1

When a forbidden substance becomes mixed with a permitted substance of another type, [it causes it to become forbidden] if its flavor can be detected. When [a forbidden substance becomes mixed with a permitted substance of] the same type and it is impossible to detect [the forbidden substance] by its flavor,1 its presence becomes nullified if there is a majority [of the permitted substance].2

א

דָבָר אָסוּר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּדָבָר מֻתָּר מִין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וּמִין בְּמִינוֹ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲמֹד עַל טַעֲמוֹ יִבָּטֵל בְּרֹב:

2

What is implied? When the fat of the kidneys3 falls into beans and becomes dissolved, the beans should be tasted.4 If the taste of fat cannot be detected, they are permitted. If [not only] the taste, [but also] the substance of the fat is present, they are forbidden according to Scriptural Law. If the flavor could be detected, but there is no substance, they are forbidden by Rabbinic Law.5

ב

כֵּיצַד. חֵלֶב הַכְּלָיוֹת שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ הַגְּרִיסִין וְנִמּוֹחַ הַכּל. טוֹעֲמִין אֶת הַגְּרִיסִין. אִם לֹא נִמְצָא בָּהֶן טַעַם חֵלֶב הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וְאִם נִמְצָא בָּהֶם טַעַם חֵלֶב וְהָיָה בָּהֶן מַמָּשׁוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין מִן הַתּוֹרָה. נִמְצָא בָּהֶן טַעֲמוֹ וְלֹא הָיָה בָּהֶן מַמָּשׁוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

3

What is meant by its substance? For example, there was enough forbidden fat for there to be an olive-sized portion [of fat] in each portion the size of three eggs from the mixture. If a person eats a portion of beans the size of three eggs, he is liable for lashes for they contain an olive-sized portion of forbidden fat, for [not only] the flavor, [but also] the substance of [the forbidden fat] is present.6 If one eats less than a portion the size of three eggs [of the mixture], one is liable for stripes for rebellious conduct as prescribed by Rabbinic Law.

Similarly, if there was less than an olive-sized portion of [forbidden] fat in every portion the size of three eggs, even if the flavor of fat is detectable and he eats the entire pot, he is not liable for lashes7 [as prescribed by Scriptural Law], only stripes for rebellious conduct.

ג

כֵּיצַד הוּא מַמָּשׁוֹ. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה מִן הַחֵלֶב כְּזַיִת בְּכָל שָׁלֹשׁ בֵּיצִים מִן הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת. אִם אָכַל מִן הַגְּרִיסִין הָאֵלּוּ כְּשָׁלֹשׁ בֵּיצִים הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן כְּזַיִת מִן הַחֵלֶב לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי טַעַם הָאִסּוּר וּמַמָּשׁוֹ קַיָּם. אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ בֵּיצִים מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. וְכֵן אִם לֹא הָיָה בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת כְּזַיִת בְּכָל שָׁלֹשׁ בֵּיצִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן טַעַם חֵלֶב וְאָכַל כָּל הַקְּדֵרָה אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֶלָּא מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

4

[The following laws apply when] the fat of the kidneys8 falls into the fat from the fat tail9 and the entire [mixture] becomes dissolved.10 If there is twice as much fat from the fat tail as fat of the kidneys, the entire mixture is permitted according to Scriptural Law.11 Even when a piece of [meat from] a nevelah becomes mixed with two pieces of [meat from] a ritually slaughter animal, everything is permitted according to Scriptural Law.12 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, everything13 is forbidden until the forbidden substance will be nullified because of the tiny proportion [of the entire mixture it represents] to the extent that it is not significant and it is as if it does not exist, as will be explained.14

ד

נָפַל חֵלֶב כְּלָיוֹת לְחֵלֶב הָאַלְיָה וְנִמּוֹחַ הַכּל. אִם הָיָה חֵלֶב הָאַלְיָה כִּשְׁנַיִם בְּחֵלֶב הַכְּלָיוֹת הֲרֵי הַכּל מֻתָּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה. אֲפִלּוּ חֲתִיכַת נְבֵלָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בִּשְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת שֶׁל שְׁחוּטָה הַכּל מֻתָּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה. אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַכּל אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיְּאַבֵּד דָּבָר הָאָסוּר מֵעֹצֶם מִעוּטוֹ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה דָּבָר חָשׁוּב שֶׁעֵינוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

5

Into what quantity [of a permitted substance] must a forbidden substance be mixed for it to be considered nullified because of its tiny proportion? [Each forbidden substance according to] the measure the Sages specified for it. There are substances that are nullified in a mixture 60 times its size, others in a mixture 100 times its size, and still others in a mixture 200 times its size.

ה

וּבְכַמָּה יִתְעָרֵב דָּבָר הָאָסוּר וִיאַבֵּד בְּעֹצֶם מִעוּטוֹ. כַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁנָּתְנוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים. יֵשׁ דָּבָר שֶׁשִּׁעוּרוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁשִּׁעוּרוֹ בְּמֵאָה. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁשִּׁעוּרוֹ בְּמָאתַיִם:

6

Thus we learn from this that [the following laws apply] with regard to all of the prohibited substances in the Torah, whether those punishable by lashes or punishable by kerait or substances from which it is forbidden to benefit that become mixed with permitted substances. If the substances are of different types, [the mixture is forbidden] if the flavor is detectable.

If the substances are of the same type and thus it is impossible to detect the flavor [of the forbidden substance], we measure [whether there was] 60, 100, or 200 [times the amount of permitted substances]. The only exceptions are wine poured as a libation to a false deity, because of the severity [of the prohibition against] worship of a false deity15 and tevel, because it can be corrected.16 For that reason, even the slightest mixture of them with a substance of their type is forbidden. If they become mixed with substances of a different type, the matter is dependent on whether their flavor is detectable.

ו

נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּרִין שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה. בֵּין אִסּוּרֵי מַלְקוֹת. בֵּין אִסּוּרֵי כָּרֵת. בֵּין אִסּוּרֵי הֲנָיָה. שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בַּמַּאֲכָל הַמֻּתָּר מִין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. מִין בְּמִינוֹ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲמֹד עַל הַטַּעַם שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים אוֹ בְּמֵאָה אוֹ בְּמָאתַיִם. חוּץ מִיֵּין נֶסֶךְ מִפְּנֵי חֻמְרַת עַבוֹדָה זָרָה. וְחוּץ מִטֶּבֶל שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ. וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה אוֹסְרִין בְּמִינָן בְּכָל שֶׁהֵן. וְשֶׁלֹּא בְּמִינָן בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הָאִסּוּרִין:

7

What is implied? When several barrels of wine fell over a drop of wine that was poured as a libation, the entire mixture is forbidden, as will be explained.17 Similarly, if a cup of wine which is tevel becomes nixed into a barrel [of wine], the entire [barrel] is considered tevel until the amount of terumah and tithes that are appropriate to be separated18 are separated as will be explained in the appropriate place.19

ז

כֵּיצַד. טִפַּת יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלֶיהָ כַּמָּה חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן הַכּל אָסוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וְכֵן כּוֹס שֶׁל יֵין טֶבֶל שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּחָבִית הַכּל טֶבֶל עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמוֹת וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת הָרְאוּיִין לְתַעֲרֹבֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

8

[Related concepts apply with regard to] produce of the Sabbatical year.20 If [such produce] becomes mixed with [produce of] the same type, the tiniest amount [causes the mixture to be considered bound by the laws of the produce of the Sabbatical year].21 [If it becomes mixed with produce of] another type, [the ruling depends on whether] its flavor can be detected. [Nevertheless,] it is not considered as one of the substances forbidden by Scriptural Law. For this mixture is not forbidden. Instead, one is obligated to eat the entire mixture in keeping with the holiness of the produce of the Sabbatical year, as will be explained in the appropriate place.22

ח

פֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם נִתְעָרְבוּ בְּמִינָן בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא וְשֶׁלֹּא בְּמִינָן בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם אֵינָן בִּכְלָל אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין אוֹתָהּ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֲסוּרָה. אֶלָּא חַיָּב לֶאֱכל כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בִּקְדֻשַּׁת שְׁבִיעִית כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

9

Although chametz on Pesach is forbidden by Scriptural Law, it is not governed by these general principles,23 for this mixture is not forbidden forever. For after Pesach, the entire mixture will be permitted, as we explained.24 Therefore the slightest amount [of chametz] causes [a mixture] to become forbidden,25 whether [it becomes mixed] with a substance of its own type or of another type.

ט

חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מֵאִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה אֵינוֹ בִּכְלָלוֹת אֵלּוּ. לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֲסוּרָה לְעוֹלָם שֶׁהֲרֵי לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח תִּהְיֶה כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת מֻתֶּרֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. לְפִיכָךְ אוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא בֵּין בְּמִינוֹ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בְּמִינוֹ:

10

The same law26 applies when new grain becomes mixed with old grain before [the offering of] the omer. Even the tiniest amount causes [the entire mixture] to become forbidden. For there is a factor that will cause the substance to become permitted. For after [the offering of] the omer, the entire mixture is permitted.27

Similarly, whenever there is a factor that will cause the substance to become permitted, e.g., consecrated entities,28 the second tithe,29 or the like,30 our Sages did not mention a measure [in which it could be nullified]. Instead, even if one [of the forbidden substance] becomes mixed with several thousand31 [times that amount of a permitted substance], it is not nullified. [The rationale is that] there is a way that the prohibition can be released.32 [This principle applies] even when the prohibition stems from Rabbinic decree, e.g., an article set aside or born on a festival.33

י

וְהוּא הַדִּין לִתְבוּאָה חֲדָשָׁה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בִּישָׁנָה מִלִּפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר אוֹסֶרֶת בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לָהּ מַתִּירִין שֶׁלְּאַחַר הָעֹמֶר יֻתַּר הַכּל. וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה אִסּוּרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּגוֹן אִסּוּר מֻקְצֶה וְנוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב לֹא נָתְנוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים שִׁעוּר אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד בְּכַמָּה אֲלָפִים אֵינוֹ בָּטֵל. שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיֻּתַּר בָּהּ כְּגוֹן הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

11

With regard to orlah, mixed species grown in a vineyard, fat, blood, and the like, our Sages fixed a measure [that would enable mixtures to be nullified]. Similarly, our Sages fixed a measure with regard to terumot, for there is no way the can be permitted for all people.34

יא

אֲבָל הָעָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם וְחֵלֶב וְדָם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וְכֵן תְּרוּמוֹת נָתְנוּ חֲכָמִים בָּהֶן שִׁעוּר שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן דֶּרֶךְ הֶתֵּר לְכָל אָדָם:

12

It appears to me35 that even there is a factor that will cause a substance to become permitted, if that substance becomes mixed with a substance of a different type and its flavor is not detectable, it is permitted. The fact that there is a factor that will cause the substance to become permitted does not [cause the prohibition to be] more severe than tevel. [For tevel] can be corrected,36 and yet when it [becomes mixed with a substance] of a different type, [it is permitted if] its flavor cannot be detected, as explained.37 One should not raise a question with regard to chametz on Pesach [where such leniency is not granted. A distinction can be made.] For with regard to chametz, the Torah [Exodus 12:20] states: "Do not eat any leavened substance." For this reason, [our Sages] were stringent with regard to it, as we explained.38

יב

יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין אִם נִתְעָרֵב בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ וְלֹא נָתַן טַעַם מֻתָּר. לֹא יִהְיֶה זֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין חָמוּר מִטֶּבֶל שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵּן שֶׁלֹּא בְּמִינוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח שֶׁהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה (שמות יב כ) "כָּל מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ" לְפִיכָךְ הֶחְמִירוּ בּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

13

These are the measures which the Sages established: Terumah, terumat ma'aser39 challah, and bikkurim become nullified [when the mixture is] 101 times the [original] amount. [In addition,] one must separate [a portion and give it to a priest].40 [All of these sacred foods] are combined one with the other.41 Similarly, a slice of the showbread becomes nullified when mixed with slices of ordinary bread [if] the mixture is 101 times the original amount.42

What is implied? When a se'ah of flour from one of the above43- or one se'ah from all of them [combined] - falls into 100 se'ah of ordinary [flour] and [the flour] became mixed together,44 one should separate one se'ah from the mixture for the se'ah that fell in originally. The remainder is permitted to all people.45 If it fell into less than 100 se'ah, the entire mixture is meduma.46

יג

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַשִּׁעוּרִין שֶׁנָּתְנוּ חֲכָמִים. הַתְּרוּמָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְהַחַלָּה וְהַבִּכּוּרִים עוֹלִין בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה וְצָרִיךְ לְהָרִים וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. וְכֵן פְּרוּסָה שֶׁל לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים לְתוֹךְ פְּרוּסוֹת שֶׁל חֻלִּין עוֹלִין בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה. כֵּיצַד. סְאָה קֶמַח מֵאֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ. אוֹ סְאָה מִכֻּלָּם שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה סְאָה קֶמַח שֶׁל חֻלִּין וְנִתְעָרֵב הַכּל. מֵרִים מִן הַכּל סְאָה אַחַת כְּנֶגֶד סְאָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר לְכָל אָדָם. נָפְלָה לְפָחוֹת מִמֵּאָה נַעֲשֶׂה הַכּל מְדֻמָּע:

14

Orlah and mixed species grown in a vineyard become nullified [when the mixture is] 201 times the [original] amount. The [two prohibitions] are combined one with the other,47 and it is not necessary to separate any thing.48

What is implied? When a revi'it of wine which is orlah or which [came from grapes] grown together with mixed species in a vineyard - or one revi'it was combined from both prohibited substances - falls into 200 revi'iot of wine, the entire mixture is permitted. It is not necessary to separate anything. If it falls into less than 200, it is forbidden to benefit from the entire [mixture].49

יד

הָעָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם עוֹלִין בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהָרִים. כֵּיצַד. רְבִיעִית שֶׁל יֵין עָרְלָה אוֹ כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה הָרְבִיעִית מִצְטָרֶפֶת מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ מָאתַיִם רְבִיעִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן הַכּל מֻתָּר וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהָרִים כְּלוּם. נָפְלָה לְפָחוֹת מִמָּאתַיִם הַכּל אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה:

15

Why is it necessary to separate [a measure of] terumah and not a measure of orlah or mixed species from a vineyard? Because terumah is the property of the priests. Accordingly, any terumah which the priests are not concerned with, e.g., terumah from [low-grade] figs,50 carobs, and Edomite barley, need not be separated.51

טו

וְלָמָּה צָרִיךְ לְהָרִים הַתְּרוּמָה וְלֹא יָרִים עָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. שֶׁהַתְּרוּמָה מָמוֹן כֹּהֲנִים. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים מַקְפִּידִין עָלֶיהָ כְּגוֹן תְּרוּמַת הַכְּלִיסִין וְהַחֲרוּבִין וּשְׂעוֹרִין שֶׁבֶּאֱדוֹם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהָרִים:

16

Why was the measure doubled for orlah and mixed species grown in a vineyard? Because it is forbidden to benefit from them.52

Why did [the Sages] choose the figure of 100 for terumot? For terumat ma'aser is one hundredth of the entire crop,53 and yet it causes the entire crop to be "sanctified,"54 as [Numbers 18:29] states: "its sacred part."55 Our Sages said: "An entity which must be separated from it sanctifies it if it returns to it.

טז

וְלָמָּה כָּפְלוּ שִׁעוּר עָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָיָה. וְלָמָּה סָמְכוּ עַל שִׁעוּר מֵאָה בִּתְרוּמוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר אֶחָד מִמֵּאָה וּמְקַדֵּשׁ הַכּל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כט) "אֶת מִקְדְּשׁוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ" אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים דָּבָר שֶׁאַתָּה מֵרִים מִמֶּנּוּ אִם חָזַר לְתוֹכוֹ מְקַדְּשׁוֹ:

17

The measure for all of the other prohibitions of the Torah,56 e.g., the meat of crawling animals, teeming animals, fat, blood, and the like is sixty times [the original amount].

What is implied? When an olive-sized portion of the fat of the kidneys falls into sixty times the size of an olive of the fat from the fat tail, the entire mixture is permitted. If it falls into less than sixty [that amount], the entire mixture is forbidden. Similarly, if a portion of forbidden fat the size of a barley-corn, [the mixture] must contain permitted substances the size of sixty barley-corns.57 Similar [laws apply] with regard to other prohibitions.

Similarly, if the fat of the gid hanesheh falls into a pot of meat,58we require sixty times its amount. The fat of the gid itself is included in this sum.59 Although the fat of the gid is prohibited [only] by Rabbinic Law, as we explained,60 since the gid hanesheh is considered a creation in its own right,61 [our Sages] ruled stringently concerning it as if it was forbidden by Scriptural Law. The gid itself is not measured and it does not cause other substances to be forbidden, because the gid does not impart flavor.62

יז

שְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּן כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים וְחֵלֶב וְדָם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שִׁעוּרָן בְּשִׁשִּׁים. כֵּיצַד. כְּזַיִת חֵלֶב כְּלָיוֹת שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ שִׁשִּׁים כְּזַיִת מֵחֵלֶב הָאַלְיָה הַכּל מֻתָּר. נָפַל לְפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים הַכּל אָסוּר. וְכֵן אִם נָפַל כִּשְׂעוֹרָה חֵלֶב צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁם כְּמוֹ שִׁשִּׁים שְׂעוֹרָה. וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין. וְכֵן שֻׁמָּן שֶׁל גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה שֶׁנָּפַל לִקְדֵרָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים. וְאֵין שֻׁמַּן הַגִּיד מִן הַמִּנְיָן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשֻּׁמַּן גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הוֹאִיל וְגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה בְּרִיָּה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ הֶחְמִירוּ בּוֹ בְּאִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה. וְהַגִּיד עַצְמוֹ אֵין מְשַׁעֲרִין בּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר שֶׁאֵין בַּגִּידִים בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם:

18

When, by contrast, an udder is cooked with meat, we require sixty times its amount and the udder is considered as part of the sum.63 [The rationale is that] since [the prohibition against] the udder is Rabbinic in origin, [our Sages] were lenient in establishing a measure.64

יח

אֲבָל כְּחַל שֶׁנִתְבַּשֵּׁל עִם הַבָּשָׂר בְּשִׁשִּׁים וּכְחַל מִן הַמִּנְיָן. הוֹאִיל וְהַכְּחַל מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֵקֵלּוּ בְּשִׁעוּרוֹ:

19

[The following laws apply when] an egg in which a chick is found65is cooked together with eggs that are permitted. If there are 61 and it,66 they are permitted. If, however, there are only sixty [permitted eggs], the entire mixture is forbidden. [The rationale is that the chick] is a creation in its own right,67 [our Sages] made a distinction and added to its [required] measure.

יט

בֵּיצָה שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּהּ אֶפְרוֹחַ שֶׁנִּשְׁלְקָה עִם בֵּיצִים הַמֻּתָּרוֹת אִם הָיְתָה עִם שִׁשִּׁים וְאַחַת וְהִיא הֲרֵי הֵן מֻתָּרוֹת. הָיְתָה עִם שִׁשִּׁים בִּלְבַד נֶאֶסְרוּ הַכּל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בְּרִיָּה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ עָשׂוּ הֶכֵּר בָּהּ וְהוֹסִיפוּ בְּשִׁעוּרָהּ:

20

If, however, the egg of an non-kosher fowl was cooked together with the eggs of kosher fowl, it does not cause them to become forbidden.68

If [the eggs were opened and] mixed together or the egg of a non-kosher fowl or the egg of a fowl that is trefe become mixed with other eggs,69 the required measure is 60.70

כ

אֲבָל בֵּיצַת עוֹף טָמֵא שֶׁנִּשְׁלְקָה עִם בֵּיצֵי עוֹף טָהוֹר לֹא אָסְרָה אוֹתָם. וְאִם טָרַף אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בֵּיצַת עוֹף טָמֵא אוֹ בֵּיצַת טְרֵפָה עִם בֵּיצִים אֲחֵרוֹת שִׁעוּרָן בְּשִׁשִּׁים:

21

What is the source because of which the Sages relied on the measure of 60? For the portion given [to the priest] from the ram brought by a Nazirite,71i.e., the foreleg, is one sixtieth of the remainder of the ram. It is cooked together with it and does not cause it to be forbidden,72 as [Numbers 6:19] states: "And the priest shall take the cooked foreleg from the ram."

כא

וּמִנַּיִן סָמְכוּ חֲכָמִים עַל שִׁעוּר שִׁשִּׁים. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמּוּרָם מֵאֵיל נָזִיר וְהִיא הַזְּרוֹעַ אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים מִשְּׁאָר הָאַיִל וְהִיא מִתְבַּשֶּׁלֶת עִמּוֹ וְאֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת אוֹתוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ו יט) "וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַזְּרֹעַ בְּשֵׁלָה מִן הָאַיִל":

22

[The following rules apply when] two substances of the same type, [one permitted and one forbidden,] and a [third] entity become mixed together, e.g., there was a pot with fat from the fat tail and beans and fat from the kidneys fell into it. The entire [mixture] dissolved and became a single entity. We view the fat from the fat tail and the beans as a single entity and we measure the fat from the kidneys against it. If the ratio was one to sixty, it is permitted. For it is impossible to detect the taste.73

כב

מִין בְּמִינוֹ וְדָבָר אַחֵר שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ כְּגוֹן קְדֵרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָּהּ חֵלֶב אַלְיָה וּגְרִיסִין וְנָפַל לְתוֹכָהּ חֵלֶב הַכְּלָיוֹת וְנִמְחָה הַכּל וְנַעֲשָׂה גּוּף אֶחָד. רוֹאִין אֶת חֵלֶב הָאַלְיָה וְאֶת הַגְּרִיסִין כְּאִלּוּ הֵן גּוּף אֶחָד וּמְשַׁעֲרִין חֵלֶב הַכְּלָיוֹת כִּגְרִיסִין וּכְאַלְיָּה. אִם הָיָה אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים מֻתָּר. שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר כָּאן לַעֲמֹד עַל הַטַּעַם:

23

The same principle applies when terumot are mixed together [with other substances, some of the same type and some of a different type], their measure is 100. And the measure of mixed species from a vineyard and orlah is 200.

כג

וְהוּא הַדִּין לַתְּרוּמוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ לְשַׁעֲרָן בְּמֵאָה. וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם אוֹ עָרְלָה לְשַׁעֵר אוֹתָן בְּמָאתַיִם:

24

When we calculate the measure of permitted substances with regard to all prohibitions, whether the measure is 60, 100, or 200, we include the soup, the spices, everything that is in the pot, and what the pot has absorbed after the prohibited substance fell according to our estimation.74 For it is impossible to know the exact amount which the pot absorbed.

כד

כְּשֶׁמְּשַׁעֲרִין בְּכָל הָאִסּוּרִין בֵּין בְּשִׁשִּׁים בֵּין בְּמֵאָה בֵּין בְּמָאתַיִם. מְשַׁעֲרִין בַּמָּרָק וּבַתַּבְלִין וּבְכָל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּקְּדֵרָה וּבְמַה שֶּׁבָּלְעָה קְדֵרָה מֵאַחַר שֶׁנָּפַל הָאִסּוּר לְפִי אֹמֶד הַדַּעַת. שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲמֹד עַל מַה שֶּׁבָּלְעָה בְּצִמְצוּם:

25

It is forbidden to nullify a substance75 forbidden by Scriptural76 Law as an initial and preferred measure. If, however, one nullified it, the mixture is permitted.77 Nevertheless, our Sages penalized such a person and forbade the entire mixture.78 It appears to me that since this is a penalty, we forbid this mixture only to the person79 who transgressed and nullified the prohibited substance.80 For others, however, the entire mixture is permitted.

כה

אָסוּר לְבַטֵּל אִסּוּרִין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְאִם בִּטֵּל הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן קָנְסוּ אוֹתוֹ חֲכָמִים וְאָסְרוּ הַכּל. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא קְנָס אֵין אוֹסְרִין תַּעֲרֹבֶת זוֹ אֶלָּא עַל זֶה הָעוֹבֵר שֶׁבִּטֵּל הָאִסּוּר. אֲבָל לַאֲחֵרִים הַכּל מֻתָּר:

26

What is implied? If a se'ah of orlah falls into 100 se'ah [of permitted produce], the entire [mixture] is forbidden. One should not bring another 100 se'ah and join [the entire quantity] together so that [the forbidden substance] will be nullified because of the presence of 201 times the original amount. If, however, he transgressed and did so, the entire [mixture] is permitted.

With regard to a prohibition forbidden by Rabbinic decree,81 we do nullify a prohibition as an initial and preferred measure.

כו

כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁנָּפְלָה סְאָה שֶׁל עָרְלָה לְתוֹךְ מֵאָה סְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱסַר הַכּל. לֹא יָבִיא מֵאָה סְאָה אֲחֵרוֹת וִיצָרֵף כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם. וְאִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה כֵּן הַכּל מֻתָּר. אֲבָל בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם מְבַטְּלִין הָאִסּוּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה:

27

What is implied? If milk fell into a pot that contains fowl and imparted its flavor to the food, one may add other fowl to the pot until the flavor [of the milk] is no longer discernable. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

כז

כֵּיצַד. חָלָב שֶׁנָּפַל לִקְדֵרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּשַׂר עוֹף וְנָתַן טַעַם בַּקְּדֵרָה מַרְבֶּה עָלָיו בְּשַׂר עוֹף אַחֵר עַד שֶׁיִּבָּטֵל הַטַּעַם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

28

We already explained82 that if a forbidden substance imparts its flavor to a permitted substance, the entire mixture is not permitted. When does the above apply? [When the flavor imparted] improves [the flavor of the permitted food]. If, however, the forbidden substance detracts from the flavor of the permitted substance and impairs it, it is permitted.83

[This applies] provided it detracts from its flavor from the beginning until the end. If, however, it detracted from its flavor at the outset, but ultimately improved it or improved it initially, even though it will ultimately detract from it, [the mixture] is forbidden.84

כח

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאִם נָתַן דָּבָר הָאָסוּר טַעֲמוֹ בְּדָבָר הַמֻּתָּר נֶאֱסַר הַכּל. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהִשְׁבִּיחוֹ. אֲבָל אִם פָּגַם זֶה הָאָסוּר לַמֻּתָּר וְהִפְסִיד טַעֲמוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה פּוֹגֵם מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף. אֲבָל אִם פָּגַם בַּתְּחִלָּה וְסוֹפוֹ לְהַשְׁבִּיחַ. אוֹ הִשְׁבִּיחַ בַּתְּחִלָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לִפְגֹּם הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר:

29

Who will taste the mixture?85 If terumot were mixed with ordinary crops, a priest should taste the mixture.86 If the flavor of the terumah is discernible, the entire mixture is considered as miduma. In Hilchot Terumot,87 the laws pertaining to [produce that is] miduma will be explained.

כט

וּמִי יִטְעֹם אֶת הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת. אִם הָיָה הַמְעֹרָב תְּרוּמוֹת עִם הַחֻלִּין טוֹעֵם אוֹתָן הַכֹּהֵן. אִם הָיָה טַעַם הַתְּרוּמָה נִכָּר הַכּל מְדֻמָּע. וּבְהִלְכוֹת תְּרוּמוֹת יִתְבָּאֵר דִּין הַמְדֻמָּע:

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If [the mixture involved] meat and milk, wine poured as a libation, wine that was orlah, or [made from grapes that grew together with] mixed species in a vineyard that fell into honey, or the meat of crawling animals or teeming animals that were cooked with vegetables and the like, a gentile should taste [the mixture].

We rely on his word.88 If he says: "It does not have the flavor [of the forbidden substance]," or he says: "It [imparted] its flavor, but that flavor is bad and it detracts [from the flavor of the permitted substance," the entire [mixture] is permitted, provided it will not ultimately improve it, as we explained.89 If there is no gentile to taste it, we rely on the measures of 60,90 100, or 200.91

ל

וְאִם הָיָה בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב אוֹ יֵין נֶסֶךְ וְיֵין עָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לִדְבַשׁ. אוֹ בְּשַׂר שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל עִם הָיָּרָק וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. טוֹעֵם אוֹתָן הָעַכּוּ''ם וְסוֹמְכִין עַל פִּיו. אִם אָמַר אֵין בּוֹ טַעַם אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר יֵשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם וּמִטַּעַם רַע הוּא וַהֲרֵי פְּגָמוֹ הַכּל מֻתָּר. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה סוֹפוֹ לְהַשְׁבִּיחַ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם עַכּוּ''ם לִטְעֹם מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשִׁעוּרוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים אוֹ בַּמֵּאָה אוֹ בְּמָאתַיִם:

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When a rat falls into beer or vinegar, we require a measure of 60, for we suspect that it imparted its flavor to the beer or the vinegar and it improves it.92When, however, it falls into wine, oil, or honey,93 it is permitted, even if it imparts its flavor, for the [rat's] flavor detracts [from the flavor of these substances]. For [these substances] must all have a pleasant fragrance and rat meat spoils their aroma and detracts from their flavor.

לא

עַכְבָּר שֶׁנָּפַל לְשֵׁכָר אוֹ לְחֹמֶץ מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים. שֶׁאָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא טַעֲמוֹ בַּשֵּׁכָר וּבַחֹמֶץ מַשְׁבִּיחַ. אֲבָל אִם נָפַל לְיַיִן אוֹ לְשֶׁמֶן אוֹ לִדְבַשׁ מֻתָּר וַאֲפִלּוּ נָתַן טַעַם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטַּעֲמוֹ פּוֹגֵם. שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ צְרִיכִין לִהְיוֹתָן מְבֻשָּׂמִים וְזֶה מַסְרִיחָן וּמַפְסִיד טַעֲמָן:

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When a goat is roasted in its fat, it is forbidden to eat from even the tip of its ear. [The rationale is that] the fat permeates through all its limbs, improves [their taste], and imparts flavor. Accordingly, if [a goat] is lean and possessed only a meager amount of fat on its kidneys and digestive organs,94 i.e., one in sixty-one [of the entire animal], one may cut away [the meat] and eat it95 until he reaches the fat.

Similarly, when the thigh [of an animal] is roasted96 together with the gid hanesheh, one may cut away [the meat] and eat it until he reaches the gid [hanesheh].97 [This], he should cast away. Similarly, if an animal was roasted whole without removing the forbidden strands of tissue and membranes, one may cut away [the meat] and eat it.98 When he reaches a forbidden substance, he should cast it away. There is no need to calculate the ratio [of this forbidden tissue to the meat,] for this [forbidden] tissue does not impart flavor.

לב

גְּדִי שֶׁצְּלָאוֹ בְּחֶלְבּוֹ אָסוּר לֶאֱכל אֲפִלּוּ מִקְצֵה אָזְנוֹ. שֶׁהָחֵלֶב נִבְלָע בְּאֵיבָרָיו וְהוּא מַשְׁבִּיחוֹ וְנוֹתֵן בּוֹ טַעַם. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה כָּחוּשׁ וְלֹא הָיָה בּוֹ חֵלֶב כְּלָיוֹת וְלֹא חֵלֶב קֶרֶב אֶלָּא מְעַט כְּאֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים קוֹלֵף וְאוֹכֵל עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לַחֵלֶב. וְכֵן יָרֵךְ שֶׁצְּלָאָהּ בְּגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה שֶׁבָּהּ קוֹלֵף וְאוֹכֵל עַד שֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לַגִּיד וּמַשְׁלִיכוֹ. וְכֵן בְּהֵמָה שֶׁצְּלָאָהּ שְׁלֵמָה וְלֹא הֵסִיר לֹא חוּטִין וְלֹא קְרוּמוֹת הָאֲסוּרוֹת קוֹלֵף וְאוֹכֵל. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְדָבָר אָסוּר חוֹתְכוֹ וּמַשְׁלִיכוֹ שֶׁאֵין בַּגִּידִים בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם כְּדֵי לְשַׁעֵר בָּהֶן:

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One should not roast ritually slaughtered meat with the meat of a nevelah or the meat of a non-kosher species in one oven, even though they do not touch each other.99 If one roasted them together, [the kosher meat] is permitted. [This applies] even if the forbidden meat was very succulent and the permitted meat was lean. For an aroma does not cause a substance to become forbidden; only the flavor of a forbidden substance does.

לג

אֵין צוֹלִין בְּשַׂר שְׁחוּטָה עִם בְּשַׂר נְבֵלָה אוֹ בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה בְּתַנּוּר אֶחָד. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נוֹגְעִין זֶה בָּזֶה. וְאִם צְלָאָן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה הָאֲסוּרָה שְׁמֵנָה הַרְבֵּה וְהַמֻּתֶּרֶת רָזָה שֶׁהָרֵיחַ אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר. וְאֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר אֶלָּא טַעֲמוֹ שֶׁל אִסּוּר:

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When the meat of a ritually slaughtered animal100 was mixed together101 with the meat of a nevelah that was salted, the [kosher] meat becomes prohibited,102 for the concentrated [juices] of the nevelah are absorbed in the kosher meat. It is impossible to detect their flavor or to calculate the quantity of the forbidden substance.103

When the meat of a unsalted species of kosher fish was mixed together with the meat of a species of unkosher fish that was salted, the [kosher] fish becomes prohibited because of the [non-kosher] brine. If, however, it was the kosher fish that was salted and the non-kosher fish was unsalted, the salted fish does not become forbidden. For even though the unsalted [fish] absorbs [the brine] of the salted one, it does not absorb it to the degree that it will cause it to discharge [its own brine].

When a non-kosher fish was pickled with a kosher fish, the entire mixture is forbidden unless the ratio of kosher fish to non-kosher is 200:1.104

לד

בְּשַׂר נְבֵלָה מָלִיחַ שֶׁנִּבְלַל עִמּוֹ בְּשַׂר שְׁחוּטָה הֲרֵי זֶה נֶאֱסַר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁתַּמְצִית הַנְּבֵלָה נִבְלַעַת בְּגוּף בְּשַׂר הַשְּׁחוּטָה וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲמֹד כָּאן לֹא עַל הַטַּעַם וְלֹא עַל הַשִּׁעוּר. וְכֵן בְּשַׂר דָּג טָמֵא מָלִיחַ שֶׁנִּבְלַל עִמּוֹ דָּג תָּפֵל טָהוֹר נֶאֱסַר מִפְּנֵי צִירוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה הַמָּלִיחַ טָהוֹר וְהַתָּפֵל דָּג טָמֵא לֹא נֶאֱסַר הַמָּלִיחַ [אַף עַל פִּי] שֶׁהַתָּפֵל בּוֹלֵעַ מִן הַמָּלִיחַ [ אֵינוֹ בּוֹלֵעַ כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁיַּחְזֹר וְיִפְלֹט]. דָּג טָמֵא שֶׁכְּבָשׁוֹ עִם דָּג טָהוֹר הַכּל אָסוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה הַטָּמֵא אֶחָד מִמָּאתַיִם מִן הַטָּהוֹר: