Consecrated articles1 may not be redeemed with land, nor with servants, for an equation was created between servants and land,2 nor with promissory notes for their physical substance is not of financial worth.3 [This is derived from the expression:]4 "And he shall give the silver." [This includes] silver and other movable property that is worth silver,5 even bran.6


הַהֶקְדֵשׁוֹת אֵין פּוֹדִין אוֹתָן לֹא בְּקַרְקַע. וְלֹא בַּעֲבָדִים שֶׁהֲרֵי הֻקְּשׁוּ לְקַרְקָעוֹת. וְלֹא בִּשְׁטָרוֹת (מִפְּנֵי) שֶׁאֵין גּוּפָן מָמוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְנָתַן אֶת הַכֶּסֶף. אֶחָד הַכֶּסֶף וְאֶחָד שְׁאָר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁשָּׁוִין כֶּסֶף. וַאֲפִילוּ סֻבִּין:


Whenever a person redeems his consecrated property, he must add an additional fifth. The person who consecrated the property himself, his wife, or his heirs must all add a fifth, as we explained.7 This fifth must also only be movable property. The fifth itself becomes like the consecrated property and the same laws apply to them both.


כָּל הַפּוֹדֶה קָדָשָׁיו מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. וְאֶחָד הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עַצְמוֹ אוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ אוֹ הַיּוֹרֵשׁ מוֹסִיפִים חֹמֶשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאַף הַחֹמֶשׁ לֹא יִהְיֶה אֶלָּא מִן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין. וְהַחֹמֶשׁ שֶׁמּוֹסִיף הֲרֵי הוּא כְּהֶקְדֵּשׁ עַצְמוֹ וְדִין אֶחָד לָהֶם:


When a person redeems his consecrated articles, [failure to pay] the additional fifth does not hold back [the redemption]. Once the person paid the principal, the consecrated article is considered as an ordinary article and it is permitted to benefit from it [according to Scriptural Law]. According to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to benefit from it until one pays the additional fifth, lest one be negligent and fail to pay it. Nevertheless, on the Sabbath, [our Sages] gave one permission to partake [of a consecrated article that was redeemed] although the fifth was not paid for the sake of the enjoyment of the Sabbath.8 [Another reason for leniency is that] it is being demanded by the Temple treasurers.9


הַפּוֹדֶה קָדָשָׁיו אֵין הַחֹמֶשׁ מְעַכֵּב. אֶלָּא מֵאַחַר שֶׁנָּתַן אֶת הַקֶּרֶן יָצָא הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְחֻלִּין וּמֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת בּוֹ. וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן הַחֹמֶשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִפְשַׁע וְלֹא יִתֵּן. אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לֶאֱכל וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נָתַן אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ וַהֲרֵי הַגִּזְבָּרִין תּוֹבְעִין אוֹתוֹ:


[The following laws apply with regard to animals] consecrated for the sake of [sacrifice on] the altar which were [disqualified by] a blemish:10 If the person who consecrated it redeems it, he must add an additional fifth11 as is the rule with regard to other consecrated articles.12 The person who consecrated it for his own purposes is the one obligated to add a fifth, not the one who derives atonement through the [sacrifice after] it was redeemed.13

[One is] obligated to add a fifth [when redeeming the article that was] consecrated originally, but one [need] not add a fifth [when redeeming an article] whose consecration was a derivative,14 as [implied by Leviticus 27:15]: "If the one who consecrated [it] will redeem his home, he must add a fifth." [The verse mentions] "one who consecrated," and not one who extends that holiness.


קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהֶם מוּם וְנִפְדּוּ. אִם פָּדָה הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עַצְמוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ כִּשְׁאָר הַהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת. וְהַמַּקְדִּישׁ שֶׁפָּדָה לְעַצְמוֹ הוּא שֶׁמּוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ לֹא הַמִּתְכַּפֵּר בָּהּ שֶׁפְּדָאָהּ. וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ רִאשׁוֹן הוּא שֶׁחַיָּב בְּתוֹסֶפֶת חֹמֶשׁ. אֲבָל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֵׁנִי אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֹמֶשׁ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז טו) "וְאִם הַמַּקְדִּישׁ יִגְאַל אֶת בֵּיתוֹ וְיָסַף חֲמִישִׁית". הַמַּקְדִּישׁ וְלֹא הַמַּתְפִּיס:


Accordingly, if one transferred the holiness of a [consecrated] animal - whether one consecrated for the sake of improvements to the Temple15 or one consecrated for [sacrifice on] the altar that became blemished16 - to another animal or exchanged an animal consecrated for [sacrifice on] the altar,17 When he redeems the second animal to which he transferred the holiness or which he exchanged for the sacrificial animal, he is not required to add a fifth.


