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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Mechirah - Chapter Nineteen, Mechirah - Chapter Twenty, Mechirah - Chapter Twenty One

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Mechirah - Chapter Nineteen

1

It is forbidden for a person to sell a colleague landed property or movable property concerning which there is a dispute or a judgment pending, until he notifies the purchaser. This law applies even if the seller is responsible for the property if it is expropriated from the purchaser. The rationale is that a person does not desire to pay money for an object and then be forced to enter into litigation concerning it, because he is being sued by others.

א

אָסוּר לַמּוֹכֵר לִמְכֹּר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קַרְקַע אוֹ מִטַּלִטְלִין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ עֲסִיקִין וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ דִּין עַד שֶׁיּוֹדִיעוֹ. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאַחֲרָיוּת עָלָיו אֵין אָדָם רוֹצֶה שֶׁיִּתֵּן מְעוֹתָיו וְיוֹרֵד לְדִין וְיִהְיֶה נִתְבָּע מֵאֲחֵרִים:

2

When a person sells landed property to a colleague and claims of ownership are filed by others - after the purchaser acquires the property through one of the established modes of acquisition, but before he makes use of it - the purchaser may retract; there is no blemish greater than this. Before he has even made use of his purchase, claimants come and demand it.

Therefore, the transaction should be nullified and the seller should return the money and enter into litigation with the claimants. If the purchaser made any use of it whatsoever, even if he merely threw down its property marker and joined it to his own adjacent property, he may not retract. Instead, he must enter into litigation with the claimants. If they are successful in expropriating it from him in court, he may seek settlement from the seller, as is the law with regard to all from whom property is expropriated.

ב

הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְאַחַר שֶׁקָּנָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּאֶחָד מִן הַדְּרָכִים שֶׁקּוֹנִין בָּהֶן קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ יָצָא עָלָיו מְעַרְעֲרִין. הֲרֵי זֶה יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. שֶׁאֵין לְךָ מוּם גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נֶהֱנָה בּוֹ וּבָאוּ הַתּוֹבְעִין. לְפִיכָךְ יִבָּטֵל הַמִּקָּח וְיַחְזִיר הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַדָּמִים וְיַעֲשֶׂה דִּין עִם הַמְעַרְעְרִין. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ הַלּוֹקֵחַ כָּל שֶׁהוּא וַאֲפִלּוּ דָּשׁ הַמֵּצַר שֶׁלָּהּ וְעֵרְבוֹ עִם הָאָרֶץ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ אֶלָּא עוֹשֶׂה דִּין עִם הַמְעַרְעְרִין. וְאִם הוֹצִיאוּ מִיָּדוֹ בְּדִין יַחְזֹר עַל הַמּוֹכֵר כְּדִין כָּל הַנִּטְרָפִין:

3

Whenever a person sells landed property, a servant or other movable property, he is responsible for them. What is implied? If a litigant expropriates the purchased article from the purchaser because of the seller,? the purchaser may collect all the money he paid from the seller, because the article was taken because of him.

This law applies with regard to all sales, even if the purchaser does not explicitly make this stipulation, but purchases the article without any qualification. Even if he purchases landed property by virtue of the transfer of a legal document, and the seller's responsibility is not mentioned in the document, the seller is responsible for the property. The fact that his responsibility is not mentioned is considered to be a scribal error.

ג

כָּל הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע אוֹ עֶבֶד אוֹ שְׁאָר מִטַּלְטְלִין הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן. כֵּיצַד. אִם הוֹצִיא הַמִּקָּח מִיַּד הַלּוֹקֵחַ מֵחֲמַת הַמּוֹכֵר. חוֹזֵר הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְנוֹטֵל כָּל הַדָּמִים שֶׁנָּתַן מִן הַמּוֹכֵר שֶׁהֲרֵי נִלְקָח הַמִּקָּח מֵחֲמָתוֹ. כָּךְ הַדִּין בְּכָל מִמְכָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ הַלּוֹקֵחַ דָּבָר זֶה אֶלָּא קָנָה סְתָם. אֲפִלּוּ מָכַר הַקַּרְקַע בִּשְׁטָר וְלֹא הִזְכִּיר בּוֹ הָאַחֲרָיוּת הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן. שֶׁאַחֲרָיוּת שֶׁלֹּא נִזְכַּר טָעוּת סוֹפֵר הוּא:

4

When does the above apply? When the purchased article was expropriated from the purchaser in a Jewish court. For example, the purchased article was movable property and it was proven that it was obtained by theft or robbery, or landed property was taken by robbery, or a creditor of the seller came and expropriated it from the purchaser.

