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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Five, Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Six, Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Seven

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Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Five

1

When a person sells an entity that has appurtenances, he is not including the appurtenances in the sale unless that is explicitly stated.

What is implied? If a person sold a house, he did not sell the patio around the house, even though it opens to the house. When does the above apply? When the patio is four cubits or more wide. If it is smaller than this, it is considered to be part of the house.

Similarly, a loft that is above a house and that opens up to it through an opening in the ceiling of the house is considered to be part of the house.

א

הַמּוֹכֵר דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תַּשְׁמִישִׁין לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַתַּשְׁמִישִׁין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן פֵּרֵשׁ. כֵּיצַד. מָכַר אֶת הַבַּיִת לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַיָּצִיעַ שֶׁסְּבִיבוֹת הַבַּיִת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא פָּתוּחַ לְתוֹכוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיָה רֹחַב הַיָּצִיעַ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אוֹ יֶתֶר. אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִזֶּה הֲרֵי הוּא בִּכְלַל הַבַּיִת. וְכֵן הָעֲלִיָּה שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַבַּיִת הַפְּתוּחָה לְתוֹכוֹ בָּאֲרֻבָּה בְּמֵעֲזִיבַת הַבַּיִת הֲרֵי הוּא בִּכְלַל הַבַּיִת:

2

When a person sells a house, he is not including a room that is located behind the house in the sale. This applies even when it is included in the external borders of the property that the seller draws for the purchaser. Nor does the sale include the roof if it is four cubits wide and possesses a guardrail that is ten handbreadths high. Nor does it include a water receptacle hollowed out in the ground or a cistern that is built within a pit projecting above the ground. This applies even when he sold him the height and the depth of the property, as we have explained above.

ב

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַבַּיִת לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַחֶדֶר שֶׁלְּפָנִים מִמֶּנּוּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּצֵר לוֹ מְצָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים. וְלֹא אֶת הַגַּג בִּזְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַעֲקֵה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ רֹחַב אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. וְלֹא אֶת הַבּוֹר הֶחָפוּר בַּקַּרְקַע וְלֹא אֶת הַדּוּת הַבָּנוּי בַּבּוֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ הָעֹמֶק וְהָרוּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

The seller must purchase a path from the purchaser in order to gain access to the water receptacle or the cistern that he retained. For when a person sells property, he sells generously.

If at the time of the original sale, the seller tells the purchaser: "I am selling you the house with the exception of the water receptacle or the cistern," he does not have to buy a path to the cistern. Similarly, when a person purchases a water receptacle or a cistern alone, the purchaser does not have to purchase a path. Instead, he may enter the seller's house and proceed as far as the cistern and fill his container.

ג

וְצָרִיךְ הַמּוֹכֵר לִקְנוֹת לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מִן הַלּוֹקֵחַ כְּדֵי לְהִכָּנֵס בְּבוֹר זֶה אוֹ לַדּוּת שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר. שֶׁכָּל הַמּוֹכֵר בְּעַיִן יָפָה מוֹכֵר. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ מָכַרְתִּי לְךָ הַבַּיִת חוּץ מִן הַבּוֹר אוֹ הַדּוּת אֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ. וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר בּוֹר אוֹ דּוּת בִּלְבַד אֵין הַלּוֹקֵחַ צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אֶלָּא נִכְנָס לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל מוֹכֵר עַד הַדּוּת וּמְמַלֵּא:

4

The following rules apply when there are two rooms, one inside the other: If one sold them to two separate people or gave them to two separate people, neither of the recipients has the right to make a path through the other's property. Needless to say, this applies if the original owner gave the external room away and sold the inner one.

If, however, he sold the outer room and gave away the inner room, the recipient of the inner room has the right to make a path for himself through the outer room. The rationale is that a person is more generous when he gives than when he sells.

ד

שְׁנֵי בָּתִּים זֶה לְפָנִים מִזֶּה. מָכַר שְׁנֵיהֶם לִשְׁנַיִם אוֹ נָתַן שְׁנֵיהֶם לִשְׁנַיִם אֵין לָהֶם דֶּרֶךְ זֶה עַל זֶה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם נָתַן הַחִיצוֹן וּמָכַר הַפְּנִימִי. אֲבָל אִם מָכַר הַחִיצוֹן וְנָתַן הַפְּנִימִי יֵשׁ לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁכָּל הַנּוֹתֵן בְּעַיִן יָפָה נוֹתֵן יוֹתֵר מִן הַמּוֹכֵר:

5

When a person sells a house, he also sells the oven, the range, the door frames that are attached with mortar, the door, the beam, the lock, but not the key. He also sells a mill that is permanently affixed in the ground, but not one that is movable. He sells the wooden base on which a mill is positioned, but not the container into which the flour descends. Nor does he sell the blocks for the feet of a bed, nor the window frames, even though they are affixed with mortar, for they are intended for decoration.

When the seller says that he is selling the house and all its contents, all of the above are also sold.

ה

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַבַּיִת מָכַר אֶת הַתַּנּוּר וְאֶת הַכִּירַיִם וְאֶת מַלְבְּנוֹת הַפְּתָחִים הַמְחֻבָּרִין בְּטִיט וְאֶת הַדֶּלֶת וְאֶת הַנֶּגֶר וְאֶת הַמַּנְעוּל אֲבָל לֹא הַמַּפְתֵּחַ. וּמָכַר אֶת הַמַּכְתֶּשֶׁת הַקְּבוּעָה אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הַמִּטַלְטֶּלֶת. וּמָכַר אֶת הָאִיצְטְרוֹבִיל אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הַכְּלִי שֶׁהַקֶּמַח יוֹרֵד לְתוֹכוֹ שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ כְּפִיפָה שֶׁל עֵץ. וְלֹא מָכַר אֶת מַלְבְּנוֹת כִּרְעֵי הַמִּטָּה וְלֹא אֶת מַלְבְּנוֹת הַחַלּוֹנוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מְחֻבָּרִין בְּטִיט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן לְנוֹי. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר הוּא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין:

6

When a person sells a courtyard, he includes in the sale any water reservoirs, vaults or cellars that are located in it, all the outer and inner buildings, the buildings that contain sand and the stores that open to it. The stores that do not open to it, by contrast, are not included in the sale.

If stores open both inside and outside the courtyard the following rules apply. If the majority of the activity performed within them is performed within the courtyard, they are included in its sale. If not, they are not included in the sale. Movable property located in the courtyard is not included in the sale.

When the seller says that he is selling the courtyard and all its contents, all of the above are also sold. Regardless of what he said, a bathhouse or an olive press located within are not sold.

ו

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הֶחָצֵר מָכַר בּוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ. וְכָל הַבָּתִּים הַחִיצוֹנִים וְהַפְּנִימִים וּבָתִּים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן הַחל וְהַחֲנֻיּוֹת הַפְּתוּחוֹת לְתוֹכָהּ. אֲבָל שֶׁאֵינָן פְּתוּחוֹת לְתוֹכָהּ אֵינָם נִמְכָּרִים עִמָּהּ. הָיוּ פְּתוּחוֹת לְכָאן וּלְכָאן אִם רֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן לְתוֹכָהּ נִמְכָּרוֹת עִמָּהּ וְאִם לָאו אֵינָן נִמְכָּרוֹת עִמָּהּ. וְלֹא מָכַר אֶת הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ. וּבַזְּמַן שֶׁאָמַר הִיא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּם מְכוּרִין. בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ וְלֹא בֵּית הַבַּד שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ:

7

When a person sells an olive press, he includes in the sale the large stone that is affixed in the ground, upon which the olives are ground, the cedar beams that are used for support when the olives are being ground, the storage reservoirs and the storage containers in which the crushed olives are placed. These are called mafrechot. Not included in the sale is the upper millstone.

When the seller says that he is selling the olive press and all its contents, all of the above are also sold. Regardless of what he said, the blocks that are used to press the olives, the apparatus that rotates the stone, the beam, the sacks and the leather sacks used in the press are not sold.

ז

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת בֵּית הַבַּד מָכַר אֶת הָאֶבֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה הַבְּנוּיָה בָּאָרֶץ שֶׁטּוֹחֲנִים עָלֶיהָ זֵיתִים. וְאֶת הַכְּלֻנְסָאוֹת שֶׁל אֶרֶז שֶׁסּוֹמְכִין בָּהֶן בְּעֵת טְחִינַת הַזֵּיתִים. וְאֶת הַיְקָבִים וְאֶת הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין בָּהֶן אֶת הַזֵּיתִים הַכְּתוּשִׁין וְהֵם הַמְפָרְכוֹת. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר אֶת הָרֵחָיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנָה. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר הוּא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין. בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַכּוֹבְשִׁין שֶׁמְּכַבְּשִׁין בָּהֶן הַזֵּיתִים וְלֹא אֶת הַגַּלְגַּל וְלֹא אֶת הַקּוֹרָה וְלֹא אֶת הַשַּׂקִּין וְלֹא אֶת הַמַּרְצוּפִין:

8

When the seller says: "I am selling you an olive press and all its accessories," all of the above are sold.

The following rules apply if there are stores outside the olive press where olives or sesame seeds are spread out. If when the seller drew the external boundaries, he included these, they are all included in the sale. If not, the purchaser acquires only what is inside the building of the press itself.

ח

אָמַר לוֹ בֵּית הַבַּד וְכָל תַּשְׁמִישָׁיו אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין. הָיוּ חוּצָה לָהּ חֲנֻיּוֹת שֶׁשּׁוֹטְחִים בָּהֶן הַזֵּיתִים אוֹ הַשֻּׁמְשְׁמִין. אִם מֵצֵר לוֹ מְצָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים שֶׁלָּהֶן קָנָה הַכּל. וְאִם לָאו לֹא קָנָה אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ:

9

When a person sells a bathhouse, included in the sale is the plank room where people sit while they are naked, the storehouse for the containers in which water is placed, the room where there are benches in the courtyard of the bathhouse where people sit when they are clothed, and the towel room in which they dry themselves. Not included in the sale are the planks, the water containers, the benches or the towels themselves.

When the seller says that he is selling the bathhouse] and all its contents, all of the above are also sold. Regardless of what he said, he did not include in the sale the pools that provide water for the bathhouse in the summer and in the winter, nor the lumber shed where wood is stored.

When the seller says: "I am selling you a bathhouse and all its accessories," all of the above are sold, even though they are located outside [the bathhouse itself.)"

ט

המוֹכֵר אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ מָכַר אֶת בֵּית הַנְּסָרִים שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כְּשֶׁהֵן עֲרֻמִּים. וְאֶת בֵּית הַיְקָמִים שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין בָּהֶן הַמַּיִם. וְאֶת בֵּית הַסַּפְסָלִין שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין עֲלֵיהֶן בַּחֲצַר הַמֶּרְחָץ כְּשֶׁהֵן לְבוּשִׁים. וְאֶת בֵּית הַוִּילָאוֹת שֶׁמִּסְתַּפְּגִין בָּהֶן. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַנְּסָרִים עַצְמָן וְאֶת הַיְּקָמִים עַצְמָן וְלֹא אֶת הַסַּפְסָלִין עַצְמָן וְלֹא אֶת בֵּית הַוִּילָאוֹת עַצְמָן. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הוּא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין. בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לֹא מָכַר הַבְּרֵכוֹת הַמְסַפְּקוֹת לוֹ מַיִם בֵּין בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה בֵּין בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים. וְלֹא בֵּית כִּנּוּס הָעֵצִים. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ מֶרְחָץ וְכָל תַּשְׁמִישָׁיו אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ הֲרֵי הֵן כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן חוּצָה לוֹ:

Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Six

1

When a person sells a town, included in the sale are the homes, the water reservoirs, vaults, cellars, bathhouses, dovecotes, olive presses, aqueducts in the town and near the town, the woods that surround the town, the fields that are known to be part of the town, the pens for wild animals, fowl and fish that face the town, even though they are distant from it. Not included in the sale is the movable property the town contains.

When the seller says that he is selling the town and all its contents, the movable propertyis also sold. Regardless of what he said, he did not include in the sale fields that are not known to be part of the town, the villages that surround it, the woods that are distant from it, its portion of a sea, its portion of dry land, or the pens for wild animals, fowl and fish that do not face the town.

א

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הָעִיר מָכַר בָּתִּים וּבוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת וּמֶרְחֲצָאוֹת וְשׁוֹבָכוֹת וּבֵית הַבַּדִּים וּבֵית הַשְּׁלָחִין שֶׁבָּהּ וְהַסְּמוּכִין לָהּ. וְאֶת הַחוֹרָשִׁין הַמֻּקָּפִין לָהּ וְאֶת הַשָּׂדוֹת הַיְדוּעוֹת לָהּ. וְאֶת הַבֵּיבָרִין שֶׁל חַיָּה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים שֶׁפְּנֵיהֶם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן רְחוֹקִים מִמֶּנָּה. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הִיא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין. וּבֵין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לֹא מָכַר לֹא אֶת שְׁיָרֶיהָ וְלֹא אֶת בְּנוֹתֶיהָ וְלֹא הַחוֹרָשִׁין הַמֻּקְצִין מִמֶּנָּה. וְלֹא אֶת הַחֵלֶק שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ בַּיָּם וְלֹא אֶת הַחֵלֶק שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ בַּיַּבָּשָׁה. וְלֹא אֶת בֵּיבָרֵי חַיָּה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים שֶׁאֵין פְּנֵיהֶם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ:

2

When a person sells a field, included in the sale are the stones that support the fence and the stones that are placed on the sheaves, for they are necessary elements of the field. Also included in the sale are the planed reeds that are placed under the vines to support them, the grain that is attached to the ground even though the time for its harvest has come, a place where reeds grow that is less than the area necessary to sow a fourth of a se'ah of grain, even though the reeds that grow there are thick and strong, the hut for the watchman which is made with mortar, even though it is not a permanent structure, a carob tree even though other trees have not been grafted upon it, wild fig trees that have not been cut down yet, even though their trunks are thick, and all the date palms it contains.

The following articles, by contrast, are not included in the sale: the stones that are not structured to support the fence, and the stones that are not placed on the sheaves, even though they are prepared for these purposes, the reeds in the vineyard that are not placed under the vines even though they have been planed, made flat and prepared for this purpose, and the grain that has been uprooted from the ground even though it still requires the field. When the seller says that he is selling the field and all its contents, these are also sold.

ב

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה מָכַר אֶת הָאֲבָנִים הַסְּדוּרוֹת לַגָּדֵר וְאֶת הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁמֻּנָּחוֹת עַל הָעֳמָרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן לְצָרְכָּהּ. וּמָכַר אֶת הַקָּנִים הַחֲלָקִים הַמֻּנָּחִין תַּחַת הַגְּפָנִים כְּדֵי לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת הַכֶּרֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן לְצָרְכָּהּ. וּמָכַר אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה הַמְחֻבֶּרֶת לַקַּרְקַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְהִקָּצֵר. וּמָכַר אֶת מְחִצַּת הַקָּנִים שֶׁהִיא פְּחוּתָה מִבֵּית רֹבַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקָּנִים שֶׁלָּהּ עָבִים וַחֲזָקִים. וּמָכַר אֶת הַשּׁוֹמֵרָה הָעֲשׂוּיָה בְּטִיט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ קְבוּעָה. וּמָכַר אֶת הֶחָרוּב שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻרְכָּב וְאֶת בְּתוּלַת הַשִּׁקְמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן עָבִים. וּמָכַר כָּל הַדְּקָלִים שֶׁבָּהּ. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר אֶת הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁאֵינָן סְדוּרוֹת לַגָּדֵר. וְלֹא אֶת הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁאֵינָן מֻנָּחוֹת עַל גַּבֵּי הָעֳמָרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מוּכָנוֹת לְכָךְ. וְלֹא אֶת הַקָּנִים שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם שֶׁאֵינָן מֻנָּחִין תַּחַת הַגְּפָנִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מְשֻׁפִּין וַחֲלָקִים וּמוּכָנִים לְכָךְ. וְלֹא אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה הָעֲקוּרָה מִן הַקַּרְקַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה לַשָּׂדֶה. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הִיא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין:

3

Regardless of what the seller said, he did not include in the sale a place where reeds grow that is the size of an area necessary to sow a fourth of a se'ah of grain- even though the reeds growing in it are thin and small - a small block of spices that has a name of its own - e.g., it is called so and so's rose garden - the hut for the watchman, which is not made with mortar even though it is affixed to the ground, a carob tree upon which other trees have been grafted, and stumps of wild fig trees that have been cut down even though they are thin.

Nor is a water reservoir, a grape press or a dovecote - whether complete or destroyed - included in the sale.

ג

בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לֹא מָכַר מְחִצַּת הַקָּנִים שֶׁהִיא בֵּית רֹבַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקָּנִים שֶׁבָּהּ דַּקִּים וּקְטַנִּים. וְלֹא מָכַר עֲרוּגָה קְטַנָּה שֶׁל בְּשָׂמִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁקּוֹרִין לָהּ בֵּי וַרְדָּא שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי. וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹמֵרָה בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה בְּטִיט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא קְבוּעָה בָּאָרֶץ. וְלֹא מָכַר אֶת הֶחָרוּב הַמֻּרְכָּב. וְלֹא סַדָּן שֶׁל שִׁקְמָה וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן דַּקִּים. וְלֹא מָכַר אֶת הַבּוֹר שֶׁבָּהּ וְלֹא אֶת הַגַּת וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹבָךְ בֵּין חֲרֵבִים בֵּין שְׁלֵמִים:

4

The seller must purchase from the purchaser a path in order to proceed to the water reservoir, grape press or dovecote that he retained in the field. If the seller explicitly said: "The field is sold with the exception of these items," he does not have to purchase a path.

ד

וְצָרִיךְ הַמּוֹכֵר לִקְנוֹת לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מִן הַלּוֹקֵחַ כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ בָּהּ עַד אוֹתוֹ הַבּוֹר אוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַדּוּת אוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַגַּת אוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַשּׁוֹבָךְ שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ לוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה. וְאִם פֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר חוּץ מֵאֵלּוּ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ [דֶּרֶךְ]:

5

When do the above restrictions with regard to what is included in a sale apply? With regard to a seller, for the purchaser should have explicitly stated that these entities are being included in the sale. Since he did not make such a statement, he does not receive them.

When, however, a person gives a present, the recipient acquires all the entities mentioned above - whether a field, a house, a courtyard or an olive press - that are being transferred. The general principle is that when a person gives landed property as a present, the recipient acquires everything that is attached to it unless the giver specifies otherwise.

ה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמוֹכֵר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לַלּוֹקֵחַ לְפָרֵשׁ וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ אֵין לוֹ אֶת אֵלּוּ. אֲבָל הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה קָנָה אֶת כֻּלָּן בֵּין בַּשָּׂדֶה בֵּין בַּבַּיִת בֵּין בֶּחָצֵר בֵּין בְּבֵית הַבַּד. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר הַנּוֹתֵן קַרְקַע בְּמַתָּנָה קָנָה הַמְקַבֵּל כָּל הַמְחֻבָּר לָהּ עַד שֶׁיְּפָרֵשׁ:

6

Similarly, when brothers divide an inheritance, and one acquires a field, he acquires all the articles associated with the field. When a person takes possession of the property of a convert who dies, if he takes possession of a field, he acquires all of the above. And when a person consecrates a field, he consecrates all of the above.

ו

וְכֵן הָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ וְזָכָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן בַּשָּׂדֶה זָכָה בְּכֻלָּן. וְהַמַּחֲזִיק בְּנִכְסֵי הַגֵּר הֶחֱזִיק בַּשָּׂדֶה זָכָה בְּכֻלָּן. וְהַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה הִקְדִּישׁ כֻּלָּן:

7

Even with regard to a seller and a purchaser, all the above concepts apply with regard to these matters only when there is not a fixed custom or known terms commonly used with regard to every individual article. In a place where it is customary that a person who sells a particular entity includes in the sale other particular entities, those entities are included in the sale even if they are not mentioned explicitly, for we rely on the custom.

Similarly, in a place where the term "house" refers to the house alone, or the term "house" refers not only to the house but to all of its surroundings and everything that is upon it, we follow the meaning common in that locale.

Similarly, when a person sells a courtyard, a field, a town or movable property, with regard to everything we follow the meaning of the terms that are used by all the local people.

ז

אַף בְּמוֹכֵר וְלוֹקֵחַ אֵין כָּל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מֵעִנְיָנִים אֲמוּרִים אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְהָג וְלֹא שֵׁמוֹת יְדוּעִים לְכָל דָּבָר וְדָבָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר כָּךְ מָכַר כָּךְ הֲרֵי זֶה מָכוּר וְסוֹמְכִין עַל הַמִּנְהָג. וְכֵן מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין אֶלָּא בַּיִת לְבַיִת לְבַדּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁקּוֹרִין בַּיִת לְבַיִת וְכָל סְבִיבוֹתָיו וּלְכָל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו הוֹלְכִין אַחַר לְשׁוֹן אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּמוֹכֵר חָצֵר אוֹ שָׂדֶה אוֹ עִיר אוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין בַּכּל הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הַשֵּׁמוֹת הָעֲרוּכוֹת בְּפִי הַכּל:

8

This is a fundamental principle: With regard to all matters of commerce and trade, we follow the commonly accepted meanings of the terms used by people of that place, and the local business customs. When, however, there are no local business customs or commonly accepted meanings of terms, and instead, one person will have this intent and another, another intent, we follow the guidelines explained by the Sages in these chapters.

ח

וְזֶה עִקָּר גָּדוֹל בְּכָל דִּבְרֵי מַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן הוֹלְכִין אַחַר לְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם בְּאוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם וְאַחַר הַמִּנְהָג. אֲבָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין יָדוּעַ בּוֹ מִנְהָג וְלֹא שֵׁמוֹת מְיֻחָדִין אֶלָּא יֵשׁ קוֹרִין כָּךְ וְיֵשׁ שֶׁקּוֹרִין כָּךְ עוֹשִׂים כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים בִּפְרָקִים אֵלּוּ:

Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Seven

1

When a person sells a ship, included in the sale are the mast, the sail, its anchors, the ropes used to steer it, the ramp and the ladder with which one ascends to the ship and descends to its lower deck, and the reservoir of drinking water it contains.

Not included in the sail is the beitzit - the small boat in which one sails to land, the dugit - the small boat with which the sailors fish - the servants who work on the ship, or the sacks and the merchandise that it contains. When the seller tells the purchaser: "I am selling you a ship and everything it contains, they are all included in the sale.

א

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַסְּפִינָה מָכַר אֶת הַתֹּרֶן וְאֶת הַנֵּס וְאֶת הָעֳגָנִים שֶׁלָּהּ וְאֶת כָּל הַמְּשׁוֹטִין הַמַּנְהִיגִין אוֹתָהּ. וְאֶת הַכֶּבֶשׁ וְהָאַסְכָּלָה שֶׁעוֹלִין בָּהֶן לַסְּפִינָה וְיוֹרְדִין עָלֶיהָ. וְאֶת בֵּית הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַבֵּיצִית וְהִיא הַסְּפִינָה הַקְּטַנָּה שֶׁהוֹלְכִים בָּהּ עַל הַמַּיִם הַקְּרוֹבִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה. וְלֹא מָכַר הַדּוּגִית וְהִיא הַסְּפִינָה הַקְּטַנָּה שֶׁצָּדִין בָּהּ הַמַּלָּחִים אֶת הַדָּגִים. וְלֹא מָכַר אֶת הָעֲבָדִים הָעוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן. וְלֹא אֶת הַמַּרְצוּפִין. וְלֹא אֶת הַסְּחוֹרָה שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הִיא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אֲנִי מוֹכֵר הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין:

2

When a person sells a carriage, he has not sold the mules if they are not attached to it. If he sells the mules, he has not sold the carriage.

If a person sells a yoke, he does not sell the oxen. If he sells the oxen, he does not sell the yoke. This applies even in a place where, when some people say "oxen," they are referring to a yoked team.

ב

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַקָּרוֹן לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַפְּרָדוֹת בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָן קְשׁוּרוֹת עִמּוֹ. מָכַר אֶת הַפְּרָדוֹת לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַקָּרוֹן. מָכַר אֶת הַצֶּמֶד לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַבָּקָר. מָכַר אֶת הַבָּקָר לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַצֶּמֶד. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁקּוֹרִין מִקְצָתָן לְצֶמֶד בָּקָר:

3

When a person sells a single yoke, he also sells the cow. When he sells a cow, he does not sell its yoke. When he sells a wagon, he sells the oxen. When he sells oxen, he has not sold the wagon.

In all these matters and the like, the price of the article is no proof of the seller's intent.'

ג

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הָעֹל מָכַר אֶת הַפָּרָה. מָכַר אֶת הַפָּרָה לֹא מָכַר אֶת הָעֹל. מָכַר אֶת הַעֲגָלָה מָכַר אֶת הַבָּקָר. מָכַר אֶת הַבָּקָר לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַעֲגָלָה. וְאֵין הַדָּמִים רְאָיָה בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

4

When a person sells a donkey, included in the sale are the saddlecloth and the saddle, even though they are not on the donkey. The saddle-bags and a riding seat for women are not included in the sale, even if they are on the donkey at the time of the sale.

ד

וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַחֲמוֹר מָכַר אֶת הַמִּרְדַּעַת וְאֶת הָאֻכָּף אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן עָלָיו. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַשַּׂק וְלֹא מֶרְכֶּבֶת הַנָּשִׁים וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ עָלָיו בִּשְׁעַת הַמֶּכֶר:

5

The price paid for an article is not considered to be proof of the seller's intent. If the purchaser erred with regard to a sum that one might ordinarily err, the laws of ona'ah are applied, or the transaction is nullified, as is the law with regard to any seller and purchaser. If, however, the error is inordinately greater than one would make, the transaction is not nullified. We assume that the extra money is a present that the purchaser gave the seller, and the purchaser receives merely a donkey without its saddlebags.

The same applies in all analogous situations: We do not bring proof of the seller's intent from the price.

ה

וְאֵין הַדָּמִים רְאָיָה שֶׁאִם טָעָה בִּכְדֵי שֶׁהַדַּעַת טוֹעָה יֵשׁ לוֹ אוֹנָאָה אוֹ בִּטּוּל מִקָּח כְּדִין כָּל הַמּוֹכֵר וְלוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם טָעָה בִּכְדֵי שֶׁאֵין הַדַּעַת טוֹעָה לֹא בָּטַל הַמִּקָּח. שֶׁזֶּה מַתָּנָה נָתַן לוֹ וְאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא הַחֲמוֹר בְּלֹא שַׂקִּים. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה אֵין מְבִיאִין בּוֹ רְאָיָה מִן הַדָּמִים:

6

When a person sells a maid-servant, included in the sale are all the garments she is wearing, even if there are one hundred. Nevertheless, jewelry

- e.g., a bracelet, a nose ring, a finger ring or a choker worn around the neck

- are not included in the sale.

If the seller says: "I am selling you a maid-servant and everything that is upon her," even if she is wearing articles that are worth 100 maneh, they are all included in the sale.

ו

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַשִּׁפְחָה מָכַר כֵּלִים שֶׁעָלֶיהָ אֲפִלּוּ הֵם מֵאָה. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר הַשֵּׁירִים וְלֹא הַנְּזָמִים וְלֹא הַטַּבָּעוֹת וְלֹא אֶת הַקַּטְלָאוֹת שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָהּ. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ שִׁפְחָה וְכָל מַה שֶּׁעָלֶיהָ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ כֵּלִים שֶׁל מֵאָה מָנֶה:

7

If a person tells a colleague, "I am selling you a pregnant maid-servant," or "I am selling you a pregnant cow," the fetus is sold together with the mother.

If a person tells a colleague, "I am selling you a nursing maid-servant," or "I am selling you a nursing cow," the infant or the calf is not included in the sale.

If a person tells a colleague, "I am selling you a nursing donkey, the donkey colt is included in the sale, because no one ever sells a donkey for its milk.

ז

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שִׁפְחָה מְעֵבֶּרֶת אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. פָּרָה מְעֵבֶּרֶת אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הַוָּלָד. שִׁפְחָה מֵינִיקָה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. פָּרָה מֵינִיקָה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. לֹא מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הַוָּלָד. חֲמוֹרָה מֵינִיקָה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הַסְּיָח שֶׁאֵין אָדָם קוֹנֶה חֲמוֹרָה לַחֲלָבָהּ:

8

If a person tells a colleague, "I am selling you the head of this servant," or "... of this donkey," half of the animal is included in the sale. Similar laws apply with regard to any organ on which the life of the animal depends.

If the seller tells the purchaser: "The hand of this servant..." or "the forearm of this donkey is sold to you," an evaluation is made between them. Similar laws apply with regard to any organ on which the life of the animal does not depend.

If he tells him: "I am selling you the head of this cow," only the head is included in the sale, for the head of a cow is always being sold in butcher shops.

ח

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ רֹאשׁ עֶבֶד זֶה אוֹ רֹאשׁ חֲמוֹר זֶה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ הֲרֵי זֶה מָכַר חֶצְיוֹ. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל אֵיבָר שֶׁהַנְּשָׁמָה תְּלוּיָה בּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ יַד עֶבֶד זֶה אוֹ יַד חֲמוֹר זֶה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ מְשַׁמְּנִין בֵּינֵיהֶם. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל אֵיבָר שֶׁאֵין הַנְּשָׁמָה תְּלוּיָה בּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ רֹאשׁ פָּרָה זוֹ אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ לֹא מָכַר אֶלָּא הָרֹאשׁ בִּלְבַד שֶׁהֲרֵי רֹאשָׁהּ נִמְכֶּרֶת תָּמִיד בַּמִּטְבָּחַיִם:

9

When a person sells the head of a large animal, the feet are not included in the sale. If he sells the feet, the head is not sold. If he sells the windpipe, the liver is not sold. If he sells the liver, the windpipe is not sold.

With regard to a small animal, however, different laws apply. When a person sells the head, the feet are included in the sale. If he sells the feet, the head is not sold. If he sells the windpipe, the liver is sold. If he sells the liver, the windpipe is not sold.

ט

מָכַר אֶת הָרֹאשׁ בִּבְהֵמָה גַּסָּה לֹא מָכַר אֶת הָרַגְלַיִם. מָכַר אֶת הָרַגְלַיִם לֹא מָכַר אֶת הָרֹאשׁ. מָכַר אֶת הַקָּנֶה לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַכָּבֵד. מָכַר אֶת הַכָּבֵד לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַקָּנֶה. אֲבָל בִּבְהֵמָה דַּקָּה מָכַר אֶת הָרֹאשׁ מָכַר אֶת הָרַגְלַיִם. מָכַר אֶת הָרַגְלַיִם לֹא מָכַר אֶת הָרֹאשׁ. מָכַר אֶת הַקָּנֶה מָכַר אֶת הַכָּבֵד. מָכַר אֶת הַכָּבֵד לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַקָּנֶה:

10

When a person sells a water reservoir, the water is not included in the sale. When he sells a garbage dump, the garbage is included in the sale. When he sells a beehive, the bees are included in the sale. When he sells a dovecote, the doves are included in the sale.

י

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַבּוֹר לֹא מָכַר אֶת מֵימָיו. מָכַר אֶת הָאַשְׁפָּה מָכַר אֶת זִבְלָהּ. מָכַר כַּוֶּרֶת מָכַר דְּבוֹרִים. מָכַר שׁוֹבָךְ מָכַר אֶת הַיּוֹנִים:

11

Do not let the fundamental principles governing these matters escape your eyes. These are the accepted local customs, and the commonly accepted meaning of terms for every particular entity. In a place where there is no local custom defined, and a term does not have a specific meaning that excludes a more encompassing conception, we follow these principles that were explained by our Sages, as stated previously.

יא

אַל יָלוֹז מֵעֵינֶיךָ הָעִקָּר הַגָּדוֹל בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁהוּא מִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה וְהַשֵּׁמוֹת הַיְדוּעִים בְּיִחוּד לְכָל דָּבָר וְדָבָר. וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִנְהָג וְלֹא שֵׁם שֶׁהַכּל אוֹמְרִים לוֹ בְּיִחוּד וְלֹא שִׁתּוּף הוֹלְכִין אַחַר אֵלּוּ הַכְּלָלוֹת שֶׁבֵּאֲרוּ חֲכָמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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