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Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Nezirut - Chapter 3

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Nezirut - Chapter 3

1

If a specification is not made the term for a nazirite vow is 30 days. What is implied? If a person said: "I am a nazirite," [he must uphold his vow] for no less than 30 days.1 Even if he said: "I will be a nazirite for an excessively long and protracted time," he must uphold the nazirite vows for [only] 30 days, for he did not specify a time.2

א

סְתָם נְזִירוּת שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. כֵּיצַד. מִי שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וַאֲפִלּוּ אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר נְזִירוּת גְּדוֹלָה עַד מְאֹד הַרְבֵּה הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא פֵּרֵשׁ זְמַן:

2

If he specified a time span that was less than 30 days, e.g., he said: "I will be a nazirite for one day," "...for ten days," or "...for twenty days," he must observe the nazirite vow for 30 days. For there is no concept of a nazirite vow for less than 30 days. This concept was conveyed by the Oral Tradition.

ב

פֵּרֵשׁ זְמַן פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר יוֹם אֶחָד אוֹ עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים אוֹ עֶשְׂרִים יוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם שֶׁאֵין נְזִירוּת פְּחוּתָה מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה:

3

If a person explicitly mentioned a time span greater than 30 days:, e.g., he mentioned 31 days, 40 days, 100 days, or 100 years, he is a nazirite for the time he specified, neither more nor less.

ג

פֵּרֵשׁ זְמַן יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר אֶחָד וּשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אוֹ אַרְבָּעִים אוֹ מֵאָה יוֹם אוֹ מֵאָה שָׁנָה הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר כִּזְמַן שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ לֹא פָּחוֹת וְלֹא יוֹתֵר:

4

When a person says: "I will be a nazirite for one hour," he must uphold his nazirite vows for 30 days. If he said: "I will be a nazirite for 30 days and one hour," he must be a nazirite for 31 days. For there is no conception of a nazirite vow [only for] hours.3

ד

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שָׁעָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וְשָׁעָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר אֶחָד וּשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם שֶׁאֵין נוֹזְרִין שָׁעוֹת:

5

[The following rules apply when a person] says: "I will be a nazirite from here until this-and-this place." If he did not set out on the road, he must uphold his nazirite vow for only 30 days. For his intent was to make a vow for a long nazirite vow,4 [as evident from the fact that] he did not specify a time.

[Different rules apply if] he set out on the way. If it was less than a 30 day journey, he must uphold his nazirite vow for 30 days.5 If it was more than a 30 day journey, he must observe one nazirite vow for the duration of the days of the journey.6

ה

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר מִכָּאן עַד מָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי. אִם לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם בִּלְבַד. שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא לִנְזִירוּת גְּדוֹלָה וַהֲרֵי לֹא פֵּרֵשׁ זְמַן. וְאִם הֶחֱזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ אִם הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְאִם הָיָה יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר נְזִירוּת אַחַת כְּמִנְיַן הַיָּמִים:

6

When a person says; "I will observe two terms of nazirite vows," or three or four, he must observe the number of nazirite vows he mentioned, each one lasting 30 days. At the end of each 30 day period, he must shave and bring his sacrifices and begin observing his second nazirite vow. Even if he said: "I will observe 100,000 nazirite vows" - and it is impossible for him to live that long - he should observe them one by one7 until he concludes the amount of nazirite vows he took.

ו

מִי שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שְׁתֵּי נְזִירוּת אוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ אוֹ אַרְבַּע הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר כַּמִּנְיָן שֶׁאָמַר כָּל נְזִירוּת מֵהֶן שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וּבְסוֹף כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים וּשְׁלֹשִׁים מְגַלֵּחַ וּמֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו וּמַתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת נְזִירוּת שְׁנִיָּה. אֲפִלּוּ אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר מֵאָה אֶלֶף נְזִירִיּוֹת שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּחְיֶה כַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹנֶה אַחַת אַחַר אַחַת עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת אוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים מִנְיַן נְזִירוּתָיו:

7

When a person says: "I will observe nazirite vows as many days there are in a year," he must observe as many nazirite vows as there are days in a year. If he explicitly mentioned a solar year, he must observe 365 nazirite vows, with each one being 30 days long. If he mentioned a lunar year, he must observe 354 nazirite vows. If he did not explicitly state [a solar or a lunar year], he must observe 354 nazirite vows. [The rationale is that as] we already explained,8 with regard to vows, we follow the wording usually employed by people at large. Now, most of the solar years are 365 days long. Most of the lunar years are 354 days long. And when people at large use the term "year," they mean a lunar year.