All the above applies if the expropriation was dictated by a Jewish court. If, however, a gentile expropriates the purchased article from the purchaser, whether through an edict of the king or through a secular court, the seller is not responsible for the article. Although the gentile claims that the seller stole this article or robbed him of it and brought witnesses to that effect, the seller is not liable at all. For the expropriation of the article by gentiles is considered to be beyond the seller's control, and a seller is not liable for losses that are beyond his control.

ד

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהוֹצִיא הַמִּקָּח מִיַּד הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה הַמִּקָּח מִטַּלְטְלִין וְהָיוּ גְּנוּבִין אוֹ גְּזוּלִין אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה הַקַּרְקַע גְּזוּלָה. אוֹ שֶׁבָּא בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁל מוֹכֵר וּטְרָפָהּ מִיַּד הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְהַכּל בְּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל אִם הָעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים הוּא שֶׁהוֹצִיא הַמִּקָּח מִן הַלּוֹקֵחַ בֵּין בְּדִין הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּין בְּעַרְכָּאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן. אֵין הַמּוֹכֵר חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים טוֹעֵן שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר גָּנַב חֵפֶץ זֶה אוֹ גְּזָלָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְהֵבִיא עֵדֵי עַכּוּ''ם עַל כָּךְ אֵין הַמּוֹכֵר חַיָּב כְּלוּם. שֶׁזֶּה אֹנֶס הוּא וְאֵין הַמּוֹכֵר חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּת אֹנֶס:

5

When a person sells landed property to a colleague and the seller makes a stipulation that he will reimburse the purchaser for any loss of this property due to factors beyond his control, he is liable to pay even if a gentile comes and seizes by force the property due to the seller.

If, however, a stream that was watering the field dries up, the flow of a stream deviates and makes a portion of land into a pool, or an earthquake comes and destroys it, the seller is not liable. For matters of this nature are both beyond one's control and infrequent. It would not have occurred to a seller to think about such an abnormal matter at the time he made this stipulation. Similarly, any other factor beyond one's control that is abnormal is not included in this stipulation.

ה

הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ שֶׁכָּל אֹנֶס שֶׁיִּוָּלֵד בְּקַרְקַע זֶה יִהְיֶה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. אֲפִלּוּ בָּא עַכּוּ''ם וּגְזָלָהּ מֵחֲמַת הַמּוֹכֵר חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. אֲבָל אִם נִפְסַק הַנָּהָר שֶׁהָיָה מַשְׁקֶה אוֹתָהּ. אוֹ שֶׁחָזַר הַנָּהָר לַעֲבֹר בְּתוֹכָהּ וְנַעֲשֵׂית בְּרֵכָה. אוֹ שֶׁבָּאָה זְוָעָה וְהִשְׁחִיתָה אוֹתָהּ. הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. שֶׁאֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֹנֶס שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי הוּא וְלֹא עָלָה עַל לֵב הַמּוֹכֵר דְּבַר זֶה הַפֶּלֶא בְּעֵת שֶׁהִתְנָה. וְכָל אֹנֶס שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי אֵינוֹ בִּכְלַל הַתְּנַאי הַזֶּה:

6

This same principle applies with regard to any condition that is made with regard to monetary matters. We analyze the intent of the person making the stipulation. We include within its scope only matters that are well-known that we would assume to have been taken in within the stipulation, because they would have been in the mind of the person making the stipulation at that time.

ו

וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכָל תְּנַאי מָמוֹן שֶׁאוֹמְדִין דַּעַת הַמַּתְנֶה וְאֵין כּוֹלְלִין בְּאוֹתוֹ הַתְּנַאי אֶלָּא דְּבָרִים הַיְדוּעִין שֶׁבִּכְלָלָן הָיָה הַתְּנַאי וְהֵם שֶׁהָיוּ בְּדַעַת הַמַּתְנֶה בִּשְׁעַת שֶׁהִתְנָה:

7

An incident occurred concerning a person who hired sailors to transport sesame seeds to a certain place. He made a stipulation with them that they are responsible for any loss that occurs because of factors beyond their control until the sesame seeds reach their destination. And then, the river on which they expected to transport the cargo ceased flowing.