לְפִיכָךְ אִם חִלֵּל בְּהֵמָה עַל בְּהֵמָה שְׁנִיָּה בֵּין בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת בֵּין בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהֶם מוּם. אוֹ שֶׁהֵמִיר בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ. כְּשֶׁהוּא פּוֹדֶה אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה שֶׁחִלֵּל עָלֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת הַתְּמוּרָה לְעַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ:


There is an unresolved doubt [in the following situation]: A person set aside a guilt offering for the sake of his atonement and it became blemished. He added a fifth to its value and transferred its holiness to another animal and received atonement by [sacrificing] another guilt offering.18 As explained in the appropriate place,19 [the animal to which the holiness was transferred] is left to pasture [until it becomes blemished and then its holiness transferred to a third animal which is sacrificed as a burnt offering.20 The question is:] Are we required to add a fifth [when redeeming that animal], because it is a burnt offering, it involves another body21 and is consecrated for a different purpose? Or are we not so required because its [holiness] stems from the initial consecration for which a fifth was already added.22


הַמַּפְרִישׁ אָשָׁם לְהִתְכַּפֵּר בּוֹ וְנָפַל בּוֹ מוּם וְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֹמֶשׁ וְחִלְּלוֹ עַל בְּהֵמָה אַחֶרֶת וְנִתְכַּפֵּר בְּאָשָׁם אַחֵר וְנִתְּקָה הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁחִלֵּל עָלֶיהָ לִרְעִיָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. הֲרֵי הוּא סָפֵק אִם מוֹסִיף עָלֶיהָ חֹמֶשׁ הוֹאִיל וְהוּא קָרְבַּן עוֹלָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא גּוּף אֶחָד וּקְדֻשָּׁה אַחֶרֶת. אוֹ אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף עָלֶיהָ חֹמֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בָּאָה מִכֹּחַ הֶקְדֵּשׁ רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁכְּבָר הוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֹמֶשׁ:


The concept of exchanging an animal23 does not apply with regard to animals consecrated for the sake of improvements to the Temple. For the Torah dealt with the concept of exchanging holiness only with regard to [animals] consecrated for [sacrifice on] the altar.24

What is implied? If a person had an ordinary animal and an animal consecrated for the sake of improvements to the Temple before him. If he said: "Let this one be substituted for this one" or "Let this one be exchanged for this one," his statements are of no consequence.25 If, however, he says: "This one is in place of this one" or "The holiness of this one is transferred to this one,"26 his statements are binding. The first animal returns to ordinary status and [its holiness] becomes attached to the second.


קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת אֵין עוֹשִׂין תְּמוּרָה שֶׁלֹּא דָּנָה תּוֹרָה בִּתְמוּרָה אֶלָּא בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ. כֵּיצַד. הָיוּ לְפָנָיו בֶּהֱמַת חֻלִּין וּבֶהֱמַת קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת וְאָמַר זוֹ חֲלוּפַת זוֹ אוֹ זוֹ תְּמוּרַת זוֹ לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ תַּחַת זוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְחֻלֶּלֶת עַל זוֹ דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין וְיָצְאתָה הַבְּהֵמָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְחֻלִּין וְנִתְפְּסָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה:


The initial and preferred manner is that both [animals] consecrated for the sake of the improvement of the Temple and entities consecrated for the sake of the altar that became blemished should be redeemed only for their worth. If one transgressed and redeemed them for less than their worth, even if one redeemed consecrated property worth 100 dinarim with an article worth a p'rutah,27 the article is redeemed.28 It is considered as ordinary property and one is permitted to benefit from it. According to Rabbinic Law, it is necessary to evaluate its worth29 and the person redeeming it is obligated to make up the monetary difference.


