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Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Kelim - Chapter 13

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Kelim - Chapter 13


In several places, we have already explained that an earthenware container contracts impurity only from its inner space or when moved by a zav. In contrast, all other keilim contract impurity when touched by impurity, but if impurity enters their inner space without touching them, they remain pure.

Thus what makes an earthenware container impure leaves other keilim pure. And what makes other keilim impure, leaves an earthenware container pure, for an earthenware container contracts impurity only from its inner space, as Leviticus 11:33 states: "Any earthenware container into whose inner space one of these will fall." It contracts impurity from its inner space and not from its outer side.


כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִתְטַמֵּא אֶלָּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ אוֹ בְּהֶסֵּט הַזָּב. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנָּגְעָה בָּהֶן הַטֻּמְאָה נִטְמְאוּ וְאִם נִכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה לַאֲוִירוֹ וְלֹא נָגְעָה בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הֵם טְהוֹרִין. נִמְצָא הַטָּמֵא בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס טָהוֹר בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים וְהַטָּמֵא בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים טָהוֹר בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִתְטַמֵּא אֶלָּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "וּכְלִי חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר יִפּל מֵהֶם אֶל תּוֹכוֹ" וְגוֹ' מִתּוֹכוֹ הוּא מִתְטַמֵּא לֹא מֵאֲחוֹרָיו:


Just as it contracts impurity from its inner space, so too, it imparts impurity to food and liquids from its inner space. What is implied?

When food and/or liquids enter the inner space of an earthenware container that contracted impurity, they contract impurity even though they never touched, as ibid. states: "Everything inside it shall contract impurity." Other impure keilim do not impart impurity to an impure k'li unless they touch it.


וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמִּתְטַמֵּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ כָּךְ מְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין מֵאֲוִירוֹ. כֵּיצַד. כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְנִכְנְסוּ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין לַאֲוִירוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָגְעוּ בּוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "כּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא". אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים הַטְּמֵאִין אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין עַד שֶׁיִּגְּעוּ בָּהֶן:


An earthenware container does not impart impurity to keilim - whether earthenware keilim or other keilim - through their entry into its inner space.

What is implied? When there is a large earthenware container with other containers in it and impurity enters its inner space, it contracts impurity, but all the containers inside of it remain pure. If there also were liquids inside of them, the liquids contract impurity because of their presence within the inner space of the large container and they then impart impurity to the smaller containers. It is as the smaller containers say: "The one that imparted impurity to you did not impart impurity to me, but you imparted impurity to me."


אֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים מֵאֲוִירוֹ בֵּין כְּלֵי חֶרֶס בֵּין שְׁאָר כֵּלִים. כֵּיצַד. כְּלִי חֶרֶס גָּדוֹל שֶׁהָיוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ כֵּלִים וְנִכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה בַּאֲוִירוֹ הוּא טָמֵא וְכָל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טְהוֹרִין. הָיוּ מַשְׁקִין בַּכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ נִטְמְאוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין מֵאֲוִירוֹ וְחוֹזְרִין וּמְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים. וַהֲרֵי זֶה אוֹמֵר מְטַמְּאֶיךָ לֹא טִמְּאוּנִי וְאַתָּה טִמֵּאתַנִי:


When impure liquids touch only the outer surface of an earthenware container, its outer surface contracts impurity like other keilim.

When does the above apply? When it is a container that has inner space. If, however, it is an implement that does not have inner space and impure liquids touch it, it is pure. For the outer surface of any earthenware k'li that does not have inner space does not contract impurity from liquids.

If foods or liquids touch the outer surface of an impure earthenware container, they are impure. Earthenware containers and other keilim are governed by the same laws in this context. For when foods or liquids touch any impure utensil whether on its inner surface or its outer surface, they contract impurity.


כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנָּגְעוּ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בַּאֲחוֹרָיו בִּלְבַד נִטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרָיו כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהָיָה לוֹ תּוֹךְ. אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ תּוֹךְ וְנָגְעוּ בּוֹ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ תּוֹךְ בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס אֵין אֲחוֹרָיו מִתְטַמְּאִין בְּמַשְׁקִין. נָגְעוּ אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין בַּאֲחוֹרֵי כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין. וְאֶחָד כְּלִי חֶרֶס וְאֶחָד שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים בְּדָבָר זֶה שֶׁכָּל הַכֵּלִים הַטְּמֵאִין שֶׁנָּגְעוּ אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין בָּהֶן בֵּין מִתּוֹכָן בֵּין מֵאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן נִטְמְאוּ:


The same laws that apply when impurity enters the inner space of an earthenware container apply when one turns it over, covering impurity that is lying on the ground and serving as a tent over it, for the impurity is within its inner space. According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that the phrase, ibid., "into whose inner space" also includes containers that serve as tents.


אֶחָד כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה לַאֲוִירוֹ אוֹ שֶׁכָּפָהוּ עַל הַטֻּמְאָה הַמֻּנַּחַת עַל הָאָרֶץ וְנַעֲשָׂה אֹהֶל עָלֶיהָ שֶׁהֲרֵי הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "אֶל תּוֹכוֹ" לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הָאֹהָלִים:


When there is a pit with the carcass of a crawling animal inside of it and an earthenware container is turned over the pit, it does not contract impurity. For the phrase "Within its inner space" implies that the impurity itself must enter its inner space.

For this reason, if the carcass of a crawling animal is found beneath the earth below an oven, the oven is pure, for we assume that it was alive when it fell into the pit and it died while in that pit. Similarly, if a needle or a ring is found beneath the earth below an oven, the oven is pure even though any keilim that are found are considered impure, as we explained. For we assume that the keilim were there before the oven was placed there and the oven was built over them without them having fallen inside of it. If these keilim were found in the ash removed from the oven, the oven is impure, because there is nothing on which the person can base a supposition for leniency.

The following laws apply if these keilim were found in the earth below an oven; they were visible, but did not enter the inner space of the oven. If when one bakes dough, they will touch it, the oven is impure as if they were within its inner space. If not, the oven is pure as if they were beneath the earth below it. Concerning what type of dough was this said? An ordinary dough that was neither overly soft, nor overly firm.


גּוּמָא שֶׁהָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ מֻנָּח בְּתוֹכָהּ וְכָפָה כְּלִי חֶרֶס עַל הַגּוּמָא לֹא נִטְמָא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "אֶל תּוֹכוֹ" עַד שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס עַצְמָהּ שֶׁל טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר שֶׁהִיא קַרְקָעִית הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר חַי נָפַל וְעַכְשָׁו מֵת בְּתוֹךְ גּוּמָא זוֹ. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצֵאת מַחַט אוֹ טַבַּעַת לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַכֵּלִים הַנִּמְצָאִים טְמֵאִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֲרֵי הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר שָׁם הָיוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָּא הַתַּנּוּר וְהַתַּנּוּר נִבְנָה עֲלֵיהֶן וְלֹא נָפְלוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ. נִמְצְאוּ בַּדֶּשֶׁן הֲרֵי הַתַּנּוּר טָמֵא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בְּמָה יִתְלֶה. נִמְצְאוּ בִּנְחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר נִרְאִין אֲבָל אֵינָן יוֹצְאִין לַאֲוִירוֹ. אִם אוֹפֶה אֶת הַבָּצֵק וְהוּא נוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר כְּאִלּוּ הָיוּ בְּתוֹךְ אֲוִירוֹ. וְאִם לָאו הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר כְּאִלּוּ הָיוּ לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ. בְּאֵי זֶה בָּצֵק אָמְרוּ בְּבָצֵק הַבֵּינוֹנִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַךְ בְּיוֹתֵר וְלֹא קָשֶׁה:


The following laws apply if the carcass of a crawling animal was found in the eye of an oven, the eye of a range for two pots, or the eye of a range for one pot. If the crawling animal was within the inner edge of the hole or further toward the outside, the oven or range is pure, because it did not enter the inner space of the oven or the range. Instead, it is suspended below the thickness of its walls. The oven or the range is pure even if an olive-sized portion of a human corpse is found in that place unless the opening of the eye is a handbreadth. In the latter instance, the oven would be impure because a hole of that size brings impurity to the inner space of the oven, as explained with regard to the impurity of a human corpse.


הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בְּעַיִן שֶׁל תַּנּוּר בְּעַיִן שֶׁל כִּירָה בְּעַיִן שֶׁל כֻּפַּח אִם נִמְצָא מִן הַשָּׂפָה הַפְּנִימִית וְלַחוּץ טָהוֹר. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצָא בַּאֲוִיר הָעַיִן טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִכְנַס לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר אוֹ הַכִּירָה אוֹ הַכֻּפַּח אֶלָּא תַּחַת עֳבִי דָּפְנוֹתֵיהֶן הוּא תָּלוּי. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה שָׁם כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת טְהוֹרִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בָּעֳבִי הָעַיִן פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח שֶׁהֲרֵי מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּעִנְיַן טֻמְאַת מֵת:


When the carcass of a crawling animal is found in the place where wood is placed, if it is found from the inner edge of the range and further outward, the range is pure. If it is found in the place where the bath attendant sits or the dyer sits, or the place where those who cook olives sit, everything is pure.


