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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Shechenim - Chapter Thirteen, Shechenim - Chapter Fourteen, Sheluchin veShuttafin - Chapter One

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Shechenim - Chapter Thirteen

1

When a person gives landed property as a gift, the rights of a neighbor do not apply. When the deed recording a gift states: "The giver accepts financial responsibility for this gift, " the rights of a neighbor do apply. Since the deed mentions financial responsibility, it is obvious that the transfer was a sale; it used the term "gift, " only to nullify the rights of the neighbor. How much should the neighbor pay? The value of the property.

א

הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה אֵין בָּהּ דִּין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר. הָיָה כָּתוּב בִּשְׁטַר מתָּנָה שֶׁאַחֲרָיוּת מַתָּנָה זוֹ עַל הַנּוֹתֵן יֵשׁ בָּהּ דִּין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ אַחֲרָיוּת מְכִירָה הִיא וְלֹא כָּתַב מַתָּנָה אֶלָּא לְבַטֵּל זְכוּת בֶּן הַמֵּצַר. וְכַמָּה נוֹתֵן לוֹ. מַה שֶּׁהִיא שָׁוָה:

2

In the above situation, if the purchaser admits the ruse, saying: "Yes, we tried to perpetrate deception. It was a sale, and this is the price I paid for it, " he must support his claim by taking an oath while holding a sacred article. He may then collect his claim, as is the law concerning agents.

It appears to me that the purchaser must claim only a price that is appropriate for the property or slightly more. If, however, he claims to have paid 200 zuz for a property worth 100, his word is not accepted.

ב

אָמַר הַלּוֹקֵחַ כֵּן הוּא וְהַעֲרָמָה עָשִׂינוּ וּמְכִירָה הִיא בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ קְנִיתִיהָ נִשְׁבָּע בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְנוֹטֵל כְּדִין הַשְּׁלוּחִין. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִטְעֹן דָּמִים שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין אוֹ יֶתֶר מְעַט. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר עַל שְׁוֵה מֵאָה בְּמָאתַיִם קָנִיתִי אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן:

3

If the deed recording a gift states: "I accept financial responsibility for this gift. If it is expropriated from the recipient, I will give him 200 zuz, " the neighbor must pay the recipient 200 zuz. Only afterwards, may he displace him. This applies even if the property is worth only a maneh.

ג

הָיָה כָּתוּב בִּשְׁטַר מַתָּנָה וְקִבַּלְתִּי עָלַי אַחֲרָיוּת מַתָּנָה זוֹ שֶׁאִם תֵּצֵא מִיָּדוֹ אֶתֵּן לוֹ מָאתַיִם נוֹתֵן לוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר מָאתַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסַלְּקוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה אֶלָּא מָנֶה:

4

When a person exchanges a courtyard for another courtyard,a neighbor is not given the right to displace one of the recipients.

When a person exchanges a courtyard for an animal or for movable property, we evaluate the worth of that animal or movable property. The neighbor then gives this amount to the purchaser and displaces him. The purchaser cannot tell the neighbor: "Give me an article like the one I used for the purchase. " For this is a ruse, and it is not reckoned with at all.

ד

הֶחְלִיף חָצֵר בְּחָצֵר אֵין בָּהּ דִּין בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר. הֶחְלִיף חָצֵר בִּבְהֵמָה אוֹ בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין רוֹאִין דְּמֵי אוֹתָהּ הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ דְּמֵי אוֹתָם הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וּמְסַלְּקוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי כַּמָּה שֶׁלָּקַחְתִּי בּוֹ שֶׁזֶּה הַעֲרָמָה הִיא וְאֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם:

5

The following rules apply when a person sells a colleague a small portion of land in the midst of his field, and then sells him a larger portion of land next to that field. We evaluate the property. If the small portion that he sold him first is of greater or lesser value than the portion of the land he sold him afterwards, the purchaser acquires the desired land, and the neighbor cannot displace him. For the purchaser himself is a neighbor by virtue of the small amount of land he purchased in the center.

If the small portion of land in the center is of the same value as the portion on the side, this is an act of deception, and the neighbor is entitled to displace the purchaser from the second portion of the field that he bought.

ה

מָכַר לוֹ קַרְקַע מְעַט בְּאֶמְצַע שָׂדֵהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מָכַר לוֹ קַרְקַע בְּצַד אוֹתָהּ שָׂדֶה שֶׁבָּאֶמְצַע. רוֹאִין אִם אוֹתוֹ הַמְּעַט שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ תְּחִלָּה הִיא עִידִית אוֹ זִבּוּרִית לְגַבֵּי זֹאת הַקַּרְקַע שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה זָכָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְאֵין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא עַצְמוֹ בֶּן מֵצַר הוּא מִפְּנֵי אוֹתוֹ מְעַט שֶׁקָּנָה בָּאֶמְצַע. וְאִם אוֹתוֹ מְעַט שֶׁקָּנָה בָּאֶמְצַע כְּמוֹ זֹאת שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ בַּסּוֹף מִצִּדּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲרִים וּבֶן הַמֵּצַר מְסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ מִן הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁקָּנָה בַּסּוֹף:

6

When a person sells a property within the context of a conditional agreement, whether the condition was stipulated by the seller or the purchaser, a neighbor cannot displace the purchaser until all the conditions are met and the purchaser acquires the property entirely without the original owner retaining any connection to it. Only then may the purchaser displace him.

ו

הַמּוֹכֵר עַל תְּנַאי בֵּין שֶׁהִתְנָה מוֹכֵר בֵּין שֶׁהִתְנָה לוֹקֵחַ אֵין בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתְקַיְּמוּ הַתְּנָאִין וְיִזְכֶּה הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּקַּרְקַע וְלֹא תִּשָּׁאֵר בָּהּ עִלָּה עִמּוֹ כְּלָל וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ:

7

When the purchaser has built or improved the property he purchased, or destroyed or impaired it, when the neighbor displaces him, he must pay him the money that is appropriate for him. In all his deeds, he is considered the agent of the neighbor.

Similarly, if the purchaser took a loan before the neighbor displaced him and the neighbor displaced afterwards, his creditor may not expropriate the property from the neighbor.

The following principle governs all these laws: Whenever a person purchases property bordering on a colleague's property line, he is considered that person's agent, and it is as if he were sent only to better his interests and not to impair them.Thus, if he improves the property, he receives only his expenses. If he impairs the value of the property by digging, destroying or partaking of its produce, we reduce the money paid to him.

When do we take into account the produce of which he partook? When he partook of this produce after the neighbor came and brought money to displace him. This does not apply with regard to the produce of which he partook before that time. On the contrary, he is considered to have partaken of his own produce, and none of it is taken into account.

ז

הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁבָּנָה וְהִשְׁבִּיחַ אוֹ סָתַר וְהִפְסִיד בֶּן הַמֵּצַר מְסַלְּקוֹ וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ דָּמִים הָרְאוּיִין לוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְּכָל מַעֲשָׂיו כְּמוֹ הַשָּׁלִיחַ. וְכֵן אִם לָוָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וְסִלְּקוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר אֵין בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁלּוֹ טוֹרֵף מִיַּד בֶּן הַמֵּצַר. זֶהוּ הָעִקָּר בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַדִּינִין שֶׁכָּל הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּצַד מֵצַר חֲבֵרוֹ הוּא כְּמוֹ שָׁלִיחַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ וּלְתַקֵּן שְׁלָחוֹ וְלֹא לְעַוֵּת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִשְׁבִּיחַ נוֹטֵל הוֹצָאָה. וְאִם הִפְסִיד וְחָפַר וְהָרַס אוֹ אָכַל הַפֵּרוֹת מְנַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁמְּחַשְּׁבִין לוֹ הַפֵּרוֹת בְּשֶׁאֲכָלָן אַחַר שֶׁבָּא בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וְהֵבִיא מָעוֹת לְסַלְּקוֹ. אֲבָל כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁאָכַל מִקֹּדֶם שֶׁלּוֹ הוּא אוֹכֵל וְאֵין מְחַשְּׁבִין אוֹתָן:

8

When a person purchases a field from two owners, and a neighbor comes and desires to displace him only from the portion of the property that he purchased from one, he is not given that right. He must either displace him from the entire property, or leave him with the entire property.

When, by contrast, a person sells a property to two people, a neighbor has the right either to displace them both, or to displace one and leave the other.

ח

אֶחָד שֶׁלָּקַח שָׂדֶה אַחַת מִשְּׁנַיִם וּבָא בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר לְסַלְּקוֹ מַחֲצִית בִּלְבַד שֶׁלָּקַח מִן הָאֶחָד אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ. אוֹ מְסַלְּקוֹ מִכֻּלָּהּ אוֹ מַנִּיחַ כֻּלָּהּ. אֲבָל הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לִשְׁנַיִם יֵשׁ לְבַעַל הַמֵּצַר לְסַלֵּק שְׁנֵיהֶם אוֹ לְסַלֵּק אֶחָד וּלְהַנִּיחַ אֶחָד:

9

When a neighbor comes to displace the purchaser, but before he displaces him he sells him the field he owns that borders on the property, he forfeits his right.

ט

בֶּן הַמֵּצַר שֶׁבָּא לְסַלֵּק אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיְּסַלְּקוֹ מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עַל הַמֵּצַר אִבֵּד אֶת זְכוּתוֹ:

10

When an agent conducts the sale of a property and he himself is a neighbor, he does not have the right to displace the purchaser. Since he himself sold him the property, there is no greater waiver possible.

י

שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁמָּכַר וַהֲרֵי הוּא בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר אֵינוֹ מְסַלֵּק אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מָכַר לוֹ וְאֵין לְךָ מְחִילָה גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ:

11

When a creditor of the seller expropriates a field from the neighbor, the neighbor should collect his due from the purchaser whom he displaced. The purchaser in turn should collect his due from the seller.

יא

בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁל מוֹכֵר שֶׁטָּרַף הַשָּׂדֶה מִיַּד בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר הֲרֵי בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר חוֹזֵר וְטוֹרֵף מִן הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁסִּלְּקוֹ וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ חוֹזֵר וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַמּוֹכֵר:

12

Whenever a creditor expropriates property as payment for an outstanding debt, a neighbor has the right to displace him. For a person expropriating property should not have a greater right than one who purchases.

If at any later date the original owner desires to pay back the money that he owed, the ownership of his field will revert to him; he always has this right, as will be explained in the appropriate place.

יב

כָּל בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁטָּרַף בְּחוֹבוֹ יֵשׁ לְבַעַל הַמֵּצַר לְסַלְּקוֹ. לֹא יְהֵא כֹּחַ הַטּוֹרֵף גָּדוֹל מִכֹּחַ הַלּוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם יִרְצֶה הַנִּטְרָף לִתֵּן הַדָּמִים שֶׁהָיוּ עָלָיו בְּחוֹבוֹ תַּחְזֹר לוֹ שָׂדֵהוּ לְעוֹלָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

13

When a minor is a neighbor and the court sees that it is to his benefit, it displaces the purchaser on his behalf or enables him to share in the division of the property among the other neighbors, as it sees fit.

יג

קָטָן שֶׁהָיָה בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וְרָאָה בֵּית דִּין שֶׁזְּכוּת הוּא לוֹ מְסַלְּקִין לוֹ אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹ יִטּל לוֹ חֶלְקוֹ עִם שְׁאָר בַּעֲלֵי הַמֵּצַר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּרְאוּ:

14

When a man's wife owns property that borders on a property that is being sold, the husband has the right to displace the purchaser. For all of his wife's property is in his domain, and he has the right to exercise every privilege that would be hers.

Even if the woman performed a kinyan affirming that she waives this right on behalf of the purchaser, her act is of no consequence and her husband may displace him.

The following rules apply if the wife took the initiative and displaced the purchaser, or a servant who carried on business affairs on behalf of his master displaced the purchaser. If the husband or the master acquiesces to the displacement, he confirms their deeds. If he desires, he may not confirm their deeds, and the wife or the servant must return the property.

יד

בַּעַל שֶׁהָיְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר הֲרֵי זֶה מְסַלֵּק אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁכָּל נִכְסֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וְכָל זְכוּת שֶׁתָּבוֹא לְיָדָהּ זְכוּת הוּא לוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ קָנוּ מִיַּד אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁמָּחֲלָה בִּזְכוּת זוֹ לַלּוֹקֵחַ אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא הַבַּעַל מְסַלְּקוֹ. עָמְדָה הָאִשָּׁה מִדַּעְתָּהּ וְסִלְּקָה אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְכֵן הָעֶבֶד שֶׁהָיָה נוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בְּנִכְסֵי אֲדוֹנָיו שֶׁסִּלֵּק אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ אִם רָצָה הַבַּעַל אוֹ הָאָדוֹן מְקַיֵּם עַל יְדֵיהֶן וְאִם רָצָה לֹא יְקַיֵּם וְתַחְזֹר לַלּוֹקֵחַ וְיַחְזִיר הַדָּמִים:

Shechenim - Chapter Fourteen

1

The following rules apply when a person desires to sell a field and brings his neighbor and the prospective purchaser to court. If he tells the neighbor: "If you desire to buy the field at this and this price, do so. If not, withdraw. Here is the purchaser, " the neighbor has no room to protest. He must either bring money immediately and purchase the field or waive his privilege.

If the neighbor says: "I will work to raise money, " he is not heeded. If he says: "I will go and bring money, " and one would presume that he possesses the resources at hand, we wait until he goes and brings the funds. If one would not presume that he possesses the resources, we do not heed him, for we assume that he is merely seeking to delay. Therefore, we tell him: "Either produce the funds immediately or waive your privilege. " The rationale is that a neighbor is not given time to amass funds.

The following rule applies when both the neighbor and the prospective purchaser produce money, and the coins produced by the purchaser are better or more likely to be accepted than those produced by the neighbor. The neighbor is not given a privilege; the property may be sold without his being given the right to displace the purchaser.

If the prospective purchaser desires to buy the property to build houses, and the neighbor desires to purchase it as a field, the purchaser is granted it because of the virtue of settling the land. The neighbor is not granted the privilege of displacing him.

א

הָרוֹצֶה לִמְכֹּר שָׂדֵהוּ וְהֵבִיא בֶּן הַמֵּצר שֶׁלּוֹ וְזֶה שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ לְבֵית דִּין וְאָמַר לְבֶן הַמֵּצַר אִם תִּרְצֶה לִקְנוֹת בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ עֲשֵׂה וְאִם לָאו סַלֵּק אֶת עַצְמְךָ וַהֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֵחַ. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא נִשְׁאֲרָה לוֹ טַעֲנָה אֶלָּא אוֹ מֵבִיא מָעוֹת מִיָּד וְיִקְנֶה אוֹ בָּטְלָה זְכוּתוֹ. אָמַר אֶטְרַח וְאָבִיא אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. אֵלֵךְ וָאָבִיא אִם הוּא אָמוּד שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַמְתִּינִין לוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ וְיָבִיא. וְאִם אֵינוֹ אָמוּד אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה אֶלָּא לְהִשָּׁמֵט. לְפִיכָךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אוֹ תּוֹצִיא עַתָּה זוּזִים אוֹ בְּטֵלָה זְכוּתְךָ. שֶׁאֵין קוֹבְעִין זְמַן לְבַעַל הַמֵּצַר. הוֹצִיא בֶּן הַמֵּצַר הַמָּעוֹת וְהוֹצִיא הַלּוֹקֵחַ מָעוֹת אִם הָיוּ שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ טוֹבִים מִזּוּזָיו אוֹ מְמַהֲרִים לָצֵאת יוֹתֵר מִזּוּזָיו בָּטְלָה זְכוּתוֹ וְאֵין לוֹ דִּין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר. הָיָה רוֹצֶה הַלּוֹקֵחַ לִקְנוֹתָהּ לִבְנוֹת בָּהּ בָּתִּים וּבֶן הַמֵּצַר רוֹצֶה לְזָרְעָהּ הַלּוֹקֵחַ זוֹכֶה מִשּׁוּם יִשּׁוּב הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין בָּהּ דִּין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר:

2

If a purchaser comes and consults with a neighbor, asking him: "So and so, your neighbor desires to sell his field to me; should I purchase it?", the neighbor does not forfeit his right even if he tells him: "Go and purchase it." Instead, he may displace him after he purchases it unless he performs a kinyan confirming that he does not desire the property.

When is it necessary for the neighbor to confirm that he has no claim against the purchaser with a kinyan? When he makes such statements before he purchases the property. If, however, he waives his right after he purchases the property - e.g., the neighbor comes and helps the purchaser, rents a piece of the property from him,or sees that he is building or destroying even the smallest portion of the property and using it as his own - and the neighbor does not protest or assert a claim, he is considered to have waived his right and he is not given another opportunity to displace him.

ב

בָּא לוֹקֵחַ וְנִמְלָךְ בְּבֶן הַמֵּצַר וְאָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן הַמֵּצַר שֶׁלְּךָ רוֹצֶה לִמְכֹּר לִי שָׂדֶה זוֹ אֵלֵךְ וְאֶקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ וְאָמַר לוֹ לֵךְ וְקַח לֹא בִּטֵּל זְכוּתוֹ וְיֵשׁ לְסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ אַחַר שֶׁיִּקְנֶה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָנוּ מִיָּדוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ קִנְיָן כְּשֶׁמָּחַל לוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּקְנֶה. אֲבָל אִם מָחַל לוֹ זְכוּתוֹ אַחַר שֶׁלָּקַח כְּגוֹן שֶׁבָּא בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וְסִיֵּעַ עִמּוֹ אוֹ שָׂכַר מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתוֹ בּוֹנֶה וְסוֹתֵר כָּל שֶׁהוּא וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ וְלֹא עִרְעֵר הֲרֵי זֶה מָחַל וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ:

3

When the neighbor was in another country, sick or below the age of majority, and afterwards he recuperated, came of age or returned from the journey, he does not have the right to displace the purchaser. If he were given such a right, a person would never be able to sell his landed property. For the purchaser would fear: "It will be taken from me at a later date." The Geonim have ruled in this manner.

ג

הָיָה בֶּן הַמֵּצַר בִּמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת אוֹ חוֹלֶה אוֹ קָטָן וְאַחַר זְמַן הִבְרִיא הַחוֹלֶה וְהִגְדִּיל הַקָּטָן וּבָא הַהוֹלֵךְ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ. שֶׁאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר כֵּן אֵין אָדָם יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר קַרְקָעִיתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי הַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹמֵר לְאַחַר כַּמָּה שָׁנִים תֵּצֵא מִיָּדִי וְכָזֶה הוֹרוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים:

4

The following rules apply when a person sells property that is worth 200 zuz for a maneh. If the seller would discount the price for everyone, the neighbor is required to pay the purchaser only 100 zuz before he displaces him. If the seller would not discount the price for everyone, the neighbor must pay the purchaser the 200 zuz that the property is worth. For it is as if the seller gave the purchaser a gift.

If a person purchased property worth a maneh for 200 zuz, a neighbor cannot displace him unless he gives him 200.

If the neighbor protests: "They are perpetrating an act of deception together,"the purchaser must take an oath while holding a sacred article. Afterwards, he may collect the 200 zuz.

If there were witnesses that the purchaser gave 200 zuz, but the neighbor claims that there was an agreement between him and the seller, and that he definitely knows that in truth the seller took only 100 zuz from him, the neighbor must pay the amount of money the witnesses stated. Afterwards, he may displace the purchaser and require him to take a sh'vuat hesset that he purchased the property for 200 zuz. After taking that oath, he is under no further obligations.

ד

הַמּוֹכֵר שְׁוֵה מָאתַיִם בְּמָנֶה אִם לְכָל הָעָם מוֹזִיל וּמוֹכֵר נוֹתֵן לוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר מֵאָה וּמְסַלְּקוֹ וְאִם אֵינוֹ מוֹזִיל לְכָל הָעָם נוֹתֵן לוֹ מָאתַיִם שֶׁהוּא שָׁוֶה שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר נָתַן לָזֶה מַתָּנָה. לָקַח שְׁוֵה מָנֶה בְּמָאתַיִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן הַמָּאתַיִם. טָעַן בֶּן הַמֵּצַר שֶׁעָשׂוּ קְנוּנְיָא בֵּינֵיהֶם נִשְׁבָּע הַלּוֹקֵחַ בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְנוֹטֵל מָאתַיִם זוּז. וְאִם הָיָה שָׁם עֵדִים שֶׁנָּתַן מָאתַיִם וּבֶן הַמֵּצַר טוֹעֵן שֶׁאֲמָנָה הָיְתָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַמּוֹכֵר וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ [בְּוַדַּאי] שֶׁלֹּא לָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא מֵאָה הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן דָּמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵעִידוּ הָעֵדִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסַלְּקוֹ וּמַשְׁבִּיעוֹ הֶסֵּת שֶׁלָּקַח בְּמָאתַיִם וְנִפְטָר:

5

The following rules apply whenever a person wants to sell landed property and two people come offering to purchase it, and each one is willing to pay the same price and neither of them is a neighbor. If one of the prospective purchasers was an inhabitant of the city and the other dwelled in the outlying fields, the inhabitant of the city is given priority.

If one of them lives close to the property being sold, and the other is a Torah scholar, the Torah scholar is given priority. Similarly, if one is a relative and the other is a Torah scholar, the Torah scholar is given priority. If one is a relative, and the other lives close to the property, the one who lives close to the property is given priority, for this is also an act of "good and justice."

In any of the above situations, if the other person acted first and acquired the property, his colleague does not have the right to displace him. For neither of them owns property bordering on the property being sold, and our Sages established these rules only as an expression of piety and a generous spirit.

ה

כָּל הָרוֹצֶה לִמְכֹּר קַרְקַע וּבָאוּ שְׁנַיִם כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן אוֹמֵר אֲנִי אֶקַּח בְּדָמִים אֵלּוּ וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר. אִם הָיָה הָאֶחָד מִיּוֹשְׁבֵי הָעִיר וְהָאֶחָד מִשְּׁכֵנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה שָׁכֵן הָעִיר קֹדֶם. שָׁכֵן וְתַלְמִיד חָכָם תַּלְמִיד חָכָם קוֹדֵם. קָרוֹב וְתַלְמִיד חָכָם תַּלְמִיד חָכָם קוֹדֵם. שָׁכֵן וְקָרוֹב הַשָּׁכֵן קוֹדֵם שֶׁגַּם זֶה בִּכְלַל הַטּוֹב וְהַיָּשָׁר הוּא. קָדַם אֶחָד וְקָנָה זָכָה וְאֵין חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁרָאוּי לִקְדֹּם לוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ הוֹאִיל וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר שֶׁלֹּא צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ חֲסִידוּת וְנֶפֶשׁ טוֹבָה הִיא שֶׁעוֹשָׂה כָּךְ: סְלִיקוּ לְהוּ חִלְכוֹת שְׁכֵנִים

This concludes the Laws of Neighbors.

סליקו להו הלכות שכנים:

Sheluchin veShuttafin - Chapter One

Introduction to Hilchos Sheluchin veShuttafin

The purpose of these laws is to know the rules pertaining to a person's agents and his partners, and the injunctions that apply with regard to purchases, sales, losses and profits. These mitzvot are explained in the chapters that follow.

הלכות שלוחין ושותפין - הקדמה הלכות שלוחין ושותפין ענין אלו ההלכות לידע דין שלוחו של אדם ושותפו ומשפטיהן במקחן וממכרן בהפסדן ושכרן וביאור כל הדינין האלו בפרקים אלו:

1

When a person tells a colleague: "Go out and sell landed property for me," "...movable property...," or "...purchase for me...," then the person should perform his agency, selling or buying. All his deeds are binding.

It is not necessary for a person who appoints an agent to perform a kinyan or have the appointment observed by witnesses. Instead, the statement he makes to his colleague is sufficient. Witnesses are necessary solely to reveal what transpired if one of the two denies the matter, as is the case with regard to other claims.

א

הָאוֹמֵר לִשְׁלוּחוֹ צֵא וּמְכֹר לִי קַרְקַע אוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין אוֹ קְנֵה לִי הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹכֵר וְלוֹקֵחַ וְעוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ וְכָל מַעֲשָׂיו קַיָּמִין. וְאֵין הָעוֹשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ צָרִיךְ קִנְיָן וְלֹא עֵדִים אֶלָּא בַּאֲמִירָה בִּלְבַד בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין חֲבֵרוֹ. וְאֵין צְרִיכִין עֵדִים אֶלָּא לְגַלּוֹת הַדָּבָר אִם כָּפַר אֶחָד מֵהֶם כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַטְּעָנוֹת:

2

When an agent intentionally violates the instructions of his principal, his deeds are of no consequence. Similarly, if he erred even with regard to the slightest amount, the transaction - whether involving landed property or movable property - is nullified. For the principal can claim: "I sent you to improve my position, not to impair it."

The principle is that with regard to movable property, the laws of ona'ah do not apply unless one pays a sixth or more than the proper price for an article, and that these laws do not apply at all with regard to the sale of servants, promissory notes and landed property. They do, however, apply when the seller or the purchaser himself conducts the transaction. When, however, it is conducted by an agent, and he erred in his valuation with regard to even the slightest amount, the transaction is nullified.

ב

שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁעָבַר עַל דִּבְרֵי מְשַׁלְּחוֹ לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם. וְכֵן אִם טָעָה בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא בֵּין בְּקַרְקַע בֵּין בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין חוֹזֵר שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר לְתַקֵּן שְׁלִיחוּתִי שְׁדַרְתִּיךָ וְלֹא לְעַוֵּת. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁהַהוֹנָיָה בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין שְׁתוּת וְהָעֲבָדִים וְהַשְּׁטָרוֹת וְהַקַּרְקָעוֹת אֵין בָּהֶן הוֹנָיָה אֶלָּא בְּמוֹכֵר שֶׁלּוֹ אוֹ קוֹנֶה לְעַצְמוֹ אֲבָל שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁטָּעָה בְּכֻלָּם בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא חוֹזֵר:

3

When a person gives money to an agent to purchase landed property, and the agent purchases it for him without requiring the seller to accept financial responsibility if it is expropriated from the purchaser, he is considered to have damaged the principal's position. The agent must purchase the property without financial responsibility, as he did, for himself. Then he must sell it to the principal and accept financial responsibility. This decision is rendered because the agent purchased the property with money belonging to the principal. The agent must accept the financial responsibility himself. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

Therefore, if the principal explicitly stipulates that he is appointing the agent in that capacity, whether he improves his position or impairs it, he may not retract, even if the agent sold a field worth 100 dinarim for a dinar for him, or purchased one worth a dinar for 100. And the principal must pay the agent as he originally stipulated.

ג

נָתַן מָעוֹת לִשְׁלוּחוֹ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ קַרְקַע וְקָנָה לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת הֲרֵי זֶה עִוֵּת וְהַשָּׁלִיחַ לוֹקֵחַ אוֹתָהּ לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה וְחוֹזֵר וּמוֹכְרָהּ לַמְשַׁלֵּחַ בְּאַחֲרָיוּת הוֹאִיל וְקָנָה אוֹתָהּ בִּמְעוֹתָיו וְהָאַחֲרָיוּת עַל הַשָּׁלִיחַ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִתְנָה עָלָיו שֶׁעָשָׂהוּ שָׁלִיחַ בֵּין לְתַקֵּן בֵּין לְעַוֵּת אֲפִלּוּ מָכַר לוֹ שְׁוֵה מֵאָה בְּדִינָר אוֹ לָקַח שְׁוֵה דִּינָר בְּמֵאָה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ וְחַיָּב הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ לִתֵּן לוֹ כְּפִי הַתְּנַאי:

4

When a person tells his agent: "Sell a portion of my field large enough to sow a se'ah," and he sells a portion large enough to sow two se'ah, the agent is considered to have added to the principal's instructions, and the purchaser acquires only an area large enough to sow one se'ah.

If the principal told the agent: "Sell a portion large enough to sow two se'ah," and the agent sold only an area large enough to sow one se'ah, the agent is considered to have violated the principal's instructions, and the purchaser does not acquire anything.

If the principal told the agent: "Sell my field to one person for me," and the agent sold it to two people, the sale is nullified, for he violated the principal's instructions. If the principal told the agent: "Sell the field for me" without giving further instructions, the sales made by the agent are binding, even if he sold the property in 100 portions.

ד

הָאוֹמֵר לִשְׁלוּחוֹ מְכֹר לִי מִשָּׂדֶה שֶׁלִּי בֵּית סְאָה וּמָכַר לוֹ בֵּית סָאתַיִם הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹסִיף עַל דְּבָרָיו וְקָנָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ בֵּית סְאָה בִּלְבַד. אָמַר לוֹ מְכֹר לִי בֵּית סָאתַיִם וּמָכַר לוֹ בֵּית סְאָה הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲבִיר עַל דְּבָרָיו וְלֹא קָנָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ. אָמַר לוֹ מְכֹר לִי שָׂדֶה לְאָדָם אֶחָד וְהָלַךְ הַשָּׁלִיחַ וּמְכָרָהּ לִשְׁנַיִם מִמְכָּרוֹ בָּטֵל שֶׁהֲרֵי עָבַר עַל דְּבָרָיו. אָמַר לוֹ מְכֹר לִי שָׂדֶה וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ אֲפִלּוּ מָכַר לְמֵאָה מִמְכָּרוֹ קַיָּם:

5

When a person gives money to his agent to purchase wheat or any other type of merchandise, and the agent does not make the purchase, the principal does not have a financial claim against the agent, only complaints.

The following rules apply if a principal gives an agent money to purchase wheat - whether to eat or to use as merchandise - and the agent purchases barley. If the price of the barley that he purchased becomes less than the price of wheat, the agent must bear the loss, because he deviated from the instructions he was given. If the price of the barley increases more than the price of wheat, the profit belongs to the owner of the money.

If the price of merchandise was fixed, and an additional quantity, weight or measure was given the agent, whatever was added by the seller should be divided between the two; i.e., the additional measure should be split between the agent and the principal. If the object sold does not have a fixed price, everything should be given to the principal.

ה

הַנּוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לִשְׁלוּחוֹ לִקַּח בָּהֶם חִטִּים אוֹ מִין מִמִּינֵי סְחוֹרָה וְלֹא לָקַח אֵין לוֹ עָלָיו אֶלָּא תַּרְעֹמֶת. נָתַן לוֹ מָעוֹת לִקַּח בָּהֶן חִטִּים בֵּין לַאֲכִילָה בֵּין לִסְחוֹרָה וְהָלַךְ וְלָקַח בָּהֶן שְׂעוֹרִים אִם פָּחֲתוּ דְּמֵי זֶה שֶׁלָּקַח פָּחֲתוּ לַשָּׁלִיחַ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁנֶּה. וְאִם הוֹסִיפוּ דְּמֵיהֶן הוֹסִיפוּ לְבַעַל הַמָּעוֹת. הָיָה הַשַּׁעַר קָצוּב וְיָדוּעַ וְהוֹסִיפוּ לַשָּׁלִיחַ בַּמִּנְיָן אוֹ בַּמִּשְׁקָל אוֹ בַּמִּדָּה כָּל שֶׁהוֹסִיפוּ לוֹ הַמּוֹכְרִים הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל שְׁנֵיהֶם וְחוֹלֵק הַתּוֹסֶפֶת הַשָּׁלִיחַ עִם בַּעַל הַמָּעוֹת. וְאִם הָיָה הַדָּבָר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ קִצְבָה הַכּל לְבַעַל הַמָּעוֹת:

6

The following rules apply when a person owes a colleague money, whether because of a debt, an entrusted article or a wage, and he gave the money to an agent and told him: "Bring this money to my creditor," the agent is not required to take special care of the matter and pay the creditor in the presence of witnesses.

If the principal told the agent: "Do not pay the debt unless witnesses observe it, " and he paid the debt in the absence of witnesses, the agent is liable should the creditor demand payment of the debt again. Similarly, if the debt was recorded in a promissory note, and the agent paid the debt outside the presence of witnesses, and did not take the promissory note, the agent is liable should the creditor demand payment of the debt again.This applies whether the debtor told the agent: "Take the promissory note and give him the money," or "Give him the money and take the promissory note." For by not taking the note, the agent impaired the principal's position and did not improve it.

ו

מִי שֶׁהָיָה חַיָּב לַחֲבֵרוֹ מָמוֹן בֵּין מִשּׁוּם מִלְוֶה בֵּין מִשּׁוּם פִּקָּדוֹן אוֹ שְׂכִירוּת וְנָתַן הַמָּעוֹת בְּיַד הַשָּׁלִיחַ וְאָמַר לוֹ הוֹלֵךְ מָמוֹן זֶה לְבַעַל חוֹבִי אֵין הַשָּׁלִיחַ צָרִיךְ לְהִטָּפֵל לוֹ וְלִתֵּן לוֹ בִּפְנֵי עֵדִים. וְאִם אָמַר לַשָּׁלִיחַ אַל תִּפְרַע חוֹב זֶה אֶלָּא בְּעֵדִים וּפְרָעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְּעֵדִים חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה הַחוֹב בִּשְׁטָר בֵּין שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ קַח הַשְּׁטָר וְתֵן לוֹ הַמָּעוֹת בֵּין שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן הַמָּעוֹת וְקַח הַשְּׁטָר וְנָתַן בְּלֹא עֵדִים וְלֹא לָקַח הַשְּׁטָר חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם שֶׁהֲרֵי לְתַקֵּן שְׁלָחוֹ וְלֹא לְעַוֵּת:

7

The following rules apply when a person sends money that he possesses with an agent, saying: "Bring this money to so and so, because I owe it to him," and the agent went and gave the creditor the money outside the presence of witnesses. If the agent said: "I paid," and the creditor or the worker said: "I did not receive it," and the three are standing together the following course of action should be taken.

The agent should take a sh'vuat hesset that he paid the debt. The creditor or the worker should take an oath that he did not receive anything, and then the principal should pay the creditor or the owner of the entrusted object. Even if there were two agents entrusted with making the payment, their testimony is of no consequence, because they are involved parties - for they are required to take a sh'vuat hesset.

When does the above apply? When the agent denies the statements of the creditor and the three are standing together. If, however, the agent comes to the principal and tells him: "I paid your creditor as you instructed me," the principal may not require him to take an oath that he performed the mission, for there is no one who issues a definite claim that he did not perform his mission.

Similarly, if the agents died or traveled overseas, and the creditor came and demanded payment of the debt, the debtor may not require him to take a sh'vuat hesset that the agent did not pay him, for there is no one who issues a definite claim that he received the money. Instead, the debtor should have a ban of ostracism issued against anyone who demands payment a second time. Afterwards, he must pay the debt he owes. Similar principles apply in other analogous situations.

ז

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ מָעוֹת שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ בְּיַד שְׁלוּחוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ הוֹלֵךְ מָמוֹן זֶה לִפְלוֹנִי שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב לוֹ וְהָלַךְ וְנָתַן לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְּעֵדִים. הַשָּׁלִיחַ אוֹמֵר נָתַתִּי וּבַעַל חוֹב אוֹ הַפּוֹעֵל אוֹמֵר לֹא לָקַחְתִּי. וַהֲרֵי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עוֹמְדִין. הַשָּׁלִיחַ נִשְׁבָּע הֶסֵּת שֶׁנָּתַן וּבַעַל חוֹב אוֹ הַפּוֹעֵל נִשְׁבָּע [שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה] שֶׁלֹּא לָקַח וִישַׁלֵּם הַלָּה לְבַעַל חוֹב אוֹ לְבַעַל הַפִּקָּדוֹן. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ הַשְּׁלוּחִין שְׁנַיִם אֵין עֵדוּתָן מוֹעִילָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נוֹגְעִין בְּעֵדוּתָן שֶׁהֲרֵי חַיָּבִין לְהִשָּׁבַע הֶסֵּת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהָיָה הַשָּׁלִיחַ מַכְחִישׁ אֶת בַּעַל חוֹב וַהֲרֵי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עוֹמְדִין. אֲבָל אִם בָּא הַשָּׁלִיחַ וְאָמַר נָתַתִּי כְּמָה שֶׁאָמַרְתָּ לִי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁבִּיעוֹ הֶסֵּת שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שָׁם טוֹעֵן עָלָיו טַעֲנַת וַדַּאי שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ. וְכֵן אִם מֵתוּ הַשְּׁלוּחִין אוֹ הָלְכוּ לָהֶן לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם וּבָא בַּעַל חוֹב לִתְבֹּעַ הַלּוֶֹה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁבִּיעוֹ הֶסֵּת שֶׁלֹּא פְּרָעוֹ הַשָּׁלִיחַ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן מִי שֶׁטּוֹעֵן עָלָיו טַעֲנַת וַדַּאי שֶׁלָּקַח אֶלָּא מַחֲרִים הַלּוֶֹה חֵרֶם סְתָם וּמְשַׁלֵּם הַחוֹב שֶׁעָלָיו. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

8

The following laws apply when Reuven sends a letter to Shimon telling him: "You owe me a maneh. Send it to me with Levi." If Shimon is willing to send the money with him, he is no longer responsible for it. This applies whether a loan or an entrusted object is involved, provided he recognized that the letter was written in Reuven's handwriting.

If the creditor claims "I did not write the note or send it to you," the debtor must take a sh'vuat hesset that he received a note and he therefore sent the money. He is not under any further obligation. This is the manner in which my teachers ruled.

Different rules apply, however, if the note was not written in the principal's handwriting, or the debtor did not know that it was written in his handwriting - even if it contained signs and letters that only they knew about. If Reuven claims: "I did not send a letter; other people tricked you," Shimon is responsible for the funds and must pay Reuven if the funds do not reach him after he issues a ban of ostracism against anyone who intentionally sent a letter and denies it. There are those who rule that Reuven must take an oath before collecting the money, as is required of others who take oaths before collecting their due.

ח

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁשָּׁלַח כְּתָב לְשִׁמְעוֹן וְאָמַר לוֹ מָנֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בְּיָדְךָ שְׁלָחֵהוּ לִי בְּיַד לֵוִי אִם רָצָה לְשַׁלְּחוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִלְוֶה בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה פִּקָּדוֹן. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּכִּיר שֶׁהוּא כְּתַב יָדוֹ. וְאִם טָעַן הַמַּלְוֶה וְאָמַר לֹא כָּתַבְתִּי וְלֹא שָׁלַחְתִּי לְךָ יִשָּׁבַע הַלּוֶֹה הֶסֵּת שֶׁכְּתַב יָדוֹ בָּא אֵלָיו וּלְפִיכָךְ שָׁלַח וְיִפָּטֵר. וְכָזֶה הוֹרוּ רַבּוֹתַי. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה הַכְּתָב כְּתַב יָדוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאֵין הַלּוֶֹה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא כְּתַב יָדוֹ אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ כְּתוּבִין בּוֹ סִימָנִין וְאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן בְּיִחוּד אִם טָעַן רְאוּבֵן וְאָמַר לֹא שָׁלַחְתִּי כְּתָב וַאֲחֵרִים רִמּוּ בּוֹ שִׁמְעוֹן חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ וּמְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ רְאוּבֵן אַחַר שֶׁיַּחֲרִים עַל מִי שֶׁשָּׁלַח כְּתָב זֶה מִדַּעְתּוֹ וְלֹא יוֹדֶה. וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁהוֹרָה שֶׁיִּשָּׁבַע רְאוּבֵן וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִטּל כְּדִין כָּל הַנִּשְׁבָּעִין וְנוֹטְלִין:

9

The following laws apply when Levi comes as an agent of Reuven and takes 50 zuz from Shimon, and then Reuven comes and claims: "I sent him to take only 20, and all that he brought me was 20." Reuven must take an oath supporting his claim, as is required of anyone who admits a portion of the claim made against him. And Levi must take a sh'vuat hesset that he gave Reuven the 50 zuz that were given to him.

If the above scenario was repeated in an instance where Shimon owed money to Reuven, Shimon must pay the difference from his own resources. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ט

לֵוִי שֶׁבָּא בִּשְׁלִיחוּת רְאוּבֵן וְלָקַח חֲמִשִּׁים מִשִּׁמְעוֹן. וּבָא רְאוּבֵן וְאָמַר לֹא שְׁלַחְתִּיו לִקַּח אֶלָּא עֶשְׂרִים וְעֶשְׂרִים בִּלְבַד הֵבִיא. הֲרֵי רְאוּבֵן נִשְׁבָּע שֶׁלֹּא שְׁלָחוֹ לְהָבִיא אֶלָּא עֶשְׂרִים וְעֶשְׂרִים בִּלְבַד הֵבִיא לוֹ כְּדִין כָּל מוֹדֶה מִקְצָת. וְלֵוִי נִשְׁבָּע הֶסֵּת שֶׁהַחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לִי נָתַתִּי לִרְאוּבֵן וִישַׁלֵּם שִׁמְעוֹן מִבֵּיתוֹ אִם הָיָה חַיָּב לִרְאוּבֵן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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