אֶחָד קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת וְאֶחָד קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהֶן מוּם אֵין פּוֹדִין אוֹתָן לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא בְּשָׁוְיֵיהֶן. וְאִם עָבַר וְחִלְּלָן עַל פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁוְיֵיהֶן אֲפִלּוּ הֶקְדֵּשׁ שָׁוֶה מֵאָה דִּינָר שֶׁחִלְּלוֹ עַל שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּדוּי וְיָצָא לְחֻלִּין וּמֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת בּוֹ. וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ חֲקִירַת דָּמִים וְחַיָּב לְהַשְׁלִים אֶת דָּמָיו:


What is implied? A person had an animal consecrated [to be offered on] the altar and it became blemished. If it is worth ten [zuz] and there is an ordinary animal worth five and he says: "The holiness of this one is transferred to this," it is redeemed and its status becomes that of an ordinary animal. He must, however, pay the additional five [to the Temple treasury]. In the same way, [if a similar transfer was made] when the first animal was consecrated to the Temple treasury, its status becomes that of an ordinary animal. It may be shorn and put to work30 and the second animal assumes its [consecrated status] according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, it is necessary to evaluate its worth to see whether the one to which its holiness was transferred was of equivalent value. If not, he must make up the monetary difference.


כֵּיצַד. הָיְתָה לוֹ בֶּהֱמַת קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ מוּם וַהֲרֵי הִיא שָׁוָה עֲשָׂרָה וּבֶהֱמַת חֻלִּין שֶׁשָּׁוָה חֲמִשָּׁה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ מְחֻלֶּלֶת עַל זוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ נִפְדֵית וְיָצָאת לְחֻלִּין אֲבָל צָרִיךְ לְהַשְׁלִים הַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת הֲרֵי זוֹ יָצָאת לְחֻלִּין לְהִגָּזֵז וּלְהֵעָבֵד וְתִכָּנֵס הַשְּׁנִיָּה תַּחְתֶּיהָ דִּין תּוֹרָה. אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם צָרִיךְ חֲקִירַת דָּמִים אִם הָיְתָה זוֹ שֶׁחִלֵּל עָלֶיהָ שָׁוָה אוֹ יַשְׁלִים דָּמֶיהָ:


If three people evaluated [the two animals involved] and said they were of equivalent value, the evaluation is not nullified even if 100 come afterwards and say that the animal that was consecrated was more valuable. Since the evaluation [of the animal's] worth is a Rabbinic requirement, our Sages were not strict with regard to it. If, however, two people made the original evaluation and then three people came and say that even the slightest advantage was taken of the Temple treasury,31 [the animal] is reevaluated.


שָׁמוּ אוֹתָהּ שְׁלֹשָׁה וְאָמְרוּ שֶׁזּוֹ בְּדָמֶיהָ אֲפִלּוּ בָּאוּ אַחַר כֵּן מֵאָה וְאָמְרוּ שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ הָיְתָה יָפָה אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר. הוֹאִיל וַחֲקִירַת הַדָּמִים מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם לֹא הֶחְמִירוּ בָּהּ. אֲבָל אִם שָׁמוּ אוֹתָהּ שְׁנַיִם וּבָאוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה וְאָמְרוּ שֶׁהוֹנָה הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא חוֹזֵר:


We do not redeem consecrated articles with a rough estimation instead, their worth is carefully evaluated, as we explained.32 If one redeemed a consecrated article [after making merely a rough estimation], the Temple treasury is given the upper hand.

What is implied? One says: "May the holiness of this cow that is consecrated33 be transferred to this cow" or "May the holiness of this garment that is consecrated be transferred to this garment," the consecrated article is redeemed and the Temple treasury is given the upper hand. If the second article is worth more than the first, the Temple treasurers take it and remain silent. If it is not worth the value of the first, [the redeemer] must pay the difference as we explained34 and he must add a fifth.

If, however, he said: May the holiness of this garment that is consecrated be transferred to this garment that is worth ten selaim" or "May the holiness of this cow that is consecrated be transferred to this cow that is worth ten selaim," he is required to add a fifth and must give two and a half selaim.35 [The rationale is that] he redeemed it at a fixed price. It is not necessary to add a fifth when redeeming the second animal, as we explained.36


