 If two trees are "flowing olives," each one causes the other to be distinguished. If, however, one's entire field consists of "flowing olives" and one forgets one or two trees, [the laws of] shichichah apply.60 When is [the concept that the laws of shichichah do not apply to a tree that is distinguished] relevant? When one has not begun harvesting this distinguished tree. If, however, one began harvesting it and then forgot a portion of it, [the laws of] shichichah apply,61 even though it is distinguished, provided less than two se'ah [of fruit] remain upon it. If, however, two se'ah [of fruit] remain upon it,62 [the laws of] shichichah do not apply63 unless he forgets the entire tree as we explained.64

כד

הָיָה מְסֻיָּם בְּדַעְתּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְפֻרְסָם וְיָדוּעַ. הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּצַד הַדֶּקֶל הַדֶּקֶל מְסַיְּמוֹ. הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן זַיִת נְטוּפָה זֶה מְסַיֵּם אֶת זֶה. הָיְתָה כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ זַיִת נְטוּפָה וְשָׁכַח אַחַת מֵהֶן אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל בְּאִילָן זֶה הַמְפֻרְסָם. אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִיל בּוֹ וְשָׁכַח מִקְצָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה שִׁכְחָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְפֻרְסָם. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַנִּשְׁאָר בּוֹ פָּחוֹת מִסָּאתַיִם. אֲבָל סָאתַיִם אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שָׁכַח כָּל הָאִילָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

25

[The following law applies with regard to] an olive tree standing alone in the middle of rows [of olive trees, i.e.,] there are three rows of olive trees surrounding it on three sides, even though each of these rows contains only two olive trees. If [the owner] forgot the olive tree in the middle, [the laws of] shichichah do not [apply], because the rows [of trees] hid it.65 Why was [this law] stated only with regard to an olive tree? For they were important in Eretz Yisrael at that time.66

כה

זַיִת הָעוֹמֵד בְּאֶמְצַע הַשּׁוּרוֹת לְבַדּוֹ וְשָׁלֹשׁ שׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל זֵיתִים מַקִּיפִין אוֹתוֹ מִשְּׁלֹשׁ רוּחוֹתָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּכָל שׁוּרָה מֵהֶן אֶלָּא שְׁנֵי זֵיתִים שָׁכַח אֶת הָאֶמְצָעִי אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַשּׁוּרוֹת הִסְתִּירוּהוּ. וְלָמָּה אָמְרוּ זַיִת בִּלְבַד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה חָשׁוּב בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאוֹתוֹ הַזְּמַן:

26

When do the laws of shichichah apply with regard to [vines lifted on] a trellis? Whenever [the owner has passed the grapes] to the extent that he cannot extend his hand and take them.

[When do they apply] in a vineyard? When he passes the vine or the vines and forgets them.

[When do they apply] with regard to a vine draped over a high support or a palm tree? When he descends from it.67 And with regard to other trees? When he turns and walks away from it.

When does the above apply? When he did not begin [harvesting its fruit].68 If, however, he began harvesting its fruit and forgot it, [the laws of shichichah] do not apply until he harvests all [the fruit in] the surrounding area.

כו

אֵיזֶהוּ שִׁכְחָה בְּעָרִיס. כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִטְּלָהּ. וּבְכֶרֶם מִשֶּׁיַּעֲבֹר מִן הַגֶּפֶן (אוֹ) וּמִן הַגְּפָנִים וְיִשְׁכַּח אוֹתָהּ. בְּדָלִית וּבְדֶקֶל מִשֶּׁיֵּרֵד הֵימֶנּוּ. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הָאִילָנוֹת מִשֶּׁיִּפְנֶה וְיֵלֵךְ לוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל בּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִיל בּוֹ וּשְׁכָחוֹ אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה עַד שֶׁיִּבְצֹר אֶת כָּל סְבִיבָיו:

27

When a person declares his vineyard ownerless and gets up early in the morning acquires it for himself and harvests it, he is bound by [the laws of] peret, ollelot, shichichah, and peah, for this can rightfully be called "your field" and "your vineyard."69 It was his and now it is his. If, however, he acquired a field that had previously belonged to another person that was declared ownerless, he is exempt from all of these obligations. In all instances, he is exempt from [the obligation of] the tithes, as will be explained.70

כז

הַמַּפְקִיר אֶת כַּרְמוֹ וְהִשְׁכִּים בַּבֹּקֶר וְזָכָה בּוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ וּבְצָרוֹ חַיָּב בְּפֶרֶט וּבְעוֹלֵלוֹת וּבְשִׁכְחָה וּבְפֵאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי שָׂדְךָ וְכַרְמְךָ אֲנִי קוֹרֵא בּוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה שֶׁלּוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם זָכָה מִן הַהֶפְקֵר בְּשָׂדֶה שֶׁל אֲחֵרִים הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַכּל. וּבֵין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

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Footnotes
1.

Note, however, the qualification in the following halachah.

2.

I.e., individuals who had no connection to the field.

3.

This addition is made on the basis of the gloss of the Kessef Mishneh. The Radbaz offers an alternate explanation.

