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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Nachalot - Chapter 9, Nachalot - Chapter 10, Nachalot - Chapter 11

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Nachalot - Chapter 9

1

When brothers have not yet divided the inheritance they received from their father, but instead all use the estate together, they are considered partners with regard to all matters. Similarly, all the other heirs are considered partners with regard to the estate of the person they inherited. Whenever any of them does business with the resources of this estate, the profits are split equally.

א

הָאַחִין שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא חָלְקוּ יְרֻשַּׁת אֲבִיהֶן אֶלָּא כֻּלָּן מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בְּיַחַד בְּמַה שֶּׁהִנִּיחַ לָהֶן הֲרֵי הֵן כְּשֻׁתָּפִין לְכָל דָּבָר. וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר הַיּוֹרְשִׁין הֲרֵי הֵן שֻׁתָּפִין בְּנִכְסֵי מוֹרִישָׁן. וְכָל שֶׁנָּשָׂא וְנָתַן כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּמָמוֹן זֶה הַשָּׂכָר לָאֶמְצַע:

2

When there were heirs above majority and others below majority, and those above majority improved the estate, the increment is split equally. If they said: "See the estate that our father left us. We will work it and benefit from the increase," the persons who brought about the increase are entitled to it. This applies provided the increase comes about because of the expenses undertaken by those persons. If the value of the estate increased on its own accord, that increase is shared equally.

ב

הָיוּ הַיּוֹרְשִׁין גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים וְהִשְׁבִּיחוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים אֶת הַנְּכָסִים הִשְׁבִּיחוּ לָאֶמְצַע. אָמְרוּ רְאוּ מַה שֶּׁהִנִּיחַ לָנוּ אַבָּא וַהֲרֵי אָנוּ עוֹשִׂין וְאוֹכְלִין. הַשֶּׁבַח שֶׁל מַשְׁבִּיחַ. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַשֶּׁבַח מֵחֲמַת הוֹצָאָה שֶׁהוֹצִיא הַמַּשְׁבִּיחַ. אֲבָל שָׁבְחוּ נְכָסִים מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָן הַשֶּׁבַח לָאֶמְצַע:

3

Similar laws apply if the wife of the deceased was also his relative and had a right to inherit the estate together with her sisters or her cousins. If she increased the value of the estate, the increase is shared equally. If she said: "See the estate that my husband left me. I will work it and benefit from the increase," should she increase the value of the estate through investments she made, the increase belongs to her.

ג

וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל מֵת הִיא הַיּוֹרֶשֶׁת בִּכְלַל אַחְיוֹתֶיהָ אוֹ בִּכְלַל בְּנוֹת דּוֹדֶיהָ וְהִשְׁבִּיחָה הַנְּכָסִים הַשֶּׁבַח לָאֶמְצַע. וְאִם אָמְרָה רְאוּ מַה שֶּׁהִנִּיחַ לִי בַּעְלִי וַהֲרֵינִי עוֹשָׂה וְאוֹכֶלֶת הִשְׁבִּיחַ הַנְּכָסִים מֵחֲמַת הוֹצָאָה הֲרֵי הַשֶּׁבַח שֶׁלָּהּ:

4

The following rules apply when a person inherits his father's estate, improves its value by planting trees and building structures, and afterwards he discovers that he has brothers in another country. If they are minors, the increase in value is divided equally. If they are above majority, since he did not know that he had brothers, he is given a portion as if he was a sharecropper."

Similarly, if a brother took possession of property belonging to a minor and improved it, he is not given a portion as if he were a sharecropper. Instead, the increase of the entire estate is divided equally, because he did not have permission to make use of the property.

ד

מִי שֶׁיָּרַשׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְהִשְׁבִּיחַ הַנְּכָסִים וְנָטַע וּבָנָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹדַע שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אַחִין בִּמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת. אִם קְטַנִּים הֵן הַשֶּׁבַח לָאֶמְצַע וְאִם הָיוּ גְּדוֹלִים הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נוֹדַע שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אַחִין שָׁמִין לוֹ כְּאָרִיס. וְכֵן אָח שֶׁיָּרַד לְנִכְסֵי קָטָן וְהִשְׁבִּיחַ אֵין שָׁמִין לוֹ כְּאָרִיס. אֶלָּא הַשֶּׁבַח לָאֶמְצַע שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא בִּרְשׁוּת יָרַד:

5

The following rule applies when one of the brothers took money from the inheritance and engaged in commerce with it. If he is a great Torah scholar who ordinarily does not abandon his Torah study for one moment, the profits are given to him. For he would not abandon his Torah studies to engage in commerce for the sake of his brothers.

ה

אֶחָד מִן הָאַחִין שֶׁלָּקַח מָעוֹת וְעָשָׂה בָּהֶן סְחוֹרָה אִם הָיָה תַּלְמִיד חָכָם גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַנִּיחַ תּוֹרָתוֹ שָׁעָה אַחַת. הֲרֵי הַשָּׂכָר שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁאֵין זֶה מַנִּיחַ תּוֹרָתוֹ וּמִתְעַסֵּק לְצֹרֶךְ אֶחָיו:

6

The following laws apply when a king appoints one of the brothers who share in the father's estate as a tax collector, an accountant who supervises the influx and efflux of the king's monies, or to another one of the positions in the king's service. If the son was appointed for his father's sake - i.e., his father was renowned for this skill, and the king said: "Let us appoint his son in his stead in order to act graciously to the orphans," the portion that the son who receives the appointment receives and any wages he earns in this task should be shared among all the brothers. This ruling applies even if that son is very wise and fit to be appointed on his own merit. If the king appointed him on his own merit, his wages are his alone.