אֵין פּוֹדִין אֶת הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ אַכְסָרָה אֶלָּא בַּחֲקִירַת דָּמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאִם פָּדָה יַד הֶקְדֵּשׁ עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה. כֵּיצַד. פָּרָה זוֹ תַּחַת פָּרָה זוֹ שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ טַלִּית זוֹ תַּחַת טַלִּית זוֹ שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ. הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹ פָּדוּי וְיַד הֶקְדֵּשׁ עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה. אִם הָיְתָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה יָפָה מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בְּיוֹתֵר לוֹקְחִין אוֹתָהּ הַגִּזְבָּרִין וְשׁוֹתְקִין. וְאִם אֵינָהּ יָפָה מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַדָּמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וּמוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר טַלִּית זוֹ בְּעֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים תַּחַת טַלִּית שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּפָרָה זוֹ בְּעֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים תַּחַת פָּרָה זוֹ שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ. אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שָׁוָה חָמֵשׁ וְשֶׁלּוֹ עֶשֶׂר הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ וְנוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים וּמֶחֱצָה שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּדָמִים קְצוּבִים פָּדָה. וּשְׁנִיָּה אֵינָהּ טְעוּנָה חֹמֶשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


[The following rules apply when a person] redeems an article from the Temple treasury. If he drew the article into his possession37 when it was worth a maneh,38 but did not pay the money until it appreciated to 200, he must pay 200. [This is indicated by the expression:]39 "And he will pay the money and it will become his." It becomes his when he pays the money.40

If he drew it into his possession when it was worth 200, but did not pay the money until it depreciated to a maneh, he must pay 200. For the legal power of the Temple treasury should not be less than that of an ordinary person.41 He acquired it through drawing it into his possession and became liable for its value then.


הַפּוֹדֶה מִיַּד הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ מָשַׁךְ בְּמָנֶה וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לִתֵּן הַדָּמִים עַד שֶׁעָמַד בְּמָאתַיִם נוֹתֵן מָאתַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְנָתַן אֶת הַכֶּסֶף וְקָם לוֹ. בִּנְתִינַת הַכֶּסֶף הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ. מְשָׁכוֹ בְּמָאתַיִם וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לִתֵּן אֶת הַדָּמִים עַד שֶׁעָמַד בְּמָנֶה נוֹתֵן מָאתַיִם. לֹא יְהֵא כֹּחַ הֶדְיוֹט חָמוּר מִכֹּחַ הֶקְדֵּשׁ. וַהֲרֵי קָנָה בִּמְשִׁיכָה וְנִתְחַיֵּב בַּדָּמִים:


If he redeemed it at 200 and paid the money42 and did not draw into his possession until it depreciated to a maneh, he is considered to have acquired it when he paid the money.43 He should draw his article into his possession and the Temple treasury acquires the 200.

If he redeemed it at a maneh and paid the money, but did not draw it into his possession until it appreciated to 200, the redemption is allowed to stand. He is only required to pay the maneh that he paid already. In this instance, we do not say: The legal power of the Temple treasury should not be less than that of an ordinary person.44 [The rationale is that] even an ordinary person would not be able to retract unless he receives the admonition mi shepara, as will be explained in the appropriate place.45 And it is not proper to administer the admonition mi shepara to the Temple treasury.


פָּדָה בְּמָאתַיִם וְנָתַן הַדָּמִים וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לְמָשְׁכוֹ עַד שֶׁעָמַד בְּמָנֶה כְּבָר קָנָה בִּנְתִינַת הַכֶּסֶף וּמוֹשֵׁךְ אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ וְזָכָה הֶקְדֵּשׁ בְּמָאתַיִם. פָּדָהוּ בְּמָנֶה וְנָתַן הַדָּמִים וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לְמָשְׁכוֹ עַד שֶׁעָמַד בְּמָאתַיִם מַה שֶּׁפָּדָה פָּדוּי וְאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן אֶלָּא הַמָּנֶה שֶׁכְּבָר נָתַן. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין כָּאן לֹא יְהֵא כֹּחַ הֶדְיוֹט חָמוּר מִכֹּחַ הֶקְדֵּשׁ. שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הֶדְיוֹט אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ עַד שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל מִי שֶׁפָּרַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְאֵין הֶקְדֵּשׁ רָאוּי לְקַבֵּל מִי שֶׁפָּרַע:


When a person consecrates all of his possessions and he is liable to [pay the money due his] wife [by virtue of her] ketubah or promissory notes [owed to] creditors, the woman may not collect [the money due her by virtue of her] ketubah from the Temple treasury, nor may a creditor collect the debt due him. The rationale is that consecration absolves prior liens.46 [Nevertheless,] when the Temple treasury sells his property and the field loses its consecrated status, the creditor and his wife may collect it from the redeemer, for the lien remains on this landed property.47


