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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Nezirut - Chapter 10

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Nezirut - Chapter 10

1

A person cannot perform one shaving [that will fulfill the requirements for] his nazirite vow and [for the emergence from the state of ritual impurity associated with] tzara'at.1

When it is questionable whether a person was afflicted with tzara'at [and thus became a metzora], the shaving [associated with emerging from] tzara'at does not supercede his nazirite vow. 2 Therefore [the following rules apply] if a person took a nazirite vow for a year and throughout this year, there was a question whether he had been afflicted with tzara'at and a question whether he had contracted ritual impurity through contact with a human corpse3 or there was a question whether he had been afflicted with tzara'at and at the end of the year, a question arose whether he had contracted ritual impurity. He should count seven days, have [the ashes of the Red Heifer] sprinkled [upon him] on the third and seventh days,4 but he should not shave [his hair] on the seventh day. He may not drink wine or become impure due to contact with a human corpse until four years have passed.5 He may partake of consecrated food after two years have passed.6 [The rationale is] that he is required [because of the doubts concerning his status,] to shave [his head] four times: a) the shaving [required when he completes his nazirite vow in a state of] purity,7 b) the shaving [required for a nazirite to emerge from a state of] impurity, [for which he is obligated because of the doubt], and the two shavings required of a metzora, for there is a doubt whether he is a metzora.

א

אֵין אָדָם מְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת אַחַת וְעוֹלָה לוֹ לְנִזְרוֹ וּלְצָרַעְתּוֹ. וְתִגְלַחַת הַצָּרַעַת בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא סְפֵק מְצֹרָע אֵינוֹ דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַנְּזִירוּת. לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁנָּזַר שָׁנָה אַחַת וְהָיָה בְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה הַזֹּאת סְפֵק מְצֹרָע וּסְפֵק טְמֵא מֵת אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בָּהּ סְפֵק מְצֹרָע וּבְסוֹף הַשָּׁנָה נִטְמָא בְּסָפֵק הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹנֶה שִׁבְעָה יָמִים וּמַזֶּה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי וּשְׁבִיעִי וְאֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ בַּשְּׁבִיעִי וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת בְּיַיִן וּלְהִטַּמֵּא לְמֵת אֶלָּא לְאַחַר אַרְבַּע שָׁנִים. וְאוֹכֵל בְּקָדָשִׁים לְאַחַר שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְגַלֵּחַ אַרְבַּע תִּגְלָחִיּוֹת. תִּגְלַחַת טָהֳרָה וְתִגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה מִסָּפֵק וּשְׁתֵּי תִּגְלָחִיּוֹת שֶׁמְּגַלֵּחַ הַמְצֹרָע. שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא סְפֵק מְצֹרָע:

2

The first shaving should be performed after the conclusion of the first year.8 He shaves his head, his beard,9 and his eyebrows and undergoes the purification process involving a cedar tree, a hyssop, and two wild birds10 like other metzoraim.11 If he was not impure due to contact with a corpse, nor a metzora, this is the shaving performed upon completion of his nazirite vow in purity. If he was indeed a metzora during the first year, this is the first shaving required of the metzora.

He then waits another year as is the span of his nazirite vow, and then performs the second shaving required of metzora. He may not shave after seven days like other metzoraim, for perhaps he was not a metzora, but instead had been impure because of contact with a corpse. [In that instance,] during this second year, he was a nazirite, who was forbidden to shave.12 [Nevertheless,] after he performed these two shavings, he has completed the purification process required after tzara'at13 and he is permitted to partake of consecrated foods.

He then waits another year and afterwards, performs a third shaving, lest he had been definitely a metzora during the first year and not impure because of contact with a corpse. [The observance] of the first year was not of consequence for him because these were days when his status [as a metzora] was defined.14 [The observance] of the second year was not of consequence for him because these were the days when he was counting [as part of the purification process of a] metzora between the first shaving and the second shaving.15 Therefore he must wait a third year, [observing his] nazirite vow. [Afterwards,] he performs a third shaving for his nazirite vow. This shaving [is required to emerge from] purity.16 [Nevertheless,] perhaps he was definitely impure because of contact with a corpse and he was also definitely a metzora and one shaving cannot serve the purpose of his nazirite vow and [purification from] tzara'at. Thus the first and second shavings were [for purification] from tzara'at. The third shaving was [for the sake of purification from] ritual impurity. None of these three years count because the third shaving was to purify him from ritual impurity.17 Therefore he must wait a fourth year, [observing] his nazirite vow and perform a fourth shaving. After each of the times that he shaves because of the doubt,18 it is forbidden to benefit from his hair because of the doubt involved, because it is permitted to benefit from the hair of a nazirite who became afflicted with tzara'at.19

