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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Nezirut - Chapter 8

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Nezirut - Chapter 8

1

What does the shaving [required after completion of the nazirite vow in] purity involve? When the nazirite completes [the observance of] the days of his nazirite vow, he should bring three animals [as sacrifices]: a male lamb for a burnt offering, a ewe1 as a sin offering,2 and a ram3 as a peace offering.

[The following rules apply when a person] brought three animals, but did not specify [for which sacrifice each was designated]. The one fit to be offered as a sin offering should be offered as a sin offering. The one fit to be offered as a burnt offering should be offered as a burnt offering. And the one fit to be offered as a peace offering should be offered as a peace offering.4

Together with the ram brought as a peace offering, he should bring six and two thirds esronot5 of fine flour. He should bake twenty loaves from them: ten loaves of matzah6 and ten loaves of matzah wafers.7 He should pour a revi'it [of a log] of oil over these twenty [loaves]. This measure is a halachah transmitted to Moses at Sinai. The twenty loaves should be brought in one container.8

א

תִּגְלַחַת הַטָּהֳרָה כֵּיצַד הִיא. כְּשֶׁיִּגְמֹר הַנָּזִיר יְמֵי נְזִירוּתוֹ מֵבִיא שָׁלֹשׁ בְּהֵמוֹת כֶּבֶשׂ לְעוֹלָה וְכַבְשָׂה לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל לִשְׁלָמִים. הֵבִיא שְׁלָשְׁתָּן וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ. הָרְאוּיָה לְחַטָּאת תִּקְרַב חַטָּאת וְהָרְאוּיָה לִשְׁלָמִים שְׁלָמִים וְהָרְאוּיָה לְעוֹלָה עוֹלָה. וּמֵבִיא עִם אֵיל הַשְּׁלָמִים שִׁשָּׁה עֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת וּשְׁנֵי שְׁלִישֵׁי עִשָּׂרוֹן סלֶת. אוֹפֶה מֵהֶן עֶשְׂרִים חַלָּה עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת מַצּוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה רְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת. וּמוֹשֵׁחַ הָעֶשְׂרִים בִּרְבִיעִית שֶׁמֶן. וְשִׁעוּר זֶה הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. וּמֵבִיא הָעֶשְׂרִים בִּכְלִי אֶחָד:

2

He should slaughter the sin offering first,9 then the burnt offering, and then the peace offering. Afterwards, he should shave. If he shaved after bringing the sin offering or the burnt offering, he fulfills his obligation. He should cook the peace offering or boil it.10 He should take from the sauce of the peace offering and apply it to his hair. Afterwards, he should place the hair under the pot where the peace offering is cooking. If he placed it under the pot of the sin offering, he fulfilled his obligation.11

ב

וְשׁוֹחֵט הַחַטָּאת תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָעוֹלָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁלָמִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְגַלֵּחַ. וְאִם גִּלֵּחַ אַחַר שֶׁשָּׁחַט הַחַטָּאת אוֹ הָעוֹלָה יָצָא. וּמְבַשֵּׁל הַשְּׁלָמִים אוֹ שׁוֹלְקָן וְלוֹקֵחַ מִן הָרֹטֶב שֶׁל זִבְחֵי הַשְּׁלָמִים וְנוֹתֵן עַל הַשֵּׂעָר וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַשְׁלִיכוֹ לָאֵשׁ תַּחַת דּוּד הַשְּׁלָמִים. וְאִם הִשְׁלִיכוֹ תַּחַת הַחַטָּאת יָצָא:

3

Where does he shave his hair? In the Women's Courtyard,12 in the Chamber of the Nazirites that was in its southeastern corner. There they would cook their peace offerings13 and cast their hair into the fire. If he shaved outside the Temple,14 he fulfills his obligation. Whether he shaves outside the Temple or inside it, he should cast his hair under the pot.15

He should not shave until the entrance to the Temple courtyard is open, for [Numbers 6:18] states: "at the entrance16 to the Tent of Meeting." The intent is not that he should shave in front of the entrance of the Sanctuary, for that would be demeaning to the Sanctuary.17

ג

וְהֵיכָן מְגַלֵּחַ שְׂעָרוֹ בְּעֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים בְּלִשְׁכַּת הַנְּזִירִים שֶׁהָיְתָה שָׁם בְּקֶרֶן מִזְרָחִית דְּרוֹמִית וְשֵׁם מְבַשְּׁלִין אֶת שְׁלָמֵיהֶן וּמַשְׁלִיכִין שְׂעָרָן לָאֵשׁ. וְאִם גִּלֵּחַ בַּמְּדִינָה יָצָא. וּבֵין שֶׁגִּלֵּחַ בַּמְּדִינָה וּבֵין שֶׁגִּלֵּחַ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ תַּחַת הַדּוּד הוּא מַשְׁלִיךְ שְׂעָרוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה פֶּתַח הָעֲזָרָה פָּתוּחַ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ו יח) "פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד". לֹא שֶׁיְּגַלַּח כְּנֶגֶד הַפֶּתַח שֶׁזֶּה בִּזְיוֹן מִקְדָּשׁ הוּא:

4

Afterwards, the priest takes the roasted forearm of the ram, one matzah from the basket, and one wafer and places them on the palm of the nazirite18 or female nazirite and waves them.19 Afterwards, the nazirite is permitted to drink wine and to become impure due to contact with the dead.

ד

וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹטֵל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַזְּרוֹעַ בְּשֵׁלָה מִן הָאַיִל וְחַלַּת מַצָּה אַחַת מִן הַסַּל וְרָקִיק אֶחָד וְנוֹתְנָן עַל כַּפֵּי הַנָּזִיר אוֹ הַנְּזִירָה וּמְנִיפָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֻתַּר הַנָּזִיר לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן וּלְהִטַּמֵּא לְמֵתִים:

5

A bald nazirite does not have to pass a razor over his head. Even though a nazirite does not have hair20 or does not have a palm21 he may still bring his sacrifices. He [may] then drink [wine] and become impure. If he brought his sacrifices, but did not shave his head, [the failure] to shave does not prevent [the termination of his nazirite vow] and he may drink [wine] and become impure that evening.22 Once the blood from one [of the sacrifices] has been sprinkled upon him, he is permitted although [the portions of the sacrifice] were not placed on his hand and he did not wave them. For all these factors are [the most desirable way of performing the mitzvah]; they are not an absolute requirement.

ה

נָזִיר מְמֹרָט אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַעֲבִיר תַּעַר. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שֵׂעָר אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כַּפַּיִם הֲרֵי זֶה מַקְרִיב קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו וְיִשְׁתֶּה וְיִטַּמֵּא. וְאִם הֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו וְלֹא גִּלֵּחַ רֹאשׁוֹ אֵין הַתִּגְלַחַת מְעַכֶּבֶת אֶלָּא שׁוֹתֶה וּמִטַּמֵּא לָעֶרֶב. שֶׁמִּשֶּׁיִּזָּרֵק עָלָיו אֶחָד מִן הַדָּמִים הֻתַּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן עַל כַּפָּיו וְלֹא הֵנִיף שֶׁכָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ לְמִצְוָה וְלֹא לְעַכֵּב:

6

Although the shaving is not an absolute requirement, it is a mitzvah [for the nazirite] to shave,23 even if an extensive time has past [since the completion of his nazirite vow].

When a nazirite shaves without using a razor24 or he shaved and left two hairs,25 it is as if he did nothing; he did not fulfill the mitzvah of shaving. [This applies] whether the nazirite is pure or impure.

ו

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַתִּגְלַחַת מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו מִצְוָה לְגַלֵּחַ אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה. וְנָזִיר שֶׁגִּלֵּחַ בְּלֹא תַּעַר אוֹ שֶׁגִּלֵּחַ וְשִׁיֵּר שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם וְלֹא קִיֵּם מִצְוַת גִּלּוּחַ. בֵּין נָזִיר טָהוֹר בֵּין נָזִיר טָמֵא:

7

[When a nazirite] shaved, left two hairs, his hair grew back entirely, and he shaved [his head again, removing] those two hairs,26 or27 he shaved one and the other fell off, he has fulfilled the mitzvah of shaving.28 If one fell off and he shaved the other one, the mitzvah of shaving does not apply.29

ז

גִּלֵּחַ וְהִנִּיחַ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת וְצִמֵּחַ רֹאשׁוֹ כֻּלּוֹ וְחָזַר וְגִלְּחוֹ עִם אוֹתָן שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת אוֹ שֶׁגִּלֵּחַ אַחַת וְנָשְׁרָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה קִיֵּם מִצְוַת גִּלּוּחַ. נָשְׁרָה אַחַת וְגִלֵּחַ אַחַת אֵין כָּאן מִצְוַת גִּלּוּחַ:

8

When a nazirite shaved [his head] when his peace offering was brought and that offering was unacceptable,30 his shaving is also unacceptable and his sacrifices are not of consequence for him.31 If he shaved when his sin offering was brought and it was discovered that the sin offering was not slaughtered with that intent,32 and afterwards, he brought the peace offering and the burnt offering and offered them as required, his shaving is also unacceptable and his sacrifices are not of consequence for him.33

ח

גִּלֵּחַ עַל הַשְּׁלָמִים וְנִמְצָא פָּסוּל תִּגְלַחְתּוֹ פְּסוּלָה וּזְבָחָיו לֹא עָלוּ לוֹ. גִּלֵּחַ עַל הַחַטָּאת וְנִמְצֵאת שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁחֲטָה לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֵבִיא הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהָעוֹלָה וְהִקְרִיבָן כְּמִצְוָתָן תִּגְלַחְתּוֹ פְּסוּלָה וּזְבָחָיו לֹא עָלוּ לוֹ:

9

If he shaved [his head] when his burnt offering and peace offering were brought, but they were slaughtered for another intent,34 his shaving is also unacceptable and his sacrifices are not of consequence for him.35

ט

גִּלֵּחַ עַל הָעוֹלָה וְעַל הַשְּׁלָמִים וְנִשְׁחֲטוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת לְהַקְרִיבָן לִשְׁמָן תִּגְלַחְתּוֹ פְּסוּלָה וּזְבָחָיו לֹא עָלוּ לוֹ:

10

If he shaved [his head] when he brought [all] three offerings and one of them was acceptable, his shaving is acceptable.36 [Afterwards,] he should bring the other offerings [that were not acceptable] and offer them in an acceptable manner.

י

גִּלֵּחַ עַל שְׁלָשְׁתָּן וְנִמְצָא אֶחָד מֵהֶם כָּשֵׁר תִּגְלַחְתּוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה וְיָבִיא שְׁאָר הַזְּבָחִים וְיִקָּרְבוּ כְּהִלְכָתָן:

11

Whenever we have said: "His shaving is unacceptable," he is considered as one who shaved in the midst of the days of his nazirite vow who invalidates 30 days [of observance] as explained.37 Thus he should observe [the laws of a nazirite for] 30 days after the unacceptable shaving and bring his sacrifices.38

יא

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ תִּגְלַחְתּוֹ פְּסוּלָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁנִּתְגַּלֵּחַ בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי נְזִירוּתוֹ שֶׁהוּא סוֹתֵר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְנִמְצָא מוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אַחַר הַתִּגְלַחַת הַפְּסוּלָה וְיָבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו:

12

The peace offerings of a nazirite that were slaughtered in a manner that did not conform to their requirements39 are acceptable,40 but they do not fulfill the obligations of [the nazirite] who brought them.41 They may only be eaten for one day42 and they need not [be accompanied by] bread,43 nor are they placed [on the nazirite's hand for waving],44 nor is the foreleg [given to the priest].

יב

שַׁלְמֵי נָזִיר שֶׁשְּׁחָטָן שֶׁלֹּא כְּמִצְוָתָן כְּשֵׁרִים וְאֵין עוֹלִים לַבְּעָלִים לְשֵׁם חוֹבָה. וְנֶאֱכָלִין לְיוֹם אֶחָד וְאֵין טְעוּנִין לֶחֶם וְלֹא מַתָּנוֹת וְלֹא זְרוֹעַ:

13

These three animals and the bread that accompanies them all must come from ordinary property45 as is true with regard to other vows to sanctify offerings, as will be explained in the appropriate place.46

יג

שָׁלֹשׁ בְּהֵמוֹת אֵלּוּ וְהַלֶּחֶם הַבָּא עִמָּהֶם הַכּל מִן הַחֻלִּין כִּשְׁאָר נִדְרֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

14

When a person says: "I am becoming a nazirite on the condition that when I perform the shaving, I will be able to bring my sacrifices using [money exchanged for] the second tithe,"47 he becomes a nazirite, but he should not bring his sacrifices using such funds. Instead, [he must purchase them] with ordinary funds.48

יד

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר עַל מְנָת שֶׁאֲגַלֵּחַ מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶלָּא מִן הַחֻלִּין:

15

When a man takes a vow to become a nazirite, he may bring sacrifices set aside by his father for this purpose.49 A woman, by contrast, may not perform the shaving using the sacrifices of her father.50 This is a halachah conveyed by the Oral Tradition.

What is implied? A person's father took a nazirite vow, set aside money to purchase sacrifices [to offer on the completion of that vow], but died [before he could offer them]. [The money] was left without being designated for any specific purpose.51 After his father died, he said: "I am a nazirite on the condition that I am able to bring my sacrifices from the money which my father set aside for his sacrifices," he may bring his sacrifices from these [funds]. Similarly, if he and his father were nazirites and his father set aside money [for his sacrifices] without designating it for a specific offering and then died, if, after the father's death, the son said: "I will perform the shaving with the sacrifices of my father," he may bring his sacrifices from these [funds].52 If he does not make these statements,53 the money should be used for freewill [offerings].54

If the father died and left many sons, they should divide the money that was not specified [among themselves], because it is their inheritance. Each one may perform the shaving [with sacrifices purchased] from his portion.55 The firstborn receives a double portion.56

טו

הָאִישׁ שֶׁנָּדַר בְּנָזִיר יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהָבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹת אָבִיו לְעַצְמוֹ וּמְגַלֵּחַ עֲלֵיהֶם. וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה מְגַלַּחַת עַל קָרְבְּנוֹת אָבִיהָ וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה הוּא. כֵּיצַד. מִי שֶׁהָיָה אָבִיו נָזִיר וְהִפְרִישׁ מָעוֹת לִקְנוֹת בָּהֶן קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו וּמֵת וְהִנִּיחַ הַמָּעוֹת סְתוּמִין וְאָמַר אַחֲרֵי מוֹת אָבִיו הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר עַל מְנָת שֶׁאָבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתַי מִמָּעוֹת שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ בָּהֶן אָבִי לְקָרְבְּנוֹתָיו הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא מֵהֶן קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה הוּא וְאָבִיו נְזִירִים וְהִפְרִישׁ אָבִיו מָעוֹת סְתוּמִין וּמֵת הָאָב וְאָמַר הַבֵּן אַחַר מוֹת אָבִיו הֲרֵינִי מְגַלֵּחַ עַל מְעוֹת אָבִי הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו מֵהֶן. אֲבָל אִם לֹא אָמַר יִפְּלוּ הַמָּעוֹת לִנְדָבָה. מֵת הָאָב וְהִנִּיחַ בָּנִים רַבִּים חוֹלְקִים הַמָּעוֹת הַסְּתוּמִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא יְרֻשָּׁה לָהֶן וְיֵשׁ לְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לְגַלֵּחַ עַל חֶלְקוֹ וְהַבְּכוֹר נוֹטֵל בָּהֶן פִּי שְׁנַיִם:

16

Whether the father was a nazirite for all time57 and the son was a nazirite for a limited time or the father was a nazirite for a limited time and the son was a nazirite for all time, [the son] may perform the shaving and bring his sacrifices from the money [designated] for the nazirite vow of his father.

טז

בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה הָאָב נְזִיר עוֹלָם וְהַבֵּן נָזִיר זְמַן קָצוּב בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה הָאָב נָזִיר זְמַן קָצוּב וְהַבֵּן נְזִיר עוֹלָם הֲרֵי זֶה מְגַלֵּחַ וּמֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו מִמְּעוֹת נְזִירוּת אָבִיו:

17

If the father set aside money to bring the sacrifices [that are required when a nazirite emerges from] impurity and dies, the sons may not use that money to purchase sacrifices [that are offered when one completes the nazirite vow in] purity.58 Similarly, if the father set them aside for the sacrifices [offered when one completes the nazirite vow in] purity, the son may not use them for the shaving [and the sacrifices required when a nazirite emerges from] impurity. [There is] an unresolved doubt whether this [is acceptable]. If he brought his sacrifices from such funds, he is not considered to have fulfilled his obligation.59

יז

הִפְרִישׁ הָאָב מָעוֹת לְהָבִיא בָּהֶן קָרְבְּנוֹת טֻמְאָה וּמֵת אֵין הַבֵּן מֵבִיא בָּהֶן קָרְבְּנוֹת טָהֳרָה. וְכֵן אִם הִפְרִישָׁן הָאָב לְקָרְבַּן טָהֳרָה אֵין הַבֵּן מְגַלֵּחַ עֲלֵיהֶן תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה. שֶׁדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ הֵן סָפֵק וְאִם הֵבִיא זְבָחָיו לֹא עָלוּ לוֹ:

18

If a person says: "It is my responsibility to perform the shaving for a nazirite," he is obligated to bring the sacrifices required when a nazirite [completes his vow] in purity. He may have them offered by any nazirite that he desires. If he said: "I am obligated to bring half of the sacrifices of a nazirite," or he said: "It is my responsibility to [provide the means for] half the shaving for a nazirite,"60 he is obligated to bring half the sacrifices [required of] any nazirite he desires. That nazirite should bring the remainder of his sacrifices from his own funds. If, however, he said: "I am obligated to bring the sacrifices of half a nazirite," he must bring all of the sacrifices of a nazirite, for there is no concept of being half a nazirite.61

יח

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי לְגַלֵּחַ נָזִיר חַיָּב לְהָבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹת תִּגְלַחַת טָהֳרָה וּמַקְרִיבָן עַל יַד אֵיזֶה נָזִיר שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי חֲצִי קָרְבְּנוֹת נָזִיר. אוֹ אִם אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי לְגַלֵּחַ חֲצִי נָזִיר. הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא חֲצִי הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת לְאֵיזֶה נָזִיר שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְאוֹתוֹ נָזִיר מַשְׁלִים קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו מִשֶּׁלּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי קָרְבְּנוֹת חֲצִי נָזִיר הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹת נָזִיר שָׁלֵם שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ חֲצִי נְזִירוּת:

19

When one says: "I am becoming a nazirite and I accept the responsibility to [provide the means for] the shaving for a nazirite," and his colleague says: "And so am I," the colleague is a nazirite, but he is not obligated to [provide the means for] the shaving, for he only included himself in his colleague's statements with regard to becoming a nazirite. If he said: "And so am I, and I accept the responsibility to [provide the means for] the shaving for a nazirite," he is obligated [for this as well]. If they are clever, each one should bring sacrifices provided by his colleague.62 If they do not do this, they are each obligated to [provide the means for] the shaving of other nazirites.

יט

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר וְעָלַי לְגַלֵּחַ נָזִיר וְשָׁמַע חֲבֵרוֹ וְאָמַר וַאֲנִי הֲרֵי חֲבֵרוֹ נָזִיר. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְגַלֵּחַ נָזִיר אַחֵר. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הִתְפִּיס עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא בִּנְזִירוּת. וְאִם אָמַר וַאֲנִי וְעָלַי לְגַלֵּחַ נָזִיר הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב. וְאִם הָיוּ פִּקְחִין מֵבִיא כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן קָרְבָּנוֹת עַל יְדֵי חֲבֵרוֹ וְאִם לֹא עָשׂוּ כֵן חַיָּבִים לְגַלֵּחַ נְזִירוּת אֲחֵרִים:

20

If one says: "[I am a nazirite and]63 it is my responsibility to [provide the means for] half the shaving for a nazirite," and his colleague hears and says: "And I also am a nazirite and I also accept the responsibility to [provide the means for] half the shaving for a nazirite," [they are both nazirites]. If they are clever, one should bring half the sacrifices of the other and the second should bring half the sacrifices of the first and then each one should complete the [required] sacrifices [from his own resources]. If not, [in addition to bringing their own sacrifices,] each one must bring half the sacrifices of any nazirite he chooses.

כ

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי לְגַלֵּחַ חֲצִי נָזִיר וְשָׁמַע חֲבֵרוֹ וְאָמַר וַאֲנִי וְעָלַי לְגַלֵּחַ חֲצִי נָזִיר. זֶה מֵבִיא חֲצִי קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו שֶׁל זֶה וְזֶה מֵבִיא חֲצִי קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו שֶׁל זֶה וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן מַשְׁלִים קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו אִם הָיוּ פִּקְחִין. וְאִם לָאו זֶה מֵבִיא חֲצִי קָרְבָּנוֹת מֵאֵיזֶה נָזִיר שֶׁיִּרְצֶה וְזֶה מֵבִיא חֲצִי קָרְבָּנוֹת מֵאֵיזֶה נָזִיר שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:

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Footnotes
1.

Both the ewe and the lamb must be less than a year old (Numbers 6:14).

2.

See Hilchot De'ot 3:1 where the Rambam quotes Ta'anit 11a that states that a nazirite is required to bring a sin offering, because he abstained from drinking wine and elaborates on the negative aspects of an ascetic existence.

3.

At least two years old.

4.

Although the ewe is also fit to be brought as a peace offering, since it is the only one fit to be brought as a sin offering, we designate it for such and use the male lamb for the peace offering.

5.

An isaron is equivalent to the size of 43.2 eggs. In modern measure, the size of an egg is 57.6 cc according to Shiurei Torah, and 99.5 cc according to Chazon Ish.

6.

These loaves were made from a mixture of flour, water, and oil. The oil was added to the batter before they were baked (Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:21).

7.

These wafers were made with flour and water. After they were baked, oil was poured over them (ibid.:23).

8.

Numbers 6:17 speaks of "the basket of matzot."

9.

The order of the rituals outlined by the Rambam follows the order in which they are mentioned in Numbers 6:15-18. This explanation may clarify the questions raised by the Kessef Mishneh.

10.

Rav Avraham MinHaHer interprets this term as meaning boiling it with water alone, without spices.

11.

Although Numbers 6:15 mentions the peace offering since uses the word zevach, offering and that term can also be applied to the sin offering, putting the hair under the sin offering is acceptable (Nazir 45b).

12.

The courtyard before the Temple itself. It was given this name, because women were allowed to congregate on balconies there at certain times. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 5:7-9.

13.

The sin offerings had to be cooked within the Temple Courtyard and the burnt offerings were placed on the fire of the altar.

14.

We have translated the term mikdash as "Temple," for that is the most apparent meaning and most authorities understand it being used in this context. The Radbaz, however, notes that in certain contexts (see the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Rosh HaShanah 4:1), the Rambam interprets the term mikdash as referring to the city of Jerusalem as a whole. And in his commentary to Ma'aser Sheni 3:4, he states that the term medinah (the term used in this halachah) refers to cities outside Jerusalem.

15.

The Radbaz understands the Rambam as implying that even when one shaves outside of Jerusalem, he should send his hair to have it cast under the fire in the Chamber of the Nazirites. Not all authorities share this view.

16.

The Hebrew words petach, "entrance," and patuach, "open," share the same root. Seemingly, the gate to the Temple building must also be open. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 5:5.

17.

The Chamber of the Nazirites where he would shave is, by contrast, a private place.

18.

The Rambam is quoting Numbers 6:19-20. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:9, where the Rambam writes that (because it is a peace offering) he must also wave the ram's breast and thigh and the inner portions of the animal that were offered on the altar.

19.

The priest puts his hand beneath the hand of the nazirite and moves these sacred articles up, down, and to each of the four compass directions. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 5:5).

20.

To shave.

21.

To wave the sacrifices.

22.

The Radbaz states that this is understandable if he brings his offerings on the thirtieth day of his nazirite vow, for until he completes thirty days of observance, he is bound by the terms of the vow. He questions why, however, the sacrifice in itself is not sufficient if it is brought on the thirty-first day or afterwards.

The Or Sameach explains that on any day, until sunset, he is given the option of bringing his hair to the Chamber of the Nazirites and burning it there. From the evening onward, that option is no longer viable. Hence until he either burns his hair there or the evening arrives, he is not able to drink wine.

23.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 93) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 377) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. The mitzvah includes both the shaving performed after the conclusion of the nazirite vow in purity and that performed after a nazirite emerges from impurity.

24.

From the fact that Numbers 6:9 mentions a razor in the prohibition against a nazirite cutting his hair, Nazir 40a deducts that a razor should be used in the shaving process.

25.

For in several halachic contexts, two hairs are considered as significant entities.

26.

Since he let his hair grow back, he must shave his entire head, not merely the two hairs left initially. Note the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh who explain that the Rambam shares the approach of Tosafot with regard to the interpretation of Nazir 42a.

27.

Before his hair started to grow back.

28.

Since there were two hairs at the time he started shaving and ultimately, there were none remaining, he is considered to have fulfilled the mitzvah.

29.

For at the time he began acting, the mitzvah of shaving no longer applied.

30.

E.g., its blood was spilled before it was poured on the altar; alternatively, it came in contact with impurity and was thus invalidated.

31.

The rationale is that since he cut his hair off in an unacceptable manner, i.e., since the sacrifice was unacceptable, his shaving was unacceptable, the sacrifices he offers afterwards are also not acceptable.

32.

But rather for the sake of another type of sacrifice. This disqualifies the sin offering (Hilchot Pesulei Hamukdashim 15:1).

33.

Since the sin offering was unacceptable, the shaving is unacceptable. Accordingly, the sacrifices he offered afterwards are also unacceptable.

34.

In such an instance, the sacrifices are acceptable (i.e., the appropriate portions can be offered on the altar and the others eaten), but the person who brings them is not considered to have fulfilled his obligation (ibid.). Accordingly, the nazirite is considered as having shaved his head before he was allowed to.

35.

Since the shaving is unacceptable, the sin offering he brought afterwards is also unacceptable.

36.

For as stated in Halachah 5, as long as one of the sacrifices was brought in an acceptable manner, he is considered to have concluded his nazirite vow.

37.

Chapter 6, Halachah 1.

38.

Shaving his hair again.

39.

E.g., it was not offered for the sake of a peace offering or the ram was less than two years old.

40.

The portions appropriate for the altar may be offered there and one may partake of the meat. They are considered as peace offerings that were offered voluntarily.

41.

To fulfill the obligations of his nazirite vow, he must bring a different sacrifice.

42.

As is the rule governing the peace offerings of a nazirite. Peace offerings that are brought voluntarily may be eaten for two days and the intervening night.

43.

As is required for a peace offering of a nazirite (see Halachah 1).

44.

As is required for a peace offering of a nazirite (see Halachah 4). This interpretation is based on the explanations of the Or Sameach. The Merkevet HaMishneh quotes the Orach Mishor who suggests amending the text so that it reads "they require presents" - i.e., the breast and the thigh that are given to a priest in connection with a voluntarily peace offering - "but not the foreleg" - which is given to the priest in connection with a Nazirite's peace offering.

45.

I.e., the sacrificial animals may not have been consecrated previously and the bread may not come from terumah or the second tithe.

46.

Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 16:15. The rationale is that since he is obligated to bring these offerings, they must be brought from resources that belong to him entirely (Radbaz).

47.

The second tithe must be brought to Jerusalem and eaten there in a state of ritual purity. If a person lives outside Jerusalem, the Torah gives him the option of redeeming the second tithe with its worth and taking that money to Jerusalem to purchase food to be eaten there in a state of ritual purity. Although money with which the second tithe was redeemed may be used to purchase voluntary peace offerings, it may not be used to purchase the peace offerings of a nazirite, as indicated by the previous halachah.

48.

The rationale is that as soon as he says: "I am becoming a nazirite," he must observe the restrictions associated with a nazirite vow. The statement: "on the condition that..." does not take effect, because it was made after he had become obligated to observe the nazirite restrictions (Rashi, Beitzah 20a). From this, Tosafot concludes that if he reverses the order of the clauses, saying: "On the condition that when I perform the shaving, I will be able to bring my sacrifices using [money exchanged for] the second tithe, I will become a nazirite," he may bring his sacrifices from such funds.

49.

This law applies when the nazirite is the sole heir, as stated at the conclusion of the halachah.

50.

Even if she is her father's sole heir (Nazir 30a).

51.

I.e., he did not specify which coins should used to purchase a particular type of sacrifice. See Chapter 9, Halachot 3-4.

52.

I.e., even though when he took the nazirite vow, he did not have the intent to use the money set aside by his father - because his father was alive at that time - he may use it for his vow.

53.

Even if he was a nazirite himself (Radbaz).

54.

Burnt offerings brought as an embellishment to the altar.

55.

The remainder of the costs of the sacrifices, he must add from his own funds.

56.

As he does with regard to other aspects of the inheritance. It is necessary to clarify this point, because one might think that since this money is not the sons' personal property, he would not be given this extra portion.

57.

See Chapter 3, Halachot 11-12, which explain that a nazirite for all time performs a shaving once a year and brings three sacrifices at that time.

58.

He may, however, use the funds to bring the sacrifices required when he becomes impure and emerges from impurity.

59.

The commentaries raise questions regarding this ruling, because the unresolved doubt raises questions in either direction. For just as it is possible that he did not fulfill his obligation by bringing the sacrifices with the money set aside by his father, it is possible that he did. Hence, were he to bring sacrifices with his own funds, they would be unnecessary and he would be slaughtering ordinary animals in the Temple courtyard (a serious transgression). There is a way to avoid this difficulty, for him to offer his second set of sacrifices conditionally, i.e., making a stipulation: "If the first set of sacrifices were acceptable, then these are voluntarily offerings. If, however, the first set were unacceptable, then these are the offerings required" (Kessef Mishneh).

This approach is, however, still somewhat problematic, because a sin offering may not be brought as a voluntary offering. Therefore, the Lechem Mishneh (in his gloss to the conclusion of Chapter 10) states that he should bring only a sin offering of a fowl which is brought when there is a doubt (see Chapter 10, Halachah 8, and notes). And the Lechem Mishneh continues, he need not bring a burnt offering and a peace offering at all. They are not of fundamental importance and the offerings he brought originally are sufficient for him.

60.

We have chosen a translation that reflects more the halachic meaning of the person's statements than the words' literal meaning.

61.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 8. The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's ruling, but the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh justify it, based on the interpretation of Nazir 12b.

62.

By bringing each other's sacrifices, they fulfill their vows to provide for the shaving of another nazirite and fulfill their obligations for their own nazirite vows. If they do not do this, they must each bring the sacrifices for their own vows and the sacrifices for another nazirite.

63.

This addition is made on the basis of the gloss of the Radbaz.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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