4.

I.e., the owner forgot it before the workers did.

5.

But if one was conscious of it at the outset, it is not shichichah even if it was forgotten afterwards. The rationale is that the owner retains possession of it, because it was located in his field with his knowledge. Hence, to release it from his possession, he would have to consciously absolve himself from ownership. Forgetting it is not sufficient.

6.

Bava Metzia 11a derives this from the exegesis of the verse cited above. The Kessef Mishneh explains that since the owner is not near his field, his field cannot acquire it on his behalf.

7.

I.e., they blocked him from seeing it and in that way caused him to forget it.

8.

If, however, he also forgets the straw, it is shichichah.

9.

Even though he did not remove it from the field, since he picked it up with the intent of taking it to the city, he acquires it.

10.

There is a difference of opinion regarding this issue in Pe'ah 6:3. The School of Shammai maintain that as soon as the person picks it up, he acquires it and the fact that he forgets it afterwards does not cause it to become shichichah. The School of Hillel maintain that as long as he did not have the intent of removing it from the field, it is shichichah.

11.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah, loc. cit.).

12.

I.e., plowing utensils (ibid.).

13.

And thus that sheaf will never be shichichah as stated in the previous halachah.

14.

This law is also dependent on the previous halachah. Since the bottom sheaf was covered by the top one, the owner could not see it and hence, forgot it. Therefore it is not shichichah.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam's ruling. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh justify the Rambam's view.

15.

I.e., this verse, which serves as the source for the command to leave shichichah, speaks only of "your field," and not a field belonging to a colleague.

16.

For that is a clear sign that he forgot the fourth. Until he picks it up, we might think that he was planning to divide his work in half, first picking up the first three sheaves and then picking up the second three. See Kessef Mishneh.

17.

Skipping the fourth sheaf is an obvious sign that he has forgotten it.

18.

Our translation follows authoritative manuscripts and early printings of the Mishneh Torah and also conforms to the wording of the Tosefta, Pe'ah, ch. 3, which is the Rambam's source. The standard published text has a slightly different version. The intent is that rather than have the sheaves placed neatly at the end of the field's rows, they are placed irregularly throughout the field.

19.

The gloss of the P'nei Moshe to the Jerusalem Talmud, Pe'ah 6:3, explains that the laws of shichichah do not apply because the irregular pattern in which the sheaves were left caused him to forget the sheaf. It did not slip his mind without cause.

20.

The fact that it is the earth - i.e., an outside factor - that prevents them from being seen is not significant, as in Halachah 1.

21.

Although it can be said that these persons forgot the produce because they did not see it, the laws of shichichah are not suspended. The darkness or the person's inability to see are not considered an external cause - like those mentioned in Halachah 3 - for since he decided to harvest in this circumstance, it is his responsibility to search harder for the produce.

22.

Since he was not planning to collect all the sheaves, the fact that he left some unintentionally is not significant (Radbaz).

23.

This is a general principle, applicable in all contexts of Torah Law with the exception of financial matters.

24.

The verse mentions "forget[ting] a sheaf in the field." Since this grain will not be collected as sheaves, the mitzvah of shichichah does not apply.

25.

For these smaller bundles are also not considered as sheaves.

26.

Because he has already passed it while harvesting and would have to go back to harvest it.

27.

Because he has not begun harvesting in that area and would not have to go back to harvest it.

28.

And he is forbidden to go back and take it. The rationale is that the harvesting of the field and the collection of the sheaves is incumbent on both of them together. Hence if one would collect what his colleague left, he would have to turn back and this would be forbidden (Kessef Mishneh).

29.

The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's wording, noting that he begins speaking about harvesting a field and concludes by speaking about gathering sheaves. The Radbaz notes this difficulty and also mentions that if this were the case, then the Rambam's text would be redundant, because the second clause is merely a repetition of the first. Hence, he maintains that the subject of the first clause should be "standing grain" and not sheaves. We, however, have not accepted his emendation, because all the authoritative manuscripts and early printings speak of sheaves.

The Ra'avad also differs with the Rambam's interpretation of Pe'ah 6:3, the source for this halachah, and offers an alternate understanding. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh substantiate the Rambam's position.

30.

And only in that midpoint.

31.

Since it is in line with the sheaves that run east to west, it does not appear as a separate entity.

32.

As the Rambam explains in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 5:8), it was common for people to store grain in several types of intermediate storing areas until it was bound into larger sheaves and taken to the threshing floor.

33.

This term is defined in the following halachah.

34.

Since it is in line with the sheaves that run east to west, it does not appear as a separate entity.

35.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit. 5:8), the Rambam explains that just as with regard to harvesting, the obligation of shichichah applies only when one is completing the harvest, so too, with regard to moving sheaves, the obligation of shichichah applies when one is completing the task.

36.

I.e., smaller collections of grain than sheaves.

37.

I.e., we consider them as separate entities and they both may be taken.

38.

For they are considered as too substantial a quantity to be forgotten. We assume that the owner had not completed gathering the sheaves from the field and was intending to return and collect them.

The Radbaz explains that the halachah is speaking about three sheaves that are separate from each other. If, however, they are collected in one place, they are considered as a single entity and the laws of shichichah do apply. There are, however, other opinions that do not follow this understanding.

39.

The Kessef Mishneh states that we are speaking about an instance where the flax is being grown for its seeds which are to be eaten. If it is being grown to be used for making fabrics, the laws of shichichah do not apply.

40.

The Radbaz explains that the Rambam is emphasizing that the laws of shichichah apply even if the two trees have a substantial amount of fruit and thus could be likened to the sheaf containing two se'ah mentioned in Halachah 18.

41.

Although this verse mentions peret and olelot and not shichichah, our Sages understand that these mitzvot are interrelated.

42.

A kab is approximately 1382 cc according to Shiurei Torah and 2400 cc according to Chazon Ish.

43.

Even though it is larger than the others, it is not large enough to be considered a significant entity like the oversized sheaf mentioned in the following halachah.

44.

For its size causes it to be considered a significant entity.

45.

A se'ah is six kabbim.

46.

I.e., because of its size, it is significant and it is not relevant to speak of it being forgotten.

47.

For as above, they produce a quantity of grain too significant to be ignored.

48.

Our translation follows the text of authoritative manuscripts and early printings of the Mishneh Torah. The standard printed text follows a slightly different version.

49.

To be considered as two se'ah.

50.

Since the standing grain is not forgotten and the owner can return and collect it, he can also return and collect any forgotten standing grain or sheaves that are in its surroundings.

51.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 6:8), the Rambam explains that the two areas of standing grain must be close enough to each other that if one is bent over, it will reach the other.

52.

And thus the laws of shichichah do not apply to it, as stated in Halachah 18. Even so, it cannot rescue the other sheaves.

53.

In contrast to the sheaf mentioned in Halachah 18 and the standing grain mentioned in Halachah 19. The Kessef Mishneh explains that the reason for the distinction is that a sheaf of two se'ah of grain or that amount of standing grain is considered significant, but one tree - even if it contains a large quantity of fruit - is not significant in an entire orchard. In other words, the issue is relative: "When one has already begun focusing on a particular tree, two se'ah is considered a significant amount, but when one is considered one tree as part of an entire orchard, its significance pales.

The Radbaz supports this differentiation, noting that Pe'ah 7:1 (quoted in Halachah 23) speaks of an olive tree with a specific name or distinction, but not one that is set apart by the fact that it produces a specific quantity of fruit. See also Halachah 24.

54.

As in Halachot 14-16.

55.

The Rambam's words are based on Pe'ah 7:1. Although the mishnah speaks of olives. The same principles apply with regard to other trees as well.

56.

Our translation is based on authoritative manuscripts and early printings of the Mishneh Torah. The standard printed text has a slightly different version. The Rambam follows the understanding of the mishnah cited above found in the Jerusalem Talmud. In his Commentary to the Mishnah, however, he defines Netufah as being the name of a place.

57.

It was given this name because it did not produce much oil.

58.

For he will remember it afterwards.

59.

For it then has a specific location, like the tree next to the vat or next to the opening mentioned in the previous halachah.

60.

For there is nothing that distinguishes these olive trees from the others in that grove.

61.

When viewed in relation to the orchard as a whole, the tree is distinct and leaving it unharvested does not mean it is no longer in mind. Once, however, one has begun harvesting the produce of that tree, the laws of shichichah apply to it.

62.

Based on his interpretation of Pe'ah 7:2, the Ra'avad maintains that this principle should apply to all trees, even those that are not distinguished by a particular quality. When one ceased harvesting their produce in the middle, if two se'ah of produce remain, it is significant and the laws of shichichah do not apply. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, provide explanations that indicate that this concept applies only with regard to a distinguished tree.

63.

As stated in Halachot 18 and 19.

64.

In Halachah 22.

65.

Thus it is considered as something forgotten due to an external cause.

66.

The Roman Caesar Adrian had many of the olive trees in Eretz Yisrael destroyed and hence, all those that remained were important. For this reason, in many instances, the laws of shichichah were suspended. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 7:1).

The Ra'avad protests, stating that the importance of olive trees was mentioned by Rabbi Yossi and the other Sages did not accept his opinion. The Kessef Mishneh explains that the Rambam is not following Rabbi Yossi's view, but merely borrowing his rationale to deal with another issue.

67.

Or from the ladder on which he ascends.

68.

According to this explanation, all of the above clauses have to be reinterpreted to mean that he was harvesting fruit on the surrounding vines or trees. The Kessef Mishneh mentions a view that maintains that there is a printing error and the text should read: "When does the above apply? When he began [harvesting its fruit]. If, however, he did not begin harvesting its fruit...." According to that version, the Rambam's words can be understood with more ease.

69.

I.e., these obligations apply only with regard to a field that one owns and not one that he acquires after the crops have already grown. Nevertheless, an exception is made in this instance, for as the Rambam explains, there is no reason to free his owner of responsibility. The commentaries note that the Rambam cites a different prooftext than Rashi (Niddah 51a) and other traditional sources.

70.

See Hilchot Terumot 2:9, 11-12.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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