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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Sechirut - Chapter 10, Sechirut - Chapter 11, Sechirut - Chapter 12

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Sechirut - Chapter 10

1

The following rules apply when a person gives a loan to a colleague and takes security in return. He is considered to be a paid watchman. This applies regardless of whether he lent him money or lent him produce, and regardless of whether he took the security at the time when he gave him the loan or afterwards.

Accordingly, if the security is lost or stolen, he is responsible for its value. If the security was lost because of causes beyond the lender's control -e.g., it was taken by armed thieves or the like - the lender must take an oath that it was lost due to forces beyond his control, and the owner of the security must repay his debt until the last p'rutah.

א

הַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ עַל הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן בֵּין שֶׁהִלְוָהוּ מָעוֹת בֵּין שֶׁהִלְוָהוּ פֵּרוֹת בֵּין שֶׁמִּשְׁכְּנוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַלְוָאָתוֹ בֵּין שֶׁמִּשְׁכְּנוֹ אַחַר שֶׁהִלְוָהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹמֵר שָׂכָר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָבַד הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן אוֹ נִגְנַב חַיָּב בְּדָמָיו. וְאִם נֶאֱנַס הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּלְקַח בְּלִסְטִים מְזֻיָּן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִשְּׁאָר אֳנָסִין יִשָּׁבַע שֶׁנֶּאֱנַס וִישַׁלֵּם בַּעַל הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן אֶת חוֹבוֹ עַד פְּרוּטָה אַחֲרוֹנָה:

2

Whenever a person tells a colleague: "Watch my article for me and I will watch your article for you," it is considered as if the owner was employed by the watchman.

If, however, he tells his colleague: "Watch an article for me today, and I will watch an article for you tomorrow," "Lend an article to me today and I will lend an article to you tomorrow," "Watch an article for me today, and I will lend an article to you tomorrow," or "Lend an article to me today and I will watch an article for you tomorrow," they are each considered to be paid watchman for the other.

ב

כָּל הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁמֹר לִי וְאֶשְׁמֹר לְךָ הֲרֵי זֶה שְׁמִירָה בַּבְּעָלִים. אָמַר לוֹ שְׁמֹר לִי הַיּוֹם וְאֶשְׁמֹר לְךָ לְמָחָר. הַשְׁאִילֵנִי הַיּוֹם וַאֲנִי אַשְׁאִילְךָ לְמָחָר. שְׁמֹר לִי הַיּוֹם וְאַשְׁאִילְךָ לְמָחָר. הַשְׁאִילֵנִי הַיּוֹם וְאֶשְׁמֹר לְךָ לְמָחָר. כֻּלָּן נַעֲשׂוּ שׁוֹמְרֵי שָׂכָר זֶה לָזֶה:

3

All craftsmen are considered to be paid watchman. Whenever a craftsman says: "Take your article and pay for it," or "I have completed it," and the owner does not take the article, the craftsman is considered to be an unpaid watchman from that time onward.

If, however, the craftsman says: "Bring money and take your article," he is considered a paid watchman as before.

ג

כָּל הָאֻמָּנִין שׁוֹמְרֵי שָׂכָר הֵן. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁאָמְרוּ טל אֶת שֶׁלְּךָ וְהָבֵא מָעוֹת אוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ הָאֻמָּן גְּמַרְתִּיו וְלֹא לָקְחוּ הַבְּעָלִים אֶת הַכְּלִי הָאֻמָּן שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר הָאֻמָּן הָבֵא מָעוֹת וְטל שֶׁלְּךָ עֲדַיִן הוּא נוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר כְּשֶׁהָיָה:

4

If a person gives an article to a craftsman to fix and the craftsman ruins it, the craftsman is liable to make restitution.

What is implied? If a person gives a carpenter a chest, a box or a closet to place a nail into, and he breaks the article he must make restitution. Similarly, if a person gives a carpenter the wood to make a chest, a box or a closet, and he breaks them after he completes making them, the carpenter must pay the employer for a chest, a box or a closet. The rationale is that the craftsman does not acquire a share in the increase in the value of the article.

If a person gives a craftsman wool to dye, and the vat in which he dyes it boils until the water evaporates, thus destroying the wool, the dyer must reimburse the owner for his wool.

The following rules apply in the ensuing situations: The dyer dyed the wool unattractively, the owner asked him to dye it red and he dyed it black, he asked him to dye it black and he dyed it red, or he gave wood to a carpenter to make an attractive chair, and he made a poor chair or a bench. In all these instances, if the increase in the value of the article exceeds the cost,' all the owner of the article is required to pay is the cost. If the cost exceeds the increase in the value of the article, all the owner of the article is required to pay is the increase in the value of the article.

If the owner of the article says: "I do not desire this dispensation. I would prefer that he give me the value of the wool or the value of the wood," we do not heed his request. Conversely, if the craftsman says: "Here is the cost of your wool or your wood, depart," he is not heeded. The rationale is that the craftsman does not acquire a share in the increase in the value of the article.

ד

נָתַן לְאֻמָּנִין לְתַקֵּן וְקִלְקְלוּ חַיָּבִין לְשַׁלֵּם. כֵּיצַד. נָתַן לְחֵרֵשׁ שִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל לִקְבֹּעַ בָּהֶן מַסְמֵר וּשְׁבָרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ אֶת הָעֵצִים לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן שִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל וְנִשְׁבְּרוּ אַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ מְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ דְּמֵי שִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל. שֶׁאֵין הָאֻמָּן קוֹנֶה בְּשֶׁבַח הַכְּלִי. נָתַן צֶמֶר לְצַבָּע וְהִקְדִיחַתּוּ יוֹרָה נוֹתֵן לוֹ דְּמֵי צִמְרוֹ. צְבָעוֹ כָּעוּר אוֹ נְתָנוֹ לוֹ לְצָבְעוֹ אָדֹם וּצְבָעוֹ שָׁחוֹר שָׁחוֹר וּצְבָעוֹ אָדֹם. נָתַן עֵצִים לְחָרָשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן כִּסֵּא נָאֶה וְעָשָׂה כִּסֵּא רַע אוֹ סַפְסָל. אִם הַשֶּׁבַח יָתֵר עַל הַהוֹצָאָה נוֹתֵן בַּעַל הַכְּלִי אֶת הַהוֹצָאָה וְאִם הַהוֹצָאָה יְתֵרָה עַל הַשֶּׁבַח נוֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת הַשֶּׁבַח בִּלְבַד. אָמַר בַּעַל הַכְּלִי אֵינִי רוֹצֶה בְּתַקָּנָה זוֹ אֶלָּא יִתֵּן לִי דְּמֵי הַצֶּמֶר אוֹ דְּמֵי הָעֵצִים אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. וְכֵן אִם אָמַר הָאֻמָּן הֵא לְךָ דְּמֵי צִמְרְךָ אוֹ דְּמֵי עֵצְךָ וְלֵךְ אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ שֶׁאֵין הָאֻמָּן קוֹנֶה בְּשֶׁבַח כְּלִי שֶׁעָשָׂה:

5

When a person brings raw materials to a professional and he ruins them, the professional is liable to reimburse the owner for their value, for he is like a paid watchman. For example, a person gave wheat to a miller to grind and he did not soak it. Hence the flour came out as bran or coarse flour. A person gave flour to a baker and he made bread that crumbles, or a person brought an animal to a slaughterer and he slaughtered it unacceptably. They are all liable to make restitution.

Therefore, if an expert slaughterer slaughters an animal without charge and he caused it to be unacceptable, he is not liable to make restitution. If he is not an expert, even if he works without charge, he is required to make restitution.

Similar rules apply when a person shows a coin to a money changer and he says that it is acceptable, and it is discovered to be unacceptable. If he charged for his services, he is obligated to pay even though he is an expert and does not require further training. If he did not charge, he is not liable, provided he is an expert and does not require further training. If he is not an expert, he must reimburse the questioner even when he does not charge for his services.

The above applies when the questioner tells the money changer: "I am relying upon you," or it is obvious from the situation that he is relying on his opinion and is not seeking another opinion.

When a ritual slaughterer slaughtered an animal without charge, but rendered it unfit, a money changer said that a coin was acceptable, and it was not, or in any similar situation, the person who caused the damage must supply proof that he is an expert. If he cannot supply proof, he is required to make restitution.

ה

הַמּוֹלִיךְ חִטִּין לִטְחֹן וְלֹא לְתָתָן וַעֲשָׂאָן סֻבִּין אוֹ מֻרְסָן. נָתַן הַקֶּמַח לְנַחְתּוֹם וַעֲשָׂאוֹ פַּת נְפוֹלִין. בְּהֵמָה לְטַבָּח וְנִבְּלָהּ. חַיָּבִין לְשַׁלֵּם דְּמֵיהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נוֹשְׂאֵי שָׂכָר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה טַבָּח מֻמְחֶה וְשָׁחַט בְּחִנָּם פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּם וְאֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בְּחִנָּם חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. וְכֵן הַמַּרְאֶה דִּינָר לְשֻׁלְחָנִי וְאָמַר לוֹ יָפֶה הוּא וְנִמְצָא רַע אִם בְּשָׂכָר רָאָהוּ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בָּקִי וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהִתְלַמֵּד. וְאִם בְּחִנָּם רָאָהוּ פָּטוּר וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּקִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהִתְלַמֵּד. וְאִם אֵינוֹ בָּקִי חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בְּחִנָּם וְהוּא שֶׁיֹּאמַר לַשֻּׁלְחָנִי עָלֶיךָ אֲנִי סוֹמֵךְ אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים מַרְאִין שֶׁהוּא סוֹמֵךְ עַל רְאִיָּתוֹ וְלֹא יַרְאֶה לַאֲחֵרִים. טַבָּח שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּחִנָּם וְנִבֵּל וְכֵן שֻׁלְחָנִי שֶׁאָמַר יָפֶה וְנִמְצָא רַע וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה עֲלֵיהֶן לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהֵן מֻמְחִין. וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיאוּ רְאָיָה מְשַׁלְּמִין:

6

The following rules apply in a place where it is customary for a person who plants trees to receive half of the increase in value, and for the owner of the land to receive half of the increase in value. If he planted trees in a portion of the land and increased the value, but planted other trees in another portion of the land and caused a loss, we calculate the half of the profit that is due the planter and deduct the entire loss he caused. He then receives the remainder. Even if he stipulated that if he causes a loss in a certain portion of the land, he will not receive any profit at all, his words are not heeded and only the loss he actually caused is deducted from his profits. The rationale is that this stipulation is an asmachta.

When the person who plants trees terminates his relationship with the owner before reaping the crop, he bears the responsibility for his actions. To illustrate this principle: The local custom is that the person who plants receives half of the profits and the owner of the land, the other half. A sharecropper receives a lesser share, one third of the crop. The person who planted the trees caused the land to increase in value and then wished to terminate his relationship with the owner, forcing the owner to employ a sharecropper. The owner of the land may employ a sharecropper. Even so, the owner of the land receives half of the profits; he does not suffer a loss.

The sharecropper receives a third and the remaining sixth is given to the person who planted the trees. Since he willingly terminated his relationship, he suffers the consequences.

ו

מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַנּוֹטֵעַ אִילָנוֹת נוֹטֵל חֲצִי הַשֶּׁבַח וּבַעַל הַקַּרְקַע חֲצִי וְנָטַע וְהִשְׁבִּיחַ וְנָטַע וְהִפְסִיד מְחַשְּׁבִין לוֹ חֲצִי הַשֶּׁבַח שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ וּמְנַכִּין מִמֶּנּוּ מַה שֶּׁהִפְסִיד וְנוֹטֵל הַשְּׁאָר. וַאֲפִלּוּ הִתְנָה עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁאִם הִפְסִיד לֹא יִטּל כְּלוּם הֲרֵי זֶה אַסְמַכְתָּא וְאֵין מְנַכִּין לוֹ אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁהִפְסִיד. הָיָה מִנְהָגָם שֶׁיִּטּל הַנּוֹטֵעַ מֶחֱצָה וּבַעַל הַקַּרְקַע מֶחֱצָה וְכָךְ הָיָה מִנְהָגָם שֶׁיִּטּל הָאָרִיס שְׁלִישׁ. אִם נָטַע הַנּוֹטֵעַ וְהִשְׁבִּיחַ וְרָצָה לְהִסְתַּלֵּק שֶׁנִּמְצָא בַּעַל הַקַּרְקַע צָרִיךְ לְהוֹרִיד לָהּ אָרִיס הֲרֵי בַּעַל הַקַּרְקַע מוֹרִיד אָרִיס וְיִטּל בַּעַל הַקַּרְקַע חֶצְיוֹ וְלֹא יַפְסִיד בַּעַל הַקַּרְקַע כְּלוּם וְיִטּל הָאָרִיס שְׁלִישׁ וְהַשְּׁתוּת הַנִּשְׁאָר שֶׁל נוֹטֵעַ שֶׁהֲרֵי סִלֵּק עַצְמוֹ בִּרְצוֹנוֹ:

7

The following principle applies with regard to a person who plants trees on behalf of all the members of a city who caused a loss; similarly, a ritual slaughterer of a village who rendered an animal unacceptable for consumption, a blood-letter who caused an injury, a scribe who erred in composing a legal document, a teacher who was negligent with the children and did not teach them or taught them in error, or any other professional who made an error that cannot be corrected. They may be removed from their positions without warning, for the warning for them to perform their work carefully is self evident. They must faithfully apply themselves to their tasks, for they were appointed by the community to discharge this responsibility.

ז

הַנּוֹטֵעַ אִילָנוֹת לִבְנֵי הַמְּדִינָה שֶׁהִפְסִיד. וְכֵן טַבָּח שֶׁל בְּנֵי הָעִיר שֶׁנִּבֵּל הַבְּהֵמוֹת. וְהַמַּקִּיז דָּם שֶׁחָבַל. וְהַסּוֹפֵר שֶׁטָּעָה בִּשְׁטָרוֹת. וּמְלַמֵּד תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁפָּשַׁע בְּתִינוֹקוֹת וְלֹא לִמֵּד אוֹ לִמֵּד בְּטָעוּת. וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ הָאֻמָּנִים שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיַּחְזִירוּ הַהֶפְסֵד שֶׁהִפְסִידוּ. מְסַלְּקִין אוֹתָן בְּלֹא הַתְרָאָה שֶׁהֵן כְּמֻתְרִין וְעוֹמְדִין עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּדְּלוּ בִּמְלַאכְתָּן הוֹאִיל וְהֶעֱמִידוּ אוֹתָן הַצִּבּוּר עֲלֵיהֶם:

Sechirut - Chapter 11

1

It is a positive commandment to pay a worker his wage on time, as Deuteronomy 24:15 states: "On the day it is due, pay him his wage." If an employer delays payment, he violates a negative commandment, as that verse continues: "Do not let the sun set without him receiving it." Lashes are not given for the violation of this prohibition, for he is liable to pay.

This principle applies to the wage of a person or the fee for hiring an animal or a utensil. In all these instances, one is obligated to make payment when due, and if one delays payment, one violates a negative commandment.

The obligation to pay a wage when due applies to a resident alien, but one does not transgress a negative commandment if one delays paying him.

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִתֵּן שְׂכַר הַשָּׂכִיר בִּזְמַנּוֹ שׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד טו) "בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ" וְגוֹ'. וְאִם אִחֲרוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַנּוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד טו) "וְלֹא תָבוֹא עָלָיו הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ". וְאֵין לוֹקִין עָלָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. אֶחָד שְׂכַר הָאָדָם וְאֶחָד שְׂכַר הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֶחָד שְׂכַר הַכֵּלִים חַיָּב לִתֵּן בִּזְמַנּוֹ וְאִם אִחֵר לְאַחַר זְמַן עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה. וְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ וְאִם אִחֲרוֹ אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה:

2

Whenever a person withholds the payment of a worker's wage, it is as if he takes his soul from him, as Deuteronomy 24:16 continues: "Because of it, he puts his life in his hand." He violates four admonitions and a positive commandment: He transgresses the commandments not to oppress a colleague, not to steal, not to hold overnight the wage of a worker and not to allow the sun to set before having paid him, and the positive commandment to pay him on time.

When are a worker's wages due? A person who is hired to work during the day should collect his wages at any time throughout the following night. With regard to him, Leviticus 19:13 states: "Do not hold the wage of a worker in your possession overnight until the morning."

A person who is hired to work during the night should collect his wages at any time throughout the following day. Concerning him, it is written: "On the day it is due, pay him his wage."

A person who is hired to work several hours during the day should collect his wage during the remainder of the day. A person who is hired to work several hours during the night, should collect his wage during the remainder of the night.

The following principles apply with regard to a person hired for a week, for a month, for a year or for a seven-year period. If he leaves his work during the day, he should collect his wage during the remainder of the day. If he leaves his work during the night, he should collect his wage during the remainder of the night.

ב

כָּל הַכּוֹבֵשׁ שְׂכַר שָׂכִיר כְּאִלּוּ נָטַל נַפְשׁוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד טו) "וְאֵלָיו הוּא נשֵֹׁא אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ". וְעוֹבֵר בְּאַרְבַּע אַזְהָרוֹת וַעֲשֵׂה. עוֹבֵר מִשּׁוּם בַּל (ויקרא יט יג) "תַּעֲשֹׁק" וּמִשּׁוּם בַּל (ויקרא יט יג) "תִּגְזל" וּמִשּׁוּם לֹא תָלִין פְּעֵלַּת שָׂכִיר וּמִשּׁוּם (דברים כד טו) "לֹא תָבוֹא עָלָיו הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ" וּמִשּׁוּם (דברים כד טו) "בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ". אֵי זֶהוּ זְמַנּוֹ שְׂכִיר יוֹם גּוֹבֶה כָּל הַלַּיְלָה וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יט יג) "לֹא תָלִין פְּעֵלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד בֹּקֶר". וּשְׂכִיר לַיְלָה גּוֹבֶה כָּל הַיּוֹם וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ. וּשְׂכִיר שָׁעוֹת שֶׁל יוֹם גּוֹבֶה כָּל הַיּוֹם וּשְׂכִיר שָׁעוֹת שֶׁל לַיְלָה גּוֹבֶה כָּל הַלַּיְלָה. שְׂכִיר שַׁבָּת שְׂכִיר חֹדֶשׁ שְׂכִיר שָׁנָה שְׂכִיר שָׁבוּעַ יָצָא בַּיּוֹם גּוֹבֶה כָּל הַיּוֹם יָצָא בַּלַּיְלָה גּוֹבֶה כָּל (אוֹתוֹ) הַלַּיְלָה:

3

If a person gives his garment to a tailor, and the tailor completes it and notifies him, the owner does not transgress this commandment as long as the garment is in the possession of the tailor. This applies even if he delays paying him for ten days.

If the tailor returned it in the middle of the day, once the sun sets, the employer transgresses the commandment for holding the worker's wage past its due date. For contracting work is governed by the same laws as hired labor, and the craftsman must be paid when his wage is

ג

נָתַן טַלִּיתוֹ לְאֻמָּן וּגְמָרָהּ וְהוֹדִיעוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִחֲרוֹ עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַכְּלִי בְּיַד הָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר. נְתָנָהּ בַּחֲצִי הַיּוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁקְעָה עָלָיו חַמָּה עוֹבֵר מִשּׁוּם בַּל (ויקרא יט יג) "תָּלִין" שֶׁהַקַּבְּלָנוּת כִּשְׂכִירוּת הִיא וְחַיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ בִּזְמַנּוֹ:

4

The following rules apply when a person tells his agent: "Go out and hire workers for me," and the agent tells them: "The employer is responsible for your wages." They both do not transgress the prohibition against delaying payment of the worker's wages. The owner is not culpable, because he did not hire them, and the agent is not culpable, because he does not benefit from the workers' activity. If, however, the agent did not tell them: "The employer is responsible for your wages," the agent is considered to be transgressing the prohibition.

The employer does not transgress this prohibition unless the worker demanded payment and he did not give it to him. If, however, the worker did not demand payment or he demanded payment and the employer did not have the money to pay him, or he directed the worker to another person who accepted the responsibility of paying him, the employer is not culpable.

ד

הָאוֹמֵר לִשְׁלוּחוֹ צֵא וּשְׂכֹר לִי פּוֹעֲלִים. אָמַר לָהֶם שְׂכַרְכֶם עַל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵינָן עוֹבְרִין מִשּׁוּם בַּל (ויקרא יט יג) "תָּלִין" זֶה לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא שְׂכָרָן וְזֶה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין פְּעֻלָּתָן אֶצְלוֹ. וְאִם לֹא אָמַר לָהֶם שְׂכַרְכֶם עַל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת הַשָּׁלִיחַ עוֹבֵר. אֵין הַשּׂוֹכֵר עוֹבֵר אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁתְּבָעוֹ הַשָּׂכִיר וְלֹא נָתַן לוֹ אֲבָל אִם לֹא תְּבָעוֹ אוֹ שֶׁתְּבָעוֹ וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מַה יִּתֵּן לוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהִמְחָהוּ אֵצֶל אַחֵר וְקִבֵּל הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר:

5

When a person delays payment of a worker's wages until after they are due, he is liable to pay him immediately, although he has already violated the positive and the negative commandment mentioned above. Throughout the time he delays payment, he transgresses a Rabbinic commandment, as alluded to by Proverbs 3:28: "Do not tell your colleague, 'Go and return for tomorrow I will pay.'

ה

הַמַּשְׁהֶה שְׂכַר שָׂכִיר עַד אַחַר זְמַנּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר עָבַר בַּעֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב לִתֵּן מִיָּד. וְכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה עוֹבֵר עַל לָאו שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג כח) "אַל תֹּאמַר לְרֵעֲךָ לֵךְ וָשׁוּב":

6

The following rules apply whenever a worker who was hired in the presence of witnesses demands payment from his employer at the appointed time, the owner claims to have paid the wage, and the worker claims not to have received it. Our Sages ordained that, while holding a sacred object, the worker should take an oath that he did not receive his wage. He may then collect it according to the laws governing all those who take oaths and then collect their due.

The rationale for this ruling is that the employer is busy managing his workers and the worker is pinning his soul on his wage. Even if the worker is a minor, the worker may take an oath and collect his wage.

Different rules apply when the employer hired the worker without witnesses observing. Since the employer could say: "Such a thing never happened; I never hired you," we accept his claim when he says: "I hired you, and I paid you." Hence, the employer must take a sh'vuat hesset if he denies owing anything to the worker or a Scriptural oath if he admits a portion of his claim, as applies in all other suits. If there is one witness who testifies that the worker was hired, it is of no consequence.

Similarly, if the worker demands payment after the day on which his wage is due, we follow the principle: "A person who wishes to expropriate money from a colleague must prove his claim." This applies even if there are witnesses that the employer hired him. If he does not prove his claim, the employer may support his claim with a sh'vuat hesset and be freed of liability. If the worker proves that he has been continually demanding payment, he may take an oath and collect his wage on the day on which he demands payment.

What is implied? The worker performed labor for the employer on Monday until the evening. The time he should be paid is Monday night. On Tuesday, he can no longer take an oath and collect his wage. If he brings witnesses who testify that he demanded his wage throughout Monday night, he may take an oath and collect his wage throughout the day on Tuesday, but from Tuesday night onward, we follow the principle: "A person who wishes to expropriate money from a colleague must prove his claim."

Similarly, if he has witnesses who testify that he had demanded his wage until Thursday, he may take an oath and collect his wage throughout the day on Thursday.

ו

כָּל שָׂכִיר שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ בְּעֵדִים וּתְבָעוֹ בִּזְמַנּוֹ וְאָמַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת נָתַתִּי לְךָ שְׂכָרְךָ וְהַשָּׂכִיר אוֹמֵר לֹא נָטַלְתִּי כְּלוּם תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיִּשָּׁבַע הַשָּׂכִיר בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְיִטּל כְּדִין כָּל נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבַּעַל הַבַּיִת טָרוּד בְּפוֹעֲלָיו וְזֶה הַשָּׂכִיר נוֹשֵׂא נַפְשׁוֹ לָזֶה. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַשָּׂכִיר קָטָן הַשָּׂכִיר נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. שְׂכָרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְּעֵדִים מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לוֹמַר לֹא הָיוּ דְּבָרִים מֵעוֹלָם וְלֹא שְׂכַרְתִּיךָ נֶאֱמָן לוֹמַר שְׂכַרְתִּיךָ וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ שְׂכָרְךָ וְיִשָּׁבַע בַּעַל הַבַּיִת הֶסֵּת שֶׁנָּתַן אוֹ שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה אִם הוֹדָה בְּמִקְצָת כִּשְׁאָר הַטְּעָנוֹת. הָיָה לוֹ עֵד אֶחָד שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לוֹ כְּלוּם וְכֵן אִם תְּבָעוֹ אַחֵר זְמַנּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ בְּעֵדִים הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיא רְאָיָה יִשָּׁבַע בַּעַל הַבַּיִת הֶסֵּת. הֵבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁתְּבָעוֹ כָּל זְמַנּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם שֶׁל תְּבִיעָה. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה עִמּוֹ בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי עַד הָעֶרֶב זְמַנּוֹ כָּל לֵיל שְׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי אֵינוֹ נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. וְאִם הֵבִיא עֵדִים שֶׁהָיָה תּוֹבְעוֹ כָּל לֵיל שְׁלִישִׁי הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל כָּל יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי. אֲבָל מִלֵּיל רְבִיעִי וָהָלְאָה הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. וְכֵן אִם הֵבִיא עֵדִים שֶׁהָיָה תּוֹבְעוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד יוֹם חֲמִישִׁי הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל כָּל יוֹם חֲמִישִׁי:

7

The following rules apply when there is a difference between the employer and the worker with regard to the wage promised - e.g., the employer states "I promised you two zuz" and the worker states: "You promised me three."

In this instance, our Sages did not entitle the worker to support his claim with an oath. Instead, they applied the principle: "A person who wishes to expropriate money from a colleague must prove his claim," If the worker did not prove his claim, even though the employer already gave him the two zuz he admits owing him or says: "Here is your money," the employer must take an oath holding a sacred object. This oath was ordained by the Sages so that the worker will not depart with an unsatisfied soul.

When does the above apply? When the employer hired the worker in the presence of witnesses who did not know the wage they agreed on, and also when the worker demanded his wage on time. If, however, the employer hired the worker without this being observed by witnesses or the worker demanded payment after the time for payment passed, the employer is required to take only a sh'vuat hesset that he agreed to pay him no more than he already gave him or no more than he admits to owe him and told him that he was willing to pay, as is true with regard to all other claims.

ז

בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר שְׁתַּיִם קָצַצְתִּי לְךָ וְהַשָּׂכִיר אוֹמֵר שָׁלֹשׁ קָצַצְתָּ לִי לֹא תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיִּשָּׁבַע הַשָּׂכִיר כָּאן אֶלָּא הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיא רְאָיָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר נָתַן לוֹ שְׁתַּיִם אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הֵילָךְ הֲרֵי בַּעַל הַבַּיִת נִשְׁבָּע בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְדָבָר זֶה תַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים הוּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵלֵךְ הַשָּׂכִיר בְּפַחֵי נֶפֶשׁ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ בְּעֵדִים וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כַּמָּה פָּסַק לוֹ וּתְבָעוֹ בִּזְמַנּוֹ אֲבָל אִם שְׂכָרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְּעֵדִים אוֹ שֶׁתְּבָעוֹ אַחַר זְמַנּוֹ יִשָּׁבַע בַּעַל הַבַּיִת הֶסֵּת שֶׁלֹּא קָצַץ לוֹ אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁכְּבָר נָתַן לוֹ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר לוֹ אֶצְלוֹ אֶלָּא זֶה שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הֵילָךְ כְּדִין כָּל הַטְּעָנוֹת:

8

The following rules apply when a person gives a garment to a tailor to mend, and a difference of opinion arises concerning the payment due the tailor. The tailor says: "You promised me two zuz," and the owner says: "I promised to pay only one."

As long as the garment is in the possession of the tailor, and he would be able to claim that he purchased it, the tailor is given the opportunity of taking an oath while holding a sacred object and collecting the amount he claims. He may claim up to the amount of the article's worth as his wage. Once the garment has departed from his possession, or in a situation when we would not presume that he is the owner and he cannot claim that he purchased the garment, we follow the principle: "A person who wishes to expropriate money from a colleague must prove his claim." If he does not bring proof of his claim, the owner of the garment is required to take a sh'vuat hesset if he denies owing the tailor anything more than he paid him or a Scriptural oath if he admits a portion of the tailor's claim, as is the law with regard to other claims. Such a situation is not governed by the special leniencies granted with regard to the laws applying to a worker.

ח

הַנּוֹתֵן טַלִּיתוֹ לְאֻמָּן אֻמָּן אוֹמֵר שְׁנַיִם קָצַצְתָּ לִי וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר לֹא קָצַצְתִּי אֶלָּא אֶחָד כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַטַּלִּית בְּיַד הָאֻמָּן אִם יָכוֹל לִטְעֹן שֶׁהִיא לְקוּחָה בְּיָדוֹ הֲרֵי הָאֻמָּן נִשְׁבָּע בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְנוֹטֵל. וְיָכוֹל לִטְעֹן שֶׁהִיא בִּשְׂכָרוֹ עַד כְּדֵי דָּמֶיהָ. וְאִם יָצָאת טַלִּית מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בָּהּ חֲזָקָה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטְעֹן שֶׁהִיא לְקוּחָה בְּיָדוֹ הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיא רְאָיָה יִשָּׁבַע בַּעַל הַטַּלִּית הֶסֵּת אוֹ שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה אִם הוֹדָה בְּמִקְצָת כְּדִין כָּל הַטְּעָנוֹת. שֶׁאֵין זֶה כְּדִין הַשָּׂכִיר:

9

When a worker comes to take an oath, we do not deal severely with him, nor is he required to take an oath with regard to other claims based on the principle of gilgul sh'vuah. Instead, he takes an oath that he did not receive payment and collects his due.

We are not lenient with any other people who come to take oaths, with the exception of a worker. In his case, we are lenient and invite him to take the oath, saying: "Do not cause yourself exasperation. Take the oath and collect your due."

Even when his wage is only a p'rutah, if the owner claims to have paid him already, he should collect it only after taking an oath. Similarly, whenever a person takes an oath and collects his due, even if the claim is only one p'rutah, he may not collect it unless he takes an oath resembling one required by Scriptural Law.

ט

שָׂכִיר הַבָּא לְהִשָּׁבַע אֵין מַחֲמִירִין עָלָיו וְאֵין מְגַלְגְּלִין עָלָיו כְּלָל אֶלָּא נִשְׁבָּע שֶׁלֹּא נָטַל וְיִטּל. וּלְכָל הַנִּשְׁבָּעִין אֵין מְקִלִּין חוּץ מִן הַשָּׂכִיר שֶׁמְּקִלִּין עָלָיו וּפוֹתְחִין לוֹ תְּחִלָּה וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַל תְּצַעֵר עַצְמְךָ הִשָּׁבַע וְטל. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה שְׂכָרוֹ פְּרוּטָה אַחַת וּבַעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר נְתַתִּיהָ לֹא יִטּל אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבוּעָה. וְכֵן כָּל הַנִּשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל אֲפִלּוּ לֹא יִטְעֹן אֶלָּא פְּרוּטָה אַחַת לֹא יִטּל אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבוּעָה כְּעֵין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה:

Sechirut - Chapter 12

1

When workers are performing activities with produce that grows from the

earth,' but the work required for it has not been completed, and their actions bring the work to its completion, the employer is commanded to allow them to eat from the produce with which they are working. This applies whether they are working with produce that has been harvested or produce that is still attached to the ground.

This is derived from Deuteronomy 23:25, which states: "When you enter the vineyard of your colleague, you may eat grapes as you desire," and ibid.:26, which states: "When you enter the standing grain belonging to your colleague, you may break off stalks by hand." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that these verses are speaking solely about a paid worker. For if the owner of the produce did not hire him, what right does the person have to enter his colleague's vineyard or standing grain without his permission? Instead, the interpretation of the verse is that when you enter the domain of your employer for work, you may eat.

א

הַפּוֹעֲלִים שֶׁהֵן עוֹשִׂין בְּדָבָר שֶׁגִּדּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ בֵּין בְּתָלוּשׁ בֵּין בִּמְחֻבָּר וְיִהְיוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן גְּמִירַת הַמְּלָאכָה הֲרֵי עַל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מִצְוָה שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ אוֹתָן לֶאֱכל מִמַּה שֶּׁהֵן עוֹשִׂין בּוֹ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כה) "כִּי תָבֹא בְּכֶרֶם רֵעֶךָ" וְגוֹ' וְכָתוּב (דברים כג כו) "כִּי תָבֹא בְּקָמַת רֵעֶךָ". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵין הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בְּשָׂכִיר וְכִי אִלּוּ לֹא שְׂכָרוֹ מִי הִתִּיר לוֹ שֶׁיָּבוֹא בְּכֶרֶם רֵעֵהוּ בַּקָּמָה שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ אֶלָּא כָּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר כִּי תָבֹא לִרְשׁוּת בְּעָלִים לַעֲבוֹדָה תֹּאכַל:

2

What are the differences in the application of this mitzvah between a person who performs work with produce that has been reaped and one who works with produce that is still attached to the ground? A person who performs work with produce that has been reaped may partake of the produce as long as the work necessary for it has not been completed. Once the work necessary for it has been completed, he may not eat. By contrast, a person who performs work with produce that is still attached to the ground - e.g., a harvester of grapes or a reaper of grain - may not partake of the produce until he has completed his work.

For example, a person harvests grapes and puts them into a large basket. When the basket is filled, it is taken away and emptied in another place. According to Scriptural Law, the worker may eat only when the basket has been filled. Nevertheless, in order to prevent the owner from suffering a loss, the Sages ruled that the workers may eat while they are walking from one row to another and while they are returning from the vat, so that they will not neglect their work to sit down and eat. Instead, they were granted permission to eat while they are performing their work, so that they will not neglect it.

ב

מַה בֵּין הָעוֹשֶׂה בְּתָלוּשׁ לְעוֹשֶׂה בִּמְחֻבָּר. שֶׁהָעוֹשֶׂה בְּתָלוּשׁ אוֹכֵל בַּדָּבָר עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמַר מְלַאכְתּוֹ וּמִשֶּׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתּוֹ אָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכל. וְהָעוֹשֶׂה בִּמְחֻבָּר כְּגוֹן בּוֹצֵר וְקוֹצֵר אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיִּגְמֹר עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁיִּבְצֹר וְיִתֵּן בַּסַּל עַד שֶׁיְּמַלְּאֶנּוּ וִינַפֵּץ הַסַּל לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר וְיַחְזֹר וְיִבְצֹר וִימַלְּאֶנּוּ וְאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אֶלָּא עַד אַחַר שֶׁיְּמַלֵּא הַסַּל. אֲבָל מִפְּנֵי הֶשֵּׁב אֲבֵדָה לַבְּעָלִים אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַפּוֹעֲלִין אוֹכְלִין בַּהֲלִיכָתָן מֵאֹמֶן לְאֹמֶן וּבַחֲזִירָתָן מִן הַגַּת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִבָּטְלוּ מִמְּלַאכְתָּן וְיֵשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכל אֶלָּא אוֹכְלִין בְּתוֹךְ הַמְּלָאכָה כְּשֶׁהֵן מְהַלְּכִין וְאֵינָן מְבַטְּלִין:

3

When a person neglects his work and eats or eats when he has not completed his work, he transgresses a negative commandment, as Deuteronomy 23:26 states: "You shall not lift a sickle against your colleague's standing grain."

According to the Oral Tradition, it is explained that as long as the worker is involved in reaping, he should not lift a sickle in order to partake of the produce himself. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

Similarly, a worker who carries home produce with which he had worked or who takes more than he can eat himself and gives to others transgresses a negative commandment, as ibid.:28 states: "You may not place in your containers." The violation of these two prohibitions is not punishable by lashes, because a person who ate when one should not have or took produce home is liable to make financial restitution.

ג

הַמְבַטֵּל מִמְּלַאכְתּוֹ וְאָכַל אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת גְּמַר מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כו) "וְחֶרְמֵשׁ לֹא תָנִיף" וְגוֹ'. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא עוֹסֵק בִּקְצִירָה לֹא יָנִיף חֶרְמֵשׁ לַאֲכִילָתוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְכֵן פּוֹעֵל שֶׁהוֹלִיךְ בְּיָדוֹ מִמַּה שֶּׁעָשָׂה אוֹ שֶׁלָּקַח יֶתֶר עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ וְנוֹתֵן לַאֲחֵרִים עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כה) "וְאֶל כֶּלְיְךָ לֹא תִתֵּן". וְאֵין לוֹקִין עַל שְׁנֵי לָאוִין אֵלּוּ שֶׁאִם אָכַל אוֹ הוֹלִיךְ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם:

4

A person who milks an animal, one who makes butter, and one who makes cheese may not partake of that food, for it is not a product of the earth.

When a person hoes around onion heads and garlic heads, even though he removes small ones from the larger ones, or the like, he may not partake of them, because this activity does not constitute the completion of the task.

Needless to say, watchmen over gardens, orchards and fields where any crops are grown - e.g., cucumber gardens and gourd gardens - may not partake of the produce growing there at all.

ד

הַחוֹלֵב וְהַמְחַבֵּץ וְהַמְגַבֵּן אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן גִּדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע. הַמְנַכֵּשׁ בִּבְצָלִים וּבְשׁוּמִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתּוֹלְשִׁין קְטַנִּים מִבֵּין הַגְּדוֹלִים וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם גְּמַר מְלָאכָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שׁוֹמְרֵי גִּנּוֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִים וְכָל דָּבָר הַמְחֻבָּר כַּמִּקְשָׁאוֹת וְהַמִּדְלָעוֹת שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין כְּלָל:

5

A person who separates dates and figs at have already been harvested and are stuck together] may not partake of them, for the work that obligates the performance of the mitzvah of tithing has been completed.

A person who works with wheat and the like after they have been tithed - e.g., a person was hired to remove pebbles from grain, to sift the kernels or to grind them - may partake of them, for the work that obligates the performance of the mitzvah of challah has not been completed. When, however, a person kneads dough, bastes loaves or bakes, he may not partake of the food, because the work that obligates the performance of the mitzvah of challah has become completed. And a worker may not partake of produce except when the work that obligates the performance of the mitzvah of tithing or challah has not been completed.

ה

הַבּוֹדֵל בִּתְמָרִים וּבִגְרוֹגָרוֹת אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן לְמַעֲשֵׂר. הָעוֹשֶׂה בְּחִטִּים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אַחַר שֶׁעָשׂוּ כְּגוֹן שֶׁשְּׂכָרָן לָבוּר צְרוֹרוֹת אוֹ לְנַפֵּחַ אוֹתָן אוֹ לִטְחֹן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אוֹכְלִין שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן לְחַלָּה. אֲבָל הַלָּשׁ וְהַמְקַטֵּף וְהָאוֹפֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן לְחַלָּה וְאֵין הַפּוֹעֵל אוֹכֵל אֶלָּא מִדָּבָר שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ לְחַלָּה וּלְמַעֲשֵׂר:

6

If the cakes of figs belonging to a person become broken up, his barrels of wine become open, or his gourds become cut, and he hires workers to tend to the produce, they may not partake of it, for the work necessary for them has been completed and they have become obligated to be tithed. Indeed, they are tevel. If, however, the owner did not notify the workers, he must tithe the produce and allow them to partake of it.

Workers may not partake of the crops in a field that was consecrated to the Temple treasury. This is derived from Deuteronomy 23:25, which speaks of "your colleague's vineyard."

ו

נִתְפָּרְסוּ עִגּוּלָיו וְנִתְפַּתְּחוּ חָבִיּוֹתָיו [וְנֶחְתְּכוּ דְּלוּעָיו] וּשְׂכָרָן לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהֶן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יֹאכְלוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי נִגְמְרוּ מְלַאכְתָּן וְנִקְבְּעוּ לְמַעֲשֵׂר וַהֲרֵי הֵן טֶבֶל. וְאִם לֹא הוֹדִיעָן מְעַשֵּׂר וּמַאֲכִילָן. אֵין הַפּוֹעֲלִים אוֹכְלִין בְּשֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כה) "בְּכֶרֶם רֵעֶךָ":

7

When a person hires workers to work with produce that is neta reva'i, they may not partake of it. If he did not inform them that it was neta reva'i, he must redeem it, and allow them to partake of it.

ז

שָׂכַר פּוֹעֲלִין לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּנֶטַע רְבָעִי שֶׁלּוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יֹאכְלוּ. וְאִם לֹא הוֹדִיעָם פּוֹדֶה וּמַאֲכִילָן:

8

Workers who reap, thresh, winnow, separate unwanted matter from food, harvest olives or grapes, tread grapes, or perform any other tasks of this nature are granted the right to partake of the produce with which they working by Scriptural Law.

ח

הַקּוֹצֵר וְהַדָּשׁ וְהַזּוֹרֶה וְהַבּוֹרֵר וְהַמּוֹסֵק וְהַבּוֹצֵר וְהַדּוֹרֵךְ וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בִּמְלָאכוֹת אֵלּוּ הֲרֵי הֵם אוֹכְלִין מִן הַתּוֹרָה:

9

Watchmen for vats, grain heaps and any produce that has been separated from the ground, for which the work that obligates tithing has not been completed may partake of the produce because of local convention. They are not granted this privilege according to Scriptural Law, because a watchman is not considered to be one who performs an action.

If, however, a person works with his limbs whether with his hands, his feet or even with his shoulders, he is entitled to partake of produce according to the Torah.

ט

שׁוֹמְרֵי גִּתּוֹת וַעֲרֵמוֹת וְכָל דָּבָר הַתָּלוּשׁ מִן הַקַּרְקַע שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן לְמַעֲשֵׂר אוֹכְלִין מֵהִלְכוֹת מְדִינָה שֶׁהַשּׁוֹמֵר אֵינוֹ כְּעוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה. אֲבָל אִם עָשָׂה בְּאֵיבָרָיו בֵּין בְּיָדָיו בֵּין בְּרַגְלָיו אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְתֵפָיו הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹכֵל מִן הַתּוֹרָה:

10

A worker who is working with figs may not partake of grapes. One who is working with grapes may not partake of figs. These laws are derived from Deuteronomy 23:25, which states: "When you enter the vineyard of your colleague, you may eat grapes."

When a person is working with one vine, he may not eat from another vine. Nor may he partake of grapes together with other food; he should not partake of them together with bread or salt. If, however, the worker set a limit concerning the quantity that he may eat, he may eat the produce with salt, with bread or with any other food that he desires.

It is forbidden for a worker to suck the juice from grapes, for the verse states: "And you shall eat grapes." Neither the worker's sons nor his wife

may roast the kernels of grain in a fire for him. This is implied by the above verse, which states: "You may eat grapes as you desire." The implication is that you must desire the grapes as they are. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

י

הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה בִּתְאֵנִים לֹא יֹאכַל בַּעֲנָבִים בַּעֲנָבִים לֹא יֹאכַל בִּתְאֵנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כה) "בְּכֶרֶם" "וְאָכַלְתָּ עֲנָבִים". וְהָעוֹשֶׂה בְּגֶפֶן זוֹ אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל בְּגֶפֶן אַחֶרֶת. וְלֹא יֹאכַל עֲנָבִים וְדָבָר אַחֵר. וְלֹא יֹאכַל בְּפַת וְלֹא בְּמֶלַח וְאִם קָצַץ עַל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת עַל שִׁעוּר מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל אוֹכֵל אוֹתוֹ בֵּין בְּמֶלַח בֵּין בְּפַת בֵּין בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. אָסוּר לְפוֹעֵל לָמֹץ בַּעֲנָבִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְאָכַלְתָּ עֲנָבִים. וְלֹא יִהְיוּ בָּנָיו אוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ מְהַבְהֲבִין לוֹ הַשִּׁבֳּלִין בָּאוּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כה) "וְאָכַלְתָּ עֲנָבִים כְּנַפְשְׁךָ" עֲנָבִים כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11

It is forbidden for a worker to eat an inordinate amount of the produce with which he is working. This is implied by the above verse, which states: "You may eat... as you desire, to your satisfaction." It is permitted, however, for him to delay eating until he reaches the place of higher quality grapes and eat there.

A worker may eat even a dinar's worth of cucumbers or dates even though he was hired to work only for a silver me'ah. Nevertheless, we teach a person not to be a glutton, so that he will not close the doors in his own face. if a person is guarding four or five grain heaps, he should not eat his fill from only one of them. Instead, he should eat an equal amount from each one.

יא

אָסוּר לַפּוֹעֵל לֶאֱכל מִמַּה שֶּׁהוּא אוֹכֵל אֲכִילָה גַּסָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כְּנַפְשְׁךָ שָׂבְעֶךָ. וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לִמְנֹעַ אֶת עַצְמוֹ עַד מְקוֹם הַיָּפוֹת וְאוֹכֵל. וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לֶאֱכל קִישׁוּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִינָר וְכוֹתֶבֶת אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִינָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ בְּמָעָה כֶּסֶף שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כה) "כְּנַפְשְׁךָ שָׂבְעֶךָ". אֲבָל מְלַמְּדִין אֶת הָאָדָם שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה רְעַבְתָּן וְיִהְיֶה סוֹתֵם אֶת הַפֶּתַח בְּפָנָיו. הָיָה מְשַׁמֵּר אַרְבַּע אוֹ חָמֵשׁ עֲרֵמוֹת לֹא יְמַלֵּא כְּרֵסוֹ מֵאַחַת מֵהֶן אֶלָּא אוֹכֵל מִכָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן:

12

Workers who have not walked both lengthwise and laterally in a vat may eat grapes but may not drink wine, for at that time they are still working solely with grapes. When they have treaded in the vat and walked both lengthwise and laterally, they may eat grapes and drink the grape juice, for they are working with both the grapes and the wine.

יב

הַפּוֹעֲלִים שֶׁלֹּא הָלְכוּ שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב בַּגַּת אוֹכְלִין עֲנָבִים וְאֵין שׁוֹתִין יַיִן שֶׁעֲדַיִן אֵינָן עוֹשִׂין אֶלָּא בַּעֲנָבִים בִּלְבַד. וּמִשֶּׁיִּדְרְכוּ בַּגַּת וִיהַלְּכוּ בָּהּ שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב יֵשׁ לָהֶן לֶאֱכל מִן הָעֲנָבִים וְלִשְׁתּוֹת מִן הַתִּירוֹשׁ שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן עוֹשִׂין בָּעֲנָבִים וּבַיַּיִן:

13

When a worker says: "Give my wife and my children what I would eat," or "I will give a small amount of what I have taken to eat to my wife and my children," he is not given this prerogative. For the Torah has granted this right only to a worker himself. Even when a nazarite who is working with grapes says, "Give some to my wife and children," his words are of no consequence.

יג

פּוֹעֵל שֶׁאָמַר תְּנוּ לְאִשְׁתִּי וּבָנַי מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי אוֹכֵל אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נוֹתֵן מְעַט מִזֶּה שֶׁנָּטַלְתִּי לֶאֱכל לְאִשְׁתִּי וּבָנַי אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא זִכְּתָה תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא לַפּוֹעֵל עַצְמוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ נָזִיר שֶׁהָיָה עוֹשֶׂה בָּעֲנָבִים וְאָמַר תְּנוּ לְאִשְׁתִּי וּבָנַי אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ:

14

When a worker - and his wife, his children and his slaves - were all employed to work with produce, and the worker stipulated that they - neither he nor the members of his household - should not partake of the produce, they may not partake of it.

When does the above apply? When they are past majority, because they are intellectually mature, responsible for their decisions, and willingly gave up the right the Torah granted them. If, however, the children are minors, their father cannot pledge that they will not eat, for they are not eating from his property or from what the employer grants them, but rather from what they were granted by God.

יד

פּוֹעֵל שֶׁהָיָה עוֹשֶׂה הוּא וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו וַעֲבָדָיו וְהִתְנָה עִם הַבַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלוּ מִמַּה שֶּׁהֵן עוֹשִׂין לֹא הוּא וְלֹא הֵם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֵינָן אוֹכְלִין. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּגְדוֹלִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם דַּעַת וַהֲרֵי מָחֲלוּ אֲבָל קְטַנִּים אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִפְסֹק עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלוּ שֶׁאֵינָן אוֹכְלִין מִשֶּׁל אֲבִיהֶן אוֹ מִשֶּׁל אֲדוֹנֵיהֶם אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁל שָׁמַיִם:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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