ב

תִּגְלַחַת רִאשׁוֹנָה מְגַלֵּחַ אוֹתָהּ אַחַר שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמְגַלֵּחַ בָּהּ רֹאשׁוֹ וּזְקָנוֹ וְגַבּוֹת עֵינָיו. וּמִטַּהֵר בְּעֵץ אֶרֶז וְאֵזוֹב וְצִפֳּרִים כִּשְׁאָר מְצֹרָעִים. אִם אֵינוֹ טְמֵא מֵת וְלֹא מְצֹרָע הֲרֵי הִיא תִּגְלַחַת טָהֳרָה שֶׁל נְזִירוּתוֹ. וְאִם הוּא מְצֹרָע וַדַּאי בְּשָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הֲרֵי הִיא תִּגְלַחַת רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל מְצֹרָע. וְשׁוֹהֶה שָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת כְּמִנְיַן יְמֵי הַנְּזִירוּת. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁל מְצֹרָע. שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְגַלֵּחַ אַחַר שִׁבְעָה כִּשְׁאָר מְצֹרָעִין שֶׁמָּא אֵינוֹ מְצֹרָע אֶלָּא טְמֵא מֵת וַדַּאי הָיָה וְשָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה זוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא בָּהּ נָזִיר שֶׁאָסוּר לְגַלֵּחַ. וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁגִּלֵּחַ שְׁתֵּי תִּגְלָחִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ שָׁלְמָה טָהֳרַת הַצָּרַעַת וּמֻתָּר לֶאֱכל בְּקָדָשִׁים וְשׁוֹהֶה שָׁנָה שְׁלִישִׁית וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת שְׁלִישִׁית שֶׁמָּא מְצֹרָע וַדַּאי הָיָה בְּשָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וְלֹא הָיָה טְמֵא מֵת וְשָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא יְמֵי חִלּוּטוֹ וְשָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא יְמֵי סְפִירוֹ שֶׁל מְצֹרָע שֶׁבֵּין תִּגְלַחַת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁנִיָּה. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לִשְׁהוֹת שָׁנָה שְׁלִישִׁית בִּנְזִירוּתוֹ וּמְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת שְׁלִישִׁית לִנְזִירוּתוֹ וְהִיא תִּגְלַחַת טָהֳרָה. אוֹ שֶׁמָּא טְמֵא מֵת וַדַּאי הָיָה וּמְצֹרָע וַדַּאי וְאֵין תִּגְלַחַת אַחַת עוֹלָה לִנְזִירוּתוֹ וּלְצָרַעְתּוֹ וְנִמְצֵאת תִּגְלַחַת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁנִיָּה תִּגְלַחַת צָרָעַת וְתִגְלַחַת שְׁלִישִׁית תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה וְאֵין אַחַת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים עוֹלָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הַשְּׁלִישִׁית תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לִשְׁהוֹת שָׁנָה רְבִיעִית בִּנְזִירוּת וּמְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת רְבִיעִית. וּשְׂעָרוֹ בְּכָל תִּגְלַחַת סָפֵק אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה מִסָּפֵק. שֶׁשְּׂעַר נָזִיר שֶׁנִּצְטָרֵעַ מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה:

3

Similar [rules apply if a person] took a nazirite vow for ten years and, in the midst, there arose a question whether he was a metzora and there also arose a question whether he contracted ritual impurity [through contact with a corpse] at the conclusion of this period. He may not drink wine for forty years and must perform four shavings, one at the conclusion of each decade. The first shaving comes because of the doubt concerning the days he must observe because of tzara'at. The second shaving [comes] because of the days a metzora [must count between his two shavings]. The third shaving is because of the doubt concerning his ritual impurity. And the fourth shaving is [the one required when completing a nazirite vow in] purity.20

ג

וְכֵן אִם נָדַר עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים נְזִירוּת וְהָיָה בָּהֶן סְפֵק מְצֹרָע וְנוֹלַד לוֹ סְפֵק טֻמְאָה בְּסוֹפָן הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה בְּיַיִן עַד אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וּמְגַלֵּחַ אַרְבַּע תִּגְלָחוֹת אַחַת בְּסוֹף כָּל עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִיִם. תִּגְלַחַת רִאשׁוֹנָה לִסְפֵק יְמֵי צָרַעְתּוֹ. שְׁנִיָּה לִסְפֵק יְמֵי סְפִירוֹ שֶׁל מְצֹרָע. שְׁלִישִׁית לִסְפֵק טֻמְאָתוֹ. רְבִיעִית תִּגְלַחַת טָהֳרָה:

4

How should such a person bring the sacrifices required of him?21 If he was rich, he should sign over all of his property to another person.22 [The rationale is that] a wealthy metzora who brought a sacrifice befitting a poor one does not fulfill his obligation.23 Afterwards, he brings a fowl as a sin offering and an animal as a burnt offering for the first, second, and third shavings.24 No one should partake of any of the fowl brought as sin offerings, because of the doubt involved.25 For the fourth shaving, he brings the sacrifices required of a nazirite [who completes his vow in] purity, as we explained.26

ד

וְכֵיצַד מֵבִיא זֶה קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו. אִם הָיָה עָשִׁיר כּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו לַאֲחֵרִים שֶׁמְּצֹרָע עָשִׁיר שֶׁהֵבִיא קָרְבַּן עָנִי לֹא יָצָא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵבִיא חַטַּאת הָעוֹף וְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה בְּתִגְלַחַת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁנִיָּה וּשְׁלִישִׁית. וְכָל חַטַּאת עוֹף מֵהֶן לֹא תֵּאָכֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא סָפֵק. וּמֵבִיא בְּתִגְלַחַת רְבִיעִית קָרְבַּן נָזִיר טָהוֹר שֶׁהוּא שָׁלֹשׁ בְּהֵמוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

5

He brings three fowl as sin offerings for the following reasons: the first27 is because of the doubt whether he is ritually impure,28 the second because of the doubt whether he is afflicted by tzara'at, for a metzora brings a sacrifice only after his second shaving,29 the third because of the possibility that he was ritually impure. [The rationale is that] one shaving cannot fulfill the obligation for both one's nazirite vow and [purification from] tzara'at and perhaps he was definitely both a metzora and impure because of contact with a corpse. [In that instance,] the first and second shavings were to become purified from tzara'at, as explained.30 The third shaving is the shaving [required to emerge from] ritual impurity. Therefore he must bring the sacrifices [required when emerging from] impurity at that time.

ה

שָׁלֹשׁ חַטְּאוֹת הָעוֹף שֶׁמֵּבִיא בִּשְׁלֹשׁ הַתִּגְלָחוֹת. חַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה לִסְפֵק טֻמְאָתוֹ. שְׁנִיָּה לִסְפֵק צָרַעְתּוֹ שֶׁאֵין הַמְצֹרָע מֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ אֶלָּא לְאַחַר תִּגְלַחַת שְׁנִיָּה. וְכֵן חַטָּאת שְׁלִישִׁית לִסְפֵק טֻמְאָתוֹ שֶׁאֵין תִּגְלַחַת אַחַת עוֹלָה לְנִזְרוֹ וּלְצָרַעְתּוֹ וְשֶׁמָּא מְצֹרָע וַדַּאי וּטְמֵא מֵת וַדַּאי הָיָה שֶׁהַתִּגְלַחַת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה לְצָרַעְתּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְתִגְלַחַת שְׁלִישִׁית תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה וּלְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא קָרְבַּן טֻמְאָה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית:

6

[The following principles apply with regard to] the three animals31[brought] as burnt offerings that accompany [the sin offerings]. He brings them conditionally. [When bringing] the first, he stipulates: "If I was pure, this is for my obligation."32 If I was impure, this is a freewill offering."33 He should make a similar stipulation for the second and third [shaving] as well.34

ו

שָׁלֹשׁ עוֹלוֹת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁמֵּבִיא עִמָּהֶן עַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה הוּא מַתְנֶה וְאוֹמֵר אִם טָהוֹר אֲנִי זוֹ מֵחוֹבָתִי וְאִם טָמֵא אֲנִי הֲרֵי הִיא נָדְבָה. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בַּשְּׁנִיָּה וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁית:

7

For the fourth shaving, he brings the sacrifices [required when completing a nazirite vow in] purity35 and stipulates: "If I was impure, the first burnt offering was a freewill offering36 and this is my obligatory offering.37

"If I was definitely [afflicted with tzara'at], the first [burnt offering] was the one that I was obligated to bring as a metzora.38 This is the one that I was obligated to bring for my nazirite vow. And the two [brought] in between are freewill offerings.39

"If I was pure with regard to contact with a corpse, but I had been afflicted with tzara'at, the first and second [burnt offerings] were obligatory, the one for the obligation of a metzora40 and the one for the obligation of a nazirite. The third and the fourth are freewill offerings. The remainder [of the sacrifices] are the sacrifices [required when completing a nazirite vow in] purity.41

"If I was impure and afflicted with tzara'at the first burnt offering was the obligation of a metzora.42 The second and the third are freewill offerings43 and this is the sacrifice [required when] shaving [after completing a nazirite vow in] purity."

ז

וּמֵבִיא קָרְבַּן טָהֳרָה בְּתִגְלַחַת רְבִיעִית. וְאוֹמֵר וּמַתְנֶה אִם טָמֵא הָיִיתִי עוֹלָה רִאשׁוֹנָה נְדָבָה וְזוֹ חוֹבָה. וְאִם מֻחְלָט הָיִיתִי רִאשׁוֹנָה חוֹבַת מְצֹרָע וְזוֹ חוֹבַת נְזִירוּת וּשְׁתַּיִם הָאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת נְדָבָה. וְאִם טָהוֹר מִטֻּמְאַת מֵת הָיִיתִי וּמְצֹרָע עוֹלָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה חוֹבָה וְכֵן הַשְּׁנִיָּה אַחַת לְחוֹבַת מְצֹרָע וְאַחַת לְחוֹבַת נְזִירוּת וּשְׁלִישִׁית וּרְבִיעִית נְדָבָה וְהַשְּׁאָר קָרְבַּן טָהֳרָתִי. וְאִם טָמֵא הָיִיתִי וּמְצֹרָע עוֹלָה רִאשׁוֹנָה חוֹבַת צָרָעַת וּשְׁנִיָּה וּשְׁלִישִׁית נְדָבָה וְזֶה קָרְבַּן תִּגְלַחַת טָהֳרָה:

8

The guilt offering and the burnt offering are not absolute requirements,44 neither for the shaving [required for a nazirite to emerge from] ritual impurity, nor for [the purification afflicted with] tzara'at. 45 Thus if he had definitely been a metzora, but had not become impure because of contact with a corpse, he became pure when bringing the wild birds. The fowl brought as a sin offering serves as his sin offering.46 It should not be eaten because it was brought because of a doubt.47 And the [lamb] brought with it as a burnt offering is part of the requirement for shaving [after completing a nazirite vow in] purity, so that the shaving will be associated [with the sacrifice of] an animal.48 If he was ritually impure because of contact with a corpse, the [lamb] brought as a burnt offering is a freewill offering.49

If he had not been afflicted by tzara'at, but had been impure due to contact with a corpse, the fowl brought as a sin offering is the offering [required of] a nazirite who became impure and the [lamb] brought as an animal is a freewill offering. And ultimately,50 he will bring the sacrifices [required when a nazirite vow is completed in] purity.

If he was neither impure due to contact with a corpse nor a metzora, the [lamb] brought as a burnt offering for the first shaving is that required when shaving.51 The fowl brought as a sin offering is brought because of the doubt and it is not eaten.

ח

אֲבָל הָאָשָׁם וְהָעוֹלָה אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין לֹא בְּתִגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה וְלֹא בְּצָרַעַת. נִמְצֵאתָ אוֹמֵר אִם הוּא מְצֹרָע וַדַּאי וְלֹא נִטְמָא בְּמֵת הֲרֵי טָהַר בְּצִפֳּרִין וְחַטַּאת הָעוֹף הִיא חַטָּאתוֹ וְלֹא תֵּאָכֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק וְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁעִמָּהּ מִקָּרְבַּן תִּגְלַחַת טָהֳרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּגַלֵּחַ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה. וְאִם טְמֵא מֵת הוּא הֲרֵי עוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה נְדָבָה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְצֹרָע וּטְמֵא מֵת הוּא חַטַּאת הָעוֹף קָרְבַּן נָזִיר שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה נְדָבָה וַהֲרֵי הֵבִיא קָרְבַּן טָהֳרָה בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ טְמֵא מֵת וְלֹא מְצֹרָע עוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהֵבִיא בַּתִּגְלַחַת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה הִיא מֵחוֹבַת תִּגְלַחַת וְחַטַּאת הָעוֹף בָּאָה עַל סָפֵק וַהֲרֵי לֹא נֶאֱכֶלֶת:

9

When do the above statements that a nazirite performs four shavings apply? When speaking of a minor52 or a woman.53 An adult male should not perform a shaving because of a doubt,54 neither a shaving because of ritual impurity or one because of tzara'at lest he have been ritually pure and thus he will be cutting off the corners of his hair when there is no mitzvah involved.55 Therefore, [in such a situation,] an adult male should perform only the shaving [required when completing the nazirite vow in] purity. For these four shavings are not absolute requirements,56 they are only [the more complete way of performing] the mitzvah.

ט

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁהוּא מְגַלֵּחַ אַרְבַּע תִּגְלָחוֹת כְּשֶׁהָיָה קָטָן אוֹ אִשָּׁה. אֲבָל הָאִישׁ אֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ מִסָּפֵק לֹא תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה וְלֹא תִּגְלַחַת צָרָעַת. שֶׁמָּא טָהוֹר הוּא וְנִמְצָא מַקִּיף פְּאַת רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה. לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ אֶלָּא תִּגְלַחַת טָהֳרָה בִּלְבַד. שֶׁאֵין אַרְבַּע תִּגְלָחוֹת אֵלּוּ לְעַכֵּב אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה:

10

How should a nazirite conduct himself if he is certain that he contracted tzara'at and is uncertain whether he contracted ritual impurity. After he is purified from his tzara'at,57 he should have [the ashes of the Red Heifer] sprinkled upon him on the third and seventh days.58 He performs the shaving [required when emerging from] ritual impurity59 and then begins to count the days of his nazirite vow in their entirety. For, due to the doubt that he became ritually impure, [the observance of] the first days is nullified. [After completing that vow,] he brings the sacrifices [required when completing a nazirite vow in] purity and [is permitted to] drink wine. After he brings the sacrifices [required after being purified from] tzara'at, he may partake of sacrificial food.

י

נָזִיר שֶׁנִּצְטָרֵעַ וַדַּאי וְנִטְמָא בְּסָפֵק כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה. אַחַר שֶׁיִּטְהַר מִצָּרַעְתּוֹ מַזֶּה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי וּמְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה וּמַתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת נְזִירוּתוֹ כֻּלָּהּ שֶׁהֲרֵי נָפְלוּ הַיָּמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים בִּסְפֵק טֻמְאָה שֶׁנִּטְמָא וּמֵבִיא קָרְבַּן טָהֳרָה וְשׁוֹתֶה בְּיַיִן. וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁיָּבִיא קָרְבַּן צָרָעַת אוֹכֵל בְּקָדָשִׁים:

11

[The following rules apply if] it is certain that he became impure [from contact with a corpse] and there is a question whether he was a metzora. After he is healed from his questionable status as a metzora, he should count the full amount of the days of his nazirite vow60 and afterwards61 perform the shaving [required for tzara'at]. [The rationale is that] shaving [because of tzara'at] that is questionable does not supercede his nazirite vow. Afterwards, he counts the seven days between the first shaving of a metzora and the second and performs that shaving. He should bring his sacrifices and may partake of sacrificial foods if he had [the ashes of the Red Heifer] sprinkled upon him on the third and seventh days.62 Afterwards, he counts seven more days [because of] the impurity associated with a corpse and performs the shaving [required to emerge from] ritual impurity. Afterwards, he counts the full term of his nazirite vow.

יא

נִטְמָא וַדַּאי וְהָיָה מְצֹרָע בְּסָפֵק וְטָהַר מִסְּפֵק צָרַעְתּוֹ מוֹנֶה יְמֵי נְזִירוּתוֹ שְׁלֵמָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת הַנֶּגַע. שֶׁאֵין תִּגְלַחַת סְפֵק נִגְעוֹ דּוֹחָה נְזִירוּת. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שֶׁבֵּין תִּגְלַחַת מְצֹרָע הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְתִגְלַחַת שְׁנִיָּה וּמְגַלֵּחַ וּמֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו וְאוֹכֵל בְּקָדָשִׁים. וּמַזֶּה בִּשְׁלִישִׁי וּשְׁבִיעִי. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹנֶה שִׁבְעָה אֲחֵרִים לְטֻמְאַת מֵת וּמְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹנֶה נְזִירוּתוֹ כֻּלָּהּ:

12

Similarly, [the following rules apply if] he was certainly both ritually impure and a metzora. After he becomes healed from his tzara'at, he performs the first shaving [required to be purified from] tzara'at, has [the ashes of the Red Heifer] sprinkled upon him on the third and seventh [days],63 and has his head and beard shaved on the seventh day. This is the second shaving [required to be purified from] tzara'at. He brings the sacrifices [associated with that purification] on the eighth day and may partake of sacrificial foods. He then counts seven days64 and performs the shaving [required to emerge from] ritual impurity. Afterwards, he counts the full term of his nazirite vow. He then brings the sacrifices [required when completing a nazirite vow in] ritual purity and [may then] drink wine.

יב

וְכֵן אִם הָיָה טָמֵא וּמְצֹרָע בְּוַדַּאי. לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּטְהַר מִצָּרַעְתּוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת צָרָעַת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וּמַזֶּה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי וּמְגַלֵּחַ רֹאשׁוֹ וּזְקָנוֹ בַּשְּׁבִיעִי וְהִיא תִּגְלַחַת שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁל צָרָעַת וּמֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו בַּשְּׁמִינִי וְאוֹכֵל בְּקָדָשִׁים וְסוֹפֵר שִׁבְעָה וּמְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ סוֹפֵר יְמֵי נְזִירוּת שְׁלֵמָה וּמֵבִיא קָרְבַּן טָהֳרָה וְשׁוֹתֶה בְּיַיִן:

13

Why is it necessary for him to count seven [days before bringing the sacrifices required after emerging from ritual impurity]?65 [Because] the seven days of ritual impurity [associated with contact with a human corpse] are not counted during the seven days between the two shavings of a metzora.

יג

לָמָּה סוֹפֵר שִׁבְעָה. שֶׁאֵין שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַטֻּמְאָה עוֹלִין בְּשִׁבְעַת יְמֵי סְפִירָה שֶׁבֵּין תִּגְלַחַת וְתִגְלַחַת שֶׁל מְצֹרָע:

14

When a person says: "I will be a nazirite if I do this and this" or "...if I do not do [this or this]," he is a wicked man and a nazirite vow of this type is one of the nazirite vows taken by the wicked. If, however, a person takes a nazirite vow to God in a holy manner, this is delightful and praiseworthy66 and concerning this, [Numbers 6:7-8] states: "The diadem67 of his God is upon his head... He is holy unto God." And Scripture equates him with a prophet, as [Amos 2:11] states: "And from your sons, I will raise [some] as prophets, and from your youths, [some] as nazirites."

יד

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר אִם אֶעֱשֶׂה כָּךְ וְכָךְ אוֹ אִם לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה הֲרֵי זֶה רָשָׁע וּנְזִירוּת כָּזוֹ מִנְּזִירוּת רְשָׁעִים הוּא. אֲבָל הַנּוֹדֵר לַה' דֶּרֶךְ קְדֻשָּׁה הֲרֵי זֶה נָאֶה וּמְשֻׁבָּח וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (במדבר ו ז) "נֵזֶר אֱלֹהָיו עַל רֹאשׁוֹ" (במדבר ו ח) "קָדשׁ הוּא לַה'". וּשְׁקָלוֹ הַכָּתוּב כְּנָבִיא (שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר) (עמוס ב יא) "וָאָקִים מִבְּנֵיכֶם לִנְבִיאִים וּמִבַּחוּרֵיכֶם לִנְזִרִים": סְלִיקוּ לְהוּ הִלְכוֹת נְזִירוּת בְּסִיַעְתָּא דִּשְׁמַיָּא

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

As stated in Hilchot Tumat Tzara'at 11:1-3, after the signs of tzara'at have disappeared from a person's flesh, he must undergo a twofold purification process that involves shaving his hair on the first and seventh days. Neither of these shavings can be considered as the same shaving as the one performed by a nazirite. The rationale is that the first shaving of the purification from tzara'at is for a different purpose than the shaving performed by a nazirite. For the intent of the shaving of a nazirite is to remove hair, while the intent of the first shaving performed by a person afflicted with tzara'at is to allow hair to grow (Nazir 60b, Radbaz). Similarly, the second shaving associated with tzara'at is not analogous to the shaving associated with the nazirite vow, for the shaving of a metzora is performed before the sprinkling of the blood and the shaving of a nazirite afterwards.

2.

Which involves a prohibition against shaving. As stated in Chapter 7, Halachah 15, ordinarily, "When a nazirite contracts tzara'at and becomes healed in the midst of the days of his nazirite vow, he should shave all of his hair. The rationale is that] by shaving, he fulfills a positive commandment. [And] when there is [a conflict between] a positive commandment and a negative commandment... the positive commandment supercedes the negative commandment." There is also a positive commandment for a nazirite to grow his hair long and a negative commandment does not override a negative commandment and a positive commandment. Nevertheless, when a nazirite contracts tzara'at, that there is no positive commandment involved in growing his hair. Since it is possible that this is not the situation prevailing in this instance, he should not shave (Radbaz).

3.

In this instance, it is questionable whether he is required to shave to perform a shaving to emerge from ritual impurity (as explained at the beginning of Chapter 6) or not.

4.

A person who seeks to emerge from the impurity associated from the state of ritual impurity associated with contact with a human corpse must have the ashes of a Red Heifer sprinkled upon him on the third and seventh days after he became ritually impure. He must also immerse himself in a mikveh (Hilchot Parah Adumah 11:1).

5.

For only then will he complete all the shavings required because of the doubts and complete his nazirite vow.

6.

For then he will have performed both of the shavings required of a person who contracted tzara'at and will have had the ashes of the Red Heifer sprinkled upon him to purify him from the impurity associated with contact with a human corpse.

7.

The Rambam mentions this shaving first, because this is the only definite obligation.

8.

For until then he is forbidden to shave because perhaps he is not impure and his nazirite vow must be observed. The details regarding the sacrifices that must be offered when shaving his hair are explained in Halachot 4-5.

9.

As stated in Halachah 9, this applies only to a minor or a woman who took nazirite vows. If the nazirite is an adult male, he may not shave his head, because of the doubt.

10.

According to certain commentaries, this refers to a kosher species of sparrows, according to others to a jay. See the notes of the Living Torah to Leviticus 14:4.

11.

See Hilchot Tumat Tzara'at, Chapter 11, where this purification process is described in detail.

12.

The Ra'avad writes that the Rambam's statements are correct if he became ritually impure more than seven days before the end of his first year of nazirite observance. If, however, there is less than seven days left before the conclusion of the year, different rules apply, for he will have not fulfilled the seven days required before shaving to emerge from impurity. The Kessef Mishneh takes issue with the Ra'avad's statements.

13.

Were he to have indeed been a metzora.

14.

And as stated in Chapter 7, Halachah 9, the days when a person's status is defined as a metzora are not included as part of the fulfillment of his nazirite vow.

15.

He could not wait only seven days, because it is possible he was not a metzora in which instance, he would not be permitted to shave his hair within the time of his nazirite vow.

16.

Our translation follows the understanding of the Radbaz and is supported by Halachah 5. The standard published text follows a slightly different version.

17.

And until he is ritually pure, the days he observes for his nazirite vow are not of consequence. He may not, however, perform these shavings earlier, because he is not definitely impure or a metzora.

18.

I.e., the first three shavings.

19.

Ordinarily, it is forbidden to benefit from the hair of a nazirite (Chapter 8, Halachah 2), even if he became impure (Chapter 6, Halachah 14). Nevertheless, as the Rambam states in Chapter 7, Halachah 15, when a nazirite becomes afflicted with tzara'at, the holiness associated with his hair is nullified. Even with regard to the last shaving, his hair is not definitely forbidden, because it is possible that he already fulfilled his obligations with the first shavings (Radbaz).

20.

This all follows the pattern explained in the notes to the previous halachah.

21.

The full order of sacrifices that such a person would be required to bring were he in fact to have contracted ritual impurity and have been afflicted by tzara'at is the following:

a) because of tzara'at: on the eighth day of the purification process, he must bring a guilt offering, a sin offering, and a burnt offering;

b) because he became impure, he must bring a sin offering, a guilt offering, and a burnt offering; and

c) upon completion of his nazirite vow in purity, he brings a burnt offering, a peace offering, and a sin offering.

22.

Because, as will be explained, it is possible to bring a fowl as a sacrifice when there is a doubt involved, but not an animal.

23.

See Hilchot Mechusrai Kapparah 5:10; Hilchot Shegagot 10:13.

A wealthy metzora must bring a ewe as a sin offering, while a poor one may bring two sets of doves or turtledoves. If the rich man retains possession of his property, he will not be able to bring a sin offering, because an animal can never be brought as a sin offering because of doubt (Radbaz).

24.

For all of these are brought because of the doubt involved.

25.

See Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 19:10.

26.

Chapter 8, Halachah 1. The Rambam does not mention the wild birds that must be brought as part of the purification process for a metzora, for they were not sacrifices brought within the Temple.

27.

I.e., the sin offering brought after the first shaving.

28.

Because of contact with a corpse alone and not afflicted with tzara'at.

29.

The wild birds brought after the first shaving are not considered sacrifices, because they are not brought within the Temple.

According to this possibility, it was not necessary for him to have brought the sin offering at the time of the first shaving. That first shaving cannot, however, serve two purposes as the Rambam explains.

30.

See Halachah 2.

31.

I.e., the lambs.

32.

As required of a nazirite who completes his nazirite vow in purity.

33.

For the burnt offering required when a nazirite completes his vow in purity is a lamb and that required from a nazirite emerging from ritual impurity is a dove or turtle dove.

34.

I.e., for the second shaving, he should make the following stipulation: "If I was only ritually impure because of contact with a corpse, then the first sin offering was to emerge from ritual impurity and this is the sin offering required at the conclusion of the nazirite vow. If I had contracted tza'arat, this is for the sake of purification from that affliction. And if I was neither ritually impure nor had contracted tzara'at, this is a freewill offering."

For the third shaving, he should stipulate: "If I was both ritually impure and afflicted by tzara'at, the second sacrifice was to be purified from tzara'at and this is to emerge from the ritual impurity stemming from a corpse. If I had been afflicted by tzara'at, but not ritually impure, this is to complete the obligation of my nazirite vow. If I had not been afflicted by tzara'at, this is a freewill offering."

35.

I.e., a burnt offering, a sin offering, and a peace offering.

36.

For a nazirite who became impure should not bring a lamb as a burnt offering.

37.

We do not say that the burnt offering brought after the second or third shaving was the required offering, because perhaps he had been afflicted with tzara'at in which instance, those shavings were necessary to purify him (Kessef Mishneh).

38.

With regard to a sin offering, the Rambam wrote in Halachah 5 that a metzora should not bring his sacrifice until after the second shaving. For this reason, the Ra'avad protests the Rambam's statements. Nevertheless, as stated with regard to a related issue in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 18:9, a distinction can be made between a burnt offering and a sin offering, for the sin offering is the fundamental catalyst for atonement and the burnt offering is merely a present (Kessef Mishneh; Lechem Mishneh).

39.

One of these burnt offerings was obviously a freewill offering, because only one burnt offering is required for the two shavings required to be purified from tzara'at. The other burnt offering is also a freewill offering, because the shaving is required lest he was also impure because of contact with a corpse. Nevertheless, the burnt offering required for such a shaving is not a lamb, but rather a dove or a turtle dove.

40.

As explained above.

41.

The fact that they are being brought much later than the burnt offering is not significant.

42.

As explained above.

43.

One of these burnt offerings was obviously a freewill offering, because only one burnt offering is required for the two shavings required to be purified from tzara'at. The other burnt offering is also a freewill offering, because the shaving is required lest he was also impure because of contact with a corpse. Nevertheless, the burnt offering required for such a shaving is not a lamb, but rather a dove or a turtle dove.

44.

Hence they are not required in this complex situation.

45.

See Chapter 6, Halachah 12, with regard to a nazirite and Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 1:5 with regard to a metzora. The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that the guilt offering is also an absolute requirement for the purification of a nazirite. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's ruling.

46.

The commentaries raise a difficulty with the Rambam's statement, noting that as explained in Halachah 5, the sin offering for a metzora is brought in association with the second shaving, not the first. The Merkevet HaMishneh states the intent is that the sacrifice is brought because of the question of impurity stemming from contact with a human corpse.

47.

For it is not known whether he was a metzora or not.

48.

For if he does not bring an animal as a sacrifice, the shaving is not acceptable and in violation of his nazirite vow.

49.

One of these burnt offerings was obviously a freewill offering, because only one burnt offering is required for the two shavings required to be purified from tzara'at. The other burnt offering is also a freewill offering, because the shaving is required lest he was also impure because of contact with a corpse. Nevertheless, the burnt offering required for such a shaving is not a lamb, but rather a dove or a turtle dove.

50.

After the fourth shaving.

51.

The fact that the remainder of the sacrifices are not brought until a significantly later time, i.e., after the fourth shaving, is not significant.

52.

As mentioned in Chapter 2, Halachah 13, a nazirite vow taken by a minor can be binding according to Scriptural Law.

53.

For the prohibition against shaving the corners of the hair and the beard is not incumbent upon them (Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 12:5).

54.

I.e., the first three shavings described above.

55.

As explained above, when a mitzvah is involved in the shaving, we follow the principle: The performance of a positive commandment supercedes the observance of a prohibition. This applies, however, only when we are certain that the observance of a positive commandment is indeed involved.

56.

See Hilchot Tumat Tzara'at 11:4.

57.

Shaving and bringing the appropriate sacrifices. The sequence when the shavings are performed and sacrifices are brought is not explicitly mentioned by the Rambam. However, as reflected in the gloss of the Lechem Mishneh, seemingly he may perform the shaving immediately. Since he is definitely afflicted with tzara'at, there is no prohibition against his shaving during the term of his nazirite vow.

58.

This purifies him from the impurity associated with a human corpse. Unless he performs this act of purification, no sacrifices may be offered on his behalf (Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 2:12). The fact that he is still ritually impure because of tzara'at does not prevent him from purifying himself from the impurity associated with contact with a corpse (Hilchot Parah Adumah 11:3).

59.

After the completion of all the days of his nazirite vow. He is required to wait this amount of time, because perhaps he never became impure. Thus were he to perform the shaving earlier, he might be shaving in the midst of his nazirite vow.

60.

Any observance of his vow before then is disqualified. Nor can he bring the sacrifices required when emerging from ritual impurity until he first purifies himself from the possibility of having been afflicted with tzara'at.

61.

Since it is not certain that he has tzara'at, the shaving does not supercede his nazirite vow and thus he must wait until the observance of his nazirite vow is concluded.

62.

For otherwise, he is ritually impure and may not partake of sacrifices. Our translation reflects an emendation of the standard published text of the Mishneh Torah based on authoritative manuscripts.

63.

To be purified from the ritual impurity stemming from contact with a human corpse, so that sacrifices may be offered on his behalf, as explained above.

64.

For the reason explained in the following halachah.

65.

I.e., he is required to wait this amount of time as explained in Chapter 6, Halachah 7, but seemingly, he has already waited these days, in the process of his purification from tzara'at.

66.

See ch. 13 of Hilchot Nedarim. Halachot 24 and 25 of that chapter focus on the negative dimension of taking vows that involve prohibitions, but Halachah 23 explains that there are situations, i.e., when one feels challenged by his material desires, when taking such vows are praiseworthy. See the incident from Nedarim 9b quoted in the notes to that halachah.

67.

This Hebrew term shares the same letters as the root of the word nazirite.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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