1

The three years mentioned in the previous chapter must be from day to day. Even if one day was lacking, a claim of ownership is not established and the person in possession of the property is removed from it.

When does the above apply? With regard to landed property that produces benefit at all times - e.g., houses, courtyards, cisterns, pits, storage cavities, stores, inns, bathhouses, dovecotes, olive presses, fields that are continually irrigated and hence can be used for sowing and for planting, gardens, and orchards, and also servants who go on their own initiative, as we have explained.

Different rules apply with regard to a field that is watered only from rain and a grove of trees. The "threes years" are not calculated from day to day.

Instead, after the person in possession partakes of three harvests from one type of produce, it is considered as if three years have passed.

What is implied? There was a date grove and the person in possession harvested it three times, a grape orchard and he harvested it three times, or an olive grove and he harvested it three times, he is considered to have established a claim of ownership. This applies even if the trees were planted one after the other, and there was not enough space left between them. Although ultimately, they will dry and have to be uprooted, since the person derived benefit from them for three harvests, he has established a claim of ownership.

א

שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ חֲסֵרִים יוֹם אֶחָד לֹא הֶחֱזִיק וּמְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנָּה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּקַרְקָעוֹת שֶׁהֵן עוֹשִׂין פֵּרוֹת תָּמִיד כְּגוֹן הַבָּתִּים וְהַחֲצֵרוֹת וְהַבּוֹרוֹת וְהַשִּׁיחִין וְהַמְּעָרוֹת וְהַחֲנֻיּוֹת וְהַפֻּנְדָּקוֹת וְהַמֶּרְחֲצָאוֹת וְהַשׁוֹבָכוֹת וּבָתֵּי הַבַּדִּין וּשְׂדֵה בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין שֶׁמַּשְׁקִין אוֹתָה תָּמִיד וְזוֹרְעִין בָּהּ וְנוֹטְעִין וְהַגַּנּוֹת וְהַפַּרְדֵּסִין. וְכֵן עֲבָדִים הַמְהַלְּכִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל שְׂדֵה הַבַּעַל שֶׁהִיא שׁוֹתָה מִמֵּי גְּשָׁמִים בִּלְבַד וּשְׂדֵה אִילָן אֵינָהּ מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָכְלוּ שָׁלֹשׁ תְּבוּאוֹת מִמִּין אֶחָד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים. כֵּיצַד. הָיְתָה שְׂדֵה תְּמָרִים וְגָדַר שָׁלֹשׁ גְּדֵרוֹת אוֹ שְׂדֵה עֲנָבִים וּבָצַר שָׁלֹשׁ בְּצִירוֹת אוֹ שְׂדֵה זֵיתִים וּמָסַק שָׁלֹשׁ מְסִיקוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְהֶחֱזִיק. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ הָאִילָנוֹת רְצוּפִין וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּינֵיהֶן הַרְחָקָה כָּרָאוּי שֶׁהֲרֵי סוֹפָן לִיבַשׁ הוֹאִיל וְאוֹכְלָן שָׁלֹשׁ תְּבוּאוֹת הֶחֱזִיק:

2

If a person brings witnesses who testify that he dwelled in this courtyard for three years or rented it out to a tenant for three years, he establishes a claim of ownership.

If the owner of the courtyard claims: "Maybe you - or your tenant - did not dwell there during the day and during the night," his claim is valid. We tell the person in possession: "Bring witnesses that throughout these years, you dwelled there during the day and during the night, or depart."

Even when witnesses come and testify, saying: "The person in possession rented the field to us, and we dwelled there during the day and during the night," if the owner of the field demands: "Let them bring witnesses that they dwelled there during the day and during the night," these tenants must bring proof that they dwelled there at all times. The rationale is that the matter is dependent on them and is not dependent on the claim of the person in possession of the property that they should testify on his behalf.

ב

הֵבִיא עֵדִים שֶׁהָיָה דָּר בְּחָצֵר זוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ שֶׁשְּׂכָרָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה. טָעַן בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר וְאָמַר שֶׁמָּא לֹא שָׁכַן בָּהּ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה אוֹ שֶׁמָּא אֵלּוּ שֶׁהִשְׂכִּירוּ לָהֶם לֹא שָׁכְנוּ בָּהּ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טַעֲנָה. אוֹמְרִים לַמַּחֲזִיק אוֹ תָּבִיא עֵדִים שֶׁשָּׁנִים אֵלּוּ גְּמוּרוֹת בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה אוֹ הִסְתַּלֵּק. אֲפִלּוּ בָּאוּ עֵדִים וְאָמְרוּ לָנוּ הִשְׂכִּיר וְאָנוּ דַּרְנוּ בָּהּ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה וְטָעַן בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה וְאָמַר יָבִיאוּ עֵדִים שֶׁדָּרוּ בָּהּ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה. צְרִיכִין אֵלּוּ הַשּׂוֹכְרִין לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁדָּרוּ בָּהּ תָּמִיד. שֶׁזֶּה הַדָּבָר תָּלוּי בָּהֶן וְאֵין תָּלוּי בְּטַעֲנַת הַמַּחֲזִיק כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּעִידוּ לוֹ:

3

Different laws apply if the person in possession of the property or the witnesses were traveling salesmen who journey from village to village or the like. In such a situation, the court makes a claim on behalf of the owner at the outset. When he brings witnesses to try to substantiate his claim of ownership, the court tells him: "Bring witnesses who will testify that you manifested possession during the day and the night."

When does the above apply? With regard to courtyards, houses, and the like, in which people live during the day and the night. Different laws apply with regard to stores operated by merchants and the like, in which people dwell only during the day. In such a situation, if a person dwelled in the store for three years during the day, he establishes a claim of ownership.

ג

הָיָה זֶה הַמַּחֲזִיק אוֹ הָעֵדִים שֶׁדָּרוּ בָּהּ מִן הָרוֹכְלִין הַמְחַזְּרִין בַּעֲיָרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. טוֹעֲנִין אוֹתוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה וּכְשֶׁיָּבִיא עֵדֵי חֲזָקָה אוֹמֵר לוֹ הָבֵא עֵדִים שֶׁהָיִיתָ מַחֲזִיק בָּהּ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בַּחֲצֵרוֹת וּבָתִּים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁהֵן עֲשׂוּיוֹת לָדוּר בְּתוֹכָן בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה. אֲבָל הַחֲנֻיּוֹת שֶׁל תַּגָּרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁאֵין דָּרִין בָּהֶן אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁדָּר בָּהּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים בַּיּוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה חֲזָקָה:

4

The three years mentioned must be consecutive, one following the other. If a person in possession of a field sowed it one year and left it fallow the next year, and then sowed it one year and left it fallow the next year, he does not establish a claim of ownership. This applies even if he followed this pattern for many years.

If the custom of the farmers of that area was to leave fields fallow, the person is considered to have established a claim of ownership. This applies even if some of the local farmers sow their fields year after year, and some sow their fields for one year and leave them fallow the next. For the person in possession may claim: "I left it fallow only so that it will produce more in the year that I sow it."

ד

שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ רְצוּפוֹת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ. הֲרֵי שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בְּשָׂדֶה וּזְרָעָהּ שָׁנָה וְהוֹבִירָהּ שָׁנָה וּזְרָעָהּ שָׁנָה וְהוֹבִירָהּ שָׁנָה. אֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂה כֵן כַּמָּה שָׁנִים לֹא הֶחֱזִיק. הָיָה דַּרְכָּן שֶׁל בְּנֵי אוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם לְהוֹבִיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּקְצָתָן זוֹרְעִין שָׁנָה אַחַר שָׁנָה וּמִקְצָתָן זוֹרְעִין שָׁנָה וּמוֹבִירִין שָׁנָה הֲרֵי זֶה הֶחֱזִיק שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא הוֹבַרְתִּי אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּעֲשֶׂה הַרְבֵּה בִּשְׁנַת הַזְּרִיעָה:

5

When two partners maintained possession of a field for six years, one partaking of the produce in the first, third and fifth years, and the other partaking of the produce in the second, fourth and sixth years, neither is considered to have established a claim of ownership. The rationale is that the owner of the field can say: "Since I neither saw nor heard of one person maintaining possession year after year, I did not protest."

Accordingly, if these partners composed a legal document attesting to their partnership and stating that they should each utilize the field in successive years, if three years pass in which they use it, they establish a claim of ownership. The rationale is that a legal document becomes public knowledge. Hence, if the owner did not protest, he forfeited his right.

Similar laws apply if two people maintain possession of a servant and use his services year after year. Ordinarily, they do not establish a claim of ownership. If they compose a legal document concerning the servant, they do.

ה

שְׁנֵי שֻׁתָּפִין שֶׁהֶחְזִיקוּ בְּשָׂדֶה שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים הָאֶחָד אֲכָלָהּ רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁלִישִׁית וַחֲמִישִׁית. וְהַשֵּׁנִי אֲכָלָהּ שְׁנִיָּה וּרְבִיעִית וְשִׁשִּׁית לֹא עָלְתָה חֲזָקָה לְאֶחָד מֵהֶם. שֶׁהֲרֵי בַּעַל הַקַּרְקַע אוֹמֵר כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא רָאִיתִי וְלֹא שָׁמַעְתִּי שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בָּהּ אָדָם אֶחָד שָׁנָה אַחַר שָׁנָה מִפְּנֵי זֶה לֹא מָחִיתִי. לְפִיכָךְ אִם כָּתְבוּ אֵלּוּ הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שְׁטָר בֵּינֵיהֶן שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהּ שָׁנָה אַחַר שָׁנָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָבַר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים עָלְתָה לָהֶן חֲזָקָה. שֶׁהַשְּׁטָר יֵשׁ לוֹ קוֹל וְהוֹאִיל וְלֹא מִחָה אִבֵּד זְכוּתוֹ. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְעֶבֶד שֶׁהֶחְזִיקוּ בּוֹ שְׁנַיִם וְנִשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בּוֹ שָׁנָה אַחַר שָׁנָה אִם כָּתְבוּ שְׁטָר בֵּינֵיהֶן הֲרֵי הֶחֱזִיקוּ:

6

The following rules apply when a person who took possession of a property derived benefit from its produce for one year and then sold it, the purchaser derived benefit from its produce for one year and then sold it, and the second purchaser derived benefit from its produce for a year. If they sold it to each other with a deed of sale, the activities of the three are combined and a claim of ownership is established, because the previous owner did not protest.

If they did not record the transaction in a deed of sale, a claim of ownership is not established, because the original owners can say: "Since one person did not maintain a presence within it for three years, there was no necessity to issue a protest."

ו

אֲכָלָהּ שָׁנָה זֶה הַמַּחֲזִיק וּמְכָרָהּ וַאֲכָלָהּ הַלּוֹקֵחַ שָׁנָה וּמָכַר לְלוֹקֵחַ שֵׁנִי וַאֲכָלָהּ שָׁנָה. אִם מָכְרוּ זֶה לָזֶה בִּשְׁטָר שְׁלָשְׁתָּן מִצְטָרְפִין וַהֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא מִחָה. וְאִם מָכְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁטָר אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה שֶׁהַבְּעָלִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים אוֹמְרִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא עָמַד בָּהּ אִישׁ אֶחָד שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים לֹא הֻצְרַכְתִּי לִמְחוֹת:

7

When a father derived benefit from a property for one year, and his son derived benefit for two years, or the father derived benefit for two years, and his son derived benefit for one year, a claim of ownership is established.

The same law applies if the father derived benefit for a year, the son derived benefit for a year, and the person who purchased it derived benefit for a year, provided that he purchased it with a deed of sale.

ז

אֲכָלָהּ הָאָב שָׁנָה וְהַבֵּן שְׁתַּיִם הָאָב שְׁתַּיִם וְהַבֵּן שָׁנָה הָאָב שָׁנָה וְהַבֵּן שָׁנָה וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הַבֵּן שָׁנָה הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה וְהוּא שֶׁלָּקַח בִּשְׁטָר:

8

When a person seeking to establish a claim of ownership partakes of produce from a field for one year in the presence of the father who was the owner, and two years in the presence of his son, or two years in the presence of the father and one year in the presence of the son, a claim of ownership is established.

Similarly, a claim of ownership is established when the person in possession of the field partakes of its produce for one year in the presence of the father, one year in the presence of the son, and one year in the presence of a person who purchased the field from the son. This law applies when the son sold the field together with all his fields. In such an instance, the person in possession of the field will not appreciate that it was sold, and hence will not necessarily be careful to maintain possession of his deed of acquisition beyond the three-year period. If, however, the son sold the field as a discrete entity the property is expropriated and given to the purchaser. For there can be no greater protest against the squatter's possession than this.

ח

אֲכָלָהּ בִּפְנֵי הָאָב שֶׁהָיָה בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה שָׁנָה וּבִפְנֵי בְּנוֹ שְׁתַּיִם. אוֹ בִּפְנֵי הָאָב שְׁתַּיִם וּבִפְנֵי הַבֵּן שָׁנָה. אוֹ בִּפְנֵי הָאָב שָׁנָה וּבִפְנֵי בְּנוֹ שָׁנָה וּבִפְנֵי לוֹקֵחַ מִן הַבֵּן שָׁנָה. הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה. וְהוּא שֶׁמָּכַר הַבֵּן זוֹ הַשָּׂדֶה בִּכְלַל שְׂדוֹתָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הִכִּיר הַמַּחֲזִיק שֶׁנִּמְכְּרָה וּלְפִיכָךְ לֹא נִזְהַר בִּשְׁטָרוֹ. אֲבָל אִם מָכַר הַבֵּן שָׂדֶה זוֹ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ אֵין לְךָ מְחָאָה גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ:

9

If the person in possession left the field fallow year after year - even for many years - since he did not derive any benefit from it, he does not establish a claim of ownership.

Similarly, if he irrigated it or even irrigated it and did no more than break up large clumps of earth, since he did not benefit from its produce, he does not establish a claim of ownership.

ט

נָרָהּ שָׁנָה אַחַר שָׁנָה אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה שָׁנִים הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נֶהֱנָה בָּהּ אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. וְכֵן אִם פָּתַח בָּהּ שְׁבִילֵי הַמַּיִם וּפָתַח וְשִׂדֵּד בִּלְבַד הוֹאִיל וְלֹא אָכַל פֵּרוֹת אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה:

10

If the person in possession sowed it, but did not make any profit - i.e., he sowed a kor and reaped a kor - he does not establish a claim of ownership, since he did not derive any benefit from it.

י

זְרָעָהּ וְלֹא הִרְוִיחַ כְּלוּם אֶלָּא זָרַע כּוֹר וְאָסַף כּוֹר לֹא הֶחֱזִיק שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נֶהֱנָה:

11

If he harvests the field as straw, he does not establish a claim of ownership. If in that region it was common to sow to harvest straw because straw is very expensive, he does establish a claim of ownership.

יא

אֲכָלָהּ שַׁחַת לֹא הֶחֱזִיק. וְאִם הָיָה הַמָּקוֹם דַּרְכָּן לִזְרֹעַ לְשַׁחַת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדָּמָיו יְקָרִין הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה:

12

If the person in possession partook of produce of a field that was orlah, grew during the Sabbatical year, or contained mixed species, he establishes a claim of ownership despite the fact that he derived benefit through transgression.

יב

אֲכָלָהּ עָרְלָה שְׁבִיעִית וְכִלְאַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה בַּעֲבֵרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה:

13

If the property in question was a stone or a rocky area unfit to be sown, the person in possession must benefit from the land in an appropriate manner - e.g., use it to spread out fruits to dry, as a place for an animal to pasture, or the like. If he does not derive benefit throughout all these three years in an appropriate manner, he does not establish a claim of ownership.

יג

הָיָה הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בּוֹ סֶלַע אוֹ חַלָּמִישׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִזְרִיעָה צָרִיךְ לֵהָנוֹת בּוֹ בְּדָבָר הָרָאוּי לָהּ כְּגוֹן שֶׁיִּשְׁטַח בּוֹ הַפֵּרוֹת אוֹ יַעֲמִיד בּוֹ בְּהֵמָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאִם לֹא נֶהֱנָה בּוֹ בְּכָל אוֹתָן הַשָּׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים בַּדָּבָר הָרָאוּי לוֹ לֹא הֶחֱזִיק:

14

The following rules apply when a person would tie his animal in a specific place in a courtyard belonging to a colleague, he would raise chickens there, he would place an oven, a range or a mill there, or he would place his fertilizer there. Whether or not he erects a barrier there, if he uses the property for these purposes during the day and the night and claims that the owner of the courtyard sold or gave him that place, he establishes a claim of ownership.

יד

הָיָה מַעֲמִיד בְּהֵמָה בְּמָקוֹם מְסֻיָּם מֵחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְגַדֵּל שָׁם תַּרְנְגוֹלִין אוֹ מַעֲמִיד שָׁם תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם וְרֵחַיִם. אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן שָׁם זִבְלוֹ. בֵּין שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד שָׁם מְחִצָּה בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא הֶעֱמִיד. אִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה וְטָעַן עַל בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר וְאָמַר אַתָּה נָתַתָּ לִי מָקוֹם זֶה אוֹ מְכַרְתּוֹ לִי הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה:

15

The following rules apply when a field is surrounded by a fence and a person took possession of it and sowed crops outside the fence, deriving benefit from the portion that is not protected. Even though he derives benefit year after year, he does not establish a claim of ownership. The rationale is that the owner can claim: "Since we saw that he was sowing crops in a place that was unprotected, we said: 'Whatever he sowed, the beasts of the field will eat. Therefore, we did not protest.'" This law also applies to anyone who sows crops in a place that is not protected and the crops are accessible to animals and other people.

טו

שָׂדֶה שֶׁהִיא מֻקֶּפֶת גָּדֵר וּבָא זֶה שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בָּהּ וְזָרַע חוּץ לַגָּדֵר וְנֶהֱנָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁמוּר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲכָלוֹ שָׁנָה אַחַר שָׁנָה לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ חֲזָקָה. שֶׁהַבְּעָלִים טוֹעֲנִין וְאוֹמְרִין כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאִינוּ שֶׁזּוֹרֵעַ בְּמָקוֹם מֻפְקָר אָמַרְנוּ כָּל מַה שֶּׁזָּרַע חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ וּלְפִיכָךְ לֹא מָחִיתִי. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכָל הַזּוֹרֵעַ מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁמוּר אֶלָּא רֶגֶל חַיָּה וְיַד כָּל אָדָם מְצוּיִין בּוֹ:

16

When the person in possession derives benefit from the entire property with the exception of one portion fit to sow a quarter of a kav of grain, he establishes a claim of ownership over the entire field, with the exception of the portion from which he did not benefit. Even if that was a rocky portion in the midst of the field, since he did not use it in a way appropriate for it, he does not establish a claim of ownership over it.

טז

אֲכָלָהּ כֻּלָּהּ חוּץ מִבֵּית רֹבַע הֶחֱזִיק בְּכֻלָּהּ חוּץ מֵאוֹתוֹ בֵּית רֹבַע שֶׁלֹּא נֶהֱנָה בּוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה חַלָּמִישׁ בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ כָּרָאוּי לוֹ אֵין לָזֶה בּוֹ חֲזָקָה:

17

The following rules apply when one person took possession of trees and derived benefit from their produce, and another took possession of the land, sowed crops there, and derived benefit from them, and each of them claims that the entire property belongs to him, because he purchased it from the owner. The person in possession of the trees is given the trees and the land necessary to tend to them - i.e., the space in which a person picking fruit can stand together with his basket for each tree. The person in possession of the land receives the remainder of the land.

יז

הֶחֱזִיק אֶחָד בָּאִילָנוֹת וְאָכַל פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן וְאֶחָד הֶחֱזִיק בַּקַּרְקַע וּזְרָעָהּ וְאָכַל פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ וְכָל אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם טוֹעֵן שֶׁהַכּל שֶׁלִּי וַאֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיו. זֶה שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בָּאִילָנוֹת וַאֲכָלָן שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יֵשׁ לוֹ הָאִילָנוֹת וְקַרְקַע שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לוֹ וְהוּא כִּמְלֹא הָאוֹרֶה וְסַלּוֹ חוּצָה לְכָל אִילָן וְאִילָן. וְזֶה שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בַּקַּרְקַע יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁאָר הַקַּרְקַע:

18

Similarly, when a person benefits from all the produce of a tree for three years and then issues a claim against the owner of the tree: "You sold me this tree and its land," he is granted an amount of land equivalent to the thickness of the tree until the depths of the earth.

יח

וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל כָּל פֵּרוֹת אִילָן שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְטָעַן עַל בַּעַל הָאִילָן אַתָּה מָכַרְתָּ לִי אִילָן זֶה וְקַרְקָעוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע כָּעֳבִי הָאִילָן עַד הַתְּהוֹם:

19

The following laws apply when there are 30 trees within a tree grove large enough to sow three se'ah of grain. If a person in possession benefited from ten trees in the first year, ten in the second year, and ten in the third, he establishes his possession over the entire grove.

The above applies when the ten trees from which he benefited were spread through the entire area of the field, and the other trees did not produce any fruit. If, however, the other trees produced fruit and he did not partake of it, he establishes a claim of ownership only on the produce from which he partook.

יט

שְׂדֵה אִילָן שֶׁהָיוּ בּוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים אִילָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וְאָכַל עֲשָׂרָה בְּשָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וַעֲשָׂרָה בְּשָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה וַעֲשָׂרָה בְּשָׁנָה שְׁלִישִׁית הֻחְזַק בַּכּל. וְהוּא שֶׁהָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה שֶׁאָכַל מְפֻזָּרוֹת בְּכָל בֵּית הַשָּׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וְלֹא הוֹצִיאוּ שְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת פֵּרוֹת. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיאוּ שְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת פֵּרוֹת וְלֹא אֲכָלָן לֹא הֻחְזַק אֶלָּא בְּמַה שֶּׁאָכַל:

20

When does the above apply? When he benefited from some of the fruit and the people reaped the remainder of the fruit. If, however, he left the fruit on the trees and benefited from the fruit from several portions throughout the entire grove, he establishes a claim of ownership concerning the entire field, even though he did not collect all its produce.

כ

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁאָכַל הוּא מִקְצָת הַפֵּרוֹת וּבָזְזוּ הָעָם שְׁאָר הַפֵּרוֹת. אֲבָל אִם מֵנִיחַ פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן עֲלֵיהֶן הוֹאִיל וְאָכַל אִילָן מִכָּאן וְאִילָן מִכָּאן מִכָּל הַשָּׂדֶה הֶחֱזִיק בְּכָל הַשָּׂדֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָסַף כָּל פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ: