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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Sheluchin veShuttafin - Chapter Two, Sheluchin veShuttafin - Chapter Three, Sheluchin veShuttafin - Chapter Four

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Sheluchin veShuttafin - Chapter Two

1

A non-Jew may never be appointed as an agent for any mission whatsoever. Similarly, a Jew may never be appointed as an agent for a non-Jew for any mission whatsoever. These concepts are derived from Numbers 18:28: "And so shall you offer, also yourselves." This is interpreted to mean: Just as you are members of the covenant, so too, your agents must be members of the covenant. This principle is applied to the entire Torah.

Moreover, the converse is also true: Just as your principals are members of the covenant, so too, in every aspect of Torah law, the principal must be a member of the covenant.

א

אֵין הָעַכּוּ''ם נַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְדָבָר מִן הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם. וְכֵן אֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל נַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְעַכּוּ''ם לְדָבָר מִן הַדְּבָרִים. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כח) "כֵּן תָּרִימוּ גַם אַתֶּם" מָה אַתֶּם בְּנֵי בְּרִית אַף שְׁלוּחֲכֶם בְּנֵי בְּרִית. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכָל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ. וּמַה מְשַׁלַּחֲכֶם בֶּן בְּרִית אַף בְּכָל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ בֶּן בְּרִית:

2

A man may appoint either a man or a woman as an agent. He may even appoint a married woman, a servant or a maidservant. Since they possess a developed intellectual capacity and are obligated to perform some of the mitzvot, they may serve as agents with regard to financial matters.

A person who does not have a developed intellectual capacity - i.e., a deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally unsound individual or a minor - may not be appointed as an agent, nor may they appoint agents. This applies to both a male minor and a female minor.

Accordingly, if a person sends a son who is below the age of majority to a storekeeper for oil, the storekeeper measures out an isar's worth of oil for him and gives the child an isar as change, but the child loses the oil and the isar he gave him, the storekeeper is liable to pay. For the father sent the child only to inform the storekeeper that he needed the oil, and the storekeeper should have sent it with a mature person. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. If, however, the recipient explicitly told the storekeeper: "Send it to me with the child," the storekeeper is not liable.

ב

עוֹשֶׂה אָדָם שָׁלִיחַ אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ וַאֲפִלּוּ עֶבֶד וְשִׁפְחָה הוֹאִיל וְהֵן בְּנֵי דַּעַת וְיֶשְׁנָן בְּמִקְצָת מִצְוֹת נַעֲשִׂין שְׁלוּחִין לְמַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן. אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינָן בְּנֵי דַּעַת וְהֵן חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן אֵינָן נַעֲשִׂין שְׁלוּחִין וְלֹא עוֹשִׂין שָׁלִיחַ. אֶחָד הַקָּטָן וְאֶחָד הַקְּטַנָּה. לְפִיכָךְ הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ בְּנוֹ קָטָן אֵצֶל הַחֶנְוָנִי וּמָדַד לוֹ בְּאִיסָר שֶׁמֶן וְנָתַן לוֹ אֶת הָאִיסָר וְאִבֵּד אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן וְאֶת הָאִיסָר הַחֶנְוָנִי חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם שֶׁלֹּא שְׁלָחוֹ אֶלָּא לְהוֹדִיעוֹ וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ לְשַׁלֵּחַ אֶלָּא עִם בֶּן דַּעַת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאִם פֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר שְׁלַח לִי עִם הַקָּטָן הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר:

3

When a person tells a colleague: "You owe me a maneh, send it to me with so and so" - if the debtor desires to send it to the creditor with that person, he discharges his obligation and is no longer responsible for the money even if the person named was a minor. This applies regardless of whether the money was given as a loan or as an entrusted object.

Similarly, when two people agree on a stipulation between themselves that whoever desires to send an object to his colleague may send it with whomever the sender desires, the sender may send it with whomever he sees fit, provided he is appropriate to transfer such an article. If the article is stolen or lost on the way, or the agent denies receiving it, the sender is not liable. The rationale is that every stipulation regarding financial matters that is accepted is binding.

ג

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ מָנֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בְּיָדְךָ בֵּין מִלְוֶה בֵּין פִּקָּדוֹן שְׁלָחֵהוּ לִי בְּיַד פְּלוֹנִי אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה קָטָן אִם רָצָה לְשַׁלְּחוֹ בְּיָדוֹ נִפְטָר וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ. וְכֵן שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהִתְנוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לִשְׁלֹחַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ מְשַׁלֵּחַ בְּיַד מִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלֵּחַ בְּיַד מִי שֶׁיֵּרָאֶה לוֹ שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לְהוֹלִיךְ דָּבָר זֶה. וְאִם נִגְנַב אוֹ אָבַד בַּדֶּרֶךְ אוֹ שֶׁכָּפַר בּוֹ הַשָּׁלִיחַ הֲרֵי הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ פָּטוּר. שֶׁכָּל תְּנַאי שֶׁבַּמָּמוֹן קַיָּם:

4

When an agent buys or sells an article and notifies the other party that he is acting as an agent for another person in this transaction, and it is discovered that he violated the instructions given him by the principal, the sale is nullified and the article must be returned, even if meshichah was performed.

If the agent did not notify the other party that he was an agent, the transaction is binding, and the agent must then satisfy the principal.

ד

הַשָּׁלִיחַ שֶׁקָּנָה אוֹ שֶׁמָּכַר וְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁהוּא שָׁלִיחַ בְּדָבָר זֶה לִפְלוֹנִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ אוֹ שֶׁהִמְשִׁיךְ וְנִמְצָא שֶׁעָבַר עַל דַּעַת הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ בָּטֵל הַמִּקָּח וּמַחֲזִיר. וְאִם לֹא הוֹדִיעַ שֶׁהוּא שָׁלִיחַ נִקְנָה הַמִּקָּח וְיִהְיֶה הַדִּין בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין זֶה שֶׁשְּׁלָחוֹ:

5

The following rules apply when Reuven purchased a field from Shimon and told him: "I purchased it on behalf of Levi," Reuven drew up a deed of sale for Levi, and afterwards Reuven said: "I purchased the field for myself. Draw up a deed of sale for me." The seller is not compelled to draw up another deed of sale for Reuven.

If, however, Reuven made a stipulation at the outset, telling the seller: "I am purchasing it for myself, I am having the deed of sale drawn up on behalf of Levi only so that people will not know that I am the buyer," Reuven may compel Shimon to compose another deed of sale in his own name.

ה

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁקָּנָה שָׂדֶה מִשִּׁמְעוֹן וְאָמַר לוֹ לְלֵוִי קָנִיתִי אוֹתָהּ וְכָתַב שְׁטַר מֶכֶר בְּשֵׁם לֵוִי וְחָזַר רְאוּבֵן וְאָמַר לְשִׁמְעוֹן לְעַצְמִי קְנִיתִיהָ חֲזֹר וּכְתֹב שְׁטַר מֶכֶר בִּשְׁמִי. אֵין כּוֹפִין אֶת הַמּוֹכֵר לִכְתֹּב לוֹ שְׁטָר אַחֵר בְּשֵׁם רְאוּבֵן. וְאִם הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאָמַר לוֹ לְעַצְמִי אֶקְנֶה וְזֶה שֶׁאֶכְתֹּב שְׁטָר בְּשֵׁם לֵוִי כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵדְעוּ בִּי שֶׁאֲנִי הוּא הַקּוֹנֶה הֲרֵי זֶה כּוֹפֵהוּ לַחְזֹר וְלִכְתֹּב שְׁטָר אַחֵר בִּשְׁמוֹ:

6

A broker is an agent, except that he receives a fee for his services. Therefore, if he deviates from the instructions of the owners, he must take responsibility for the loss he caused.

What is implied? Reuven gave an article to Shimon - a broker - and told him: "Sell this article for me, but do not sell it for less than 100 zuz." If Shimon sold it for 50, he must pay Reuven 50 from his own resources. If he sold it for 200, Reuven receives everything. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

If Reuven claims: "I told you to sell it for 100," and the broker says: "You told me 50, and I sold it for 50," the broker must take an oath mandated by Scriptural Law, for he admitted a portion of the plaintiff's claim. If he already gave him the 50, he is required to take only a sh'vuat hesset that he carried out the mission, and the purchaser acquires the article.

If the purchaser knew that the article belonged to Reuven and that the person selling it to him was only a broker, he must return the article to its owner. He may, however, have a ban of ostracism issued against anyone who gave permission for an article to be sold for 50 zuz or agreed to the sale at 50 and then retracted after the sale was made.

ו

הַסַּרְסוּר שָׁלִיחַ הוּא אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל שְׂכַר שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ לְפִיכָךְ אִם שִׁנָּה דַּעַת הַבְּעָלִים מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁהִפְסִיד. כֵּיצַד. רְאוּבֵן שֶׁנָּתַן חֵפֶץ לְשִׁמְעוֹן הַסַּרְסוּר וְאָמַר לוֹ מְכֹר לִי זֶה וְאַל תִּמְכֹּר בְּפָחוֹת מִמֵּאָה וְהָלַךְ וּמְכָרוֹ הַכּל לִרְאוּבֵן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. רְאוּבֵן אוֹמֵר בְּמֵאָה אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ וְהַסַּרְסוּר אוֹמֵר בַּחֲמִשִּׁים אָמַרְתָּ לִי וְכֵן בַּחֲמִשִּׁים מָכַרְתִּי נִשְׁבָּע הַסַּרְסוּר שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוֹדָה בְּמִקְצָת. וְאִם כְּבָר נָתַן לוֹ הַחֲמִשִּׁים נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ וְזוֹכֶה הַלּוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם יָדַע הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁחֵפֶץ זֶה שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן הוּא וְזֶה הַמּוֹכֵר לוֹ סַרְסוּר הוּא יַחְזִיר הַחֵפֶץ לַבְּעָלִים וְיַחֲרִים עַל מִי שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ רְשׁוּת לִמְכֹּר בַּחֲמִשִּׁים אוֹ שֶׁרָצָה בַּחֲמִשִּׁים וְחָזַר בּוֹ אַחַר שֶׁקָּנִיתִי:

7

The following rule applies whenever a broker informs the purchaser that a specific article or piece of property belongs to a principal, Reuven. If, after the purchaser acquires the article, Reuven says: "I don't want to sell at this price," the purchaser must return the article. For Reuven did not specify a price and tell the agent: "Sell the article for this and this much."

Whenever a broker loses an article, or it is stolen or broken, he is liable to reimburse the owner, for he is considered a paid watchman.

ז

כָּל סַרְסוּר שֶׁהוֹדִיעַ לַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁחֵפֶץ זֶה אוֹ קַרְקַע זֶה שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן וְאַחַר שֶׁקָּנָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ אָמַר רְאוּבֵן אֵינִי רוֹצֶה לִמְכֹּר בְּדָמִים אֵלּוּ מַחְזִיר הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא פָּסַק לוֹ דָּמִים וְאָמַר לוֹ מָכוּר לְךָ בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ. [כָּל] סַרְסוּר שֶׁאָבַד הַחֵפֶץ מִיָּדוֹ אוֹ נִגְנַב אוֹ נִשְׁבַּר חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר:

8

The following rules apply when a person takes articles from a craftsman's workplace to send as presents to his future father-in-law's home and tells the craftsman: "If they accept them from me, I will pay you for them. If not, I will reimburse you slightly for the favor." If the presents were destroyed by forces beyond his control while they were being delivered, the giver is liable to pay. If they were destroyed by forces beyond his control while they were being returned, he is not liable.

More stringent rules apply if he took the articles with the intent of selling them to others, telling him: "If they will be able to be sold in such and such a place," or "until such and such a time, I will pay you such and such. If they will not be sold, I will return them to you." If they were destroyed by forces beyond his control, whether while they were being transported or while they were being returned, the person who took the articles is liable to pay.

ח

הַלּוֹקֵחַ כֵּלִים מִבֵּית הָאֻמָּן לְשַׁגְּרָן לְבֵית חָמִיו וְאָמַר לוֹ אִם מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתָן מִמֶּנִּי אֲנִי אֶתֵּן לְךָ אֶת דְּמֵיהֶם וְאִם לָאו אֶתֵּן שָׂכָר מוּעָט וְנֶאֶנְסוּ בַּהֲלִיכָה הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. וְאִם נֶאֶנְסוּ בַּחֲזָרָה פָּטוּר. נְטָלָן עַל מְנָת לְמָכְרָן לַאֲחֵרִים וְאָמַר לוֹ אִם יִמָּכְרוּ בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ עַד זְמַן פְּלוֹנִי אֶתֵּן לְךָ דָּמִים כָּךְ וְכָךְ וְאִם לֹא יִמָּכְרוּ אַחְזִירֵם לְךָ וְנֶאֶנְסוּ בֵּין בַּהֲלִיכָה בֵּין בַּחֲזָרָה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם:

9

Whenever an agent claims that a loss beyond his control occurred, causing him to lose this and this amount, he must take the oath required of agents to support his claim, and then he is released of responsibility.

If the loss occurred in a place where it was likely that he would be able to find witnesses to corroborate his statements or the matter is of public knowledge and witnesses could thus be found, he must bring witnesses to substantiate his claim. If he does not bring witnesses, his claim is not accepted, and he is required to pay.

An incident occurred concerning a person who told his agent: "Buy 400 measures of wine for me with money of mine that is in your possession." The agent bought the wine for him and it turned out to be vinegar. The Sages said: "Such a large quantity of vinegar is bound to have been spoken about publicly." Since it is possible to substantiate the claim with witnesses, the agent must bring witnesses that the wine had not turned into vinegar at the time of the purchase, and thus free himself from responsibility. If he does not substantiate his claim, he must pay. Similar laws apply in all instances regarding entities where it is feasible to substantiate a claim.

When, by contrast, the claim concerns a hidden matter that is not easy to substantiate, the agent must take an oath concerning it. Similar laws apply to all claims to be issued by a partner and the like. And similar laws apply with regard to watchmen. If it is likely that the claim can be substantiated, the watchman must substantiate it, as will be explained.

ט

כָּל שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁטָּעַן שֶׁאֵרְעוֹ אֹנֶס פְּלוֹנִי וְהִפְסִיד כָּךְ וְכָךְ הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הַשּׁוֹמְרִין עַל טַעֲנָתוֹ וְיִפָּטֵר. וְאִם הָיָה הָאֹנֶס בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהָבִיא עָלָיו עֵדִים אוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא גָּלוּי וְיָדוּעַ שֶׁהֲרֵי יִמְצָא עֵדִים הֲרֵי זֶה צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה עַל טַעֲנָתוֹ וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיא עֵדִים אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן וּמְשַׁלֵּם. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁאָמַר לִשְׁלוּחוֹ קְנֵה לִי אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת גַרְבֵּי יַיִן מִמָּעוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ לִי בְּיָדוֹ וְקָנָה לוֹ וְנִמְצְאוּ חֹמֶץ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים מִנְיָן גָּדוֹל כָּזֶה שֶׁהֶחְמִיץ קוֹל יֵשׁ לוֹ הוֹאִיל וְאֶפְשָׁר לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה יָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַיַּיִן חֹמֶץ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁלָּקַח וְיִפָּטֵר וְאִם לֹא יָבִיא רְאָיָה יְשַׁלֵּם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁהָרְאָיָה מְצוּיָה בָּהֶן אֲבָל דָּבָר הַנֶּעֱלָם שֶׁאֵין רְאָיָתוֹ מְצוּיָה יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל טַעֲנָה שֶׁיִּטְעֹן הַשֻּׁתָּף וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּטַעֲנַת הַשּׁוֹמְרִין אִם הָרְאָיָה יְכוֹלָה לִהְיוֹת אוֹ יָבִיא רְאָיָה עַל טַעֲנָתוֹ אוֹ יְשַׁלֵּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

Sheluchin veShuttafin - Chapter Three

1

The following laws apply when a person owns landed property that another person is using or he has movable property that he had given him as an entrusted object, and he seeks to appoint an agent to carry out legal procedures with that other person and expropriate that property or entrusted object from his possession. He must compose a deed granting him power of attorney. And he must perform a kinyan certifying that he was granted power of attorney, telling him: "Take it to court, acquire it, and expropriate it for yourself," or the like.

If the principal does not compose such a deed for the agent, he may not enter into litigation on his behalf, for the defendant will argue: "You are not the party with whom I have contention."

Even if the principal does compose such a deed, the agent is no more than that, and any property that he acquires belongs to the principal. And any expenses undertaken by the agent with regard to the dispute for which he was given power of attorney must be borne by the principal. For this is also written in the deed granting power of attorney: "Any expenses that you undertake in this case, I undertake to pay."

א

מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ קַרְקַע תַּחַת יַד אֶחָד אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין פִּקָּדוֹן וְרָצָה לַעֲשׂוֹת שָׁלִיחַ לָדוּן עִם זֶה וּלְהוֹצִיא הַקַּרְקַע אוֹ הַפִּקָּדוֹן מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כּוֹתֵב לוֹ הַרְשָׁאָה וְצָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹת מִיָּדוֹ שֶׁהִרְשָׁהוּ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ דּוּן וּזְכֵה וְהוֹצֵא לְעַצְמְךָ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּעִנְיָנִים אֵלּוּ. וְאִם לֹא כָּתַב לוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לָדוּן עִמּוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ אֵין אַתָּה בַּעַל דִּינִי. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּתַב לוֹ כֵן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא שָׁלִיחַ וְכָל מַה שֶּׁיִּזְכֶּה בּוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל מְשַׁלְּחוֹ. וְכָל הַהוֹצָאוֹת שֶׁיּוֹצִיא הַשָּׁלִיחַ עַל דִּין זֶה שֶׁהֻרְשָׁה הֲרֵי הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ חַיָּב בָּהֶן. שֶׁכָּךְ כּוֹתְבִין בָּהַרְשָׁאָה כָּל שֶׁתּוֹצִיא בְּדִין זֶה עָלַי לְשַׁלְּמוֹ:

2

If the principal transfers ownership to the person to whom he gave power of attorney, granting him only a third or a fourth of the property his colleague is holding, the person granted power of attorney may enter into litigation concerning the entire holding. Since he is entitled to enter into litigation concerning the portion that he owns, and he is justified to enter into litigation with him on that, he may enter into litigation concerning the entire amount.

ב

הִקְנָה לָזֶה שֶׁהִרְשָׁה שְׁלִישׁ אוֹ רְבִיעַ מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּיַד חֲבֵרוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה דִּין עַל הַכּל הוֹאִיל וְדָן עַל חֶלְקוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא בַּעַל דִּינוֹ בְּחֶלְקוֹ דָּן עַל הַכּל:

3

When one of a group of brothers who have not divided an estate between themselves, or one of a group of partners comes and lodges a claim on a portion of the property they assert to be their own, his claim involves the entire property. The defendant must respond to him. Since this person owns a portion of the property in question, he does not need power of attorney from the other partners.

If the defendant prevails, another one of the partners cannot lodge a claim against the partner who engaged in the litigation, telling him: "If I had been there, I would have raised other arguments and caused the defendant to be held liable," for the partner who engaged in the litigation can tell him: "Why didn't you come and raise those arguments?"

For this reason, if the other partner was in another country, that partner can seek out the defendant and enter litigation against him, telling him: "I do not agree with all the arguments my partner raised."

Accordingly, the defendant can delay, telling the first partner: "Either enter into litigation concerning only your share, or bring me power of attorney from the other party. For I am holding property belonging to both of you, and you both are involved parties in this case. Tomorrow, your brother - or your partner - will come and also lodge a claim against me."

ג

אֶחָד מִן הָאַחִים שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ אוֹ מִן הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁבָּא לִתְבֹּעַ תּוֹבֵעַ עַל הַכּל. הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק בְּזֶה הַמָּמוֹן אֵין צָרִיךְ הַרְשָׁאָה מִשְּׁאָר שֻׁתָּפִין. וְאֵין הַשֻׁתָּף הָאַחֵר יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לְשֻׁתָּפוֹ שֶׁדָּן אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי אֲנִי שָׁם הָיִיתִי תּוֹבֵעַ טְעָנוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת וּמְחַיֵּב בַּעַל דִּינִי. שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹמֵר לוֹ לָמָּה לֹא בָּאתָ לִתְבֹּעַ גַּם אַתָּה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה בִּמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת יֵשׁ לוֹ לַחְזֹר עַל בַּעַל הַדִּין וְלָדוּן עִמּוֹ וְלוֹמַר לוֹ אֲנִי אֵינִי מוֹדֶה בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁטָּעַן שֻׁתָּף שֶׁלִּי. לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ לַנִּתְבָּע לְעַכֵּב וְלוֹמַר לָזֶה אוֹ דּוּן עִמִּי בְּחֶלְקְךָ אוֹ הָבֵא הַרְשָׁאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי מָמוֹן שְׁנֵיכֶם בְּיָדִי וּשְׁנֵיכֶם בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִי וּלְמָחָר יָבוֹא אָחִיךָ אוֹ שֻׁתָּפְךָ וְיִתְבַּע גַּם הוּא:

4

A husband needs power of attorney to lodge a claim concerning his wife's property. If, however, there is produce on the property, he has the right to lodge a claim concerning the produce - for it belongs to him - he may also lodge a claim about the property itself. For if his wife does not own the property, he has no right to the produce.

ד

הַבַּעַל בְּנִכְסֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ צָרִיךְ הַרְשָׁאָה. וְאִם יֵשׁ פֵּרוֹת בַּקַּרְקַע מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָדוּן עַל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁלּוֹ דָּן עַל הָעִקָּר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ הַרְשָׁאָה מֵאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁאִם אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע אֵין לוֹ פֵּרוֹת:

5

Although a person has entrusted an object to a colleague or given him a loan - whether movable property or money - and appointed an agent in the presence of witnesses to bring that object or loan back to him, the option belongs to the borrower or the lender. If he desires to give it to the agent, he is no longer liable, and is free of responsibility if it does not reach the principal, for he gave it to his agent.

If he does not desire to give it to the agent, he is not required to do so. For the agent is not the litigant. This applies unless the agent brings power of attorney from the owner of the entrusted object.

Every person who comes to demand payment from a colleague, using power of attorney, is described by the verse (Ezekiel 18:18): "He did what is not good among his people."

ה

מִי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בְּיַד חֲבֵרוֹ פִּקָּדוֹן אוֹ מִלְוֶה בֵּין בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין בֵּין מָעוֹת וְעָשָׂה שָׁלִיחַ בְּעֵדִים לַהֲבִיאָן לוֹ הָרְשׁוּת בְּיַד זֶה שֶׁהֵם אֶצְלוֹ אִם רָצָה לִתֵּן נִפְטָר וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן שֶׁהֲרֵי נָתַן לִשְׁלוּחוֹ. וְאִם לֹא רָצָה לִתֵּן אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן שֶׁאֵין זֶה בַּעַל דִּינוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא בְּהַרְשָׁאָה עַל הַפִּקָּדוֹן. וְכָל הַבָּא בְּהַרְשָׁאָה הֲרֵי הוּא בִּכְלַל הַנֶּאֱמָר בָּהֶן וַאֲשֶׁר (יחזקאל יח יח) "לֹא טוֹב עָשָׂה בְּתוֹךְ עַמָּיו":

6

When a person lodges a court claim against a colleague for either movable property or money he entrusted to him, and the defendant has already denied it, the plaintiff cannot write a bill giving another person power of attorney to collect this property or money from that person. The rationale is that he appears to be making a false statement. For he says: "I am granting you power of attorney to take everything that I own that so and so has," and so and so has already denied possessing anything belonging to the principal.

Similarly, if a person is required to take an oath in response to a colleague's claim, that colleague cannot grant another person power of attorney to have the oath administered. The rationale is that he is not transferring to the prospective agent an object of substance. And a person cannot transfer power of attorney on a claim that involves merely words. For words cannot be transferred unless they are associated with a financial claim.

ו

הַתּוֹבֵעַ חֲבֵרוֹ בְּדִין בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין אוֹ בְּמָעוֹת שֶׁהִפְקִיד אֶצְלוֹ וְכָפַר בּוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִכְתֹּב הַרְשָׁאָה עָלָיו שֶׁנִּמְצָא זֶה כִּמְשַׁקֵּר שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ הִרְשֵׁיתִיךְ לִטּל מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ לִי בְּיַד פְּלוֹנִי וּכְבָר אָמַר פְּלוֹנִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶצְלוֹ כְּלוּם. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ שְׁבוּעָה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַרְשׁוֹת אַחֵר עָלָיו לְהַשְׁבִּיעוֹ שֶׁאֵין שָׁם דָּבָר שֶׁיַּקְנֶה לוֹ וְאֵין אָדָם מַרְשֶׁה עַל תְּבִיעַת דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין הַדְּבָרִים נִקְנִין אֶלָּא עַל תְּבִיעַת הַמָּמוֹן:

7

When a person has entrusted money to a colleague and desires to grant an agent power of attorney to bring it, a kinyan chalifin is not effective. For money is not acquired through a kinyan chalifin.

What should he do? He should give the agent a portion of land of any sizeand transfer the money to him by virtue of his acquisition of the land with the intent that he expropriate it with this power of attorney. The agent may then go, enter into litigation, and expropriate the money.

If a person lent money to another person, he cannot compose a bill transferring power of attorney concerning it. This applies even if the loan is recorded in a legal document.The rationale is that a loan was given with the intent that the borrower spend the money. Thus, the money given by the lender no longer exists. And a person cannot transfer ownership over an entity that does not exist. The only way a person can transfer ownership of a debt is through a ma'amad sh'loshtan - which is a dictate whose rationale cannot be explained, as mentioned above, or through transferring the debt by writing a deed transferring ownership of the promissory note and giving it to the recipient, for in this way one transfers the lien that the note conveys.

This is my understanding of the law from the Gemara. The Geonim have, however, ordained that one may also grant power of attorney with regard to a loan, so that no one should take money belonging to a colleague and go to a distant country.

They also ordained that if a person was granted power of attorney to collect money belonging to a colleague that was held by another person or to demand payment of a loan from him, and the person transferring the debt did not own land, he could transfer to him four cubits of his heritage in Eretz Yisrael, and then transfer the money to him, by virtue of his acquisition of the land.

Such statements appear to me extremely flimsy and insubstantial. For who is to say that this person has a portion in Eretz Yisrael? And even if he is fit to receive a portion of the land, it is presently not in his possession. The Geonim who ordained this ruling did not say: "Let the law pierce the mountain." Instead, they explained that the ruling was issued only to intimidate the defendant, so that if he desires to enter into litigation and pay the money when presented with this power of attorney, he is no longer under obligation.

Why is he no longer under obligation? For a person who brings this insubstantial power of attorney is no worse than an agent appointed in the presence of witnesses. If, however, the defendant does not desire to enter into litigation with the person granted the power of attorney, he is not compelled to give him the money or take an oath until the principal comes himself.

Similarly, the Geonim ruled that if a person granted a colleague a loan, whether it is supported by a promissory note or by a kinyan observed by witnesses, even though the person denied his obligation in court, a deed granting power of attorney can be composed, because the defendant is denying a claim involving a lien on property. If, however, the loan is supported by a verbal commitment alone, and it is denied, the Geonim did not ordain that a deed granting power of attorney be composed concerning it.

ז

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ מְעוֹת פִּקָּדוֹן בְּיַד אַחֵר וְרָצָה לְהַרְשׁוֹת שָׁלִיחַ לַהֲבִיאָן אֵין הַקִּנְיָן מִיָּדוֹ מוֹעִיל בָּזֶה שֶׁאֵין הַמַּטְבֵּעַ נִקְנֶה בַּחֲלִיפִין. אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. נוֹתֵן לוֹ קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּ וּמַקְנֶה לוֹ הַמָּעוֹת עַל גַּבָּהּ כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיאָן בְּהַרְשָׁאָה זוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ וְדָן עִמּוֹ וּמוֹצִיאָן. הָיְתָה לוֹ מִלְוֶה בְּיַד אַחֵר אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִכְתֹּב הַרְשָׁאָה עָלֶיהָ וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַחוֹב בִּשְׁטָר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמִּלְוֶה לְהוֹצָאָה נִתְּנָה וְאֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּעוֹלָם. וְאֵין לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיַּקְנֶה אָדָם חוֹב בָּהּ אֶלָּא בְּמַעֲמַד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן וְהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ טַעַם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אוֹ בְּהַקְנָיַת שְׁטַר הַחוֹב עַצְמוֹ בִּכְתִיבָה וּמְסִירָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַקְנֶה הַשִּׁעְבּוּד שֶׁבּוֹ. זֶהוּ הַדִּין שֶׁיֵּרָאֶה לִי מִן הַגְּמָרָא. אֲבָל הַגְּאוֹנִים תִּקְּנוּ שֶׁכּוֹתְבִין הַרְשָׁאָה אַף עַל הַמִּלְוֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטּל כָּל אֶחָד מָמוֹן חֲבֵרוֹ וְיֵלֵךְ לוֹ לִמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת. וְעוֹד תִּקְּנוּ שֶׁאִם הִרְשָׁהוּ לִטּל מָעוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּיַד חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ לִתְבֹּעַ מִמֶּנּוּ הַלְוָאָה וְלֹא הָיְתָה לַמַּקְנֶה קַרְקַע מַקְנֵהוּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת מֵחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַקְנֶה לוֹ הַמָּעוֹת עַל גַּבָּן. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים קַלִּים הֵן עַד מְאֹד וּרְעוּעִים שֶׁזֶּה מִי יֹאמַר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא רָאוּי אֵינוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ. וְהַגְּאוֹנִים עַצְמָן שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ תַּקָּנָה זוֹ אָמְרוּ שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִין יִקֹּב הַדִּין אֶת הָהָר וְאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְאַיֵּם עַל הַנִּתְבָּע. אִם רָצָה לָדוּן וְלִתֵּן בְּהַרְשָׁאָה זוֹ נִפְטָר. וְלָמָּה יִפָּטֵר שֶׁאֵין זֶה הַבָּא בְּהַרְשָׁאָה זוֹ הָרְעוּעָה פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלִיחַ שֶׁעָשָׂהוּ בְּעֵדִים. אֲבָל אִם לֹא יִרְצֶה הַנִּתְבָּע לָדוּן עִמּוֹ אֵין כּוֹפִין לִתֵּן לוֹ וְלֹא לְהַשְׁבִּיעַ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא בַּעַל דִּינוֹ. וְכֵן הוֹרוּ שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה לוֹ מִלְוֶה אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ בֵּין בִּשְׁטָר בֵּין בְּעֵדֵי קִנְיָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּפַר בָּהּ בְּבֵית דִּין כּוֹתְבִין עָלָיו הַרְשָׁאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּפִירַת שִׁעְבּוּד קַרְקַע. אֲבָל אִם מִלְוֶה עַל פֶּה הִיא שֶׁכָּפַר בָּהּ לֹא תִּקְּנוּ שֶׁיִּכְתְּבוּ עָלֶיהָ הַרְשָׁאָה:

8

When a person granted power of attorney to one individual and then desired to nullify his agency and grant power of attorney to someone else, he may nullify his first appointment.

The person granted power of attorney, however, may not grant power of attorney to another person. For the principal might not agree, saying: "I do not want my property entrusted to another individual." Therefore, if the agent had stipulated that he be given the right to grant power of attorney to someone else, and have that person grant power of attorney to another, the agent may write a deed granting power of attorney to a second individual, and the second individual may do so for a third. Everything follows the stipulation.

ח

מִי שֶׁהִרְשָׁה לְאֶחָד וְרָצָה לְבַטֵּל הַשְּׁלִיחוּת וּלְהַרְשׁוֹת לְאַחֵר הֲרֵי זֶה מְבַטֵּל. וְאֵין לַמֻּרְשֶׁה לִכְתֹּב הַרְשָׁאָה לְאַחֵר שֶׁזֶּה אוֹמֵר אֵין רְצוֹנִי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה פִּקְדוֹנִי בְּיַד אַחֵר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִתְנָה עָלָיו שֶׁיַּרְשֶׁה הוּא לְאַחֵר וְאַחֵר לְאַחֵר הֲרֵי הַשָּׁלִיחַ כּוֹתֵב הַרְשָׁאָה לַשֵּׁנִי וְשֵׁנִי לַשְּׁלִישִׁי הַכּל לְפִי תְּנָאוֹ:

9

When a person who was granted power of attorney waives the payment owed by the defendant, sells him the article he was sent to collect, waives his obligation to take an oath, or negotiates a compromise with him, his actions are of no substance. For the principal will tell the agent: "I sent you to improve my position, not to impair it."

Therefore, if the agent had the principal stipulate that the agency is effective whether he improves his position or impairs it, his acts are binding, even if he waives payment of the entire obligation.

ט

הַבָּא בְּהַרְשָׁאָה שֶׁמָּחַל לְזֶה הַנִּתְבָּע אוֹ שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ אוֹ שֶׁמָּחַל לוֹ עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה עִמּוֹ פְּשָׁרָה לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹמֵר לוֹ לְתַקֵּן שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ וְלֹא לְעַוֵּת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ בֵּין לְתַקֵּן בֵּין לְעַוֵּת אֲפִלּוּ מָחַל לוֹ עַל הַכּל הֲרֵי זֶה מָחוּל:

10

When Reuven is granted power of attorney and files a claim against Shimon, Shimon cannot turn him away, saying: "Maybe the principal who sent you appointed another person and nullified your agency." For Reuven will tell him: "Give me the article that was entrusted, and I will leave the deed recording my power of attorney with you." If the principal does in fact grant another person power of attorney, he has caused himself a loss. Shimon is not liable, for he gave the object to a person with power of attorney.

י

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁבָּא בְּהַרְשָׁאָה וְתָבַע שִׁמְעוֹן אֵין שִׁמְעוֹן יָכוֹל לִדְחוֹתוֹ וְלוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁמָּא הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ אוֹתְךָ הִרְשָׁה אַחֵר וּבִטֵּל שְׁלִיחוּתְךָ שֶׁהֲרֵי רְאוּבֵן אוֹמֵר לוֹ תֵּן לִי הַפִּקָּדוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בְּיָדְךָ וְזוֹ הַרְשָׁאָתִי תְּהִי אֶצְלְךָ. וְאִם הַמַּפְקִיד הִרְשָׁה אַחֵר הוּא הִפְסִיד עַל עַצְמוֹ וְשִׁמְעוֹן פָּטוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּהַרְשָׁאָתוֹ נָתַן:

11

The following law applies when Reuven comes with power of attorney from Shimon and demands payment from Levi, and Levi tells him: "Nothing like that ever happened, but if Shimon wants, he may take an oath and collect the article he claims." We expropriate the money from Levi and have it kept in court until Shimon comes, takes the oath and collects the article.

Similarly, with regard to any other claim that Levi makes that is dependent on Shimon, Reuven should enter into litigation regarding the matter, and the property should be placed in the court until Shimon comes and is questioned. Reuven may have a ban of ostracism issued against anyone who issues a false claim to withhold payment and delay it.

If Levi is required to take an oath, he may not delay and say: "I will not take an oath until I have a ban of ostracism issued in the presence of Shimon against anyone who issues a false claim against me." For the issuance of this ban of ostracism is merely a minor ordinance that the later Geonim ordained so that the litigants will be forthright in their claims. And we do not delay having the defendant take an oath, because of this minor ordinance.

יא

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁבָּא בְּהַרְשָׁאַת שִׁמְעוֹן וְתָבַע לֵוִי וְאָמַר לֵוִי לֹא הָיוּ דְּבָרִים מֵעוֹלָם אֲבָל יִשָּׁבַע שִׁמְעוֹן וְיִטּל מוֹצִיאִין הַמָּמוֹן מִיַּד לֵוִי וְיִהְיֶה מֻנָּח בְּבֵית דִּין עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא שִׁמְעוֹן וְיִשָּׁבַע וְיִטּל. וְכֵן כָּל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁתּוֹלֶה לֵוִי בְּשִׁמְעוֹן יָדוּן רְאוּבֵן וְיִהְיֶה הַמָּמוֹן מֻנָּח בְּבֵית דִּין עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא שִׁמְעוֹן וְיִשָּׁאֵל. וְיֵשׁ לִרְאוּבֵן לְהַחֲרִים עַל מִי שֶׁטּוֹעֵן טַעֲנַת שֶׁקֶר כְּדֵי לְעַכֵּב הַמָּמוֹן וּלְאַחֲרוֹ. נִתְחַיֵּב לֵוִי שְׁבוּעָה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב וְלוֹמַר לוֹ אֵינִי נִשְׁבָּע עַד שֶׁאַחֲרִים בִּפְנֵי שִׁמְעוֹן עַל מִי שֶׁטּוֹעֵן עָלַי שֶׁקֶר שֶׁאֵין זֶה הַחֵרֶם אֶלָּא תַּקָּנָה קַלָּה שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים הָאַחֲרוֹנִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּכַוְּנוּ בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין טַעֲנוֹתֵיהֶן וְאֵין מְעַכְּבִין שְׁבוּעָתוֹ שֶׁל זֶה מִפְּנֵי תַּקָּנָה זוֹ הַקַּלָּה:

Sheluchin veShuttafin - Chapter Four

1

When partners desire to establish a partnership, how does each one acquire the assets invested by his colleague, so that they are considered partners? If they desire to establish a partnership with money, each one should bring his money and place it in a common pouch. Then each of them lifts up the pouch.

If, however, they composed a legal document detailing the partnership and had witnesses testify that they both performed a kinyan chalifin that each will bring 100 zuz for the partnership, the agreement is not binding and the partnership has not yet been established, for money is not acquired through chalifin.

Therefore, if they established their partnership with regard to other movable property, when they entered into a kinyan that one would bring his barrel of wine and the other his jug of honey and they would become partners, the partnership is established in this manner. Similarly, if they mixed their produce together or hired a property in partnership, and one left the jug and the other the barrel with which they desired to act as partners, the partnership is established.

The general principle is: All the means of acquisition that a purchaser employs to acquire property can be used by partners to acquire the assets that are contributed to the partnership.

א

כְּשֶׁיִּרְצוּ הַשֻּׁתָּפִין לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף בְּמָה יִקְנֶה כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן מָמוֹן חֲבֵרוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ. אִם בְּמָעוֹת נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ יָבִיא זֶה מְעוֹתָיו וְיָבִיא זֶה מְעוֹתָיו וְיַטִּילוּ אוֹתָן לְכִיס אֶחָד וְיַגְבִּיהוּ אֶת הַכִּיס שְׁנֵיהֶם. אֲבָל אִם כָּתְבוּ שְׁטָר וְהֵעִידוּ עֵדִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיַּד שְׁנֵיהֶם שֶׁיָּבִיא זֶה מֵאָה וְזֶה מֵאָה וְיִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן לֹא קָנוּ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשׂוּ שֻׁתָּפִין. שֶׁאֵין הַמַּטְבֵּעַ נִקְנֶה בַּחֲלִיפִין. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בִּשְׁאָר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין כֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיָּדָם שֶׁיָּבִיא זֶה חָבִיתוֹ שֶׁל יַיִן וְזֶה כַּדּוֹ שֶׁל דְּבַשׁ וַהֲרֵי נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן נַעֲשׂוּ שֻׁתָּפִין בָּהֶן. וְכֵן אִם עֵרְבוּ פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן אוֹ שֶׁשָּׂכְרוּ מָקוֹם בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת וְהִנִּיחַ זֶה כַּדּוֹ וְזֶה חָבִיתוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֻׁתָּפִין. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר בְּכָל הַדְּרָכִים שֶׁקּוֹנֶה הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּאוֹתָן הַדְּרָכִים עַצְמָן קוֹנִין הַשֻּׁתָּפִין זֶה מִזֶּה הַמָּמוֹן הַמֻּטָּל בֵּינֵיהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ:

2

When craftsmen join together in a professional partnership, even though they perform a kinyan with each other, they are not considered partners.

What is implied? If two tailors or two weavers stipulate between themselves that whatever either of them earns will be divided between them equally, they are not considered partners. For a person cannot transfer ownership to a colleague of an article that does not yet exist. If, however, they purchase the cloth for the garments with their common funds, sew them and sell them, or purchase the woof and warp with their common funds, weave garments and sell them, and a partnership has been established through the use of the money, they are partners. Whatever they earn as payment for their work and their commercial activity is divided equally.

ב

הָאֻמָּנִין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בְּאֻמָּנוּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיָּדָם אֵינָן שֻׁתָּפִין. כֵּיצַד שְׁנֵי חַיָּטִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי אוֹרְגִים שֶׁהִתְנוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם שֶׁכָּל שֶׁיִּקַּח זֶה וְזֶה בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ יִהְיֶה בֵּינֵיהֶן בְּשָׁוֶה אֵין כָּאן שֻׁתָּפוּת כְּלָל שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ לוֹקְחִין הַבְּגָדִים בְּמָמוֹן עַצְמָן וְתוֹפְרִין אוֹתָן וּמוֹכְרִין וְלוֹקְחִין הַשְּׁתִי וְהָעֵרֶב מִמְּעוֹתֵיהֶן וְאוֹרְגִים וּמוֹכְרִין וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַּמָּעוֹת שֶׁלּוֹקְחִין בּוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֻׁתָּפִין וְכָל מַה שֶּׁיַּרְוִיחוּ בִּשְׂכַר מְלַאכְתָּן וּבְמַשָּׂאָן וּבְמַתָּנָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לָאֶמְצַע:

3

When three partners enter into a partnership, one investing a maneh, the second 200 zuz, and the third 300, and they all do business with the money, whether they profit or lose, the profit or loss is divided among them according to their number, not according to the size of their investments. Even if they purchase a bull for slaughter in which instance, if they slaughter it, each one of them would take a portion of its flesh according to the size of his investment. If they sell the bull while it is alive and profit or lose, the profit or loss is divided equally among the partners.

When does the above apply? When they bought and sold with the money of the partnership. If, however, the money still exists within the treasury of the partnership, and was not spent, but its value rose or dropped because of currency fluctuations depending on the ruling authority or the local populace, the profit or the loss is divided according to the amount of money invested.

When does the above apply? When the partners entered into the partnership without making a specific agreement. If, however, it was stipulated that the person who invested 100 zuz should receive three fourths of the profit, and the person who invested 200, one fourth, and if they lose the person who would be given three fourths of the profit would not suffer more than one fourth of the loss, and the one who would gain one fourth of the profit should suffer three fourths of the loss, the money is divided according to their stipulation. For every stipulation made with regard to financial matters is binding.

ג

הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁהִטִּילוּ לְכִיס זֶה מָנֶה וְזֶה מָאתַיִם וְזֶה שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְנִתְעַסְּקוּ כֻּלָּן בַּמָּמוֹן וּפָחֲתוּ אוֹ הוֹתִירוּ הַשָּׂכָר אוֹ הַפְּחָת בֵּינֵיהֶם בְּשָׁוֶה לְפִי מִנְיָנָם וְלֹא לְפִי הַמָּעוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ לָקְחוּ שׁוֹר לִטְבִיחָה שֶׁאִלּוּ טְבָחוּהוּ הָיָה נוֹטֵל כָּל אֶחָד מִבְּשָׂרוֹ כְּפִי מְעוֹתָיו אִם מְכָרוּהוּ חַי וּפָחֲתוּ אוֹ הוֹתִירוּ הַשָּׂכָר אוֹ הַפְּחָת לָאֶמְצַע. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁנָּשְׂאוּ וְנָתְנוּ בַּמָּעוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן אֲבָל אִם הַמָּעוֹת קַיָּמִין וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הוֹצִיאוּ אוֹתָן וּפָחֲתוּ אוֹ הוֹתִירוּ מֵחֲמַת הַמַּטְבֵּעַ שֶׁשִּׁנָּה הַמֶּלֶךְ אוֹ אַנְשֵׁי הַמְּדִינָה חוֹלְקִין הַשָּׂכָר אוֹ הַהֶפְסֵד לְפִי הַמָּעוֹת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּסְתָם אֲבָל אִם הִתְנוּ שֶׁיִּטּל בַּעַל הַמֵּאָה שְׁלֹשָׁה רְבָעִים מִן הַשָּׂכָר וְיִטּל בַּעַל הַמָּאתַיִם רְבִיעַ וְאִם נִפְחֲתוּ לֹא יִפְחֹת זֶה שֶׁיִּטּל שְׁלֹשָׁה רְבִיעֵי הַשָּׂכָר אֶלָּא רְבִיעַ הַהֶפְסֵד וְיַפְסִיד זֶה שֶׁנּוֹטֵל רְבִיעַ הַשָּׂכָר שְׁלֹשָׁה רְבָעִים מִן הַפְּחָת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חוֹלְקִין כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁהִתְנוּ. שֶׁכָּל תְּנַאי שֶׁבְּמָמוֹן קַיָּם:

4

When partners make a stipulation that they continue in the partnership for a specific duration of time, each them can prevent his colleague from dissolving the partnership. Neither one can withdraw until the set time arrives or the money in the partnership is exhausted. Neither can take his portion of the principal or of the profit until the end of that time.

If they established a partnership without making a stipulation and without establishing a set time, they may dissolve the partnership whenever any of them desires. This one should take his portion of the merchandise from the partnership, and this one should take his portion. If the merchandise is of the type that cannot be divided, or if making the division would cause a loss, the article should be sold and the money should be divided.

If there was a time when the merchandise of the partnership would ordinarily be sold, each partner can prevent his colleague from dissolving the partnership until the merchandise will be sold at the known time for such merchandise to be sold. Neither can take his portion of the principal or of the profit until the time of the division, unless a stipulation was made between them.

If the partnership was owed a debt by others, one partner cannot tell the other: "Let us not dissolve the partnership until we collect all the debts that are owed to us." Instead, the assets of the partnership should be divided. When the debts are repaid, each one should be given his portion.

The following rules apply when, by contrast, the partnership owes a debt to another person. If they are not responsible for each other, they should divide the assets of the partnership, and when the time for the debt comes, each one should pay his portion of the debt.

If they are responsible for each other, each one can prevent the other from dissolving the partnership until the time when the promissory note comes due and the debt is repaid. Why is each one given this right? Because one colleague can tell the other: "Since each of us can be required to pay the entire promissory note, let us continue to do business with the money until the date of payment comes."

If his colleague tells him: "Let us divide the assets, and you can receive all the money for the promissory note. Do business by yourself and pay the note when it comes due," the other colleague may still impede, saying "Maybe I will lose, for two people make greater profit than one."

ד

הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁהִתְנוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם שֶׁיַּעַמְדוּ בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת זְמַן קָצוּב כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן מְעַכֵּב עַל חֲבֵרוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְלֹק עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה מָמוֹן הַשֻּׁתָּפוּת וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָכוֹל לִטּל חֶלְקוֹ מִן הַקֶּרֶן וְלֹא בַּשָּׂכָר עַד סוֹף הַזְּמַן. נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ סְתָם וְלֹא קָבְעוּ לָהֶם זְמַן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חוֹלְקִין כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְזֶה נוֹטֵל חֶלְקוֹ מִן הַסְּחוֹרָה וְזֶה נוֹטֵל חֶלְקוֹ. וְאִם לֹא הָיְתָה בְּאוֹתָהּ סְחוֹרָה דִּין חֲלוּקָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּחֲלוּקָתָהּ הֶפְסֵד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוֹכְרִין אוֹתָהּ וְחוֹלְקִין אֶת הַדָּמִים. הָיָה זְמַן יָדוּעַ לִמְכִירַת אוֹתָהּ סְחוֹרָה יֵשׁ לְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לְעַכֵּב שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲלֹקוּ עַד שֶׁתִּמָּכֵר הַסְּחוֹרָה בַּזְּמַן הַיָּדוּעַ לִמְכִירָתָהּ. וְאֵין אֶחָד נוֹטֵל מִן הַקֶּרֶן וְלֹא מִן הָרֶוַח עַד זְמַן הַחֲלוּקָה אֶלָּא אִם הִתְנוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם. הָיָה לָהֶם חוֹב אֵצֶל אֲחֵרִים אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא נַחְלֹק עַד שֶׁנִּגְבֶּה כָּל חוֹב שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָנוּ אֶלָּא חוֹלְקִין וּכְשֶׁיִּפְרְעוּ הַחוֹבוֹת יִטּל כָּל אֶחָד חֶלְקוֹ. הָיָה עֲלֵיהֶן חוֹב לְאַחֵר אִם אֵינָן אַחְרָאִין זֶה לָזֶה חוֹלְקִין וְלִכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַחוֹב לְפָרְעוֹ יִתֵּן כָּל אֶחָד חֶלְקוֹ. וְאִם הֵן אַחְרָאִים כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן מְעַכֵּב לַחְלֹק עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַשְּׁטָר וְיִפְרְעוּ הַחוֹב. וְלָמָּה מְעַכֵּב שֶׁהֲרֵי חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹמֵר לוֹ הוֹאִיל וְכָל אֶחָד מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם כָּל הַשְּׁטָר נִשָּׂא וְנִתֵּן בְּדָמִים אֵלּוּ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן. אָמַר לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ נַחְלֹק וְטל אַתָּה דָּמִים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַשְּׁטָר וַעֲשֵׂה מֵהֶן סְחוֹרָה לְעַצְמְךָ וּתְשַׁלֵּם כָּל הַשְּׁטָר בִּזְמַנּוֹ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְעַכֵּב עֲדַיִן וְלוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁמָּא נַפְסִיד וְהַשְּׁנַיִם יוֹתֵר מַרְוִיחִין מִן הָאֶחָד:

5

When a person gives a colleague money to go to a different country and buy merchandise, buy produce to sell as merchandise, or buy and sell merchandise while sitting in a store, the person who took the money may not retract and return the money to his partner until he goes to the place where the stipulation was made and returns, buys the produce and sells it, or sits in the store. The rationale is that this is considered as if he fixed a time to sell the merchandise.

ה

הַנּוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לַחֲבֵרוֹ לֵילֵךְ לִמְדִינָה פְּלוֹנִית לִסְחוֹרָה אוֹ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ פֵּרוֹת לִסְחוֹרָה אוֹ לֵישֵׁב בּוֹ בַּחֲנוּת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ וּלְהַחְזִיר הַמָּמוֹן מִיַּד הַשֻׁתָּף עַד שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִתְנוּ וְיַחְזֹר אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּקְנוּ אוֹתָן הַפֵּרוֹת וְיִמְכֹּר אוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב בַּחֲנוּת שֶׁזֶּה כְּמִי שֶׁקָּבַע זְמַן הוּא:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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