ו

אֶחָד מִן הָאַחִין שֶׁמִּנָּהוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ גַּבַּאי אוֹ סוֹפֵר שֶׁמַּכְנִיס וּמוֹצִיא בְּמָמוֹן הַמֶּלֶךְ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה מֵעֲבוֹדַת הַמְּלָכִים. אִם מֵחֲמַת אֲבִיהֶן מִנָּהוּ כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה אֲבִיהֶן יָדוּעַ בְּדָבָר זֶה וְאָמַר נַעֲמִיד תַּחְתָּיו בְּנוֹ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת חֶסֶד עִם הַיְתוֹמִים. הַפְּרָס שֶׁיִּטּל וְכָל הַשָּׂכָר שֶׁיִּשְׂתַּכֵּר בַּעֲבוֹדָה לְכָל הָאַחִין. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה חָכָם בְּיוֹתֵר וְרָאוּי לְמַנּוֹתוֹ. וְאִם מֵחֲמַת עַצְמוֹ מִנּוּהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה לְעַצְמוֹ:

7

The following laws apply when one of the brothers was carrying out transactions on behalf of the household and purchased servants as his own individual property, or lent money to others and had the promissory note written to him alone. If he says: "The money that I lent or with which I purchased the servants is my own. It came to me as an inheritance from my maternal grandfather, I found an ownerless object, or a present was given to me," he is required to verify the authenticity of his statements.

Similar laws apply when a married woman was carrying out transactions on behalf of the household and deeds of purchase of servants and promissory notes were composed in her own name. If she says: "The money belonged to me. I received it as an inheritance from my father's family," she is required to verify the authenticity of her statements. Similar laws apply when a widow was carrying out transactions with funds belonging to orphans, and deeds of purchase and promissory notes were circulated in her personal name. If she claimed them as her own, saying: "It came to me as an inheritance, I found an ownerless object, or a present was given to me," she is required to verify the authenticity of her statements.

If she said: "I took them from the resources of my dowry," her word is accepted. If, however, she does not have a dowry, or in the situation described in the previous clauses, she did not bring proof of her statement, everything is assumed to be owned by the heirs.

ז

אֶחָד מִן הָאַחִין שֶׁהָיָה נוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְקָנָה עֲבָדִים בִּשְׁמוֹ לְבַדּוֹ. הִלְוָה לַאֲחֵרִים וְהָיָה שְׁטַר הַחוֹב בִּשְׁמוֹ לְבַדּוֹ. וְאָמַר מָעוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהִלְוֵיתִי אוֹ שֶׁקָּנִיתִי בָּהֶן עֲבָדִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁלִּי לְבַדִּי הֵן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לִי מִבֵּית אָבִי אִמִּי. אוֹ מְצִיאָה מָצָאתִי אוֹ מַתָּנָה נִתְּנָה לִי. עָלָיו לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לוֹ יְרֻשָּׁה אַחֶרֶת אוֹ מָצָא מְצִיאָה אוֹ זָכָה בְּמַתָּנָה. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהָיְתָה נוֹשֵׂאת וְנוֹתֶנֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְהָיוּ אוֹנוֹת שֶׁהֵן שִׁטְרֵי מִמְכַּר עֲבָדִים וְשִׁטְרֵי חוֹבוֹת יוֹצְאוֹת עַל שְׁמָהּ. וְאָמְרָה שֶׁלִּי הֵן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לִי מִבֵּית אֲבוֹתַי. עָלֶיהָ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לָהּ לִירֻשָּׁה. וְכֵן אַלְמָנָה שֶׁהָיְתָה נוֹשֵׂאת וְנוֹתֶנֶת בְּנִכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים וְהָיוּ אוֹנוֹת וּשְׁטָרוֹת יוֹצְאוֹת עַל שְׁמָהּ וְאָמְרָה מִירֻשָּׁה נָפְלוּ לִי אוֹ מְצִיאָה מָצָאתִי אוֹ מַתָּנָה נִתְּנָה לִי. עָלֶיהָ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה. וְאִם יֵשׁ לָהּ נְדוּנְיָא וְאָמְרָה מִנְּדוּנְיָתִי לָקַחְתִּי נֶאֱמֶנֶת אֲבָל אִם אֵין לָהּ נְדוּנְיָא וְלֹא הֵבִיאָה רְאָיָה הֲרֵי הַכּל בְּחֶזְקַת הַיּוֹרְשִׁין:

8

When does the above apply? When the brothers or the widow do not eat separately. When, however, they eat separately, we suspect that they saved from their food allowance. Hence, the other brothers must prove that the money was taken from the estate. Similarly, if the brother who was managing the funds died, the other brothers are required to bring proof that the money was taken from the estate, even though they did not eat separately.

ח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּאַחִים וּבְאַלְמָנָה שֶׁאֵין חֲלוּקִין בְּעִסָּתָן. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ חֲלוּקִין בְּעִסָּתָן שֶׁמָּא מֵעִסָּתוֹ קָמַץ וְעַל הָאַחִין לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהֵן מִשֶּׁל אֶמְצַע. וְכֵן אִם מֵת זֶה הַנּוֹתֵן וְהַנּוֹשֵׂא בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת עַל הָאַחִין לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ חֲלוּקִין בְּעִסָּתָן:

9

The following laws apply when one of the brothers is in possession of a promissory note owed to his father. He is obligated to bring proof that his father gave him the note, signing and transferring a document attesting to the fact that the note was given as a gift, or that, at the time of his death, the father commanded that it be given to that brother. If the brother in possession does not bring proof of this nature, the note must be shared equally as part of the estate.

ט

אֶחָד מִן הָאַחִין שֶׁשְּׁטַר חוֹב יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ עָלָיו לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁאָבִיו נְתָנוֹ לוֹ בִּכְתִיבָה וּמְסִירָה. אוֹ שֶׁצִּוָּה לוֹ בּוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא שְׁכִיב מֵרַע. וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיא רְאָיָה הֲרֵי הוּא לָאֶמְצַע:

10

When does the above apply? With regard to brothers, because the prevailing assumption is that they take from each other. When, however, a promissory note is in the possession of another person who claims that the creditor gave it to him or that he purchased it from him, he may collect the debt. He is not required to bring proof of his claim.

י

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּאַחִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן שׁוֹמְטִין זֶה מִזֶּה. אֲבָל אַחֵר שֶׁטָּעַן שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ אוֹ שֶׁקָּנָהוּ מִבְּעָלָיו גּוֹבֶה בּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה:

11

If one of the brothers took 200 zuz from his share of the estate to study Torah or to study a profession, the other brothers may tell him: "If you do not live together with us, we will not give you a food allocation beyond what it would cost were you living with us." For the food expenses incurred by an individual living alone are much higher than they would be were he to live with others.

יא

אֶחָד מִן הָאַחִין שֶׁנָּטַל מָאתַיִם זוּז לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה אוֹ לִלְמֹד אֻמָּנוּת יְכוֹלִין הָאַחִין לוֹמַר לוֹ אִם אֵין אַתָּה אֶצְלֵנוּ אֵין לְךָ מְזוֹנוֹת אֶלָּא לְפִי בִּרְכַּת הַבַּיִת. שֶׁאֵין הוֹצָאַת מְזוֹנוֹת הָאֶחָד לְבַדּוֹ כְּהוֹצָאַת מְזוֹנוֹתָיו בֵּין רַבִּים:

12

When a person died, leaving sons past majority and under majority, the older sons cannot be required to receive only what is allocated for the younger sons' living expenses. Nor may younger sons be required to receive only what is allocated for the older sons' food expenses. Instead, the estate should be divided equally.

If the older brothers married after their father's death using the funds of the estate, the younger brothers may marry using the funds of the estate, and then divide it. If the older brothers married during their father's lifetime, we do not heed the requests of the younger brothers who say: "Let us marry using the funds of the estate, as you married." Instead, whatever the father gave the older brothers is considered as a present.

יב

מִי שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ בָּנִים גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים אֵין הַגְּדוֹלִים מִתְפַּרְנְסִים פַּרְנָסַת הַקְּטַנִּים וְלֹא הַקְּטַנִּים נִזּוֹנִים מְזוֹנוֹת הַגְּדוֹלִים אֶלָּא חוֹלְקִים בְּשָׁוֶה. נִשְּׂאוּ גְּדוֹלִים לְאַחַר מִיתַת אֲבִיהֶן יִשְׂאוּ הַקְּטַנִּים כֵּן מִכְּלַל הַנְּכָסִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַחֲלֹקוּ. נִשְּׂאוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים בְּחַיֵּי אֲבִיהֶן וְאָמְרוּ הַקְּטַנִּים לְאַחַר מִיתַת אֲבִיהֶן הֲרֵי אָנוּ נוֹשְׂאִין כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנְּשָׂאתֶם אַתֶּם. אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לָהֶן אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁנָּתַן לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם נָתַן:

13

The following laws apply when a father married off one of his sons and made a feast for him, paying for the expenses himself. If a wedding gift was sent to this son during the father's lifetime, should the wedding gift have to be repaid after the father's death, it should be repaid by the estate as a whole. If, however, the brother paid for the expenses of the wedding feast from his own resources, the brother who received the gift must repay it from his portion alone.

יג

הִשִּׂיא הָאָב אֶת בְּנוֹ וְעָשָׂה לוֹ מִשְׁתֶּה וְהָיְתָה הַהוֹצָאָה מִשֶּׁל אָב וְנִשְׁתַּלְּחָה שׁוֹשְׁבִינוּת לְזֶה הַבֵּן בְּחַיֵּי הָאָב. כְּשֶׁהִיא חוֹזֶרֶת לְאַחַר מִיתַת הָאָב חוֹזֶרֶת לָאֶמְצַע. אֲבָל הוֹצִיא הַבֵּן בַּמִּשְׁתֶּה מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אֵינָהּ חוֹזֶרֶת אֶלָּא מֵחֵלֶק הַבֵּן שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּלְּחָה לוֹ בִּלְבַד:

14

When the father sent a wedding gift to a friend in the name of one of his sons, when that wedding gift is repaid to that son, it is his alone. If, however, the father sent the wedding gift in the name of his sons without making any specification, when it is repaid, it should be repaid to the estate as a whole.

The person to whom the wedding gift was sent is not required to return it unless all the brothers rejoice together with him, for they are all members of the wedding party and the gift was sent in all of their names. Therefore, if he rejoiced with only several of them, he need return only the portion appropriate for those with whom he rejoiced. The money he repays is shared by the estate as a whole.

יד

הָאָב שֶׁשָּׁלַח שׁוֹשְׁבִינוּת בְּשֵׁם אֶחָד מִבָּנָיו כְּשֶׁתַּחְזֹר הַשּׁוֹשְׁבִינוּת לְאוֹתוֹ הַבֵּן הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם שְׁלָחָהּ הָאָב בְּשֵׁם בָּנָיו סְתָם כְּשֶׁתַּחְזֹר תַּחְזֹר לָאֶמְצַע. וְאֵין זֶה שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּלְּחָה לוֹ חַיָּב לְהַחְזִירָהּ עַד שֶׁיִּשְׂמְחוּ עִמּוֹ הַבָּנִים כֻּלָּן. שֶׁהֲרֵי כֻּלָּן שׁוֹשְׁבִינִין שֶׁבְּשֵׁם כֻּלָּן נִשְׁתַּלְּחָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם שָׂמֵחַ בְּמִקְצָתָן מַחְזִיר חֵלֶק זֶה שֶׁשָּׂמַח עִמּוֹ בִּלְבַד וַהֲרֵי הוּא לָאֶמְצַע:

15

When the oldest of the brothers dresses and garbs himself in fine raiment, he may purchase these garments from the funds of the estate if this brings his brothers benefit, i.e., because of his fine clothing, his words are heeded by other people.

טו

גְּדוֹל הָאַחִין שֶׁהָיָה לוֹבֵשׁ וּמִתְכַּסֶּה מַלְבּוּשִׁין נָאִים אִם יֵשׁ לָאַחִים הֲנָאָה מִמֶּנּוּ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ דְּבָרָיו נִשְׁמָעִין הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹבֵשׁ מִתְּפִיסַת הַבַּיִת:

Nachalot - Chapter 10

1

When two brothers divided an estate and then a third brother came from overseas, or when three brothers divided an estate and then a creditor came and expropriated the portion of one of them, the division is nullified. They should return and divide the remainder equally. This applies even if originally one brother took land and the other cash.

א

שְׁנֵּי אַחִים שֶׁחָלְקוּ וּבָא לָהֶן אָח מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם. וְכֵן שְׁלֹשָׁה אַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ וּבָא בַּעַל חוֹב וְנָטַל חֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶן. אֲפִלּוּ נָטַל זֶה קַרְקַע וְזֶה כְּסָפִים בָּטְלָה מַחְלֹקֶת וְחוֹזְרִין וְחוֹלְקִין הַשְּׁאָר בְּשָׁוֶה:

2

When, before his death, a person commanded that so-and-so be given a palm tree or a field from his property, but the brothers divided the estate without giving that person anything, their division is negated. What should they do? The entity concerning which the deceased commanded should be given to that person, and then they should divide the estate anew.

ב

מִי שֶׁצִּוָּה בִּשְׁעַת מִיתָתוֹ שֶׁיִּתְּנוּ לִפְלוֹנִי דֶּקֶל אוֹ שָׂדֶה מִנְּכָסָיו וְחָלְקוּ הָאַחִין וְלֹא נָתְנוּ לִפְלוֹנִי כְּלוּם. הֲרֵי הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת בְּטֵלָה. וְכֵיצַד עוֹשִׂין. נוֹתְנִין מַה שֶּׁצִּוָּה מוֹרִישָׁן וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹזְרִין וְחוֹלְקִין כַּתְּחִלָּה:

3

When brothers divide an estate, we evaluate the clothes they are wearing. We do not evaluate the clothes that their sons and daughters are wearing that they purchased with the funds of the estate. Similarly, the clothes that their wives are wearing are considered as if they have already been acquired by them.

When does the above apply? With regard to weekday garments. With regard to Sabbath and festival garments, we evaluate what the women and children are wearing.

ג

הָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ שָׁמִין לָהֶן מַה שֶּׁעֲלֵיהֶן. אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁעַל בְּנֵיהֶן וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁקָּנוּ לָהֶן מִתְּפִיסַת הַבַּיִת אֵין שָׁמִין. וְכֵן מַה שֶּׁעַל נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן. שֶׁכְּבָר זָכוּ בָּהֶן לְעַצְמָן. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּבִגְדֵי חֹל. אֲבָל בְּבִגְדֵי שַׁבָּת וּמוֹעֵד שָׁמִין מַה שֶּׁעֲלֵיהֶן:

4

The following law applies when a person died leaving some orphans who are past majority, and others who are below majority. If they desired to divide their father's estate so that the older brothers could receive their portion, the court appoints a guardian for the minors and chooses a good portion for them. Once they come of age, they may not protest the division, because it was made by the court. If, however, the court erred in its evaluation of the estate's worth and reduced their portion by a sixth, they may issue a protest. In that instance, a new division is made after they come of age.

ד

מִי שֶׁהִנִּיחַ יְתוֹמִים מִקְצָתָן גְּדוֹלִים וּמִקְצָתָן קְטַנִּים וְרָצוּ לַחְלֹק בְּנִכְסֵי אֲבִיהֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטְּלוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים חֶלְקָן. מַעֲמִידִין בֵּית דִּין אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס לַקְּטַנִּים וּבוֹרֵר לָהֶן הַחֵלֶק הַיָּפֶה. וְאִם הִגְדִּילוּ אֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לִמְחוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי עַל פִּי בֵּית דִּין חָלְקוּ לָהֶם. וְאִם טָעוּ בֵּית דִּין בַּשּׁוּמָא וּפָחֲתוּ שְׁתוּת. יְכוֹלִין לִמְחוֹת וְחוֹלְקִין חֲלוּקָה אַחֶרֶת אַחַר שֶׁהִגְדִּילוּ:

5

When a person dies, leaving some orphans who are past majority and others who are below majority, he must appoint a guardian before his death, who will care for the portion of the minors until they come of age." If the father does not appoint such a guardian, the court is obligated to appoint a guardian for them until they come of age. For the court acts as the parents of the orphans.

ה

מִי שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ יוֹרְשִׁין גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים צָרִיךְ לִמְנוֹת אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִתְעַסֵּק בְּחֵלֶק הַקָּטָן עַד שֶׁיַּגְדִּיל. וְאִם לֹא מִנָּה חַיָּבִין בֵּית דִּין לְהַעֲמִיד לָהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס עַד שֶׁיַּגְדִּילוּ. שֶׁבֵּית דִּין הוּא אֲבִיהֶן שֶׁל יְתוֹמִים:

6

If the dying person ordered: "Give the minor's portion of my estate to him. Let him do whatever he wants with it," he has the license to deal with his own estate in this manner."

Similarly, if the dying person appointed a minor, a woman or a servant as the guardian for the minors, he has the license to deal with his own estate in this manner. A court, by contrast, should not appoint a woman, a servant, a minor or an unlearned person who is suspect to violate the Torah's prohibitions' as a guardian.

Instead, they should seek out a faithful and courageous person who knows how to advance the claims of the orphans and bring arguments on their behalf, one who is capable with regard to worldly matters to protect their property and secure a profit for them. Such a person is appointed a guardian over the minors whether or not he is related to them. If he is a relative, however, he should not take control of the landed property.

ו

צִוָּה הַמּוֹרִישׁ וְאָמַר יִנָּתֵן חֵלֶק הַקָּטָן לַקָּטָן וּמַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה יַעֲשֶׂה בָּהּ הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ. וְכֵן אִם מִנָּה הַמּוֹרִישׁ אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס עַל הַקְּטַנִּים קָטָן אוֹ אִשָּׁה אוֹ עֶבֶד הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ. אֲבָל אֵין בֵּית דִּין מְמַנִּין אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס לֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא עֶבֶד וְלֹא קָטָן וְלֹא עַם הָאָרֶץ. שֶׁהוּא בְּחֶזְקַת חָשׁוּד עַל הָעֲבֵרוֹת. אֶלָּא בּוֹדְקִין עַל אָדָם נֶאֱמָן וְאִישׁ חַיִל וְיוֹדֵעַ לְהַפֵּךְ בִּזְכוּת הַיְתוֹמִים וְטוֹעֵן טַעֲנָתָם וְשֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ כֹּחַ בְּעִסְקֵי הָעוֹלָם כְּדֵי לִשְׁמֹר נְכָסִים וּלְהַרְוִיחַ בָּהֶן וּמַעֲמִידִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הַקְּטַנִּים. בֵּין שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רָחוֹק בֵּין שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קָרוֹב לַקָּטָן. אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם הָיָה קָרוֹב לֹא יֵרֵד לַקַּרְקָעוֹת:

7

When the court appointed a guardian and afterwards heard that he was eating, drinking and making other expenses beyond what he could be expected to, they should suspect that he is using the resources of the orphans. They should remove him from his position and appoint someone else.

If, however, the guardian was appointed by the orphan's father, he should not be removed in such a situation; it is possible that he found an ownerless article. If, however, witnesses come and testify that he is ruining the orphans' estate, he is removed from his position.The Geonim agreed that he should be required to take an oath in such a situation, for he is causing the orphans a loss.

Similarly, when a guardian was appointed by the orphans' father who had a praiseworthy reputation, was known to be upright and to pursue the mitzvot, and he became a glutton and a drunkard and began following paths that arouse suspicion, or became reckless with regard to vows and the shade of theft, the court is required to remove him from his position and require him to take an oath. Afterwards, they appoint an appropriate guardian. These matters are dependent on the perception of the local judge. For each and every court must act as the parents of the orphans.

ז

בֵּית דִּין שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוּ אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס וְשָׁמְעוּ עָלָיו שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה וּמוֹצִיא הוֹצָאוֹת יֶתֶר מִדָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה אָמוּד בּוֹ יֵשׁ לָהֶן לָחוּשׁ לוֹ שֶׁמָּא מִנִּכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים הוּא אוֹכֵל וּמְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ וּמַעֲמִידִין אַחֵר. אֲבָל אִם מִנָּהוּ אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים אֵין מְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁמָּא מְצִיאָה מָצָא. אֲבָל אִם בָּאוּ עֵדִים שֶׁהוּא מַפְסִיד נִכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים מְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ. וּכְבָר הִסְכִּימוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים שֶׁמַּשְׁבִּיעִין אוֹתוֹ הוֹאִיל וּמַפְסִיד. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְאַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס שֶׁמִּנָּהוּ אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים וְהָיְתָה שְׁמוּעָתוֹ טוֹבָה וְהָיָה יָשָׁר וְרוֹדֵף מִצְוֹת וְחָזַר לִהְיוֹת זוֹלֵל וְסוֹבֵא וְהוֹלֵךְ בְּדַרְכֵי הַחֲשָׁד אוֹ שֶׁפָּרַץ בִּנְדָרִים וּבַאֲבַק גֵּזֶל בֵּית דִּין חַיָּבִים לְסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ וּלְהַשְׁבִּיעוֹ. וּלְמַנּוֹת לָהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס כָּשֵׁר. וְכָל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁיֵּרָאֶה לַדַּיָּן שֶׁכָּל בֵּית דִּין וּבֵית דִּין הוּא אֲבִיהֶן שֶׁל יְתוֹמִים:

8

When a minor attains majority, even if he eats and drinks excessively, ruins his estate and follows an undesirable path, the court does not withhold his property from him, nor does it appoint a guardian, unless his father or the person whose property he inherited ordered that the property not be given to him unless he conducts himself uprightly and successfully, or that it not be given to him until later.

A person who is mentally or emotionally unstable or a deaf-mute are considered as minors, and a guardian should be appointed for them.

ח

קָטָן שֶׁהִגְדִּיל אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי וּמַפְסִיד וְהוֹלֵךְ בְּדֶרֶךְ רָעָה אֵין בֵּית דִּין מוֹנְעִין מִמֶּנּוּ מָמוֹנוֹ וְאֵין מַעֲמִידִין לוֹ אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן צִוָּה אָבִיו אוֹ מוֹרִישׁוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְּנוּ לוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִהְיֶה כָּשֵׁר וּמַצְלִיחַ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְּנוּ לוֹ עַד זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה. וְהַשּׁוֹטֶה וְהַחֵרֵשׁ הֲרֵי הֵן כִּקְטַנִּים וּמַעֲמִידִין לָהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס:

Nachalot - Chapter 11

1

Money belonging to orphans that was left to them by their father does not require a guardian. What, instead, is done with it?

We search for a person who owns property that can be expropriated by a creditor and that is of high quality. This person should be trustworthy, one who heeds the laws of the Torah, and who was never placed under a ban of ostracism. He is given the money in the presence of the court to invest in a manner that will most likely lead to a profit and will not likely lead to loss. Thus, the orphans will derive benefit from the investment of the money.

Similarly, if such a person does not have landed property, he should give bars of gold that do not have any identifying marks as security. The court takes the security and gives him the money to invest in a manner that will most likely lead to a profit and will not likely lead to loss.

Why does he not give golden utensils or golden jewelry as security? For perhaps these articles belong to another person. We fear that in the event of the investor's death, that other person will claim these articles by identifying them with signs. They will then be given to him if the judge knows that the investor was unlikely to possess such articles.

How much should be given to the orphans as profit? As the judges determine, a third of the profits, half of them, or even a fourth of them; if the judges ascertain that this is in the best interests of the orphans, such an arrangement is followed.

If the court cannot find a person to give the money to invest in a manner that will not likely lead to loss and will most likely lead to a profit, they should use a small amount of the money to provide the orphans with their livelihood until they use the money to purchase land that they entrust to a guardian whom they appoint.

א

מָעוֹת שֶׁל יְתוֹמִים שֶׁהִנִּיחַ לָהֶן אֲבִיהֶן אֵינָן צְרִיכִין אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס. אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן. בּוֹדְקִין עַל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת וְיִהְיוּ עִדִּית וְיִהְיֶה אִישׁ נֶאֱמָן וְשׁוֹמֵעַ דִּינֵי תּוֹרָה וּמֵעוֹלָם לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו נִדּוּי. וְנוֹתְנִין לוֹ הַמָּעוֹת בְּבֵית דִּין קָרוֹב לְשָׂכָר וְרָחוֹק לְהֶפְסֵד וְנִמְצְאוּ הַיְתוֹמִים נֶהֱנִין מִשְּׂכַר הַמָּעוֹת. וְכֵן אִם אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע יִנָּתֵן לָהֶן מַשְׁכּוֹן זָהָב שָׁבוּר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סִימָן וְנוֹטְלִין בֵּית דִּין הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן וְנוֹתְנִין לוֹ הַמָּעוֹת קָרוֹב לְשָׂכָר וְרָחוֹק לְהֶפְסֵד. וְלָמָּה לֹא יִקְחוּ מַשְׁכּוֹן כֵּלִים שֶׁל זָהָב אוֹ חֲלִי שֶׁל זָהָב. שֶׁמָּא שֶׁל אֲחֵרִים הוּא וְיִתְּנוּ סִימָן וְיִטְּלוּהוּ אַחַר מוֹתוֹ אִם יֵדַע הַדַּיָּן שֶׁאֵין זֶה אָמוּד. וְכַמָּה יִפְסְקוּ בְּשָׂכָר. כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁיִּרְאוּ הַדַּיָּנִין. אוֹ שְׁלִישׁ הַשָּׂכָר אוֹ חֶצְיוֹ אֲפִלּוּ רְבִיעַ הַשָּׂכָר לַיְתוֹמִים אִם רָאוּ שֶׁזּוֹ תַּקָּנָה לָהֶם עוֹשִׂין. לֹא מָצְאוּ אָדָם שֶׁיִּתְּנוּ לוֹ הַמָּעוֹת רָחוֹק לְהֶפְסֵד וְקָרוֹב לְשָׂכָר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוֹצִיאִין מֵהֶן מְזוֹנוֹת מְעַט. עַד שֶׁיִּקְנוּ לָהֶן בַּמָּעוֹת קַרְקַע וְיִמְסְרוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּיַד אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס שֶׁיַּעֲמִידוּ לָהֶן:

2

Movable property inherited by orphans should be evaluated and sold in the presence of a court. If the marketplace is close to their city of residence, we have the articles brought to the marketplace. They are sold and the proceeds added to the financial resources of the orphans."

ב

כָּל הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁל יְתוֹמִים שָׁמִין אוֹתָן וּמוֹכְרִין אוֹתָן בְּבֵית דִּין. וְאִם הָיָה הַשּׁוּק קָרוֹב לַמְּדִינָה. מוֹלִיכִין אוֹתָן לַשּׁוּק וּמוֹכְרִין אוֹתָן וְיִצְטָרְפוּ דְּמֵיהֶן עִם הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁל יְתוֹמִים:

3

The following principle applies when a person possesses beer belonging to orphans and he is beset by a quandary: If he leaves it in its place until it is sold it might sour, and if he brings it to the marketplace it might become lost because of factors beyond his control. Our Sages ruled that he should do as he would do with his own beer. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ג

מִי שֶׁהָיָה בְּיָדוֹ שָׂכָר שֶׁל יְתוֹמִים אִם יַנִּיחוֹ כָּאן עַד שֶׁיִּמָּכֵר שֶׁמָּא יַחְמִיץ. וְאִם יוֹלִיכוֹ לַשּׁוּק שֶׁמָּא יֶאֶרְעוֹ אֹנֶס בַּדֶּרֶךְ. הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה בּוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשֶׁלּוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

4

When the court appoints a guardian, he is given all the property of the minor: the landed property and the movable property that was not sold. He sells and purchases whatever he determines is necessary; he builds and he destroys; he rents, plants, sows and does whatever he thinks is in the best interests of the orphans. He should provide them with food and drink and provide them with their expenses according to their financial capacity and their social standing. He should not be overly generous with them, nor should he be overly parsimonious.

ד

כְּשֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין בֵּית דִּין לָהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס מוֹסְרִין לוֹ כָּל נִכְסֵי הַקָּטָן הַקַּרְקַע וְהַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁלֹּא נִמְכְּרוּ. וְהוּא מוֹצִיא וּמַכְנִיס וּבוֹנֶה וְסוֹתֵר וְשׁוֹבֵר וְנוֹטֵעַ וְזוֹרֵעַ וְעוֹשֶׂה כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁיִּרְאֶה שֶׁזֶּה טוֹב לַיְתוֹמִים וּמַאֲכִילָן וּמַשְׁקָן וְנוֹתֵן לָהֶן כָּל הַהוֹצָאָה כְּפִי הַמָּמוֹן וּכְפִי הָרָאוּי לָהֶן וְלֹא יַרְוִיחוּ לָהֶן יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי וְלֹא יְצַמְצֵם עֲלֵיהֶם יֶתֶר מִדַּאי:

5

When the orphans come of age, the guardian should give them the property of the person whose estate they inherited. He does not have to give them an account of what he purchased and what he sold. Instead, he tells them: "This is what remains," and takes an oath holding a sacred article that he did not steal anything from them.

When does this apply? When the guardian was appointed by the court. When, however, the guardian was appointed by the orphans' father or other relatives, he is not required to take an oath because of an indefinite claim.

A guardian may dress and garb himself in a distinguished manner using the fund belonging to the orphans, so that he will be esteemed and his words will be heeded, provided that the orphans will benefit from the fact that he is esteemed and his words are heeded.

ה

כְּשֶׁיַּגְדִּילוּ הַיְתוֹמִים נוֹתֵן לָהֶם מָמוֹן מוֹרִישָׁן וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהֶן חֶשְׁבּוֹנוֹת מַה שֶּׁהִכְנִיס וְהוֹצִיא אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶן זֶה הַנִּשְׁאָר. וְנִשְׁבָּע בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ שֶׁלֹּא גְּזָלָן כְּלוּם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁמִּנּוּהוּ בֵּית דִּין. אֲבָל אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס שֶׁמִּנָּהוּ אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים וְכֵן שְׁאָר הַמּוֹרִישָׁן אֵיִנוֹ נִשְׁבָּע עַל טַעֲנַת סָפֵק. יֵשׁ לְאַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס לִלְבּשׁ וּלְהִתְכַּסּוֹת מִנִּכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מְכֻבָּד וְיִהְיוּ דְּבָרָיו נִשְׁמָעִין וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לַיְתוֹמִים הֲנָאָה בְּנִכְסֵיהֶן בִּהְיוֹת דְּבָרָיו נִשְׁמָעִין:

6

A guardian may sell animals, servants, maidservants, fields and vineyards belonging to the estate to provide sustenance for the orphans. He may not sell these assets and hoard the money. Nor may he sell fields to purchase servants, nor sell servants to purchase fields, for perhaps he will not be successful. He may, however, sell fields to purchase oxen to work other fields, for oxen are the fundamental element of the fields one possesses.

ו

יֵשׁ לְאַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס לִמְכֹּר בְּהֵמָה וַעֲבָדִים שְׁפָחוֹת שָׂדוֹת וּכְרָמִים לְהַאֲכִיל לַיְתוֹמִים. אֲבָל אֵין מוֹכְרִין וּמַנִּיחִין הַמָּעוֹת וְאֵין מוֹכְרִין שָׂדוֹת לִקַּח עֲבָדִים וְלֹא עֲבָדִים לִקַּח שָׂדוֹת שֶׁמָּא לֹא יַצְלִיחַ. אֲבָל מוֹכְרִין שָׂדֶה לִקַּח שְׁוָרִים לַעֲבוֹדַת שָׂדוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת שֶׁהַשְּׁוָרִים הֵן עִקַּר כָּל נִכְסֵי שָׂדוֹת:

7

The guardian is not permitted to sell a field located far from the city and purchase a field close to the city, nor may he sell a poor field and purchase a good field, for perhaps his purchases will not be successful.

Similarly, a guardian may not enter into a lawsuit to argue on behalf of the orphans with regard to a claim registered against them, with the intent of benefiting them. The rationale is that he may not be successful, and the claim against them will be substantiated.

ז

אֵין הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפִּין רַשָּׁאִין לִמְכֹּר בְּרָחוֹק וְלִגְאל בְּקָרוֹב לִמְכֹּר בְּרָעָה וְלִגְאל בְּיָפָה. שֶׁמָּא לֹא יַצְלִיחַ זֶה שֶׁקָּנוּ. וְאֵין רַשָּׁאִין לָדוּן וְלָחוּב עַל מְנָת לִזְכּוֹת לַיְתוֹמִים שֶׁמָּא לֹא יִזְכּוּ וְנִמְצָא הַחוֹב קַיָּם:

8

The guardians are not permitted to grant Canaanite servants their freedom. They may not even take money from the servant so that he will be released. Instead, they sell the servants to others and take the money from them with the intent that they grant them their freedom. It is those purchasers who release the servants.

ח

אֵין הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפִּין רַשָּׁאִין לְהוֹצִיא עֲבָדִים לְחֵרוּת אֲפִלּוּ לִקַּח מִן הָעֶבֶד דָּמִים שֶׁיֵּצֵא לְחֵרוּת. אֲבָל מוֹכְרִין אוֹתָן לַאֲחֵרִים וְלוֹקְחִין מֵהֶן הַדָּמִים עַל מְנָת שֶׁיּוֹצִיאוּהוּ לְחֵרוּת וְאוֹתָן הָאֲ [חֵ] רִים הֵן שֶׁמְּשַׁ [חְ] רְרִין אוֹתָם:

9

The guardians should separate terumah and the tithes from the crops of the orphans so that they can provide them with food. . For we may not feed the orphans forbidden substances. They may not, however, tithe or separate terumah so that the produce will be ready for use. Instead, they should sell it as tevel. Those who desire to make it ready for use will do so.

ט

הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפִּין תּוֹרְמִין וּמְעַשְּׂרִין נִכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים כְּדֵי לְהַאֲכִילָן. שֶׁאֵין מַאֲכִילִין אֶת הַיְתוֹמִים דָּבָר הָאָסוּר. אֲבָל לֹא יְעַשְּׂרוּ וְלֹא יִתְרֹמוּ כְּדֵי לְהַנִּיחַ פֵּרוֹת מְתֻקָּנִין אֶלָּא יִמְכְּרוּ אוֹתָן טֶבֶל וְהָרוֹצֶה לְתַקֵּן יְתַקֵּן:

10

The guardians must make a lulav, a sukkah, tzitzit, a shofar, a Torah scroll, tefillin, mezuzot and a megillah on behalf of the orphans. The general principle is: All mitzvot that have a fixed measure - whether of Scriptural or Rabbinic origin - should be made available for them, although they are obligated in these mitzvot only as part of their education. We do not, however, levy charitable assessments against their property, even for the sake of the redemption of captives. The rationale is that such mitzvot have no limit to them.

י

הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפִּין עוֹשִׂין לַקְּטַנִּים לוּלָב וְסֻכָּה וְצִיצִית וְשׁוֹפָר סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וּתְפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת וּמְגִלָּה. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר כָּל מִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם קִצְבָה בֵּין שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה בֵּין שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. עוֹשִׂין לָהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן חַיָּבִין בְּמִצְוָה מִכָּל אֵלּוּ הַמִּצְוֹת אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְחַנְּכָן. אֲבָל אֵין פּוֹסְקִין עֲלֵיהֶן צְדָקָה וַאֲפִלּוּ לְפִדְיוֹן שְׁבוּיִים. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּצְוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵין לָהֶן קִצְבָה:

11

When a person loses his intellectual faculties or becomes a deaf-mute, the court levies charitable assessments against his property if he has the means.

יא

וּמִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּטָּה אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְחָרֵשׁ בֵּית דִּין פּוֹסְקִין עָלָיו צְדָקָה אִם הָיָה רָאוּי:

12

Although a guardian does not have to make an accounting, as mentioned above, he must keep a personal account, being extremely precise, so as not to incur the wrath of the Father of these orphans, He who rides upon the heavens, as Psalms 68:5-6 states: "Make a path for He who rides upon the heavens... the Father of orphans."

יב

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת חֶשְׁבּוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. צָרִיךְ לַחְשֹׁב בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ לְדַקְדֵּק וּלְהִזָּהֵר הַרְבֵּה מֵאֲבִיהֶן שֶׁל אֵלּוּ הַיְתוֹמִים שֶׁהוּא רוֹכֵב עֲרָבוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהילים סח ה) "סלוּ לָרֹכֵב בָּעֲרָבוֹת" וְגוֹ' (תהילים סח ו) "אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים" וְגוֹ':

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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