ז

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר כְּמִנְיַן יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. מוֹנֶה נְזִירוּתָיו כְּמִנְיַן יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. אִם פֵּרֵשׁ שְׁנַת הַחַמָּה מוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְשִׁשִּׁים וְחָמֵשׁ נְזִירוּת כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְאִם פֵּרֵשׁ שְׁנַת לְבָנָה מוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אַרְבַּע וַחֲמִשִּׁים נְזִירוּת. וְאִם סְתָם מוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְאַרְבַּע וַחֲמִשִּׁים נְזִירוּת שֶׁהֲרֵי בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל הַנְּדָרִים הוֹלְכִין אַחַר לְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם. וְרֹב שְׁנֵי הַחַמָּה שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁשִּׁים יוֹם מוֹנִין לָהּ. וְרֹב שְׁנֵי הַלְּבָנָה שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְאַרְבַּע וַחֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם מוֹנִין לָהּ. וְאֵין קוֹרִין כָּל הָעָם שָׁנָה סְתָם אֶלָּא לִשְׁנַת הַלְּבָנָה:

8

When a person says: "I will observe one and a half nazirite vows," he is obligated to observe two nazirite vows.9 When one says: "I will be a nazir and one day," or "I will be a nazir and one hour," he must observe two nazirite vows.

If he says: "I am a nazirite and one," he must observe two nazirite vows. If he says: "I am a nazirite, one, and more," he must observe three nazirite vows. If he says: "I am a nazirite, one, more, and again," he must observe four nazirite vows.10

[If he says:] "I am a nazirite for 30 days and one day," he must observe one nazirite vow for 31 days.11

ח

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר אַחַת וּמֶחֱצָה הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁתֵּי נְזִירוּת. אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר וְיוֹם אֶחָד אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר וְשָׁעָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁתֵּי נְזִירוּת. אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר וְאַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁתַּיִם. הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר וְאַחַת וְעוֹד הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שָׁלֹשׁ נְזִירוּת. הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר וְאַחַת וְעוֹד וְשׁוּב הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר אַרְבַּע נְזִירוּת. הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וְיוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר נְזִירוּת אַחַת שֶׁל שְׁלֹשִׁים וְאֶחָד יוֹם:

9

[The following rules apply when] there are two pairs of witnesses who testify concerning a person. One testifies that he took two nazirite vows. The other testifies that he took five vows.12 He is required to observe two vows. For included in the five are two and thus all testify that he took two vows.13

ט

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּי כִּתֵּי עֵדִים מְעִידִין אוֹתוֹ. אֵלּוּ מְעִידִין שֶׁנָּזַר שְׁתַּיִם וְאֵלּוּ מְעִידִין שֶׁנָּזַר חָמֵשׁ. הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁבִּכְלַל חָמֵשׁ שְׁתַּיִם וַהֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְעִידִים בִּשְׁתַּיִם:

10

[The following rules apply when a person] took two nazirite vows, whether he took them both at the same time or took them one after the other, e.g., he said: "I am a nazirite for a day"14 and "I am a nazirite for a day." If he counted the days of the first vow and set aside his sacrifices15 and then asked for the absolution of his vow and had it released, the days he observed the first vow can count for the second. He can bring the sacrifices that he set aside and complete his obligation.

[Moreover,] even if he brought [the sacrifices for] his atonement and even if he shaved off his hair and then asked for his vow to be absolved, the observance of the first vow fulfills the second. [The rationale is that] the second vow does not take effect until after the first one is completed.16 And since the first vow was released, it is as if it did not exist initially.17

י

מִי שֶׁנָּזַר שְׁתֵּי נְזִירוּת בֵּין שֶׁנָּדַר שְׁתֵּיהֶן בְּבַת אַחַת בֵּין שֶׁנָּדַר זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ. כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר יוֹם הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר יוֹם וּמָנָה אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהִפְרִישׁ קָרְבָּן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשְׁאַל עַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהִתִּיר נִדְרוֹ. עָלְתָה לוֹ רִאשׁוֹנָה בַּשְּׁנִיָּה וּמֵבִיא זֶה הַקָּרְבָּן וְנִפְטָר. וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵבִיא כַּפָּרָתוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ גִּלֵּחַ שְׂעָרוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשְׁאַל עָלֶיהָ עָלְתָה לוֹ רִאשׁוֹנָה בַּשְּׁנִיָּה. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַשְּׁנִיָּה חָלָה אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהָרִאשׁוֹנָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתִּירָהּ כְּאִלּוּ אֵינָהּ מֵעִקָּרָהּ:

11

When a person says: "I will be a nazirite forever" or "I will be a nazirite for all the days of my life," he is considered as a nazirite forever. If he says: "I will be a nazirite for 1000 years," he is considered as a nazirite for a limited time,18 even though it is impossible for a person to live for a 1000 years.

יא

מִי שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר לְעוֹלָם אוֹ הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר כָּל יְמֵי חַיַּי הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר לְעוֹלָם. וְאִם אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר אֶלֶף שָׁנָה הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר לִזְמַן קָצוּב. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּחְיֶה הָאָדָם אֶלֶף שָׁנָה:

12

What is the difference between a nazirite forever and a nazirite for a limited time? A nazirite for a limited time is forbidden to cut his hair until the conclusion of his nazirite vow, as [Numbers 6:5] states: "Throughout the days of his nazirite vow, a razor shall not pass over his head until the days are completed." A nazirite forever, by contrast, may alleviate [the burden of his hair]19 with a razor every twelve months. When he cuts his hair, he must bring a sacrifice of three animals,20 as [II Samuel 14:26] states [with regard to Avshalom]: "From year to year, when he would shave, because his hair was heavy for him and he would shave." Avshalom was a nazirite forever. This concept is a halachah transmitted by the Oral Tradition.21

When a nazirite forever becomes impure, he must bring sacrifices [to atone for] impurity and shave as is required in an instance of impurity like a nazirite for a limited time.

יב

ומַה בֵּין נְזִיר עוֹלָם לְנָזִיר לִזְמַן קָצוּב. שֶׁהַנָּזִיר לִזְמַן אָסוּר לְגַלֵּחַ עַד סוֹף יְמֵי נְזִירוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ו ה) "כָּל יְמֵי נֶדֶר נִזְרוֹ תַּעַר לֹא יַעֲבֹר עַל רֹאשׁוֹ עַד מְלֹאת הַיָּמִם". וּנְזִיר עוֹלָם אִם הִכְבִּיד שְׂעָרוֹ מֵקֵל בְּתַעַר מִשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ עַד שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. וּמֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ בְּהֵמוֹת כְּשֶׁיְּגַלֵּחַ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב יד כו) "וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ יָמִים לַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר יְגַלֵּחַ כִּי כָבֵד עָלָיו וְגִלְּחוֹ". וְאַבְשָׁלוֹם נְזִיר עוֹלָם הָיָה. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה הִיא מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה. וּנְזִיר עוֹלָם שֶׁנִּטְמָא הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא קָרְבַּן טֻמְאָה וּמְגַלֵּחַ תִּגְלַחַת טֻמְאָה כְּמוֹ נָזִיר לִזְמַן קָצוּב:

13

Samson was not a nazirite in a complete sense, for he never took a nazirite vow.22 It was merely that the angel caused him to be separated from impurity.23

What were the laws applying to him? He was forbidden to drink wine and cut his hair.24 He was, however, permitted to incur impurity due to contact with the dead.25 This concept is a halachah transmitted by the Oral Tradition.

יג

שִׁמְשׁוֹן לֹא הָיָה נָזִיר גָּמוּר. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נָדַר בְּנָזִיר אֶלָּא הַמַּלְאָךְ הִפְרִישׁוֹ מִן הַטֻּמְאָה. וְכֵיצַד הָיָה דִּינוֹ. הָיָה אָסוּר בְּיַיִן וְאָסוּר בְּתִגְלַחַת וּמֻתָּר לְהִטָּמֵא לַמֵּתִים. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה:

14

Accordingly, if someone said: "Behold I am a nazirite like Samson," he is a nazirite forever with regard to [the prohibition against] cutting his hair and [drinking] wine. He may not cut his hair every twelve months like others who are nazirites forever.26 He is, however, permitted to become impure because of contact with the dead.27

If one says: "My intent was to refer to another person whose name is [also] Samson," he is not a nazirite.28 When a person takes a nazirite vow like Samson's, he is not permitted to have it absolved, for Samson's nazirite vow was [binding] forever.29

יד

לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר כְּשִׁמְשׁוֹן הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר מִן הַתִּגְלַחַת וּמִן הַיַּיִן לְעוֹלָם. וְאֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ כִּשְׁאָר נְזִירֵי עוֹלָם. וּמֻתָּר לְהִטָּמֵא לַמֵּתִים. וְאִם אָמַר לֹא נִתְכַּוַּנְתִּי אֶלָּא לְאִישׁ אַחֵר שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ שִׁמְשׁוֹן אֵינוֹ נָזִיר. וּמִי שֶׁנָּדַר נָזִיר כְּשִׁמְשׁוֹן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִשָּׁאֵל עַל נִדְרוֹ שֶׁנְּזִירוּת שִׁמְשׁוֹן לְעוֹלָם הָיְתָה:

15

When a person says: "Behold, I am like Samson," "...like Manoach's son," "...like Delilah's husband," "...like the one who uprooted the gates of Gaza," or "...like the one whose eyes were gouged out by the Philistines," he must keep the nazirite restrictions observed by Samson even though these deeds could have been performed by another person.30

טו

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי כְּשִׁמְשׁוֹן כְּבֶן מָנוֹחַ. כְּבַעַל דְּלִילָה. כְּמִי שֶׁעָקַר דַּלְתוֹת עַזָּה. כְּמִי שֶׁנִּקְּרוּ פְּלִשְׁתִּים אֶת עֵינָיו. הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר כִּנְזִירוּת שִׁמְשׁוֹן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ מַעֲשִׂים אֵלּוּ לְאִישׁ אַחֵר:

16

[The prophet] Samuel of Rama was a nazirite forever.31 Therefore one who says: "Behold, I am like Samuel of Rama," "...like Chanah's son," "...like Elkanah's son," "...like the one who hewed Agag at Gilgal," or the like, he is a nazirite forever. We do not say that perhaps his intent was to refer to another person who performed such deeds.32

טז

שְׁמוּאֵל הָרָמָתִי נְזִיר עוֹלָם הָיָה. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי כִּשְׁמוּאֵל הָרָמָתִי. כְּבֶן חַנָּה. כְּבֶן אֶלְקָנָה. כְּמִי שֶׁשִּׁסֵּף אֶת אֲגַג בַּגִּלְגָּל. וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. הֲרֵי זֶה נְזִיר עוֹלָם. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין שֶׁמָּא לְאִישׁ אַחֵר שֶׁמַּעֲשָׂיו כָּאֵלֶּה נִתְכַּוֵּן:

17

When a person says: "Behold, I am a nazirite as this building is full" or "...as this container is full," we investigate his [intent]. If he says: "My intent was not to be a nazirite for my entire life. [Instead,] my intent was only to prolong the days of my nazirite vow for a long time," he must observe his nazirite vow for [only] 30 days.33

If he said: "I made this vow without any specific intent,"34 we see the container as if it is filled with mustard seeds and he must be a nazirite for his entire life. He is permitted to cut his hair every twelve months. [At that time,] he must bring sacrifices like everyone who is a nazirite forever.35

יז

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר מְלֹא הַבַּיִת אוֹ מְלֹא הַקֻּפָּה. בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ אִם אָמַר לֹא הָיָה בְּדַּעְתִּי שֶׁאֶהֱיֶה נָזִיר כָּל יָמַי וְלֹא נִתְכַּוַּנְתִּי אֶלָּא לְהַאֲרִיךְ זְמַן הַנְּזִירוּת זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם בִּלְבַד. וְאִם אָמַר סְתָם נָדַרְתִּי רוֹאִים אֶת הַקֻּפָּה כְּאִלּוּ הִיא מְלֵאָה חַרְדָּל וְיִהְיֶה נָזִיר כָּל יָמָיו. וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְגַלֵּחַ מִשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ וְיָבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו כִּשְׁאָר נְזִירֵי עוֹלָם:

18

When a person says: "Behold, I am a nazirite like the hairs of my head," "...like the dust of the earth," or "like the sand of the sea," it is as if he said: "I will keep as many nazirite vows as I have hairs on my head," "...as there is dust on the earth," or "...as there is sand on the seashore." Therefore he must shave his hair36 every 30 days and begin observing a second nazirite vow for 30 days, cut his hair37 and [continue this pattern] until he dies.38 Whenever he shaves his hair, he is forbidden to drink wine or become impure because of contact with the dead.39 If he drinks [wine] or becomes impure, even on the day he shaves his head, he is worthy of lashes.

יח

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר כִּשְׂעַר רֹאשִׁי. אוֹ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ. אוֹ כְּחוֹל הַיָּם. הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי נְזִירוּת עָלַי כְּמִנְיַן שְׂעַר רֹאשִׁי אוֹ כְּמִנְיַן עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ אוֹ כְּמִנְיַן חוֹל הַיָּם. לְפִיכָךְ יְגַלֵּחַ כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וְיַתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת נְזִירוּת שְׁנִיָּה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וִיגַלֵּחַ וְכֵן עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת. וּבְכָל תִּגְלַחַת וְתִגְלַחַת אֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן וְלֹא מִטַּמֵּא לַמֵּתִים וְאִם שָׁתָה אוֹ נִטְמָא אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם הַתִּגְלַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה:

19

When a person says: "Behold, I am a nazirite if I eat this loaf of bread," "Behold, I am a nazirite if I eat it," and "Behold, I am a nazirite if I eat it,"40 if he eats it, he is obligated to observe as many nazirite vows as he took.41 He observes them consecutively, each one for 30 days. At the end of each 30 days, he shaves [his hair] and brings his sacrifices.

יט

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר אִם אֹכַל כִּכָּר זוֹ. הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר אִם אֹכָלֶנָּה. הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר אִם אֹכָלֶנָּה. וַאֲכָלָהּ. הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב בִּנְזִירוּת כַּמִּנְיָן שֶׁאָמַר וּמוֹנֶה אַחַת אַחַר אַחַת כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְגַלֵּחַ בְּסוֹף כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

Numbers 6:5 states that the nazir's hair "will be holy" קדוש יהיה. Nazir 5a notes that Yihiyeh יהיה is numerically equivalent to 30 and states that this is the span of an ordinary nazirite vow. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Nazir 1:3), the Rambam writes that the numerical equivalence is merely a support and that the concept was taught as as part of the Oral Tradition.

2.

And 30 days can be considered "an excessively long and protracted time."

3.

Hence if the time span he mentioned is less than 30 days, he is required to observe the vow for 30 days. When he says 30 days and an hour, the ruling is that since he mentioned more than 30 days, he is required to observe 31 days.

4.

Which is 30 days as explained above.

5.

For as above, there is no conception of observing a nazirite vow for a shorter time.

6.

I.e., he accepted the nazirite vow in the hope that its merit would arouse protective spiritual forces that would guard him over the course of the journey (Tosafot, Nazir 7a).

7.

I.e., he is not considered a nazirite for life as mentioned in Halachah 12.

8.

Hilchot Nedarim 9:1.

9.

Each one being 30 days. Since he spoke of nazirite vows, we understand that his intent was to observe more than one nazirite vow. Since there is no concept of observing half a nazirite vow, we require him to observe two.

10.

Each of the extra statements is considered as adding a nazirite vow.

11.

For it is not clear that he wanted to observe two nazirite vows. The commentaries note that there is slight difficulty with the Rambam's statement based on the text of Nazir 7b. Nevertheless, they offer several possible resolutions to the issue.

12.

The person himself denies taking any nazirite vows or says that he forgot about the matter (Nazir 20a and commentaries).

13.

I.e., there is no disagreement regarding that, so he is obligated to observe the two nazirite vows.

14.

In which instance he is obligated to observe a nazirite vow for an entire month (Halachah 2).

15.

See Chapter 8, Halachah 2.

16.

In this context, this statement means that as long as the first vow is being observed, the days cannot be reckoned as part of the observance of the second vow. Implied is that if they are not considered as part of the observance of the first vow, they can be considered as part of the observance of the second.

17.

See Hilchot Sh'vuot 6:17-18 which explains that a sages' absolution of a vow causes it to be considered as if it was never made.

18.

The differences between these two categories are discussed in the following halachah.

The Ra'avad notes that the Rambam's ruling appears to be based on the Tosefta and the Jerusalem Talmud (Nazir 1:4). The Babylonian Talmud (Nazir 8b) appears to differ, but the version of that text seems distorted.

19.

He should not, however, shave his head entirely.

20.

As is required when one completes a nazirite vow in purity. See Chapter 8, Halachah 1.

21.

Even though the concept is reinforced by a verse, were the Oral Tradition not to have conveyed this idea, the verse could have been interpreted otherwise (Kessef Mishneh).

22.

Although the angel gave instructions (Judges 13:5): "The youth shall be a nazirite unto God," Samson never took a nazirite vow himself, nor did his father administer one to him. See Likkutei Sichot, Vol. XVIII, pp. 68-70, which compares this situation to one in which a Jewish court converts a gentile child. When the child comes of age, if he does not protest, the conversion is binding upon him. Similarly, since Samson - and Samuel - did not protest, the nazirite restrictions conveyed from above became binding upon them.

24.

As Judges 16:17 states: "A razor has never been brought up against my head, for I am a nazirite unto God from my mother's womb."

25.

Hence he was not forbidden to come in contact with the corpses of the Philistines whom he killed (Nazir 4b).

26.

For Samson was not allowed to cut his hair at all, as indicated by the verse cited above.

27.

This is permitted even as an initial and preferred option [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Nazir 1:2).

28.

See Hilchot Nedarim 2:12 which explains that a person is given the option of explaining his intent with regard to a vow that he took. See the glosses of the Kessef Mishneh and the Radbaz to the following halachah which discuss in detail whether this rule applies when it seems obvious that the person's intent was to take a vow to be a nazirite like Samson was.

29.

Since Samson's nazirite vow was imposed upon him by an angel at God's command, it could not be absolved as other vows taken because of man's desires (Rashi, Makkot 22a).

30.

This applies if the person making the vow remains silent. If, however, he specifically states that his intent was another person, his word is accepted as stated in the previous halachah (Radbaz).

31.

Nazir 66a derives this concept through the principles of Biblical exegesis.

32.

This applies if the person making the vow remains silent. If, however, he specifically states that his intent was another person, his word is accepted as stated in the previous halachah (Radbaz).

33.

See Halachah 1.

34.

I.e., with the intent that my words be interpreted by the sages according to their principles.

35.

For he did not specify a time at which point his vow is concluded. See Halachah 12.

36.

And bring the required sacrifices.

37.

And bring the required sacrifices.

38.

For there are more hairs on one's head than 30 day periods in a person's life.

39.

Because the second nazirite vow begins as soon as the first one is concluded.

40.

I.e., he makes three successive vows concerning the same loaf of bread.

41.

I.e., this teaches that a nazirite vow can become binding even though one is already obligated to observe an existing vow.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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