הַמַּקְדִּישׁ כָּל נְכָסָיו וְהָיְתָה עָלָיו כְּתֻבַּת אִשָּׁה אוֹ שִׁטְרֵי בַּעֲלֵי חוֹבוֹת. אֵין הָאִשָּׁה יְכוֹלָה לִגְבּוֹת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְלֹא בַּעַל חוֹב אֶת חוֹבוֹ. שֶׁהַהֶקְדֵּשׁ מַפְקִיעַ הַשִּׁעְבּוּד שֶׁקָּדַם. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁיִּמְכֹּר הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ הַקַּרְקַע שֶׁלּוֹ וְתֵצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה לְחֻלִּין יֵשׁ לְבַעַל חוֹב וּלְאִשָּׁה לִגְבּוֹת מִן הַפּוֹדֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי שִׁעְבּוּדָהּ עוֹמֵד עַל קַרְקַע זוֹ:


To what can this be compared? To two purchasers. [One bought the property from a woman's husband and the other from the first purchaser. The woman] wrote to the first [purchaser] "I have no claim against you."48 [After] he sells it to the second person, she may expropriate the money due her from him.49


הָא לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לִשְׁנֵי לָקוֹחוֹת שֶׁכָּתְבָה לָרִאשׁוֹן דִּין וּדְבָרִים אֵין לִי עִמְּךָ וּמָכַר לַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁהִיא טוֹרֶפֶת מִן הַשֵּׁנִי:


How is this land redeemed?50 We administer an oath to the woman or the creditor first as is the process whenever one seeks to expropriate property that is on lien.51 Afterwards, we publicly announce its sale for 60 days in the morning and in the evening, as we explained.52 We say:53 How much a person will desire to give for this field in order to pay the woman [the money due her by virtue of] her ketubah or the creditor his debt? A purchaser redeems it and acquires it even for a dinar,54 so that it is not said that consecrated property was released without being redeemed. Then the redeemer comes and gives the woman [the money due her by virtue of] her ketubah or the creditor his debt. [This applies] even if the debt was 100 [zuz] and the field worth only 90, [for] the person who redeems it does so for this sake.

If, however, the debt was twice the value of the field, e.g., the field was worth 100 and it was on lien to a debt or a woman's ketubah for 200, we do not redeem it with the intent of paying the debt or [the money due the woman by virtue of] her ketubah. Instead, it is redeemed unconditionally,55 for if such a stipulation was required to be made, it would not be redeemed at all.


וְכֵיצַד פּוֹדִין קַרְקַע זֶה. מַשְׁבִּיעִין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה אוֹ בַּעַל חוֹב תְּחִלָּה כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הַבָּא לִפָּרַע מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַכְרִיזִין עֲלֵיהֶם שִׁשִּׁים יוֹם בַּבֹּקֶר וּבָעֶרֶב כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאוֹמְדִין כַּמָּה אָדָם רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן בַּשָּׂדֶה עַל מְנָת לִתֵּן לְאִשָּׁה כְּתֻבָּתָהּ וּלְבַעַל חוֹב אֶת חוֹבוֹ. וְאַחַר שֶׁפּוֹדִין אוֹתָהּ וְלוֹקֵחַ אוֹתָהּ הַלּוֹקֵחַ אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִינָר כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ הֶקְדֵּשׁ יוֹצֵא בְּלֹא פִּדְיוֹן. חוֹזֵר הַפּוֹדֶה וּמַגְבֶּה לָאִשָּׁה כְּתֻבָּתָהּ אוֹ לַבַּעַל חוֹב אֶת חוֹבוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַחוֹב מֵאָה וְהַשָּׂדֶה שָׁוָה תִּשְׁעִים עַל מְנָת כָּךְ פּוֹדֶה אוֹתָהּ הָרוֹצֶה לִפְדּוֹתָהּ. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה הַחוֹב שְׁנַיִם בִּדְמֵי הַשָּׂדֶה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה שָׁוָה מֵאָה וְיֵשׁ עָלָיו חוֹב וּכְתֻבַּת אִשָּׁה מָאתַיִם אֵין פּוֹדִין אוֹתָהּ עַל מְנָת לִתֵּן הַחוֹב אוֹ הַכְּתֻבָּה אֶלָּא פּוֹדִין אוֹתָהּ סְתָם שֶׁאִם הִתְנוּ לִתֵּן אֵינָהּ נִפְדֵית כְּלָל:


