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Genevah - Chapter One, Genevah - Chapter Two, Genevah - Chapter Three

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Genevah - Chapter One

Introduction to Hilchos Genevah

[This text] contains seven mitzvot: two positive commandments and five negative commandments. They are:
1) Not to steal property;
2) The laws governing a thief;
3) To insure the accuracy of scales and weights;
4) Not to deceive a person by using [inaccurate] measures and weights;
5) Not to possess two sets of weights or measures, even though one does not use them for business;
6) Not to move a colleague's property marker;
7) Not to kidnap.

These mitzvot are explained in the chapters [that follow].

הלכות גניבה - הקדמה יש בכללן שבע מצות. שתי מצות עשה. וחמש מצות לא תעשה, וזה הוא פרטן:
א) שלא לגנוב ממון
ב) דין הגנב
ג) לצדק המאזנים עם המשקלות
ד) שלא יעשה עול במדות ובמשקלות
ה) שלא יהיה לאדם אבן ואבן איפה ואיפה אף על פי שאינו לוקח ונותן בהן
ו) שלא יסיג גבול
ז) שלא לגנוב נפשות : וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו

1

Whenever a person steals property that is worth a p'rutah or more, he transgresses a negative commandment, as Exodus 20:13 states: "Do not steal."

Lashes are not administered for the violation of this commandment, for one is obligated to give compensation. For the Torah requires a thief to compensate the party from whom he stole, whether he be a Jew or a gentile, an adult or a minor.

א

כָּל הַגּוֹנֵב מָמוֹן מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וּלְמַעְלָה עוֹבֵר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט יא) "לֹא תִגְנֹב". וְאֵין לוֹקִין עַל לָאו זֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתָּן לְתַשְׁלוּמִין שֶׁהַגַּנָּב חִיְּבַתּוּ תּוֹרָה לְשַׁלֵּם. וְאֶחָד הַגּוֹנֵב מָמוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ הַגּוֹנֵב מָמוֹן עַכּוּ''ם וְאֶחָד הַגּוֹנֵב אֶת הַגָּדוֹל אוֹ אֶת הַקָּטָן:

2

The Torah prohibits stealing even the slightest amount. It is forbidden to steal as a jest, to steal with the intent to return, or to steal with the intent to pay. All is forbidden, lest one habituate oneself to such conduct.

ב

אָסוּר לִגְנֹב כָּל שֶׁהוּא דִּין תּוֹרָה. וְאָסוּר לִגְנֹב דֶּרֶךְ שְׂחוֹק אוֹ לִגְנֹב עַל מְנָת לְהַחְזִיר אוֹ עַל מְנָת לְשַׁלֵּם הַכּל אָסוּר שֶׁלֹּא יַרְגִּיל עַצְמוֹ בְּכָךְ:

3

Who is a thief? A person who takes assets belonging to a colleague in stealth, without the owner's knowing - e.g., a pickpocket who is not detected by the owner or the like.

If, however, a person takes a colleague's assets in open view and with public knowledge by force, he is not considered a thief, but rather a robber.

For this reason, an armed bandit who steals is not considered a robber, but a thief. This applies even when the owner takes notice when he steals.

ג

אֵיזֶה הוּא גַּנָּב זֶה הַלּוֹקֵחַ מָמוֹן אָדָם בַּסֵּתֶר וְאֵין הַבְּעָלִים יוֹדְעִים. כְּגוֹן הַפּוֹשֵׁט יָדוֹ לְתוֹךְ כִּיס חֲבֵרוֹ וְלָקַח מְעוֹתָיו וְאֵין הַבְּעָלִים רוֹאִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. אֲבָל אִם לָקַח בְּגָלוּי וּבְפַרְהֶסְיָא בְּחֹזֶק יָד אֵין זֶה גַּנָּב אֶלָּא גַּזְלָן. לְפִיכָךְ לִסְטִים מְזֻיָּן שֶׁגָּנַב אֵינוֹ גַּזְלָן אֶלָּא גַּנָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבְּעָלִים יוֹדְעִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁגָּנַב:

4

When two acceptable witnesses testify that a person stole, he is required to pay twice the amount of the stolen property to its owner. If he stole a dinar, he must pay two. If he stole a donkey, a garment or a camel, he must pay twice its worth. He thus loses the amount that he desired that his colleague would lose.

ד

גַּנָּב שֶׁהֵעִידוּ עָלָיו עֵדִים כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁגָּנַב חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם לְבַעַל הַגְּנֵבָה. אִם גָּנַב דִּינָר מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם. גָּנַב חֲמוֹר אוֹ כְּסוּת אוֹ גָּמָל מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם בְּדָמֶיהָ. נִמְצָא מַפְסִיד כַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לְחַסֵּר אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ:

5

When a thief admits that he stole, he must repay the principal, but he is not liable for the payment of the double amount, as indicated by Exodus 22:8: "one who is deemed guilty by the court must pay double." This excludes a person who admits his own guilt; he need not pay double.

This principle applies with regard to all the fines required by the Torah. A person who admits his own guilt is not liable for the fine.

ה

גַּנָּב שֶׁהוֹדָה מֵעַצְמוֹ שֶׁגָּנַב מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וּפָטוּר מִן הַכֶּפֶל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ח) "אֲשֶׁר יַרְשִׁיעֻן אֱלֹהִים יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם" וְלֹא הַמַּרְשִׁיעַ אֶת עַצְמוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכָל הַקְּנָסוֹת שֶׁהַמּוֹדֶה בָּהֶן פָּטוּר:

6

The obligation to make double restitution applies with regard to all articles with the exception of a sheep or an ox. A person who steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it must pay four times the amount of the sheep and five times the amount of the ox.

ו

תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל נוֹהֲגִין בַּכּל חוּץ מִשֶּׂה וְשׁוֹר שֶׁהַגּוֹנֵב אֶת הַשּׁוֹר אוֹ אֶת הַשֶּׂה וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם עַל הַשֶּׂה תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וְעַל הַשּׁוֹר תַּשְׁלוּמֵי חֲמִשָּׁה:

7

The obligation to pay double - or four or five times the amount - of the value of the stolen article applies equally to a man and to a woman. If a woman is married and thus has no financial resources with which to pay, the double paymentremains a debt that she is obligated to pay when she is divorced or becomes a widow. At that time, the court exacts payment from her.

ז

אֶחָד הָאִישׁ וְאֶחָד הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁגָּנְבוּ חַיָּבִין לְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְתַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. הָיְתָה אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ שֶׁאֵין לָהּ לְשַׁלֵּם הֲרֵי הַכֶּפֶל עָלֶיהָ חוֹב עַד שֶׁתִּתְגָּרֵשׁ אוֹ יָמוּת בַּעְלָהּ וּבֵית דִּין נִפְרָעִים מִמֶּנָּה:

8

When a minor steals, he is not liable for the double payment. The stolen article must, however, be returned to its owner. If that article is lost, he is not obligated to pay the principal even after he attains majority.

ח

קָטָן שֶׁגָּנַב פָּטוּר מִן הַכֶּפֶל וּמַחְזִירִין לוֹ דָּבָר הַגָּנוּב מִמֶּנּוּ. וְאִם אָבְדוּ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם אַף הַקֶּרֶן וַאֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגְדִּיל:

9

When a servant steals, he is not liable for the double payment. Similarly, his owner is not liable. For a person is not liable for the damages caused by his servants although they are his property. The rationale is that the servants are mentally competent, and their owner is incapable of guarding them. Were the owner to be held liable for the damages his servants cause, if he angered a servant, the servant could desire to seek revenge and go and ignite a grain heap worth a thousand dinar or precipitate other similar damage to cause his owner to be liable.

If the servant is freed by his owner, he is obligated to pay the double payment.

ט

הָעֶבֶד שֶׁגָּנַב פָּטוּר מִן הַכֶּפֶל וּבְעָלָיו פְּטוּרִין שֶׁאֵין אָדָם חַיָּב עַל נִזְקֵי עֲבָדָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מָמוֹנוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן דַּעַת וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְשָׁמְרָן שֶׁאִם יַכְעִיסֶנּוּ רַבּוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיַדְלִיק גָּדִישׁ בְּאֶלֶף דִּינָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה מִשְּׁאָר נְזָקִין. נִשְׁתַּחְרֵר הָעֶבֶד חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַכֶּפֶל:

10

It is appropriate for the court to administer corporal punishment to a child who steals, according to the child's strength, so that he will not become accustomed to such conduct. The same principles apply if he causes other types of damage.

Similarly, servants who stole or caused damage should be administered severe corporal punishment, so that they will not become accustomed to causing damage.

י

רָאוּי לְבֵית דִּין לְהַכּוֹת אֶת הַקְּטַנִּים כְּפִי כֹּחַ הַקָּטָן עַל הַגְּנֵבָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ רְגִילִין בָּהּ. וְכֵן אִם הִזִּיקוּ שְׁאָר נְזָקִין. וְכֵן מַכִּין אֶת הָעֲבָדִים שֶׁגָּנְבוּ אוֹ שֶׁהִזִּיקוּ מַכָּה רַבָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ רְגִילִין לְהַזִּיק:

11

When the stolen article increased in value while it was in the thief's possession - e.g., a sheep bore a lamb and it was shorn - the thief must restore the sheep, its shearings and its offspring.

If the owner already despaired of the sheep's return, and it gave birth or was shorn, the thief must pay only the value at the time of the theft. If the thief invested in the stolen property, causing its value to increase - e.g., he force fed livestock - the thief is entitled to the increase in value even when the owner does not despair of the article's return. When the thief restores the stolen article and the double payment, he should be repaid for the increase in value by the owner, or that amount should be deducted from the double payment.

יא

הָיְתָה הַגְּנֵבָה בְּיַד הַגַּנָּב וְהִשְׁבִּיחָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ כְּגוֹן כִּבְשָׂה שֶׁיָּלְדָה וּגְזָזָהּ מְשַׁלֵּם אוֹתָהּ וְאֶת גִּזּוֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת וַלְדוֹתֶיהָ. וְאִם אַחַר יֵאוּשׁ יָלְדָה וּגְזָזָהּ מְשַׁלֵּם כִּשְׁעַת הַגְּנֵבָה. הוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ הוֹצָאָה וְהִשְׁבִּיחָהּ כְּגוֹן שֶׁפִּטְּמָהּ הֲרֵי הַשֶּׁבַח שֶׁל גַּנָּב אֲפִלּוּ לִפְנֵי יֵאוּשׁ. וּכְשֶׁמַּחְזִיר הַגְּנֵבָה עִם הַכֶּפֶל נוֹטֵל הַשֶּׁבַח מִן הַבְּעָלִים אוֹ מְחַשְּׁבִין לוֹ מִן הַכֶּפֶל:

12

When the stolen article remains unchanged in the possession of the thief, it should be returned to its owner regardless of whether or not he despaired of its return. If, however, it increased in value after the owner despaired of its return, the thief is entitled to that increase, as we have explained above.

If, however, the stolen article underwent a fundamental change while in the thief's possession, the thief acquires it and any increase in its value, even before the owner despairs of the article's return. All that is required of him is to return the value of the stolen article at the time of the theft.

יב

הַגְּנֵבָה עַצְמָהּ שֶׁהִיא בְּיַד הַגַּנָּב וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּנֵּית חוֹזֶרֶת לִבְעָלֶיהָ בֵּין לִפְנֵי יֵאוּשׁ בֵּין לְאַחַר יֵאוּשׁ אֶלָּא שֶׁאַחַר יֵאוּשׁ הַשֶּׁבַח לַגַּנָּב כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. נִשְׁתַּנֵּית הַגְּנֵבָה בְּיַד הַגַּנָּב קְנָאָהּ וְקָנָה שִׁבְחָהּ אֲפִלּוּ לִפְנֵי יֵאוּשׁ וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא דָּמִים:

13

If he stole a gaunt animal and he fattened it, or he stole a fat animal and he caused its weight to be reduced, he is liable to pay twice - or four or five times - the value of the animal at the time of the theft.

If he stole a kid and it grew into a ram, or a calf and it grew into an ox, he is liable to pay twice the value of the animal at the time of the theft. If he slaughtered it or sold it after it matured, it is considered to have undergone a change while in the thief's possession, and he acquires it. Thus, he is slaughtering or selling his own animal; he is not required to pay four or five times its worth.

יג

גָּנַב כְּחוּשָׁה וְהִשְׁמִינָה אוֹ שְׁמֵנָה וְהִכְחִישָׁה מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל אוֹ תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה כִּשְׁעַת הַגְּנֵבָה. גָּנַב טָלֶה וְנַעֲשָׂה אַיִל עֵגֶל וְנַעֲשָׂה שׁוֹר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל כִּשְׁעַת הַגְּנֵבָה. טְבָחוֹ אוֹ מְכָרוֹ אַחַר שֶׁהִגְדִּיל נַעֲשָׂה שִׁנּוּי בְּיָדוֹ וְקָנָהוּ וְשֶׁלּוֹ הוּא טוֹבֵחַ וְשֶׁלּוֹ הוּא מוֹכֵר וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

14

When a person steals an animal, a utensil or the like that was worth four zuz at the time of the theft, but at the time the case is brought to court, it depreciated and is worth only two, the thief must pay the worth of the principal at the time of the theft, and pay the double - or quadruple or quintuple - amount as evaluated at the time the case is brought to court.

The following rules apply if an animal or a utensil was worth two zuz at the time of the theft, but at the time the case is brought to court, it appreciated and is worth four. If the person slaughtered or sold the animal or destroyed or lost the utensil, he must pay double - or four or five times - the worth of the stolen article at the time the case is brought to court.

If the animal died or the utensil was lost as a matter of course, he must pay double the worth of the stolen article at the time of the theft.

יד

גָּנַב בְּהֵמָה אוֹ כְּלִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וּבִשְׁעַת הַגְּנֵבָה הָיָה שָׁוֶה אַרְבָּעָה וְעַכְשָׁו בִּשְׁעַת הַעֲמָדָה בַּדִּין שָׁוֶה שְׁנַיִם מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן כִּשְׁעַת הַגְּנֵבָה וְתַשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל אוֹ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה כִּשְׁעַת הַעֲמָדָה בַּדִּין. הָיָה שָׁוֶה בִּשְׁעַת הַגְּנֵבָה שְׁנַיִם וּבִשְׁעַת הַעֲמָדָה בַּדִּין אַרְבָּעָה אִם שָׁחַט אוֹ מָכַר אוֹ שָׁבַר הַכְּלִי אוֹ אִבְּדוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל אוֹ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה כִּשְׁעַת הַעֲמָדָה בַּדִּין. וְאִם מֵתָה הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ אָבַד הַכְּלִי מֵאֵלָיו מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל כִּשְׁעַת הַגְּנֵבָה:

15

When a person steals a utensil and destroys it or causes it to decrease in value - or it is destroyed or it decreases in value as a matter of course - the amount of the decrease is not evaluated. Instead, we evaluate the original worth of this utensil, and the thief is obligated to pay the owner twice this amount. The broken utensil becomes the property of the thief. The same laws apply in all similar instances.

If the owner desires to take the broken utensil and be compensated for the damage done to it and receive the double payment, his wishes are respected.

טו

מִי שֶׁגָּנַב כְּלִי וּשְׁבָרוֹ אוֹ פִּחֲתוֹ אוֹ נִשְׁבַּר אוֹ נִפְחַת מֵאֵלָיו אֵין שָׁמִין לוֹ הַפְּחָת אֶלָּא רוֹאִין כַּמָּה הָיָה שָׁוֶה אוֹתוֹ הַכְּלִי וּמְשַׁלֵּם לַבְּעָלִים שְׁנַיִם בְּדָמָיו וְהַכְּלִי הַשָּׁבוּר יִהְיֶה לַגַּנָּב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאִם רָצוּ הַבְּעָלִים לִטּל הַכְּלִי הַשָּׁבוּר וִישַׁלֵּם לָהֶם הַפְּחָת וְהַכֶּפֶל שׁוֹמְעִין לָהֶן:

16

When a thief slaughters or sells a sheep or an ox before the owner despairs of its return, he is required to pay four or five times its amount, despite the fact that the sale is nullified and the purchaser does not acquire the article, but instead must return it intact to its original owner.

Needless to say, the above applies if he slaughters or sells the animal after the owner despairs of its return. For his deed is effective, and the purchaser is considered to have acquired the article.

טז

הַגַּנָּב שֶׁגָּנַב וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר לִפְנֵי יֵאוּשׁ בְּעָלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קָנָה לוֹקֵחַ וַהֲרֵי הַגְּנֵבָה חוֹזֶרֶת בְּעַצְמָהּ מִיַּד הַלּוֹקֵחַ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר לְאַחַר יֵאוּשׁ שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוֹעִיל בְּמַעֲשָׂיו וְקָנָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ:

17

When a thief steals from another thief, he is not required to pay twice its amount. This applies even if the original owner despaired of the stolen article's return. If the second thief slaughters or sells a stolen animal, he is not required to pay the first thief four or five times its worth.

The rationale is that the law is that this animal must be returned to its owner; it was never acquired by the thief. Nor must the second thief pay twice, four or five times the amount to the original owner, because he did not steal the property from the original owner's domain.

יז

הַגּוֹנֵב מִגַּנָּב אַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְיָאֲשׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאִם טָבַח וּמָכַר אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה לַגַּנָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי דִּין הַבְּהֵמָה הַזֹּאת לַחֲזֹר בְּעֵינֶיהָ לַבְּעָלִים וְלֹא קְנָאָהּ הַגַּנָּב וְלַבְּעָלִים אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם הַכֶּפֶל אוֹ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא גְּנָבָהּ מֵרְשׁוּתָן:

18

When a thief steals an animal and slaughters it, and then another person steals the meat, the second thief must make double restitution to the first thief, for the first thief acquired the animal because of the change his deed brought about. The first thief must, however, pay four or five times the animal's worth.

The following rules apply when a thief stole an animal and sold it, and another person stole it from the purchaser. If the original owner despaired of the animal's return, the first thief must pay four or five times the animal's worth, and the second thief must pay double its worth. If the original owner did not despair of the animal's return, the second thief is required to restore only the principal.

יח

גָּנַב וְטָבַח וּבָא גַּנָּב אַחֵר וְגָנַב. הַגַּנָּב הָאַחֲרוֹן מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל לַגַּנָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי קָנָה בְּשִׁנּוּי מַעֲשֶׂה וְגַנָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. גָּנַב וּמָכַר וּבָא אַחֵר וְגָנַב מִן הַלּוֹקֵחַ. אִם נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים הֲרֵי הָרִאשׁוֹן מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה וְהַגַּנָּב הַשֵּׁנִי מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאִם לֹא נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים אֵין הָאַחֲרוֹן מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא קֶרֶן בִּלְבַד:

Genevah - Chapter Two

1

When a person steals from a gentile or from consecrated property, he is required to pay only the principal, as implied by Exodus 22:8: "He shall pay twice the amount to his colleague." "To his colleague" excludes the Temple treasury and a gentile.

Similarly, a person who steals animals that were consecrated to be offered as sacrifices - both sacrifices of the highest sanctity and sacrifices of lesser sanctity - is not liable to pay twice or four or five times the animals' worth. This applies whether or not the owner is liable to bring another animal as an offering instead of the stolen animal.

The rationale is that Exodus 22:6 describes the article as having been "stolen from a person's home" - i.e., not from the the Temple treasury.

א

הַגּוֹנֵּב אֶת הָעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ שֶׁגָּנַב נִכְסֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא הַקֶּרֶן בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ח) "יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם לְרֵעֵהוּ" לְרֵעֵהוּ וְלֹא לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וְלֹא לְעַכּוּ''ם. וְכֵן הַגּוֹנֵב קָדָשִׁים מִבֵּית בַּעֲלֵיהֶן בֵּין קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים בֵּין קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים בֵּין קָדָשִׁים שֶׁאֵין הַבְּעָלִים חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן בֵּין קָדָשִׁים שֶׁהַבְּעָלִים חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַכֶּפֶל וּמִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ו) "וְגֻנַּב מִבֵּית הָאִישׁ" וְלֹא מִבֵּית הֶקְדֵּשׁ:

2

Similarly, a person who steals servants, promissory notes or landed property is not liable to make double payment. For the Torah obligated double payment only for the theft of chattel that is itself worth money.

The exclusion of landed property is derived from Exodus 22:8, which speaks about paying double for: "an ox, a donkey, a sheep or a garment." Servants are equated with landed property, as Leviticus 25:46 states: "You shall give them as an inheritanceto your sons." And promissory notes are not themselves worth money.

ב

וְכֵן הַגּוֹנֵב עֲבָדִים וּשְׁטָרוֹת וְקַרְקָעוֹת אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל. שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבָה הַתּוֹרָה הַכֶּפֶל אֶלָּא בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁגּוּפָן מָמוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ח) "עַל שׁוֹר עַל חֲמוֹר עַל שֶׂה עַל שַׂלְמָה". אֲבָל הָעֲבָדִים הֻקְּשׁוּ לְקַרְקָעוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה מו) "וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם". וְהַשְּׁטָרוֹת אֵין גּוּפָן מָמוֹן:

3

When a person steals a firstling donkey belonging to a colleague before it was redeemed, he must make double restitution to the owner. Although the donkey is not yet his, it is fit to be his at a later date.

ג

הַגּוֹנֵב פֶּטֶר חָמוֹר שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּפָּדֶה מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל לַבְּעָלִים. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עַכְשָׁו שֶׁלּוֹ רָאוּי לִהְיוֹתוֹ לוֹ אַחַר שֶׁיִּפָּדֶה:

4

A person who steals tevel belonging to a colleague and eats it must reimburse him for his tevel. A person who steals forbidden fats belonging to a colleague and eats it must reimburse him for his fats.

ד

הַגּוֹנֵב טִבְלוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ וַאֲכָלוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ דְּמֵי טִבְלוֹ. וְכֵן אִם גָּנַב חֶלְבּוֹ וַאֲכָלוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ דְּמֵי חֶלְבּוֹ:

5

When a person steals terumah from an Israelite who owns it, he is not required to pay double. For the Israelite possesses merely the prerogative to give it to the priest of his choice,and that prerogative is not considered to be equivalent to money.

ה

גָּנַב תְּרוּמָה מִבְּעָלֶיהָ הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִים שֶׁהִפְרִישׁוּהָ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל. שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם בָּהּ אֶלָּא טוֹבַת הֲנָאָה וְטוֹבַת הֲנָאָה אֵינָהּ מָמוֹן:

6

When a person steals a sheep or a cow from his father and slaughters or sells the stolen animal and then his father dies, he is liable to pay four or five times the animal's worth to his father's estate. If his father dies, and then he slaughters or sells the stolen animal, he must make double payment; he does not, however, pay four or five times the animal's worth.

If a thief steals a sheep or a cow, slaughters or sells the stolen animal and then consecrates it as a sacrifice, he must pay four or five times the animal's worth.

If, by contrast, a thief consecrates an animal and then slaughters or sells it - even if he consecrates it as a sacrifice of a lesser degree of sanctity - he must make a double payment; he does not pay four or five times the amount.

When does the above apply? When he consecrated the animal after the owner despaired of the animal's return. If, however, he consecrates it before the owner despairs of the animal's return, the consecration is not effective. If the thief slaughters or sells it, he must pay four or five times the amount.

ו

הַגּוֹנֵב מִשֶּׁל אָבִיו וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת אָבִיו מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם מֵת אָבִיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. גָּנַב וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִקְדִּישׁ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם הִקְדִּישׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁוֹ קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ אַחַר יֵאוּשׁ. אֲבָל אִם הִקְדִּישׁ לִפְנֵי יֵאוּשׁ אֵינוֹ קָדוֹשׁ וְאִם טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

7

If the owner consecrates the animal while it is in the thief's domain, the consecration is not effective. The rationale is that it is not in the owner's possession. If the thief slaughtered or sold it after the owner consecrated it, he must still pay four or five times its worth to the owner.

ז

הִקְדִּישׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים וְהוּא בְּבֵית הַגַּנָּב אֵינוֹ קָדוֹשׁ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתָן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ. וְאִם טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר הֶקְדֵּשָׁן מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

8

When a thief slaughters a sheep or a cow, but the slaughter is not ritually acceptable, or he kills the animal or rips out the signs of ritual slaughter, he is liable to pay only double the animal's worth.

If, however, he slaughters an animal for medicinal purposes, to feed it to the dogs - and after it was slaughtered it was discovered to be taref - or he slaughtered it in the Temple courtyard although it was not consecrated, he must pay four or five times its worth. Although it is forbidden to benefit from a non-consecrated animal that is slaughtered in the Temple courtyard, since that prohibition is Rabbinic in origin, he is liable to pay four or five times the animal's worth.

ח

הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִתְנַבְּלָה בְּיָדוֹ וְהַנּוֹחֵר וְהַמְעַקֵּר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל אִם שָׁחַט לִרְפוּאָה אוֹ לִכְלָבִים אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת טְרֵפָה אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁחָטוֹ בָּעֲזָרָה מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחֻלִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטוּ בַּעֲזָרָה אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה הוֹאִיל וְאִסּוּרָן מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

9

Similarly, if a person steals a half-breed that comes from a sheep and another animal, or he steals an animal that had been preyed upon, one whose leg had been cut off, one that limped or was blind, or that belonged to partners, and he slaughtered it or sold it, he is liable to pay four or five times its worth.

ט

וְכֵן הַגּוֹנֵב כִּלְאַיִם הַבָּא מִן הַשֶּׂה וּמִמִּין אַחֵר אוֹ שֶׁגָּנַב טְרֵפָה אוֹ קִטַּעַת אוֹ חִגֶּרֶת אוֹ סוּמָא אוֹ בֶּהֱמַת הַשֻּׁתָּפִין וְטָבַח וּמָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

10

When a person steals a cow or a sheep and gives it to another person as a present, or he charges another person with slaughtering it, and the other person slaughters it, or he charges another person with selling it, and the other person sells it, the thief must pay four or fives times its worth.

He is also liable for this penalty if he stole it and sold it on credit, exchanged it for another article, paid a debt that he owed, or sent it as an engagement gift to his fiancee in his father-in-law's home.

י

גָּנַב וְנָתַן לְאַחֵר בְּמַתָּנָה אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן לְאַחֵר לִטְבֹּחַ וְטָבַח אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן לְאַחֵר לִמְכֹּר וּמְכָרָהּ לְאַחֵר. גָּנַב וְהִקִּיף גָּנַב וְהֶחְלִיף גָּנַב וּפָרַע בְּהֶקֵּפוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁלָחוֹ סִבְלוֹנוֹת לְבֵית חָמִיו מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

11

A thief stole a sheep or a cow and sold it, but posited that the sale not take effect until thirty days have passed - and within those thirty days the thief was apprehended - he is required to pay only double its worth.

The following rule applies if the thief sold the stolen animal to another person except for one hundredth of its bulk, or except for its foreleg or its hindleg. If the thief retained ownership of a portion of the animal that is permitted to be used only through ritual slaughter, he is not liable to pay four or five times its worth. If he sold it with the exception of its shearings or its horns, he is liable to pay four or five times its worth, for these portions of the animal are permitted to be used even without ritual slaughter.

יא

גָּנַב וּמָכַר וְהִקְנָה לַמּוֹכֵר לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וּבְתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הֻכַּר הַגַּנָּב אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא כֶּפֶל. מְכָרוֹ חוּץ מֵאֶחָד מִמֵּאָה שֶׁבּוֹ אוֹ חוּץ מִיָּדוֹ אוֹ רַגְלוֹ כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר בּוֹ דָּבָר הַנִּתָּר עִמּוֹ בִּשְׁחִיטָה פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם מְכָרוֹ חוּץ מִגִּזָּתוֹ אוֹ חוּץ מִקַּרְנָיו חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵלּוּ אֵינָם נִתָּרִים עִמּוֹ בִּשְׁחִיטָה:

12

If a thief stole a sheep or a cow, cut off a limb and then sold it, or he sold it with the exception of the right to work with it, or he sold it except for a 30-day period, the payment for four or five times its amount should not be expropriated from the thief. If the person whose animal was stolen seizes this amount from the thief's assets, the property that he seized should not be expropriated from him.

יב

גָּנַב וְקָטַע מִמֶּנָּה אֵיבָר וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְכָרָהּ אוֹ שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ חוּץ מִמְּלַאכְתָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ חוּץ מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִמֶּנּוּ תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם תָּפַשׂ הַנִּזָּק אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדוֹ:

13

If the thief was a partner in the animal he stole and then he sold it, he is not liable to pay four or five times its worth.

יג

מְכָרָהּ וְהָיְתָה לוֹ בָּהּ שֻׁתָּפוּת פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

14

The following rules apply when partners steal a sheep or a cow. If one of them slaughtered or sold the stolen animal with his partner's consent, they must both join in the payment of four or five times its worth. If he acted without the consent of his partner, they are not liable for the payment of four or five times the animal's worth. They must, however, make double restitution.

יד

שֻׁתָּפִין שֶׁגָּנְבוּ. אִם טָבַח אֶחָד מֵהֶן אוֹ מָכַר מִדַּעַת חֲבֵרוֹ מְשַׁלְּמִין תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם עָשָׂה שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת חֲבֵרוֹ פְּטוּרִין מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה וְחַיָּבִין בְּכֶפֶל:

15

When a thief stole a sheep or a cow, was brought to court and was told by the judges: "Go and give him what you stole," and instead of making restitution he sold or slaughtered the animal, he is not liable for the payment of four or five times the animal's worth. If the judges told him: "You are obligated to return it to him," and then he slaughtered or sold the stolen animal, he is liable for the payment of four or five times the animal's worth. The rationale is that the judgment was not rendered in a definitive manner, and he is persevering in his theft.

טו

גָּנַב וְעָמַד בַּדִּין וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ הַדַּיָּנִין צֵא תֵּן לוֹ מַה שֶּׁגָּנַבְתָּ וְיָצָא וְאַחַר כָּךְ טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ חַיָּב אַתָּה לִתֵּן לוֹ וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר אַחַר כָּךְ הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה הוֹאִיל וְלֹא חָתְכוּ הַדִּין עָלָיו וַעֲדַיִן עוֹמֵד הוּא בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ:

16

When a person steals an object without removing it from the domain of its owner, he is not liable for a double payment.Similarly, if he slaughtered or sold a stolen sheep or cow in the owner's domain, he is not liable for the added penalty. If, however, he lifted the stolen object above the ground, he is liable as a thief, even though he did not take it out of the owner's domain.

What is implied? If he stole a lamb from the corral and was pulling it, and it died while in the owner's domain, he is not liable for the added penalty. If he lifted it up or removed it from the owner's domain, and then it died, he is liable.

If while in the owner's domain, the thief gave it to a priest in redemption of his first-born son, to his creditor, to an unpaid watchman, to a borrower, to a renter or to a paid watchman, and the recipient was pulling the animal and it died, the recipient is not liable. If the recipient lifted it up or removed it from the domain of its owner and it died, the recipient is liable, because the thief did not remove it from the owner's domain and the recipient did.

טז

הַגּוֹנֵב בִּרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים הוֹאִיל וְהַגְּנֵבָה עֲדַיִן הִיא בִּרְשׁוּתָם פָּטוּר מִן הַכֶּפֶל. וְכֵן אִם טָבַח וּמָכַר שָׁם בִּרְשׁוּתָן פָּטוּר. וְאִם הִגְבִּיהַּ הַגְּנֵבָה נִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם גּוֹנֵב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הוֹצִיאָהּ מֵרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים. כֵּיצַד. גָּנַב טָלֶה מִן הַדִּיר וְהָיָה מוֹשְׁכוֹ וְיוֹצֵא וּמֵת בִּרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים פָּטוּר. הִגְבִּיהוֹ אוֹ הוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים וּמֵת חַיָּב. נְתָנוֹ שָׁם בְּבֵית הַבְּעָלִים לִבְכוֹרַת בְּנוֹ אוֹ לְבַעַל חוֹבוֹ אוֹ לְשׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם וּלְשׁוֹאֵל לְנוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר וּלְשׂוֹכֵר וְהָיָה מוֹשְׁכוֹ זֶה שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ וּמֵת פָּטוּר הַשּׁוֹמֵר. הִגְבִּיהוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים וּמֵת חַיָּב הַשּׁוֹמֵר אוֹ בַּעַל הַחוֹב שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הוֹצִיאוֹ הַגַּנָּב מֵרְשׁוּת בְּעָלָיו:

17

When a herd of sheep or cows are in a forest, and a thief prods an animal to move and then hides it among the trees and woods, he is obligated to pay twice its worth. If he slaughters or sells it there, he is obligated to pay four or five times its worth.

יז

הָיָה הָעֵדֶר בַּיַּעַר כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִכִּישׁ אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה וּטְמָנָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הָאִילָנוֹת וְהָעֵצִים חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאִם טְבָחָהּ אוֹ מְכָרָהּ שָׁם מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

18

When a thief steals a sheep or a cow in the owner's domain, and after the owner discovered the theft, the thief removed it and slaughtered it or sold it outside their domain, or if a thief stole and removed the animal from the owner's domain and then slaughtered or sold it in the owner's domain, he is obligated to pay four or five times its worth.

יח

גָּנַב בִּרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים וְאַחַר שֶׁיָּדְעוּ שֶׁנִּגְנְבָה הוֹצִיאָהּ וּטְבָחָהּ אוֹ מְכָרָהּ חוּץ מֵרְשׁוּתָן. אוֹ שֶׁגָּנַב וְהוֹצִיא חוּץ מֵרְשׁוּתָן וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר בִּרְשׁוּתָן מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

Genevah - Chapter Three

1

We have already explained in Hilchot Na'arah Betulah, that whenever a person violates a transgression that is punishable by both capital punishment and a financial penalty, he is not obligated to pay the financial penalty, even though he performed the act unintentionally.

When a person performs a transgression that is punishable by lashing and a financial penalty, he shall be lashed and is not required to pay the financial penalty. For a person should not receive both punishments: lashing and a financial penalty for the same deed. Therefore, if he performed the act unintentionally or he was not given a warning, he is required to pay and is not lashed.

When does the above apply? When the financial obligation and the transgression obligating capital punishment - or the financial obligation and the transgression punishable by lashing - came about at the same time. If, however, he became liable for a financial penalty and then became liable for capital punishment or lashing, or became liable for capital punishment or lashing and then became liable for a financial penalty, he shall be lashed and pay, or pay and be executed.

א

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת נַעֲרָה שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה עֲבֵרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ עֲוֹן מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין וְתַשְׁלוּמִין אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹגֵג. וְהָעוֹשֶׂה עֲבֵרָה שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ מַלְקוֹת וְתַשְׁלוּמִין לוֹקֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם שֶׁאֵין אָדָם לוֹקֶה וּמְשַׁלֵּם. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה שׁוֹגֵג אוֹ לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין עִם עֲוֹן מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין כְּאַחַת אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב תַּשְׁלוּמִין וּמַלְקוֹת בְּבַת אַחַת. אֲבָל אִם נִתְחַיֵּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְחַיֵּב בְּמִיתַת בֵּית דִּין אוֹ בְּמַלְקוֹת אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב מַלְקוֹת אוֹ מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְחַיֵּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה וּמְשַׁלֵּם וּמֵת וּמְשַׁלֵּם:

2

What is implied? If he propelled an arrow on the Sabbath, from the beginning of a four-cubit space until the end of the four-cubit space, and it tore a garment belonging to a colleague as it proceeded, he set fire to a grain heap belonging to a colleague on the Sabbath, or he stole a wallet on the Sabbath and was dragging it along the ground until he removed it from the owner's domain - which was a private domain - to the public domain, and caused it to be destroyed there, he is not liable for the damages. The prohibition against labor on the Sabbath, and the prohibition against theft or damages take effect at the same time. Therefore, he is not liable.

If, however, he stole a wallet on the Sabbath and lifted it up in the private domain, and then took it out to the public domain and threw it into a river, he is liable to make a double payment. For he became liable for the theft before he violated the prohibition punishable by execution by stoning. The same laws apply in all similar situations.

Similarly, if a person cut down a tree belonging to a colleague on a festival, and a warning was issued, or he set fire to a grain heap belonging to a colleague on Yom Kippur and a warning was issued, or he stole and slaughtered an animal on Yom Kippur, he is not under any financial obligation. If, however, a warning was not issued to him, he is liable for payment, and with regard to the slaughter of a stolen animal must pay four or five times its worth.

ב

כֵּיצַד. זָרַק חֵץ בְּשַׁבָּת מִתְּחִלַּת אַרְבַּע לְסוֹף אַרְבַּע וְקָרַע בֶּגֶד חֲבֵרוֹ בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהִדְלִיק גְּדִישׁ חֲבֵרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ שֶׁגָּנַב כִּיס בְּשַׁבָּת וְהָיָה מְגָרְרוֹ עַד שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְאִבְּדוֹ שָׁם הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין שֶׁאִסּוּר שַׁבָּת וְאִסּוּר גְּנֵבָה וְהֶזֵּק בָּאִין כְּאֶחָד. אֲבָל אִם גָּנַב כִּיס בְּשַׁבָּת וְהִגְבִּיהוֹ שָׁם בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוֹצִיאוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִשְׁלִיכוֹ לַנָּהָר חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְחַיֵּב בְּאִסּוּר גְּנֵבָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְחַיֵּב בְּאִסּוּר סְקִילָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְכֵן אִם קָצַץ אִילַן חֲבֵרוֹ בַּיּוֹם טוֹב וְהִתְרוּ בּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהִדְלִיק אֶת הַגָּדִישׁ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְהִתְרוּ בּוֹ אוֹ גָּנַב וְטָבַח בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְהִתְרוּ בּוֹ פָּטוּר מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין אֲבָל אִם לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין וּמְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

3

If a thief stole a sheep or a cow and slaughtered it on the Sabbath or as a sacrifice to a false deity, he is not liable to pay four or five times its worth, as explained above. This applies even when he performs the transgression unintentionally.

ג

גָּנַב וְטָבַח בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁגָגָה פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

If the cow had been lent to him and he slaughtered it on the Sabbath with the intent to steal it, he is not liable even for the double payment, for the violation of the prohibition against the laws of the Sabbath and the prohibition against theft came about simultaneously. For if there is no obligation for theft, there is no obligation for slaughter or for sale.

ד

הָיְתָה פָּרָה שְׁאוּלָה אֶצְלוֹ וּטְבָחָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת דֶּרֶךְ גְּנֵבָה פָּטוּר אַף מִן הַכֶּפֶל שֶׁהֲרֵי אִסּוּר שַׁבָּת וְאִסּוּר גְּנֵבָה בָּאִין כְּאַחַת וְאִם אֵין גְּנֵבָה אֵין טְבִיחָה וְאֵין מְכִירָה:

5

When a person steals a sheep or a cow and sells it on the Sabbath or sells it to a pagan deity, he is obligated to pay four or five times its amount, for the sale itself does not cause one to incur the death penalty. If a forbidden labor was performed on the Sabbath at the time of the sale, the thief is not liable to pay four or five times its amount.

What is implied? For example, he agreed that the sale would not take effect until the animal comes to rest in the courtyard of the purchaser. Thus, when he took the animal from one domain to another domain, the prohibition against labor on the Sabbath and the sale take effect at the same time.

ה

גָּנַב וּמָכַר בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ שֶׁמָּכַר לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵין בַּמְּכִירָה מִיתָה. וְאִם נַעֲשֵׂית מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת בְּעֵת הַמְּכִירָה פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁלֹּא הִקְנָה לוֹ עַד שֶׁתָּנוּחַ בַּחֲצַר הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁנִּמְצָא כְּשֶׁהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת אִסּוּר שַׁבָּת וּמְכִירָה בָּאִין כְּאַחַת:

6

When a thief appointed an agent to slaughter a stolen animal for him, and the agent slaughtered it for him on the Sabbath, the thief must pay four or five times the animal's worth. For the thief did not perform a transgression punishable by death, and as we have explained, a person who has an agent slaughter for him is liable for the additional payment.

ו

עָשָׂה שָׁלִיחַ לִשְׁחֹט לוֹ וְשָׁחַט לוֹ הַשָּׁלִיחַ בְּשַׁבָּת הֲרֵי הַגַּנָּב חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה הַגַּנָּב לֹא עָשָׂה עֲוֹן מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהַשּׁוֹחֵט עַל יְדֵי שָׁלִיחַ חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין:

7

When two witnesses testify that a person stole a cow or a sheep, and then they themselves or two other witnesses testify that he slaughtered or sold the animal, the thief is liable to pay four or five times the animal's worth.

If two witnesses testify that the person stole a cow or a sheep and one witness testifies that he slaughtered or sold the stolen animal, or the thief admitted that he slaughtered or sold the stolen animal on his own initiative, the thief must pay double. He is not, however, liable to pay four or five times the animal's worth. The rationale is that a person who admits his liability for a fine is not liable for that penalty, as we have explained.

ז

הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם מְעִידִים שֶׁגָּנַב בֵּין שֶׁהֵעִידוּ הֵן עַצְמָן שֶׁטָּבַח אוֹ מָכַר בֵּין שֶׁהֵעִידוּ אֲחֵרִים שֶׁטָּבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם מְעִידִים שֶׁגָּנַב וְעֵד אֶחָד מֵעִיד שֶׁטָּבַח אוֹ מָכַר אוֹ שֶׁהוֹדָה מֵעַצְמוֹ שֶׁטָּבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁהַמּוֹדֶה בִּקְנָס פָּטוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

8

The following rules apply when a person admits liability for a fine, and then afterwards witnesses come and testify to his liability. If he made his admission before a court while they were in session, he is not liable. If he made the admission when the court was not in session, or before two judges, and afterwards witnesses came and testified to his liability, he is liable to pay the fine because of their testimony.

ח

מִי שֶׁהוֹדָה בִּקְנָס וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּאוּ עֵדִים. אִם הוֹדָה בַּתְּחִלָּה בִּפְנֵי בֵּית דִּין וּבְבֵית דִּין פָּטוּר. אֲבָל אִם הוֹדָה חוּץ לְבֵית דִּין אוֹ שֶׁהוֹדָה בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם בִּלְבַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּאוּ עֵדִים הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס עַל פִּיהֶם:

9

What is implied? A thief admitted that he stole to a court while it was in session, and afterwards witnesses came and testified that he stole. He is not liable for a double payment, because he obligated himself for the principal before the witnesses came.

If, however, he denied stealing in the presence of a court in this way, freeing himself of liability, and then witnesses came and testified that he stole a sheep or a cow, at which point he admitted in the presence of the court that he slaughtered or sold the stolen animal, and then witnesses came and testified that he slaughtered or sold the animal, he is liable to pay four or five times the animal's worth. The rationale is that first he denied the obligation entirely before witnesses came.

ט

כֵּיצַד. הוֹדָה בְּבֵית דִּין שֶׁגָּנַב וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּאוּ עֵדִים שֶׁגָּנַב פָּטוּר מִן הַכֶּפֶל שֶׁהֲרֵי חִיֵּב עַצְמוֹ בְּקֶרֶן קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ עֵדִים. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לֹא גָּנַבְתִּי שֶׁפָּטַר עַצְמוֹ מִן הַכּל וּבָאוּ עֵדִים שֶׁגָּנַב וְחָזַר וְאָמַר בְּבֵית דִּין טָבַחְתִּי אוֹ מָכַרְתִּי אִם בָּאוּ עֵדִים אַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁטָּבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. לְפִי שֶׁפָּטַר עַצְמוֹ תְּחִלָּה מִכְּלוּם עַד שֶׁבָּאוּ הָעֵדִים:

10

The following rules apply when a thief steals an ox belonging to two partners and slaughters it or sells it, and makes an admission to one in the presence of a court, but denies his liability to the other. If witnesses come afterwards and testify that he stole or sold, he must pay the partner whose claim he denied five times half the value of the ox. If the same situation takes place with regard to the theft of a sheep, he must pay four times half the value of the sheep.

י

הַגּוֹנֵב שׁוֹר שֶׁל שְׁנֵי שֻׁתָּפִין וּטְבָחוֹ אוֹ מְכָרוֹ וְהוֹדָה בְּבֵית דִּין לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן וְכָפַר בָּאַחֵר וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּאוּ עֵדִים שֶׁגָּנַב וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם לְזֶה שֶׁכָּפַר לוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה חֲצָאֵי בָּקָר וְאַרְבָּעָה חֲצָאֵי צֹאן:

11

The law requires a thief to pay the principal and to make the payment of double - or four or fives times - the value of the theft from his movable property. If he does not own movable property, the court assesses his possessions and expropriates the entire debt from the finest of his landed properties, as is the practice with regard to other damages, regarding which Exodus 22:4 states: "He shall pay from the best of his field."

If he owns neither landed property nor movable property, the court sells him as a servant and gives the money from his sale to the person from whom he stole, as ibid.:2 states: "If he has no resources, he shall be sold for his theft."

יא

דִּין הַגַּנָּב לְשַׁלֵּם הַקֶּרֶן וְהַכֶּפֶל אוֹ תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה מִן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁלּוֹ. אִם לֹא נִמְצְאוּ לוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין בֵּית דִּין יוֹרְדִין לִנְכָסָיו וְגוֹבִין הַכּל מִן הַיָּפֶה שֶׁבִּנְכָסָיו כִּשְׁאָר הַנִּזָּקִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶן (שמות כב ד) "מֵיטַב שָׂדֵהוּ". וְאִם אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע וְלֹא מִטַּלְטְלִין בֵּית דִּין מוֹכְרִין אוֹתוֹ וְנוֹתְנִין דָּמָיו לַנִּזָּק שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ב) "אִם אֵין לוֹ וְנִמְכַּר בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ":

12

A man, but not a woman, may be sold because of a theft. This law is part of the Oral Tradition.

A thief is sold only because of the principal, but not for the payment of twice or four or five times the amount of the theft. If he can repay the principal, the additional amount remains a debt incumbent on him until he acquires the resources.

יב

הָאִישׁ נִמְכָּר בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ אֲבָל לֹא הָאִשָּׁה. וְדָבָר זֶה מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה. וְאֵין הַגַּנָּב נִמְכָּר אֶלָּא בְּקֶרֶן אֲבָל בְּכֶפֶל אוֹ בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה אֵינוֹ נִמְכָּר אֶלָּא הֲרֵי זֶה עָלָיו חוֹב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשִׁיר:

13

When a person steals from a gentile or steals consecrated property, he is not sold for the principal. Instead, it remains a debt incumbent on him until he acquires the resources.

יג

גָּנַב אֶת הָעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ אֶת הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ אֵינוֹ נִמְכָּר עַל הַקֶּרֶן אֶלָּא הֲרֵי זֶה עָלָיו חוֹב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשִׁיר:

14

When the principal of a theft was worth 100 zuz and the thief could be sold for only 50 zuz, he shall be sold, and the remainder of the principal and the double payment is considered a debt incumbent on him until he attains his freedom in the seventh year, acquires the resources and pays.

If the thief was worth 101 zuz, he shall not be sold. This is derived from the above verse, which states: "He shall be sold for his theft." Implied is that his entire worth must be included in the money received for his theft.

יד

הָיָה קֶרֶן הַגְּנֵבָה שָׁוֶה מֵאָה וְאֵין הַגַּנָּב שָׁוֶה אֶלָּא חֲמִשִּׁים הֲרֵי זֶה נִמְכָּר וּשְׁאָר הַקֶּרֶן עִם הַכֶּפֶל עָלָיו חוֹב עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא בַּשְּׁבִיעִית וְיַעֲשִׁיר וִישַׁלֵּם. הָיָה הַגַּנָּב שָׁוֶה מֵאָה וְאֶחָד אֵינוֹ נִמְכָּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ב) "וְנִמְכַּר בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ" עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ דָּמָיו כֻּלָּן מֻבְלָעִין בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ:

15

The following rules apply if a person stole and was sold for his theft, and then stole again. If he stole from another person, he shall be sold as a servant a second time. Even if he stole from a hundred people, he shall be sold a hundred times. If, however, he stole from the first person a second time, he shall not be sold a second time. Instead, the entire amount remains a debt incumbent on him.

טו

גָּנַב וְנִמְכַּר וְחָזַר וְגָנַב. אִם לַשֵּׁנִי גָּנַב הֲרֵי זֶה נִמְכָּר פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. וַאֲפִלּוּ גָּנַב לְמֵאָה אֲנָשִׁים נִמְכָּר מֵאָה פְּעָמִים. וְאִם לָרִאשׁוֹן גָּנַב פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה אֵינוֹ נִמְכָּר שְׁנִיָּה אֶלָּא יִשָּׁאֵר עָלָיו הַכּל חוֹב:

16

If a thief stole from three different people, they are all considered to be partners for his servitude. If the value of his work is equivalent to or less than the principal he owes the three, he is sold and they divide the proceeds of the sale. The double payments remain a debt incumbent on him until he acquires the resources. If his value exceeds the principal, he should not be sold. Instead, the entire amount remains a debt incumbent on him until he attains the resources.

טז

גָּנַב לָזֶה וְחָזַר וְגָנַב לָזֶה וְחָזַר וְגָנַב לָזֶה כֻּלָּם שֻׁתָּפִין בּוֹ. אִם הָיוּ דָּמָיו כְּנֶגֶד הַקֶּרֶן שֶׁל שְׁלָשְׁתָּן אוֹ פָּחוֹת מִן הַקֶּרֶן נִמְכָּר וּמְחַלְּקִין בֵּינֵיהֶן וּשְׁאָר הַכְּפֵלוֹת חוֹב עָלָיו. וְאִם הָיוּ דָּמָיו יֶתֶר אֵינוֹ נִמְכָּר וְהַכּל חוֹב עָלָיו עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשִׁיר:

17

When partners commit a theft together, the liability is divided among them. Each of them can be sold for his portion of the principal. If the value of one of them is more than his share of the principal for which he is liable, he is not sold.

יז

שֻׁתָּפִין שֶׁגָּנְבוּ כְּאֶחָד מְשַׁלְּשִׁין בֵּינֵיהֶן וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן נִמְכָּר בְּחֶלְקוֹ מִן הַקֶּרֶן. וְכָל מִי שֶׁדָּמָיו יֶתֶר עַל חֵלֶק הַקֶּרֶן שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בּוֹ אֵינוֹ נִמְכָּר:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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