נִמְצָא הַשֶּׁרֶץ בִּמְקוֹם הַנָּחַת הָעֵצִים מִן הַשָּׂפָה הַפְּנִימִית וְלַחוּץ טָהוֹר. נִמְצָא בִּמְקוֹם יְשִׁיבַת הַבַּלָּן בִּמְקוֹם יְשִׁיבַת הַצַּבָּע בִּמְקוֹם יְשִׁיבַת שׁוֹלְקֵי הַזֵּיתִים הַכּל טָהוֹר:


Neither an oven, a range, nor other places of cooking contract impurity unless the impurity is found from the sealing and inward.


אֵין הַתַּנּוּר וְלֹא הַכִּירָה וְלֹא שְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת הַיְקוֹד מִתְטַמְּאִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִמְצֵאת הַטֻּמְאָה מִן הַסְּתִימָה וּלְפָנִים:


There are earthenware containers from which homeowners drink water that have an earthenware screen in their center and projections like a comb above that screen. It is called a tzirtzur. If impurity entered the space enclosed by the comb above the screen, the entire k'li is impure, for this is "the inner space" of this container.


כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁשּׁוֹתִין בּוֹ בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּאֶמְצָעוֹ כְּמוֹ רֶשֶׁת שֶׁל חֶרֶס וּשְׂפָתוֹ שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִן הָרֶשֶׁת כְּמוֹ מַסְרֵק וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא צַרְצוּר אִם נִכְנְסָה הַטֻּמְאָה לַאֲוִיר הַמַּסְרֵק לְמַעְלָה מִן הָרֶשֶׁת נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁזֶּהוּ תּוֹכוֹ שֶׁל כְּלִי זֶה:


The following laws apply when there is an earthenware container that has three walls, one further inside than the other. If the interior wall was the highest and impurity entered its inner space, all foods and liquids that are in the space between the inner wall and middle wall or the outer wall are pure. If the middle wall was the highest and its inner space became impure, the area from this wall inward is impure. The area outside of it is pure. If the exterior wall was the highest and its inner space became impure, everything is impure. If the walls are of the same height, any enclosure whose inner space contracts impurity is impure and the remainder are pure.


כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שְׂפָיוֹת זוֹ לְפָנִים מִזּוֹ הָיְתָה הַפְּנִימִית עוֹדֶפֶת וְנִכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה לַאֲוִיר הַפְּנִימִית כָּל הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבָּאֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּין הַשָּׂפָה הַפְּנִימִית וּבֵין הָאֶמְצָעִית וְהַחִיצוֹנָה טְהוֹרִין. הָיְתָה הָאֶמְצָעִית עוֹדֶפֶת וְנִטְמָא אֲוִירָהּ מִמֶּנָּה וְלִפְנִים טָמֵא מִמֶּנָּה וְלַחוּץ טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה הַחִיצוֹנָה עוֹדֶפֶת וְנִטְמָא אֲוִירָהּ הַכּל טָמֵא. הָיוּ שָׁווֹת כָּל שֶׁנִּטְמָא אֲוִירָהּ טְמֵאָה וְהַשְּׁאָר טָהוֹר:


If several frying pans are placed one inside the other and their rims are of the same height, should the carcass of a crawling animal be found in the uppermost frying pan or the lowest one, the frying pan containing the carcass is impure and the other frying pans and the food inside of them are pure.

If all of the frying pans had a hole that would allow liquid to seep in and the carcass was in the uppermost one, all of the foods and liquids in all the frying pans are impure, because the impurity is considered in the inner space of all of them, as will be explained. If the impurity was in the bottom one, it is impure and all the others are pure, because the carcass of the crawling animal did not enter the inner space of the uppermost one and the rim of the lowest one is not higher than it, so that it would impart impurity to all the food and liquids contained in it.

If the carcass was located in the uppermost one and the rim of the lower one was higher, the uppermost one is impure, because the carcass is located within it. Similarly, the bottom one is impure, because its rim is higher and thus the carcass is in its inner space. The remainder of the frying pans that are located in the bottom one are pure, because an earthenware container does not impart impurity to other keilim inside of it. If there was liquid that could be felt between the frying pans, any pan that has liquid on it contracts impurity. For the liquid contracts impurity because of its presence in the inner space of the bottom pan whose edges extend above the higher pan. It then imparts impurity to the pan that it touches.


אִלְפָּסִים זוֹ בְּתוֹךְ זוֹ וְשִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן שָׁווֹת וְהַשֶּׁרֶץ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה אוֹ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנָה זוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ הַשֶּׁרֶץ טְמֵאָה וּשְׁאָר הָאִלְפָּסִין טְהוֹרִין הֵן וְכָל הָאֳכָלִין שֶׁבָּהֶן. הָיָה כָּל אִלְפָּס מֵהֶן נְקוּבָה בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה וְהַשֶּׁרֶץ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה כָּל הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּכָל הָאִלְפָּסִים טְמֵאִים שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה בַּאֲוִיר כֻּלָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנָה הִיא טְמֵאָה וְכֻלָּן טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִכְנַס שֶׁרֶץ לַאֲוִיר הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וְאֵין שְׂפַת הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה עוֹדֶפֶת כְּדֵי לְטַמֵּא כָּל הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ. הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה וְהָיְתָה שְׂפַת הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה עוֹדֶפֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁהַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּתוֹכָהּ וְכֵן הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשְּׂפָתָהּ עוֹדֶפֶת הֲרֵי הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּאֲוִירָהּ וּשְׁאָר הָאִלְפָּסִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה טְהוֹרִין שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה בֵּינֵיהֶן מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ טְמֵאָה שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקֶה מִתְטַמֵּא מֵאֲוִיר הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה הָעוֹדֶפֶת וְחוֹזֵר וּמְטַמֵּא אֶת הָאִלְפָּס:


When an earthenware tabletop had bowls attached to it from the time that it was initially made, although it is all a single k'li, if one bowl contracts impurity, they all do not contract impurity. If the table top has an upraised border, all of the bowls are considered in its inner space. Thus if one contracts impurity, they all become impure. Similar laws apply to an earthenware spice box and a split inkwell that are made in analogous manner.


טַבְלָא שֶׁל חֶרֶס שֶׁהָיוּ קְעָרוֹת דְּבוּקוֹת בָּהּ בִּתְחִלַּת מַעֲשֶׂיהָ וַהֲרֵי הַכּל כְּלִי אֶחָד וְנִטְמֵאת אַחַת מֵהֶן לֹא נִטְמְאוּ כֻּלָּן. וְאִם הָיָה לַטַּבְלָא דֹּפֶן עוֹדֵף שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ כָּל הַקְּעָרוֹת בְּתוֹכוֹ וְנִטְמֵאת אַחַת מֵהֶן נִטְמְאוּ כֻּלָּן. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּבֵית הַתַּבְלִין שֶׁל חֶרֶס וְקַלְמִירִין הַמַּתְאִימוֹת כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ:


When one of the compartments of a wooden spice box contracts impurity from liquids, the remainder of its compartments do not contract impurity. If it has an upraised border and thus all of the compartments are considered within its inner space and one of them contracts impurity from liquids, they all contract impurity, for it is considered as a single container and when the inner space of a container contracts impurity from liquids, the entire container becomes impure.

If the compartments were attached to it by nails, they are considered as joined both with regard to contracting impurity and with regard to sprinkling the ashes of the red heifer. If they are merely wedged together, they are considered as joined with regard to contracting impurity, but not with regard to sprinkling the ashes of the red heifer. If the compartments could be easily removed and returned, they are not considered as joined, neither with regard to contracting impurity, nor with regard to sprinkling the ashes of the red heifer.


בֵּית הַתַּבְלִין שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁנִּטְמָא אֶחָד מִבָּתָּיו בְּמַשְׁקִין לֹא נִטְמְאוּ שְׁאָר הַבָּתִּים. וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ דֹּפֶן עוֹדֵף שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ כָּל הַבָּתִּים בְּתוֹכוֹ וְנִטְמָא אֶחָד מִבָּתָּיו בְּמַשְׁקִין נִטְמְאוּ כֻּלָּן שֶׁהַכּל כִּכְלִי אֶחָד וּכְלִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא תּוֹכוֹ בְּמַשְׁקִין נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ. הָיוּ בָּתָּיו קְבוּעִין בְּמַסְמֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חִבּוּר זֶה לָזֶה לְטֻמְאָה וּלְהַזָּיָה. הָיוּ תְּקוּעִין בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חִבּוּר לְטֻמְאָה וְלֹא לְהַזָּיָה. וְאִם הָיוּ בָּתָּיו נִטָּלִין וְנִתָּנִין אֵינָן חִבּוּר לֹא לְטֻמְאָה וְלֹא לְהַזָּיָה:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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