When a person consecrates all of his property, divorces his wife, and [leaves her to] collect [the money due her by virtue of] her ketubah from the one who redeems [his landed property] from the Temple treasury, she cannot collect [the debt] until he takes a vow,56 forbidding her to benefit from him. [This is a safeguard instituted,] lest an attempt be made to deceive the Temple treasury.57 We do not say that were he to desire [to nullify the consecration of his property], he should say: "I consecrated it in error," and ask a sage [to nullify] his consecration [in which instance, his property] would return to him.58


הַמַּקְדִּישׁ כָּל נְכָסָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ גֵּרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְגָבְתָה כְּתֻבָּתָהּ מִן הַפּוֹדֶה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ אֵינוֹ גּוֹבֶה עַד שֶׁיַּדִּירֶנָּה הֲנָאָה. שֶׁמָּא קְנוּנְיָא עָשׂוּ עַל הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין אִלּוּ רָצָה הָיָה אוֹמֵר בְּטָעוּת הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי וְיִשָּׁאֵל עַל הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹ לְחָכָם וְיַחְזֹר לוֹ:


Similarly, after59 consecrating his property, a person's word is not accepted if he says: "I owe a maneh to so-and-so" or "This utensil belongs to so-and-so."60 [In this instance, we fear that] he is attempting to deceive the Temple treasury.61 Even if the creditor has a promissory note, he cannot use it to expropriate [the property from the Temple treasury].62 Instead, he must collect his due like the other creditors due, as explained.63


וְכֵן אֵין נֶאֱמָן לוֹמַר אַחַר שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ מָנֶה לִפְלוֹנִי חוֹב עָלַי אוֹ כְּלִי זֶה שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי הוּא. שֶׁמָּא יַעֲשׂוּ קְנוּנְיָא עַל הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה שְׁטָר בְּיַד בַּעַל חוֹב אֵינוֹ גּוֹבֶה עַל פִּי זֶה אֶלָּא כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁגּוֹבִין כָּל בַּעֲלֵי חוֹבוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


When does the above apply? With regard to a healthy person. If, by contrast a mortally ill person consecrates all of his property and at the time he consecrates it says: "I owe a maneh to so-and-so," his word is accepted. [The rationale is that] a person will not try to deceive the Temple treasury at the time of his death and sin for the sake of others, for he is going to die.64 Therefore if he says: "Give [the creditor his debt]," [the creditor] may collect it without having to take an oath.

If he did not say: "Give [the creditor...]," we do not give him this money unless he has a promissory note whose authenticity has been verified. [In that instance,] he may collect [his debt] from the Temple treasury, because of the statements [the debtor made] on his deathbed.65 If he said to give [the money to the creditor] after he consecrated [his property],66 we do not heed his statements. Instead, this person is considered like other creditors. If the authenticity of his promissory note is verified, he must take an oath.67 He may then expropriate [the property] from the one who redeems it, but not from the Temple treasury.68


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּבָרִיא. אֲבָל חוֹלֶה שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ כָּל נְכָסָיו וְאָמַר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ מָנֶה לִפְלוֹנִי בְּיָדִי נֶאֱמָן. שֶׁאֵין אָדָם עוֹשֶׂה עָרְמָה עַל הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ בִּשְׁעַת מִיתָתוֹ וְחוֹטֵא לַאֲחֵרִים שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָמַר תְּנוּ אוֹתָהּ לוֹ נוֹטֵל בְּלֹא שְׁבוּעָה. וְאִם לֹא אָמַר תְּנוּ אֵין נוֹתְנִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בְּיָדוֹ שְׁטָר מְקֻיָּם. הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹטֵל מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ מִפְּנֵי הַצַּוָּאָה. וְאִם אַחַר שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ אָמַר תְּנוּ אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא כִּשְׁאָר בַּעֲלֵי חוֹבוֹת. אִם נִתְקַיֵּם שְׁטָרוֹ נִשְׁבָּע וְגוֹבֶה מִן הַפּוֹדֶה וְלֹא מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ:


We do not take heed of a rumor that says that a certain person declared all of his property ownerless, consecrated it, or made it a dedication offering unless there is clear proof69 [of its validity].


מִי שֶׁיָּצָא עָלָיו קוֹל שֶׁהִפְקִיר אֶת נְכָסָיו אוֹ הִקְדִּישָׁן אוֹ הֶחֱרִימָן אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לוֹ עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה שָׁם רְאָיָה בְּרוּרָה: