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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Two, Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Three, Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Four

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Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Two

1

A person cannot transfer ownership over an article that has not yet come into existence. This applies with regard to a sale, with regard to a present or with regard to the disposition of an oral will.

What is implied? If a person states: "What my field will produce is sold to you," "What this tree will grow is given to you," "Give so and so the offspring that this animal bears," the recipient does not acquire anything. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

א

אֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. בֵּין בְּמֶכֶר בֵּין בְּמַתָּנָה בֵּין בְּמַתְּנַת שְׁכִיב מֵרַע. כֵּיצַד. מַה שֶּׁתּוֹצִיא שָׂדֶה זוֹ מָכוּר לְךָ. מַה שֶּׁיּוֹצִיא אִילָן זֶה נָתוּן לְךָ. תְּנוּ מַה שֶּׁתֵּלֵד בְּהֵמָה זוֹ לִפְלוֹנִי. לֹא קָנָה כְּלוּם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

2

When a person sells the fruit of a date palm to a colleague, he may retract even after the fruits of the date palm have already come into existence. If the purchaser harvests the fruits, they are not expropriated from him. If either of them retracts, he is not required to receive the adjuration mi shepara.

ב

הַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת דֶּקֶל לַחֲבֵרוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁבָּאוּ הַפֵּרוֹת לָעוֹלָם. וְאִם שָׁמַט הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְאָכַל אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדוֹ. וְכָל הַחוֹזֵר בּוֹ מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם אֵין חַיָּב לְקַבֵּל מִי שֶׁפָּרַע:

3

When, however, a person sells produce at the market price, although the seller was not in possession of the type of produce, the seller is obligated to purchase the amount of produce he pledged, and give it to the purchaser. If he retracts, he must receive the adjuration mi shepara.

ג

אֲבָל הַפּוֹסֵק עַל שַׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק וְלֹא הָיָה אוֹתוֹ הַמִּין שֶׁפָּסַק עָלָיו בִּרְשׁוּת מוֹכֵר. חַיָּב לִקְנוֹת וְלִתֵּן לַלּוֹקֵחַ מַה שֶּׁפָּסַק. וְאִם חָזַר מְקַבֵּל מִי שֶׁפָּרַע:

4

The following rules apply when a person sells produce at the market price, promising to give four se'ah for a sela. Even if the grain was in stalks, the transaction is completed, and if he retracts, the seller is liable to receive the adjuration mi shepara, provided either of the following stipulations is met:"

a) the seller shows the purchaser that he possesses grain in his storehouse, or

b) the purchaser tells the seller in the market place: "I am relying on you." If the purchaser did not tell the seller: "I am relying on you," the seller does not consider this to be a firm agreement, and he is not required to receive the adjuration mi shepara if he retracts. For he says to himself: "Perhaps the purchaser also made such an agreement with another individual and he does not actually require this wheat."

ד

מִי שֶׁפָּסַק עַל שַׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק שֶׁיִּתֵּן אַרְבָּעָה סְאִין בְּסֶלַע. אִם הָיוּ שִׁבֳּלִים הֲרֵי זֶה קָנָה לְקַבֵּל מִי שֶׁפָּרַע. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּרְאֶה לוֹ בַּגֹּרֶן אוֹ שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ בַּשּׁוּק הֲרֵינִי סוֹמֵךְ עָלֶיךָ. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִרְאָה לוֹ בַּגֹּרֶן וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵינִי סוֹמֵךְ עָלֶיךָ לֹא סָמְכָה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹכֵר וְאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל מִי שֶׁפָּרַע. שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא פָּסַק עִם אַחֵר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְחִטִּים אֵלּוּ:

5

An entity that is not in the possession of the seller cannot be acquired; it is like an entity that has not come into existence.

What is implied? When a seller says: "What I will inherit from my father is sold to you," "What my net will bring up from the sea is sold to you," or "When I purchase this field, it is sold to you," the purchaser does not acquire anything. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

ה

דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל מַקְנֶה אֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה. וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּדָבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. כֵּיצַד. מַה שֶּׁאִירַשׁ מֵאַבָּא מָכוּר לְךָ. מַה שֶּׁתַּעֲלֶה מְצוּדָתִי מִן הַיָּם נָתוּן לְךָ. שָׂדֶה זוֹ לִכְשֶׁאֶקָּחֶנָּה קְנוּיָה לְךָ. לֹא קָנָה כְּלוּם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

6

When a person was on his deathbed and the heir desired to sell some of the dying person's property to spend the money for the sake of the burial, our Sages ordained that if the heir says: "What I will inherit from my father today is sold to you," the sale is binding. The rationale is that since the son is poor, if he is forced to wait until his father dies to sell the property, the corpse will remain unburied and be disgraced.

Similarly, provisions were made for a poor fisherman who has nothing to eat. If he says: "What my net brings in today from the sea is sold to you," the sale is binding. This was ordained to provide for his livelihood.

ו

מִי שֶׁהָיָה מוֹרִישׁוֹ גּוֹסֵס וְנָטוּי לָמוּת וְרָצָה לִמְכֹּר מִנְּכָסָיו מְעַט כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא הַדָּמִים בְּצָרְכֵי קְבוּרָה. הוֹאִיל וְהַבֵּן עָנִי וְאִם יַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת וְיִמְכֹּר יִשְׁתַּהֶא הַמֵּת וְיִתְבַּזֶּה. תִּקְנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁאִם מָכַר וְאָמַר מַה שֶּׁאִירַשׁ מֵאָבִי הַיּוֹם מָכוּר לְךָ מִמְכָּרוֹ קַיָּם. וְכֵן צַיָּד עָנִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל שֶׁאָמַר מַה שֶּׁתַּעֲלֶה מִן הַיָּם מְצוּדָתִי הַיּוֹם מָכוּר לְךָ. מִמְכָּרוֹ קַיָּם מִשּׁוּם כְּדֵי חַיָּיו:

7

If a son sold property belonging to his father during his father's lifetime, but the son died in his father's lifetime, the son's son may expropriate the property from the purchasers. The rationale is that his father sold something that had not entered his domain. Thus, the property remained in the domain of the grand father, and the grandson inherited the estate of his grandfather. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

ז

הַבֵּן שֶׁמָּכַר בְּנִכְסֵי אָבִיו בְּחַיֵּי אָבִיו וּמֵת הַבֵּן בְּחַיֵּי הָאָב וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת הָאָב. בֶּן הַבֵּן מוֹצִיא מִיַּד הַלָּקוֹחוֹת. שֶׁהֲרֵי אָבִיו מָכַר דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא עֲדַיִן לִרְשׁוּתוֹ. וְנִמְצְאוּ הַנְּכָסִים בִּרְשׁוּת הָאָב וְזֶה יוֹרֵשׁ אֲבִי אָבִיו. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

8

The following rules apply when a person gave a colleague landed property as a present, and together with it gave him 100 dinarim through a kinyan agav. If the dinarim existed in his domain at the time he gave the present, when the recipient acquired the field, he also acquired the dinarim. If. however, the giver does not have a dinar, we do not obligate the giver to give the recipient 100 dinarim until the recipient brings proof that the giver possessed dinarim at the time the recipient acquired the present.

The same principles apply to other movable property that a person desires to transfer together with landed property through a kinyan agav. If the movable property is not in the domain of the seller or the giver at the time the recipient acquires the present, he does not acquire it. For a person may not transfer ownership over an article that is not in his domain.

ח

מִי שֶׁנָּתַן קַרְקַע מַתָּנָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְנָתַן לוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ מֵאָה דִּינָרִין. אִם הָיוּ הַדִּינָרִין מְצוּיִין בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכָה בַּשָּׂדֶה זָכָה בַּדִּינָרִין. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ דִּינָר אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אֶת הַנּוֹתֵן לִתֵּן לוֹ מֵאָה דִּינָרִין עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא הַזּוֹכֶה רְאָיָה שֶׁהָיָה לָזֶה דִּינָרִין בְּעֵת הַמַּתָּנָה. וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר מִטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁמַּקְנֶה אָדָם אוֹתָם עַל קַרְקַע. אִם אֵינָם בִּרְשׁוּת הַמּוֹכֵר אוֹ הַנּוֹתֵן לֹא קָנָה. שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ:

9

When a person has entrusted an object to a colleague for safekeeping, he may transfer ownership over it, either through a sale or through a gift. The rationale is that an entrusted object is in the domain of its owner, and we operate under the presumption that the entrusted object continues to exists

If, however, the person to whom the article was entrusted denies receiving it, the owner may not transfer ownership of it. It is as if the article were lost; it is not in his domain.

Different rules apply with regard to a loan. Since a loan is given with the intent that it be spent, it cannot be transferred except through a ma'amad sh'loshtam, a convention that is not based on a motivating reason, as we have explained.

If the loan was supported by a promissory note, the creditor may transfer ownership of the promissory note with a written authorization and the transfer of the note, for there is an entity that can be transferred through which one can acquire the encumbrance it contains.

ט

מִי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ פִּקָּדוֹן בְּיַד אַחֵר הֲרֵי זֶה מַקְנֵהוּ בֵּין בְּמֶכֶר בֵּין בְּמַתָּנָה. לְפִי שֶׁהַפִּקָּדוֹן בִּרְשׁוּת בְּעָלָיו הוּא וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהוּא קַיָּם. וְאִם כָּפַר בּוֹ זֶה שֶׁהֻפְקַד אֶצְלוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַקְנוֹתוֹ. שֶׁזֶּה כְּמִי שֶׁאָבַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ. אֲבָל הַמַּלְוֶה הוֹאִיל וּלְהוֹצָאָה נִתְּנָה אֵינָהּ בָּעוֹלָם וְאֵין אָדָם יָכוֹל לְהַקְנוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בְּמַעֲמַד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן. וְהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ טַעַם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה מִלְוֶה בִּשְׁטָר מַקְנֶה אֶת הַשְּׁטָר בִּכְתִיבָה וּמְסִירָה שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ כָּאן דָּבָר הַנִּמְסָר לִקְנוֹת שִׁעְבּוּד שֶׁבּוֹ:

10

Just as a person may not transfer ownership of an article that has not yet come into existence, so too, he may not transfer ownership of an article to someone who has not come into existence. Even a fetus is considered to be someone who has not come into existence, and thus, when a person wishes to endow a fetus with an article, the transaction is not binding.

If, however, the fetus is the person's son, the transaction is binding. The rationale is that a person feels great closeness to his son.

י

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. כָּךְ אֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. וַאֲפִלּוּ עֻבָּר הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. וְהַמְזַכֶּה לְעֻבָּר לֹא קָנָה. וְאִם הָיָה בְּנוֹ הוֹאִיל וְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קְרוֹבָה אֵצֶל בְּנוֹ קָנָה:

11

When, however, a person tells his wife: "I will give my property to the children that you will bear," the children do not acquire anything. Since the woman was not pregnant at the time the present was given, the children had not yet reached a stage at which it could be said that a person feels great closeness for them.

יא

הָאוֹמֵר לְאִשְׁתּוֹ נְכָסַי לַבָּנִים שֶׁתֵּלְדִי מִמֶּנִּי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יִקְנוּ כְּלוּם. שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעַבְּרָה בָּהֶן בִּשְׁעַת הַמַּתָּנָה עֲדַיִן לֹא בָּאוּ כְּדֵי לִהְיוֹת דַּעְתּוֹ קְרוֹבָה לָהֶם:

12

When a person desires to transfer ownership of property to an animal, the transfer is not effective at all. If a person attempted to transfer part of his property to an animal or to a person who did not exist, and afterwards told a colleague: "Acquire a share of my property as this animal does," or "... as this fetus does," [the colleague does not acquire anything.

If he tells him: "You and this animal shall acquire my property," or "You and this fetus ... ," the person acquires half of the property.

יב

הַמַּקְנֶה לְמִין מִמִּינֵי חַיָּה לֹא הִקְנָה כְּלוּם. הִקְנָה קְצָת נְכָסָיו לִבְהֵמָה אוֹ לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם וְחָזַר וְאָמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קְנֵה כִּבְהֵמָה זוֹ אוֹ כְּעֻבָּר זֶה לֹא קָנָה כְּלוּם. אָמַר לוֹ קְנֵה אַתְּ וּבְהֵמָה זוֹ אוֹ אַתְּ וְעֵבָּר זֶה קָנָה מֶחֱצָה:

13

A person cannot transfer ownership - neither through a sale nor through a present - over an object unless it has substance. If it has no substance, ownership of it cannot be transferred.

יג

אֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה לֹא בְּמֶכֶר וְלֹא בְּמַתָּנָה אֶלָּא דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ אֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה:

14

What is implied? A person cannot transfer ownership over the fragrance of an apple, the taste of honey, the color of crystal or the like. Therefore, when a person desires to transfer ownership of the right to partake of the fruits of this date palm or to dwell in this home, the recipient does not acquire anything. For the transaction to be effective, the owner must transfer the house itself for the sake of dwelling in it, or the tree itself for the purpose of eating its fruit, as will be explained.

יד

כֵּיצַד. אֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה רֵיחַ הַתַּפּוּחַ הַזֶּה אוֹ טַעַם הַדְּבַשׁ הַזֶּה אוֹ עֵין הַבְּדלַח הַזֶּה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. לְפִיכָךְ הַמַּקְנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ אֲכִילַת פֵּרוֹת דֶּקֶל זֶה אוֹ דִּירַת בַּיִת זֶה לֹא קָנָה. עַד שֶׁיַּקְנֶה לוֹ גּוּף הַבַּיִת לָדוּר בּוֹ וְגוּף הָאִילָן לֶאֱכל פֵּרוֹתָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

15

The laws applying to transactions involving property consecrated to the Temple, the poor, and vows are not the same as those involving ordinary people. If a person says: "All the offspring of my animal will be consecrated to the Temple treasury," "... will be forbidden to me," or "... will be given to charity," although the offspring does not become consecrated - because it does not yet exist - the person making the statement is obligated to keep his word,, as Numbers 30:3 states: "He must act according to the statements that he utters."

טו

דִּין הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְדִין הָעֲנִיִּים וְדִין הַנְּדָרִים אֵינוֹ כְּדִין הַהֶדְיוֹט בִּקְנִיָּתוֹ שֶׁאִלּוּ אָמַר אָדָם כָּל מַה שֶּׁתֵּלֵד בְּהֶמְתִּי יִהְיֶה הֶקְדֵּשׁ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת אוֹ יִהְיֶה אָסוּר עָלַי אוֹ אֶתְּנֶנּוּ לִצְדָקָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַדֵּשׁ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב לְקַיֵּם דְּבָרוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ל ג) "כְּכָל הַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיו יַעֲשֶׂה":

16

Since this is so, if a person on his death bed says: "Whatever this tree produces should be given to the poor," or "The rent from this house should be given to the poor," the poor acquire these objects.

טז

וְהוֹאִיל וְהַדָּבָר כֵּן אִם צִוָּה אָדָם כְּשֶׁהוּא שְׁכִיב מֵרַע וְאָמַר כָּל מַה שֶּׁיּוֹצִיא אִילָן זֶה לָעֲנִיִּים. אוֹ כָּל שְׂכַר בַּיִת זֶה לָעֲנִיִּים זָכוּ בָּהֶן הָעֲנִיִּים:

17

There are Geonim who differ with this principle and hold that the poor acquire only in a similar matter to that of an ordinary person. Therefore, they do not acquire an entity that has not come into existence. I do not accept these principles. My rationale is that a person is not commanded to transfer ownership of property. He is, however, commanded to fulfill his pledges to charity or to consecrate property, as he is commanded to fulfill other vows, as we have explained in Hilchot Arachin.

יז

יֵשׁ גְּאוֹנִים שֶׁחוֹלְקִין עַל דָּבָר זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין הָעֲנִיִּים זוֹכִין אֶלָּא בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁהֶדְיוֹט קוֹנֶה בָּהֶן. וּלְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִזְכּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. וְאֵין דַּעְתִּי נוֹטָה לִדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ. שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מְצֻוֶּה לְהַקְנוֹת. וְהוּא מְצֻוֶּה לְקַיֵּם דְּבָרָיו בִּצְדָקָה אוֹ בְּהֶקְדֵּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְצֻוֶּה לְקַיֵּם הַנֵּדֶר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בַּעֲרָכִין:

Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Three

1

A person can transfer ownership over a property itself with regard to the produce it yields. This applies with regard to a sale, with regard to a present or with regard to an oral will. This is not considered to be transferring ownership of an entity that has not come into existence. For the article itself exists, and the person is transferring ownership over its produce. To what can the matter be compared? To a person who rents a house or a field to a colleague, in which instance he did not transfer ownership over the property in its entirety, but rather merely the right to derive benefit from it.

א

מַקְנֶה אָדָם הַגּוּף לְפֵרוֹתָיו בֵּין בְּמֶכֶר בֵּין בְּמַתָּנָה בֵּין בְּמַתְּנַת שְׁכִיב מֵרַע. וְאֵין זֶה מַקְנֶה דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לְעוֹלָם שֶׁהֲרֵי הַגּוּף מָצוּי וּמַקְנֶה לְפֵרוֹת. הָא לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְשׂוֹכֵר בַּיִת אוֹ שָׂדֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הִקְנָה לוֹ הַגּוּף אֶלָּא הֲנָאַת הַגּוּף:

2

What is implied? A person sold or gave away a field with regard to its produce for a limited time, or for the entire lifetime of the seller or of the purchaser.

Similar rules apply to a person who sells or gives away a tree for its fruit, a sheep for its shearings, an animal or a maid-servant for her offspring or a servant for his work. In all such instances, the sale or the present is binding.

ב

כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁמָּכַר אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן שָׂדֶה לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ בֵּין לִזְמַן קָצוּב בֵּין כָּל יְמֵי חַיָּיו שֶׁל מוֹכֵר אוֹ שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְמוֹכֵר וּלְנוֹתֵן אִילָן לְפֵרוֹתָיו. אוֹ רָחֵל לְגִזָּתָהּ. אוֹ בְּהֵמָה וְשִׁפְחָה לְוַלְדוֹתֵיהֶם. אוֹ עֶבֶד לְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו. בַּכּל מִמְכָּרוֹ אוֹ מַתְּנוֹתָיו קַיָּמִין:

3

There is an unresolved question if a sale is binding when a person sells his servant with regard to his fine - i.e., whether the fine which is imposed if the servant is gored by an ox and killed should be given to the purchaser or not. Therefore, the purchaser does not acquire the money; if he seizes it from the servant's owner, it is not expropriated from him.

ג

מָכַר עַבְדּוֹ לִקְנָס שֶׁאִם יֵגֲּח וְיָמוּת יִהְיֶה קְנָס שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ. הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק לְפִיכָךְ לֹא קָנָה. וְאִם תָּפַשׂ הַקְּנָס אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדוֹ:

4

When a person sells a tree to one person and its fruit to another, when making the first sale he did not leave over the rights to the fruit. Therefore the second purchaser does not acquire anything.

If, however, a person sells a tree and leaves its fruit to himself, it is considered as if he retained the branches, the place where fruit grows, even if he did not explicitly say so. The rationale is that when a person retains property for himself, he acts generously.

ד

מָכַר אִילָן לָזֶה וּפֵרוֹתָיו לְאַחֵר לֹא שִׁיֵּר מְקוֹם הַפֵּרוֹת וְאֵין לָאַחֵר כְּלוּם. אֲבָל אִם מָכַר אִילָן וְשִׁיֵּר פֵּרוֹתָיו לְעַצְמוֹ הֲרֵי שִׁיֵּר מְקוֹם הַפֵּרוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ לְגַבֵּי עַצְמוֹ בְּעַיִן יָפָה מְשַׁיֵּר:

5

When a person sells landed property for a specific time, the sale is binding. The purchaser may use the body of the land as he desires and derive benefit from it throughout the duration of the sale. At the end of the specified time period, the property returns to its original owner.

ה

הַמּוֹכֵר גּוּף הַקַּרְקַע לִזְמַן קָצוּב הֲרֵי זֶה מְכִירָה. וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּגּוּף כְּחֶפְצוֹ וְאוֹכֵל הַפֵּרוֹת כָּל זְמַן הַמְּכִירָה וּבַסּוֹף תַּחְזֹר לִבְעָלֶיהָ:

6

What is the difference between a person who sells landed property for a specific time and one who transfers ownership of it with regard to its produce? A person who purchases land with regard to its produce may not change the form of the land. He may not build, nor may he destroy. When, by contrast, a person purchases land for a specific time, he may build and destroy. During that specific time, he may act in the same manner as does one who purchases the land forever.

ו

וּמַה הֶפְרֵשׁ יֵשׁ בֵּין הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לִזְמַן קָצוּב וּבֵין הַמַּקְנֶה אוֹתָהּ לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ. שֶׁהַקּוֹנֶה לְפֵרוֹת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְשַׁנּוֹת צוּרַת הַקַּרְקַע וְלֹא יִבְנֶה וְלֹא יַהֲרֹס. אֲבָל הַקּוֹנֶה לִזְמַן קָצוּב הוּא בּוֹנֶה וְהוֹרֵס וְעוֹשֶׂה בְּכָל זְמַנּוֹ הַקָּצוּב כְּמוֹ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה הַקּוֹנֶה קִנְיַן עוֹלָם לְעוֹלָם:

7

What is the difference between a person who sells a field with regard to the produce it yields, and a person who sells a colleague the produce of a particular field?

When a person sells the produce of a particular field, the purchaser has no right to use this field at all. He is forbidden even to enter, except to take out his produce. The owner of the field, by contrast, may do whatever he desires within.

When, by contrast, a person sells a field with regard to the produce it yields, the owner of the field may not enter the field without the consent of the purchaser, and the purchaser may use the field as he desires.

ז

וּמַה הֶפְרֵשׁ יֵשׁ בֵּין הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה זוֹ לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ וּבֵין הַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת שָׂדֶה זוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ. שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה אֵין לַלּוֹקֵחַ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּשָׂדֶה זוֹ כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ לְהִכָּנֵס אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הוֹצָאַת הַפֵּרוֹת וְיֵשׁ לְבַעַל הַשָּׂדֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּחֶפְצוֹ. אֲבָל הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ אֵין בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה יָכוֹל לְהִכָּנֵס בָּהּ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְיֵשׁ לַלּוֹקֵחַ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּחֶפְצוֹ:

8

What is the difference between a person who purchases a field with regard to the produce it yields, and a person who rents a field from a colleague?

A person who purchases a field with regard to the produce it yields may plant trees or seeds within it whenever he desires or leave it fallow. A renter does not have this right, as will be explained with regard to rentals.

A renter does not have the right to sublet the property. One who buys the property may, however, sell the rights he purchased to another person.

ח

וּמַה הֶפְרֵשׁ יֵשׁ בֵּין הַקּוֹנֶה שָׂדֶה זוֹ לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ וּבֵין הַשּׂוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ. שֶׁהַקּוֹנֶה שָׂדֶה לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְנָטְעָהּ אוֹ לְזָרְעָהּ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה אוֹ לְהוֹבִירָהּ. וְהַשּׂוֹכֵר אֵינוֹ כֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּעִנְיַן שְׂכִירוּת. וְאֵין הַשּׂוֹכֵר רַשַּׁאי לְהַשְׂכִּיר אֲבָל הַקּוֹנֶה מַקְנֶה לַאֲחֵרִים כָּל מַה שֶּׁקָּנָה:

9

When a person sells the benefit to be obtained from a dovecote or the benefit to be obtained from a beehive to a colleague, the sale is binding. He is not considered to have sold an entity that has not come into existence. For he is not selling the doves that will be born or the honey that will be produced in the beehive. Instead, he is selling the dovecote with regard to the benefit it produces, and the beehive for its honey.

The seller can be compared to a person who rents a stream of water to a colleague, in which instance the renter may derive benefit from everything he catches within. Similarly, when a person sells a dovecote with regard to its benefit, it is as if he sells a tree with regard to its fruit. And the laws applying to both of them are like those applying to a person who rents a house, as we have explained in Halachah 1. Such a person may derive all the possible benefits from the property. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ט

הַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת שׁוֹבָךְ וּפֵרוֹת כַּוֶּרֶת לַחֲבֵרוֹ קָנָה וְאֵין זֶה מוֹכֵר דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹכֵר יוֹנִים שֶׁיִּוָּלְדוּ אוֹ דְּבַשׁ שֶׁיָּבוֹא לַכַּוֶּרֶת. אֶלָּא הוּא מוֹכֵר שׁוֹבָךְ לְפֵרוֹתָיו אוֹ כַּוֶּרֶת לְדִבְשָׁהּ. שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא כְּשׂוֹכֵר אַמַּת הַמַּיִם לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁהוּא נֶהֱנֶה בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁיָּצוּד בָּהּ. כָּךְ זֶה הִקְנָה שׁוֹבָךְ זֶה לְפֵרוֹתָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁמּוֹכֵר אִילָן לְפֵרוֹתָיו. וְדִין כֻּלָּם כְּדִין הַשּׂוֹכֵר בַּיִת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ. שֶׁהוּא נֶהֱנֶה בְּכָל הֲנָיוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

10

The owner of the dovecote does not acquire the eggs and the fledgling sin the dovecote until they fly. This is a Rabbinic decree, enacted as a safeguard to the prohibition, Deuteronomy 22:6: "Do not take the mother with the young."

Therefore, if a person wants to transfer the ownership of these eggs or these fledglings to a colleague, he should rap on the dovecote so that the mothers will fly away, lifting themselves up from the ground. He should then transfer ownership of the dovecote to his colleague via a kinyan chalifin, by virtue of the transfer of landed property, or via another means of acquiring movable property.

י

הַבֵּיצִים וְהָאֶפְרוֹחִין עַצְמָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּשּׁוֹבָךְ לֹא קָנָה אוֹתָם בַּעַל שׁוֹבָךְ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא פָּרְחוּ. וְדָבָר זֶה גְּזֵרַת חֲכָמִים הִיא וּמִשּׁוּם (דברים כב ו) "לֹא תִקַּח הָאֵם עַל הַבָּנִים" נָגְעוּ בָּהּ. לְפִיכָךְ הָרוֹצֶה לְהַקְנוֹת אֶפְרוֹחִים וּבֵיצִים אֵלּוּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ. מְטַפֵּחַ עַל הַשּׁוֹבָךְ שֶׁיִּפְרְחוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת וְיִגְבְּהוּ מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַקְנֶה אוֹתָן לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּקִנְיָן אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁהַמִּטַּלְטְלִין נִקְנִין בָּהֶן:

11

When a person purchases the benefit to be derived from a dovecote from a colleague, he is not entitled to take all the fledglings that will be born from the time of the purchase onward. If he did that, the mothers would fly away and he would destroy the dovecote entirely. Instead, he should leave enough of the fledglings so that the dovecote will remain populated.

יא

הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת שׁוֹבָךְ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטּל כָּל הַגּוֹזָלוֹת שֶׁיִּוָּלְדוּ בּוֹ מֵעַתָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָאִמָּהוֹת בּוֹרְחוֹת נִמְצָא שֶׁהֶחֱרִיב כָּל הַשּׁוֹבָךְ אֶלָּא מַנִּיחַ מֵהֶן כְּדֵי לְיַשֵּׁב הַשּׁוֹבָךְ:

12

How many of the fledglings must he leave? If there were mother doves and female fledglings at the time he sold the benefit from the dovecote, he should leave the first pair of offspring that the mothers will bear, so that the mothers will be able to establish rapport with the first pair and with the female fledglings that were with them from the time of the sale. He should also leave two pairs of fledglings from those that the daughters who were in the dovecote from the time of the sale bear, so that the daughters will be able to establish rapport with these two pair that they bore. Whatever offspring are born after the first two pair from the daughters and the first pair of the mother belong to the purchaser.

יב

וְכַמָּה מַנִּיחַ. אִם הָיוּ בּוֹ אִמָּהוֹת וּבָנוֹת בְּעֵת מְכִירַת הַפֵּרוֹת. מַנִּיחַ בְּרֵכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁיּוֹלִידוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְטַוְּתוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת עִם הַבְּרֵכָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְעִם הַבָּנוֹת שֶׁעִמָּהֶם. וּמַנִּיחַ מִמַּה שֶּׁיּוֹלִידוּ הַבָּנוֹת שְׁתֵּי בְּרֵכוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְטַוְּתוּ הַבָּנוֹת עִם שְׁתֵּי הַבְּרֵכוֹת שֶׁהוֹלִידוּ. וְכָל הַנּוֹלָד מֵאַחַר שְׁתֵּי בְּרֵכוֹת שֶׁל בָּנוֹת וְהַבְּרֵכָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל אִמָּהוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ:

13

When a person purchases the benefit to be gained from a beehive from a colleague, he may take three swarms of bees - one after the other. After that, he should take a swarm and leave a swarm to populate the beehive.

יג

הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת כַּוֶּרֶת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ נוֹטֵל שְׁלֹשָׁה נְחִילִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ נוֹטֵל נְחִיל וּמֵנִיחַ נְחִיל כְּדֵי לְיַשֵּׁב אֶת הַכַּוֶּרֶת:

14

When a person purchases blocks of a beehive from a colleague, he should leave at least two blocks in the beehive, so that the bees do not fly away and abandon the hive.

יד

הַלּוֹקֵחַ חַלּוֹת דְּבַשׁ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ מַנִּיחַ בַּכַּוֶּרֶת שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפְרְחוּ הַדְּבוֹרִים וְיֵלְכוּ לָהֶן:

15

When a person purchases olive trees from a colleague to cut down as lumber, he must leave two fistfuls of the tree above the ground before cutting. If he purchases a wild fig tree that was never cut down, he must leave three handbreadths before cutting. If he purchases a wild fig tree that was cut down previously, he must leave two handbreadths. For other trees, one handbreadth must be left before cutting.

For reeds and vines, he must leave the lowest knot above the ground. With regard to palm trees and cedar trees, the purchaser should dig out its roots, for it will not grow again.

טו

הַלּוֹקֵחַ זֵיתִים מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לָקֹץ. מַנִּיחַ הָאִילָן סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ שְׁתֵּי גְּרוֹפִיּוֹת וְקוֹצֵץ. לָקַח בְּתוּלַת שִׁקְמָה מַגְבִּיהַּ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים וְקוֹצֵץ. סַדָּן שֶׁל שִׁקְמָה שְׁנֵי טְפָחִים. וּבִשְׁאָר אִילָנוֹת טֶפַח וְקוֹצֵץ. בְּקָנִים וּבִגְפָנִים מִן הַפְּקָק וּלְמַעְלָה. בִּדְקָלִים וַאֲרָזִים חוֹפֵר וּמְשָׁרֵשׁ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין גִּזְעוֹ מַחְלִיף:

Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Four

1

When a person sells three trees within his field, even three small newly planted trees, or three growths of one tree, the purchaser also acquires the land necessary to nurture them. Even if the trees dry up or are chopped down, he still owns the land necessary to nurture them. The purchaser also acquires all the other trees between them.

א

הַמּוֹכֵר שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדהוּ וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ שָׁלֹשׁ נְטִיעוֹת קְטַנּוֹת אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה בַּדֵּי אִילָן. הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לַלּוֹקֵחַ קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם. וַאֲפִלּוּ יָבְשׁוּ הָאִילָנוֹת אוֹ נִקְצְצוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם וְקָנָה כָּל הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם:

2

How much land is necessary to nurture them? The land beneath them, between them and beyond them, in which a person picking fruit can stand together with his basket.

This place - the place in which a person picking fruit can stand together with his basket - may not be sown by either the buyer or the seller unless the other agrees.

ב

וְכַמָּה הִיא הַקַּרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם. תַּחְתֵּיהֶם וּבֵינֵיהֶם וְחוּצָה לָהֶם כִּמְלֹא הָאוֹרֶה וְסַלּוֹ. וְזֶה הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא מְלֹא הָאוֹרֶה וְסַלּוֹ אֵין אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם יָכוֹל לְזַרְעוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת חֲבֵרוֹ:

3

When does the above apply? When the three trees that he purchases are positioned like the three feet of a range on which a pot is placed - i.e., two parallel to each other and the third equidistant between them, but not on the line connecting them. There must be at least four cubits between each tree, and no more than sixteen cubits.

ג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה הָאִילָנוֹת עוֹמְדִין כְּמוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּטְפּוּטֵי כִּירָה שֶׁשּׁוֹפְתִין עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן שְׁנַיִם זֶה כְּנֶגֶד זֶה וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי מְכֻוָּן בֵּינֵיהֶן וּמְרֻחָק מֵהֶן. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בֵּין כָּל אִילָן וְאִילָן מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְעַד שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה:

4

From where does one measure? From the wide portion of the trunk of the tree.

In the following situations, by contrast, the purchaser does not acquire land: the trees were not standing in such a position, they were closer together than four cubits or more distant than sixteen cubits; he purchased one after the other; he sold him two trees in the midst of his field and the third on the boundary line; the purchaser bought two trees in one person's field and one in a field belonging to a colleague; or a cistern, an irrigation ditch or the public domain was interposed between the purchaser's three trees.

Therefore, the purchaser does not acquire the trees between the trees he purchased. If his trees dry up or are cut down, he has no further rights.

ד

וּמֵהֵיכָן הוּא מוֹדֵד מִן הָעִקָּר הָרָחָב שֶׁל אִילָנוֹת. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיוּ עוֹמְדִין כַּצּוּרָה הַזֹּאת. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ מְקֹרָבִים פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אוֹ מְרֻחָקִין יוֹתֵר מִשֵּׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה. אוֹ שֶׁלְּקָחָן זֶה אַחַר זֶה. אוֹ שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ שְׁנַיִם בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְאֶחָד עַל הַמֵּצַר. אוֹ שְׁנַיִם בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וְאֶחָד בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁהִפְסִיק בּוֹר אוֹ אַמַּת הַמַּיִם אוֹ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּינֵיהֶם. הֲרֵי זֶה אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע. לְפִיכָךְ לֹא קָנָה הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם. וְאִם יָבַשׁ הָאִילָן אוֹ נִקְצַץ יֵלֵךְ לוֹ:

5

The following rules apply whenever a person purchases three trees and therefore acquires land: If the trees grow and a new branch emerges outward from the trunk, it should be cut off, so as not to limit the passage of the owner of the field.

All the twigs and small branches that emerge from the trees - even those that emerge from the roots - belong to the owner of the trees, for he has acquired the land.

ה

כָּל מִי שֶׁקּוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת וְיֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע. אִם הִגְדִּילוּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ חֹטֶר יָקֹץ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְמַעֵט הַדֶּרֶךְ עַל בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה. וְכָל הַשָּׂרִיגִין וְהָאֲמִירִים הַיּוֹצְאִים מֵהֶם וַאֲפִלּוּ מִן הַשָּׁרָשִׁים הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל בַּעַל הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע:

6

When a person purchases two trees in a field belonging to a colleague, the purchaser does not acquire any land. Therefore, if one of his trees dies or is cut down, he has no further right to the land.

If his two trees grow and produce twigs and small branches, they should be cut off, lest they grow into the earth and appear as a third tree. Then the purchaser would tell the seller: "You sold me three trees and I have a right to the land."

ו

הַקּוֹנֶה שְׁנֵי אִילָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע. לְפִיכָךְ אִם מֵת הָאִילָן אוֹ נִקְצַץ אֵין לוֹ כְּלוּם. הִגְדִּילוּ שְׁנֵי הָאִילָנוֹת וְהוֹצִיאוּ שָׂרִיגִים וַאֲמִירִים יָקֹץ שֶׁמָּא יִצְמְחוּ בָּאָרֶץ וְיֹאמַר לַמּוֹכֵר שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת מָכַרְתָּ לִי וְיֵשׁ לִי קַרְקַע:

7

The following laws apply to all the branches that the owner of the trees trims from them. Any branches that grow from the portion of the trunk that sees the sun belong to the owner of the trees. The branches that grow from the roots and do not see the sun belong to the owner of the field. With regard to palm trees, the owner of the tree does not acquire any of the branches, for they do not grow from the trunk.

ז

כָּל הָעֵצִים שֶׁקּוֹצֵץ בַּעַל שְׁנֵי הָאִילָנוֹת מֵהֶן. הָעוֹלֶה מִן הַגְּזָעִים וְהוּא הָרוֹאֶה פְּנֵי הַחַמָּה הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל בַּעַל הָאִילָנוֹת. וְהָעוֹלֶה מִן הַשָּׁרָשִׁים וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה פְּנֵי הַחַמָּה הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה. וּבִדְקָלִים אֵין לְבַעַל הַדֶּקֶל מִן הָעוֹלֶה כְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ גֶּזַע:

8

When a person sells landed property but retains the rights to the trees, he also retains possession of half of the land. For if he did not retain possession of the land, the purchaser would tell him: "Uproot your trees."

Similarly, if he retains the rights to two trees, he also retains possession of the land appropriate for them. For if he did not retain possession of the land, the purchaser would tell him: "Uproot your trees."

ח

הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע וְשִׁיֵּר אִילָנוֹת הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ חֲצִי הַקַּרְקַע כֻּלָּהּ שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא שִׁיֵּר בַּקַּרְקַע הֲרֵי אוֹמֵר לוֹ הַלּוֹקֵחַ עֲקֹר אִילָנְךָ. וְכֵן אִם שִׁיֵּר שְׁנֵי הָאִילָנוֹת בִּלְבַד יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם. שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא שִׁיֵּר הַקַּרְקַע הָיָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹמֵר לוֹ עֲקֹר אִילָנְךָ וְלֵךְ:

9

When a person sells trees, but retains possession of the land, the owner of the trees acquires possession of the land necessary for them, as we have explained.

If a person sold the land to one person and the trees to another, and the purchaser of the trees manifested his ownership over the trees, and the purchaser of the land manifested his ownership over the land, the purchaser of the trees acquires the trees and half the land, while the purchaser of the land acquires only half the land.

ט

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הָאִילָנוֹת וְשִׁיֵּר אֶת הַקַּרְקַע. יֵשׁ לְבַעַל הָאִילָנוֹת קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. מָכַר אֶת הַקַּרְקַע לְאֶחָד וְאֶת הָאִילָנוֹת לְאַחֵר וְהֶחֱזִיק זֶה בָּאִילָנוֹת וְהֶחֱזִיק זֶה בַּקַּרְקַע. זֶה קָנָה הָאִילָנוֹת עִם חֲצִי הַקַּרְקַע וְזֶה שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בַּקַּרְקַע קָנָה חֲצִי הַקַּרְקַע בִּלְבַד:

10

When brothers divide an inheritance, one taking an orchard and one taking a field of grain, the owner of the orchard receives four cubits in the field of grain next to the orchard. He is granted this land because we assume that they divided the land with this stipulation in mind. It need not be stated explicitly, because it is something that is well known.

י

הָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ אֶחָד נָטַל פַּרְדֵּס וְאֶחָד נָטַל שְׂדֵה לָבָן. יֵשׁ לְבַעַל הַפַּרְדֵּס אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה לָבָן סְמוּכוֹת לְסוֹף הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁל פַּרְדֵּס שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן חָלְקוּ. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵשׁ דָּבָר זֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר יָדוּעַ:

11

The following rules apply when a person sells a field containing date palms to a colleague and specifies that he is selling him the field with the exception of one specific tree. If it is a valuable and high-quality tree, we assume that he retained ownership of that one date palm alone; the remainder belong to the purchaser. If the date palm that he specified that he was retaining is inferior, we assume that he surely retained ownership over the others, and the purchaser does not acquire any of the date palms at all.

יא

הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְהָיוּ בָּהּ דְּקָלִים וְאָמַר לוֹ חוּץ מִדֶּקֶל פְּלוֹנִי. אִם דֶּקֶל טוֹב וּמְשֻׁבָּח הוּא אוֹתוֹ הַדֶּקֶל לְבַדּוֹ הוּא שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר וְהַשְּׁאָר לַלּוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם דֶּקֶל רַע הוּא שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר הַשְּׁאָר] לֹא קָנָה מִן הַדְּקָלִים כְּלוּם:

12

The following rules apply when a person sells a field to a colleague and tells him that he is selling it to him with the exception of the trees. If it contains only date palms, the seller retains ownership over the date palms. If it contains only vines, the seller retains ownership over the vines. Similar rules apply if it contains only one other type of tree.

If the field contains vines and date palms, the seller retains ownership over the vines alone. If it contains other trees and vines, the seller retains ownership over the other trees alone. Similarly, if it contains other trees and date palms, he retains the other trees alone. The rationale is that whoever sells, sells generously,

If the seller retains ownership over date palms, he retains ownership over only those date palms that are tall and that one must ascend by means of a rope. The others belong to the purchaser. If he retains ownership over trees, he retains ownership over only those trees that will not be bent over by a yoke. Those that can be bent over by a yoke belong to the purchaser and are considered to be part of the field.

יב

מָכַר לוֹ שָׂדֶה וְאָמַר לוֹ חוּץ מִן הָאִילָנוֹת. אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּקָלִים בִּלְבַד שִׁיֵּר הַדְּקָלִים. וְאִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ גְּפָנִים בִּלְבַד שִׁיֵּר הַגְּפָנִים. וְכֵן שְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת. הָיוּ בָּהּ גְּפָנִים וּדְקָלִים לֹא שִׁיֵּר אֶלָּא הַגְּפָנִים. אִילָנוֹת וּגְפָנִים לֹא שִׁיֵּר אֶלָּא אִילָנוֹת. וְכֵן אִילָנוֹת וּדְקָלִים שִׁיֵּר אִילָנוֹת שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר בְּעַיִן יָפָה הוּא מוֹכֵר. וְאִם הַדְּקָלִים שִׁיֵּר לֹא שִׁיֵּר אֶלָּא כָּל דֶּקֶל גָּבוֹהַּ שֶׁעוֹלִים לוֹ בַּחֶבֶל וְהַשְּׁאָר הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם שְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת הוּא שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר לֹא שִׁיֵּר בָּהֶם אֶלָּא כָּל שֶׁאֵין הָעל כּוֹבְשׁוֹ. וְכָל שֶׁהָעל כּוֹבְשׁוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ וּבִכְלַל הַשָּׂדֶה נֶחְשָׁב:

13

The following rules apply when a person tells a colleague, "I am selling you land and date palms." Even if there are no date palms on the land that he was intending to sell, if he desires to transfer ownership of two other date palms, the transaction is binding. The purchaser does not have the option of saying: "I am purchasing only land that has date palms growing on it."

If, however, the seller tells him: "I am selling you land with date palms," the sale is binding only when there are at least two date palms on the land. If not, it is considered a transaction entered into under false premises, and it is nullified. If the seller tells the purchaser: "I am selling you land for date palms," it need not have date palms. This expression indicates merely that the land is fit to grow date palms.

יג

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קַרְקַע וּדְקָלִים אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיוּ לוֹ דְּקָלִים אִם רָצָה לִקְנוֹת לוֹ שְׁנֵי דְּקָלִים הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְנָה הַמִּקָּח. וְאֵין הַלּוֹקֵחַ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לוֹ אֵינִי לוֹקֵחַ אֶלָּא קַרְקַע שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דְּקָלִים. וְאִם אָמַר קַרְקַע בִּדְקָלִים אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. אִם הָיוּ בּוֹ שְׁנֵי דְּקָלִים קָנָה וְאִם לָאו מֶקַח טָעוּת הוּא וְחוֹזֵר. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ קַרְקַע שֶׁל דְּקָלִים אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ אֵין לוֹ דְּקָלִים. שֶׁאֵין בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה אֶלָּא קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לִדְקָלִים:

14

When a person sells an orchard to a colleague, he must write: "Acquire the date palms, the dates and the palm branches." Although the purchaser acquires all of these entities even when they are not explicitly mentioned in the deed of sale, mentioning them makes the wording of the document articulate.

Similarly, when a person sells landed property to a colleague, he must write: "I have not retained ownership over anything in this sale," to prevent judgments and claims from arising.

יד

הַמּוֹכֵר פַּרְדֵּס לַחֲבֵרוֹ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לוֹ קְנֵה לְךָ דְּקָלִים וּתְמָרִים וְהוּצִין. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנָה כָּל אֵלּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ אוֹתָם נוֹיֵי הַשְּׁטָר הֵם. וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לַחֲבֵרוֹ צָרִיךְ לִכְתֹּב לוֹ וְלֹא הִנַּחְתִּי לְפָנַי בְּמֶכֶר זֶה כְּלוּם כְּדֵי לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַדִּינִין וְהַטְּעָנוֹת:

15

The following rules apply when a person sells a house to a colleague: Even though he writes in the deed of sale: "I have transferred ownership of its depths and its heights," he must write to him:"Acquire from the ground of the earth's depths to the heights of the sky." For the heights and the depths of the property are not transferred when no specification is made.

If he said that he was transferring ownership of the heights and the depths, the purchaser would acquire the height - i.e., the atmosphere alone- and the depths, what is under the ground. He does not acquire what is in their midst. When, however, he writes: "From the ground of the earth's depths to the heights of the sky," he acquires a water receptacle and a cistern that are in the midst of the earth and the pathways that are in between the ceiling and the top of the building.

טו

הַמּוֹכֵר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּתַב לוֹ וְהִקְנֵיתִי לְךָ עָמְקוֹ וְרוּמוֹ צָרִיךְ לִכְתֹּב לוֹ קְנֵה לְךָ מֵהַקַּרְקַע הַתְּהוֹם עַד רוּם רָקִיעַ. שֶׁהָעֹמֶק וְהָרוּם אֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה בִּסְתָם. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁקָּנָה הָעֹמֶק וְהָרוּם קָנָה הָרוּם שֶׁהוּא הָאֲוִיר בִּלְבַד וְהָעֹמֶק שֶׁהוּא עֳבִי הָאָרֶץ. אֲבָל לֹא קָנָה הַבֵּינוֹנִית שֶׁבַּמַּעֲמַקִּים וְשֶׁבָּאֲוִיר. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁכָּתַב לוֹ מִקַּרְקַע הַתְּהוֹם עַד רוּם הָרָקִיעַ קָנָה הַבּוֹר וְהַדּוּת שֶׁבָּעֳבִי הַקַּרְקַע וְהַמַּעֲזִיבוֹת וְהַמְּחִלּוֹת שֶׁבֵּין הַמַּעֲזִיבוֹת לְמַעְלָה:

16

When a person sells a home on the condition that the upper storeyremains his, he retains possession of that portion of the building. If he desires to extend projections from it, he has the right. If it falls, he may rebuild it. And if there was a third storey built on top of the second and it fell, if he desires to rebuild it, he may build it as it was before it fell.

טז

הַמּוֹכֵר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ עַל מְנָת שֶׁדְּיוֹטָא עֶלְיוֹנָה שֶׁלִּי הֲרֵי זוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ. וְאִם רָצָה לְהוֹצִיא בָּהּ זִיזִין מוֹצִיא. וְאִם נָפְלָה חוֹזֵר וּבוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ. וְאִם רָצָה לִבְנוֹת עַל גַּבָּהּ בּוֹנֶה כְּשֶׁהָיָה מִקֹּדֶם:

17

Although a person sells his grave, the path to his grave, the place where the funeral procession stands in honor of the departed, or the place where eulogies are recited, the family may come and bury the deceased there or perform any of the other rites against the will of the purchaser.

This privilege was granted lest the failure to do so blemish the honor of the family. They must pay the purchaser for the grave in which the deceased was buried. This provision is granted even though it was not stated explicitly in the original deed of sale.

יז

הַמּוֹכֵר קִבְרוֹ אוֹ דֶּרֶךְ קִבְרוֹ אוֹ מְקוֹם מַעֲמָדוֹ אוֹ בֵּית הֶסְפֵּדוֹ. בָּאִין בְּנֵי מִשְׁפָּחָה וְקוֹבְרִים שָׁם בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ מִשּׁוּם פְּגַם מִשְׁפָּחָה. וְנוֹתְנִין דְּמֵי הַקֶּבֶר שֶׁקָּבְרוּ בּוֹ לַלּוֹקֵחַ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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