Our Sages said: This is an abnormal factor beyond their control. They are not likely to transport these sesame seeds on an animal to that place. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

ז

מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁשָּׂכַר מַלָּחִים לְהָבִיא שֻׁמְשְׁמִין לְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי. וְהִתְנָה עִמָּהֶם שֶׁהֵן חַיָּבִין בְּכָל אֹנֶס שֶׁיֶּאֱרַע לָהֶם עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ הַשֻּׁמְשְׁמִין לְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי. וְנִפְסַק הַנָּהָר שֶׁהָיוּ מוֹלִיכִין בּוֹ. וְאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים זֶה אֹנֶס שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי וְאֵין חַיָּבִין לְהוֹלִיךְ שֻׁמְשְׁמִין אֵלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה עַד אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

8

When a person sells landed property to a colleague and the seller explicitly stipulates that he is not responsible, the seller is not held responsible. This applies even if it becomes known with certainty that the property was stolen, and it is expropriated from the purchaser.

Needless to say, should a creditor of the seller come and expropriate it from the purchaser, the seller is not liable to reimburse him. For any stipulation that is made with regard to financial matters is binding.

ח

הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְהִתְנָה הַמּוֹכֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת. אֲפִלּוּ נוֹדַע בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁזּוֹ הָאָרֶץ גְּזוּלָה וְיָצָאת מִיַּד הַלּוֹקֵחַ. אֵין הַמּוֹכֵר חַיָּב כְּלוּם. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם בָּא בַּעַל חוֹב וּטְרָפָהּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַחְזִיר לוֹ כְּלוּם. שֶׁכָּל תְּנַאי שֶׁבְּמָמוֹן קַיָּם:

9

The following rule applies when Reuven sold a field to Shimon without taking responsibility for it, and Levi comes and expropriates it from Shimon based on a claim against Reuven. If he desires, Reuven can enter into litigation with Levi. Levi cannot protest: "What business do you and I have together? You have no responsibility for the property." For Reuven will tell him: "I do not want Shimon to have any claims against me, for he has lost money on my account."

ט

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁמָּכַר שָׂדֶה לְשִׁמְעוֹן שֶׁלֹּא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת. וּבָא לֵוִי וְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִיַּד שִׁמְעוֹן. אִם רָצָה רְאוּבֵן לַעֲשׂוֹת דִּין עִם לֵוִי עוֹשֶׂה. וְאֵין יָכוֹל לֵוִי לוֹמַר לוֹ מַה לִּי וּלְךָ וַהֲרֵי אֵין עָלֶיךָ אַחֲרָיוּת. שֶׁהֲרֵי רְאוּבֵן אוֹמֵר לוֹ אֵין רְצוֹנִי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לְשִׁמְעוֹן תַּרְעֹמֶת עָלַי שֶׁהֲרֵי הִפְסִיד בִּגְלָלִי:

10

The following rule applies when Reuven sold a field to Shimon without taking responsibility and then repurchased it from him requiring Shimon to take responsibility. If a creditor of Reuven comes to expropriate the field from him, he may not require Shimon to pay for it. Although he did not accept responsibility when he sold it to Shimon, he took responsibility with regard to himself, that he should not be the seller and then expropriate the property himself.

If, however, a creditor of Jacob, their father, comes and expropriates the property from Reuven, Reuven may demand payment of the entire worth of the field from Shimon. For Shimon accepted responsibility for the field when he sold it back to Reuven, while Reuven did not accept any responsibility for others when he sold it to Shimon.

י

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁמָּכַר שָׂדֶה לְשִׁמְעוֹן שֶׁלֹּא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת וְחָזַר וּלְקָחָהּ מִשִּׁמְעוֹן בְּאַחֲרָיוּת. וּבָא בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן לִטְרֹף אוֹתָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ. אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר עַל שִׁמְעוֹן. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת לְשִׁמְעוֹן אַחֲרָיוּת עַצְמוֹ קִבֵּל שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה הוּא הַמּוֹכֵר וְהוּא הַמּוֹצִיא לְעַצְמוֹ. אֲבָל אִם בָּא בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב אֲבִיהֶם וּטְרָפָהּ מִיַּד רְאוּבֵן. חוֹזֵר בְּכָל הַדָּמִים עַל שִׁמְעוֹן. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשִּׁמְעוֹן קִבֵּל לוֹ הָאַחֲרָיוּת וּרְאוּבֵן לֹא קִבֵּל לְשִׁמְעוֹן אַחֲרָיוּת שֶׁל אֲחֵרִים כְּלָל:

Mechirah - Chapter Twenty

1

The following rules apply in the situation to be described. A person wanted to purchase an article from a colleague. The seller said: "I will sell it to you for 200 zuz,"but the purchaser said: "I will not purchase it for more than a maneh." They each returned home. Afterwards, they came together again and the purchaser took possession of the article by meshichah without making any further statements. If it was the seller who made the proposition to the purchaser and gave him the article, he is required to give him only a maneh. If, however, it was the purchaser who performed meshichah without making any further offers, he is required to pay 200 zuz.

א

הַמְבַקֵשׁ לִקְנוֹת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ מִקָּח. מוֹכֵר אוֹמֵר בְּמָאתַיִם אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹמֵר אֵינִי קוֹנֶה אֶלָּא בְּמָנֶה. וְהָלַךְ זֶה לְבֵיתוֹ וְזֶה לְבֵיתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְקַבְּצוּ וּמָשַׁךְ זֶה הַחֵפֶץ סְתָם. אִם הַמּוֹכֵר הוּא שֶׁתָּבַע הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְנָתַן לוֹ הַחֵפֶץ אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן אֶלָּא מָנֶה. וְאִם הַלּוֹקֵחַ הוּא שֶׁבָּא וּמָשַׁךְ זֶה הַחֵפֶץ סְתָם חַיָּב לִתֵּן מָאתַיִם:

2

The following rule applies when a person purchases an article from one of five people, but is unsure of the identity of the seller, and each of the five claims that he was the seller. The purchaser should place the money for the item among them and depart. The money should remain in custody until the false claimants admit that it is not theirs or Elijah comes. If the purchaser is pious, he should pay each one of the claimants to fulfill a moral and spiritual obligation.

ב

הַלּוֹקֵחַ מֵאֶחָד מֵחֲמִשָּׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן תּוֹבֵעַ אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי הוּא בַּעַל הַמִּקָּח. וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מִמִּי מֵהֶם לָקַח. מַנִּיחַ דְּמֵי הַמִּקָּח בֵּינֵיהֶם וּמִסְתַּלֵּק וְיִהְיוּ הַדָּמִים מֻנָּחִין עַד שֶׁיּוֹדוּ אוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ. וְאִם הוּא חָסִיד נוֹתֵן דָּמִים לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד כְּדֵי לָצֵאת יְדֵי שָׁמַיִם:

3

Different rules apply when a person purchased an article from one of five people, did not pay at the time, denied taking the article by making a false oath and then repented and wanted to make restitution. If all five demanded payment from him, saying, "I am the one from whom you denied taking the article, and to whom you made a false oath," and he says, "I do not know," he is obligated to pay each of them, because he committed a transgression.

ג

לָקַח מִקָּח מֵאֶחָד מֵחֲמִשָּׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם וְכָפַר בּוֹ וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל שֶׁקֶר וְעָשָׂה תְּשׁוּבָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא רוֹצֶה לְשַׁלֵּם וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד תּוֹבֵעַ אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי הוּא שֶׁכָּפַרְתָּ בִּי וְנִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לִי וְהוּא אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ. חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵרָה:

4

The seller's word is accepted when he says: "I sold the article to this one, and I did not sell the article to this one."When does this apply? When the article that he is selling is in his possession. If, however, the article is no longer in his possession, his statements are given no more credence than those of one witness, and the laws applying to him with regard to this testimony are no different from those applying to other people, for he is no longer involved in the matter concerning which he testified.

Therefore, if a seller took money from two people, one intentionally and one gave him money against the seller's will, and the seller does not know the identity of the person from whom he took money intentionally and that of the person who gave him money against his will, there is no testimony at all. Each of the persons must take an oath holding a sacred article, as dictated by our Sages. Each then receives half of the purchased article and half the money.

This applies whether the article is in the hands of the seller or both of the claimants are holding it.

ד

נֶאֱמָן בַּעַל הַמִּקָּח לוֹמַר לָזֶה מָכַרְתִּי וְלָזֶה לֹא מָכַרְתִּי. אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַמִּקָּח יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ. אֲבָל אִם אֵין הַמִּקָּח יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא עֵד אֶחָד בִּלְבַד. וְדִינוֹ בְּעֵדוּת זוֹ כְּדִין כָּל אָדָם שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בְּעֵדוּתוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָטַל הַדָּמִים מִשְּׁנַיִם וְנָטַל מֵאֶחָד מִדַּעְתּוֹ וּמֵאֶחָד בַּעַל כָּרְחוֹ וְלֹא יָדַע מִמִּי נָטַל מִדַּעְתּוֹ וּמִמִּי נָטַל בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ. בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה הַמִּקָּח בְּיָדוֹ בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן תּוֹפְסִין בּוֹ אֵין כָּאן עֵדוּת כְּלָל. וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן נִשְׁבָּע בְּתַקָּנַת חֲכָמִים בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְנוֹטֵל חֲצִי הַמִּקָּח וַחֲצִי דָּמִים:

5

The principle, "When a person desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is upon him," is applied in all the following situations and in other similar ones:

The purchaser claims: "You sold the article to me," and the seller claims that he did not; The seller claims that he sold the article to the purchaser, and the purchaser did not pay for it; The purchaser claims that he paid the money, but did not perform meshichah; The purchaser claims that he performed meshichah without seeing a particular blemish, and the seller claimed to have appraised him of it beforehand; or One of them claimed that the transaction had been made conditional on a stipulation, and the other denied that.

ה

הֲרֵי שֶׁטָּעַן עַל חֲבֵרוֹ וְאָמַר מָכַרְתָּ לִי. וְזֶה אוֹמֵר לֹא מָכַרְתִּי. אוֹ מָכַרְתִּי וְלֹא נָתַתָּ לִי דָּמִים. אוֹ שֶׁטָּעַן הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְאָמַר שֶׁנָּתַן הַדָּמִים וַעֲדַיִן לֹא מָשַׁךְ. אוֹ מָשַׁכְתִּי וְלֹא רָאִיתִי מוּם זֶה. וְהַמּוֹכֵר אוֹמֵר לוֹ הוֹדַעְתִּיו לְךָ. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר אֶחָד מֵהֶם כָּךְ וְכָךְ תְּנַאי הָיָה בֵּינֵינוּ וְהָאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לֹא הָיָה שָׁם תְּנַאי כְּלָל. בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַטְּעָנוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה:

6

In the above instances, if the plaintiff does not prove his claim, the defendant who denies the claim must support his own claim with a sh'vuat hesset. If he admits a portion of the plaintiff's claim, or the plaintiffs claim is supported by one witness, the defendant must take an oath, as mandated by Scriptural Law, as applies with regard to all other claims.

ו

לֹא הָיְתָה שָׁם רְאָיָה. נִשְׁבַּע הַכּוֹפֵר שֶׁמְּבַקְּשִׁין לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדוֹ שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת. וְאִם הוֹדָה בְּמִקְצָת הַטַּעֲנָה אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו עֵד אֶחָד נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה כִּשְׁאָר הַטְּעָנוֹת כֻּלָּן:

7

The following rules apply when a person tells a storekeeper: "Give me a dinar's worth of produce," and the storekeeper gives it to him, and the produce is placed in the public domain. If the storekeeper demands payment of the dinar and the purchaser replies "I paid you the money, and you put it into your pocket," the purchaser is required to take an oath as ordained by our Sages, holding a sacred object. Afterwards, he may take the produce. The rationale is that the produce has already left the domain of the seller and was placed in the public domain.

If the produce was in the domain of the purchaser, he would be required to take only a sh'vuat hesset, and then he would be freed of responsibility. If the produce was in the domain of the storekeeper, the storekeeper would be required to take a sh'vuat hesset, and the produce would remain his.

ז

אָמַר לְחֶנְוָנִי תֵּן לִי בְּדִינָר פֵּרוֹת וְנָתַן לוֹ וַהֲרֵי הַפֵּרוֹת מֻנָּחִין בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְהַחֶנְוָנִי תּוֹבֵעַ אֶת הַדִּינָר וּבַעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר לוֹ נָתַתִּי לְךָ הַדָּמִים וְהִשְׁלַכְתָּ אוֹתָם לְתוֹךְ כִּיסְךָ. הֲרֵי הַלּוֹקֵחַ נִשְׁבָּע כְּתַקָּנַת חֲכָמִים בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְנוֹטֵל הַפֵּרוֹת הוֹאִיל וּכְבָר יָצְאוּ מֵרְשׁוּת הַמּוֹכֵר וַהֲרֵי הֵן בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְאִלּוּ הָיוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הַלּוֹקֵחַ הָיָה נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת וְנִפְטַר. וְאִלּוּ הָיוּ עֲדַיִן בִּרְשׁוּת הַחֶנְוָנִי הָיָה נִשְׁבָּע הֶסֵּת וְיִשָּׁאֲרוּ פֵּרוֹתָיו אֶצְלוֹ:

8

Different rules apply if a purchaser gives a dinar to a storekeeper to take produce that has been placed down in the public domain. If the storekeeper says: "The dinar that you just gave me is payment for produce that I previously gave you and that you took to your home. I never sold you this produce that is now placed in the public domain," the storekeeper must take an oath to support his claim while holding a sacred object. The produce is then returned to the storekeeper, for he never admitted selling it to the purchaser. And if the produce was located in his store, all that would be required of him would be a sh'vuat hesset, as explained in the previous halachah.

ח

נָתַן הַלּוֹקֵחַ דִּינָר לְחֶנְוָנִי וּבָא לִטּל פֵּרוֹת הַמֻּנָּחִין בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְאָמַר הַחֶנְוָנִי דִּינָר זֶה שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לִי עַכְשָׁו הוּא דְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁכְּבָר נְתַתִּים לְךָ וְהוֹלַכְתָּם לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתְךָ אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ הַמֻּנָּחִין בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לֹא מְכַרְתִּים לְךָ. הֲרֵי הַחֶנְוָנִי נִשְׁבָּע בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ שֶׁכָּךְ הָיָה הַדָּבָר וּמַחֲזִיר פֵּרוֹתָיו לָחֶנְוָנִי. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הוֹדָה לוֹ שֶׁמְּכָרָן לוֹ מֵעוֹלָם. וְאִלּוּ הָיוּ בַּחֲנוּתוֹ הָיָה נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

9

Similar rules apply when a person gives a dinar to a money-changer to take coins when the coins are piled in the public domain. If the money-changer admits to having sold the coins and he has not taken the dinar, the purchaser must support his claim by taking an oath while holding a sacred object and may then take the coins. If, however, the money-changer does not admit to having sold the coins to the purchaser, even though he admits taking a dinar from the purchaser at this time, for he claims that the dinar is payment for coins that the purchaser already took home, the money-changer must support his claim by taking an oath while holding a sacred object. The coins are then returned to his store.

ט

וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּנוֹתֵן דִּינָר לְשֻׁלְחָנִי לִטּל מָעוֹת. בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַמָּעוֹת צְבוּרִין בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אִם הַשֻּׁלְחָנִי הוֹדָה שֶׁמְּכָרָן וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נָטַל הַדִּינָר נִשְׁבָּע הַלּוֹקֵחַ בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ שֶׁנָּתַן וְנוֹטֵל הַמָּעוֹת. וְאִם לֹא הוֹדָה שֶׁמְּכָרָן לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹדֶה שֶׁלָּקַח מִמֶּנּוּ דִּינָר עַתָּה וְטוֹעֵן שֶׁדִּינָר זֶה דְּמֵי הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁכְּבָר הוֹלִיכָן הַלּוֹקֵחַ לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. הֲרֵי הַשֻּׁלְחָנִי נִשְׁבָּע בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְיַחְזִיר מְעוֹתָיו לַחֲנוּתוֹ:

10

The following laws apply when a person exchanges a cow and a donkey, and the cow bears a calf, or one sells a maidservant and she gives birth. The seller claims: "She gave birth before I sold her." The purchaser claims: "She gave birth after I purchased her." The purchaser must bring proof of his claim to be granted possession.

This ruling applies even if the seller says: "I do not know when she gave birth." Indeed, even if the cow is located in a swamp or the maidservant in a corner of the public domain, they are considered to be in the possession of the seller until the purchaser brings proof of his claim.If the purchaser does not bring proof of his claim, the seller must take an oath while holding a sacred object to support his claim. This applies with regard to the offspring of a cow. With regard to the offspring of a maidservant, by contrast, he is required only to take a sh'vuat hesset. For an oath associated with a sacred object is never taken with regard to servants or landed property, as explained in Hilchot To'en V'Nit'an.

י

הַמַּחְלִיף פָּרָה בַּחֲמוֹר וְיָלְדָה וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר שִׁפְחָתוֹ וְיָלְדָה. זֶה אוֹמֵר עַד שֶׁלֹּא מָכַרְתִּי יָלְדָה וְזֶה אוֹמֵר מִשֶּׁלָּקַחְתִּי יָלְדָה. אֲפִלּוּ אָמַר הַמּוֹכֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ. עַל הַלּוֹקֵחַ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפָּרָה עוֹמֶדֶת בַּאֲגַם וְהַשִּׁפְחָה עוֹמֶדֶת בְּסִמְטָא הֲרֵי הֵן בְּחֶזְקַת הַמּוֹכֵר עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא הַלּוֹקֵחַ רְאָיָה. לֹא הֵבִיא רְאָיָה יִשָּׁבַע הַמּוֹכֵר בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ עַל וְלַד הַפָּרָה. אֲבָל עַל וְלַד הַשִּׁפְחָה אֵינוֹ נִשְׁבָּע אֶלָּא הֶסֵּת. שֶׁאֵין נִשְׁבָּעִין בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ עַל הָעֲבָדִים וְלֹא עַל הַקַּרְקָעוֹת. כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת טוֹעֵן וְנִטְעָן:

11

If one says: "I do not know when the offspring was born," and the other also does not know, and the offspring is located in a domain that does not belong to either of them, it should be divided.

If one says: "The offspring was born in my domain," and the other remains silent, the one who makes the claim is awarded the offspring.

יא

זֶה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ וְזֶה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ וְאֵינָם בִּרְשׁוּת אֶחָד מֵהֶן יַחֲלֹקוּ. זֶה אוֹמֵר בִּרְשׁוּתִי יָלְדָה וְהָאַחֵר שׁוֹתֵק זָכָה הַטּוֹעֵן בַּוָּלָד:

12

The following rules apply when a dispute arises concerning a seller who owns two servants, one an adult and one a minor, or two fields, one large and one small. The purchaser claims: "I purchased the greater one," while the seller claims: "You purchased the smaller one." The burden of proof lies with the purchaser. If he does not substantiate his claim, the seller should take a sh'vuat hesset that it was the smaller one that he sold and he is allowed to keep the larger one.

יב

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עֲבָדִים קָטָן וְגָדוֹל. אוֹ שְׁתֵּי שָׂדוֹת אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה. הַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹמֵר גְּדוֹלָה לָקַחְתִּי וְהַמּוֹכֵר אוֹמֵר קְטַנָּה הִיא שֶׁלָּקַחְתָּ. עַל הַלּוֹקֵחַ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה. אוֹ יִשָּׁבַע הַמּוֹכֵר הֶסֵּת שֶׁלֹּא מָכַר אֶלָּא קָטָן:

13

If the purchaser says: "I purchased the greater one," and the seller remains silent, the purchaser is awarded the greater one.

If the seller says: "I do not know," the burden of proof lies on the purchaser. If he does not substantiate his claim, the seller should take a sh'vuat hesset that he does not know which article was purchased,and the purchaser is awarded only the smaller one.

יג

אָמַר הַלּוֹקֵחַ גָּדוֹל לָקַחְתִּי וְהַמּוֹכֵר שׁוֹתֵק זָכָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּגָּדוֹל. וְאִם אָמַר הַמּוֹכֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ עַל הַלּוֹקֵחַ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה. אוֹ נִשְׁבָּע הַמּוֹכֵר הֶסֵּת שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ וְאֵין לָזֶה אֶלָּא קָטָן:

14

Whenever a doubt over responsibility for an article arises the burden of proof lies on the person in whose domain the doubt arises.

What is implied? A person exchanges a cow for a donkey, and the owner of the donkey performs meshichah on the cow, but before the owner of the cow can perform meshichah on the donkey, the donkey dies. The burden of proof is on the owner of the donkey to verify that the donkey was alive at the time meshichah was performed on the cow. The same principle applies in all analogous situations.

יד

כָּל מִי שֶׁנּוֹלַד הַסָּפֵק בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ עָלָיו לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה. כֵּיצַד. הַמַּחְלִיף פָּרָה בַּחֲמוֹר וּמָשַׁךְ בַּעַל הַחֲמוֹר אֶת הַפָּרָה וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק בַּעַל הַפָּרָה לִמְשֹׁךְ זֶה הַחֲמוֹר עַד שֶׁמֵּת הַחֲמוֹר עַל בַּעַל הַחֲמוֹר לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהָיָה חֲמוֹרוֹ קַיָּם בִּשְׁעַת מְשִׁיכַת הַפָּרָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

15

The following laws apply when someone sold an animal to a butcher before its slaughter, but the money had not yet changed hands, it was slaughtered, and afterwards, a needle was discovered in the animal's second stomach that had pierced it from side to side.'

If a drop of blood is found upon it, it is clear that it became trefah before its slaughter. If a scab had formed over the wound, it is clear that it became trefah three days before its slaughter. If a scab had not formed over the wound, there is a lack of clarity concerning the matter, and the butcher must bring proof that the disqualifying factor arose before the purchase. This decision is rendered because the cow was in his possession when the doubt arose. If he cannot bring proof to this effect, he must pay the money due to the seller, as explained above.

טו

מַחַט הַנִּמְצָא בָּעֳבִי בֵּית הַכּוֹסוֹת וְנִקְּבָה אוֹתוֹ נֶקֶב מְפֻלָּשׁ. אִם נִמְצָא עָלֶיהָ קֹרֶט דָּם בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁזּוֹ נִטְרְפָה קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִגְלִיד פִּי הַמַּכָּה בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁזּוֹ נִטְרְפָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטָה. לֹא הִגְלִיד פִּי הַמַּכָּה הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר סָפֵק וְעַל הַטַּבָּח לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁקֹּדֶם לְקִיחָתוֹ נִטְרְפָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ נוֹלַד הַסָּפֵק. וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיא רְאָיָה יְשַׁלֵּם הַדָּמִים לַמּוֹכֵר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Mechirah - Chapter Twenty One

1

The following rules apply when a person transfers a non-specific entity to a colleague. If the species being sold is known, even though its measure, its weight and its number are not known, the transaction is binding. If the species is not known, the transaction is not binding.

א

הַמַּקְנֶּה לַחֲבֵרוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְסֻיָּם. אִם הָיָה מִינוֹ יָדוּעַ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מִדָּתוֹ וּמִשְׁקָלוֹ וּמִנְיָנוֹ יָדוּעַ הֲרֵי זֶה קָנָה. וְאִם אֵין מִינוֹ יָדוּעַ לֹא קָנָה:

2

What is implied? If a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you this heap of wheat for this and this amount," "I am selling you this cellar of wine for this and this amount," or "I am selling you this bag of figs for this and this amount," the sale is binding, even though the measure of the grain heap, the weight of the figs and the number of containers of wine is unknown.

These principles apply even if the quantity is greater or less than the estimation of the seller or the purchaser. The laws of ona'ah apply, and the purchase price is compared to the market price, as explained.

ב

כֵּיצַד. עֲרֵמָה זוֹ שֶׁל חִטִּים אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ. מַרְתֵּף זֶה שֶׁל יַיִן אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ. שַׂק שֶׁל תְּאֵנִים אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מִדַּת הָעֲרֵמָה יְדוּעָה וְלֹא מִשְׁקַל הַתְּאֵנִים וְלֹא מִנְיַן הַקַּנְקַנִּים יָדוּעַ הֲרֵי זֶה מִמְכָּרוֹ קַיָּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְצָא חָסֵר אוֹ יָתֵר עַל הָאֹמֶד שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתָּם. וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם הוֹנָיָה לְפִי הַשַּׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

If, however, a person tells a colleague: "I will sell you whatever this house contains for this and this amount," "...whatever this chest contains,..." or "whatever this sack contains for this and this amount," the purchaser agrees and performs meshichah, the transaction is not binding. For the purchaser did not make a binding commitment, since he does not know what the receptacle contains, whether straw or gold. This is no more than gambling. The same applies in all analogous situations.

ג

אֲבָל הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ כָּל מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ בְּבַיִת זֶה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ. וְכָל מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ בְּתֵבָה זוֹ אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ. אוֹ בַּשַּׂק הַזֶּה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ. וְרָצָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ וּמָשַׁךְ אֵין כָּאן קִנְיָן. שֶׁלֹּא סָמְכָה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אִם תֶּבֶן אוֹ זָהָב. וְאֵין זֶה אֶלָּא כִּמְשַׂחֵק בְּקֻבִּיָּא. וְכֵן כָּל הַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

4

Similarly, if a person tells a colleague that he is selling him wheat for ten dinarim, but does not stipulate how many se'ah he is selling him, he must give him an amount of wheat equivalent to the market price at the time of the sale. Should either of the parties retract after the money has been paid, because they do not agree to the market price at the time of the sale, that party must receive the adjuration mi shepara, as explained.

ד

וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בַּעֲשָׂרָה דִּינָרִין חִטִּים וְלֹא פָּסַק כַּמָּה סְאָה מָכַר לוֹ נוֹתֵן לוֹ כַּשַּׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק בִּשְׁעַת הַמְּכִירָה. וְכָל הַחוֹזֵר בּוֹ מֵאַחַר נְתִינַת הַדָּמִים וְלֹא רָצָה כַּשַּׁעַר שֶׁהָיָה בַּשּׁוּק בִּשְׁעַת נְתִינַת הַמָּעוֹת מְקַבֵּל מִי שֶׁפָּרַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

5

When a person sells property to a colleague to build a house or a barn for cattle, he should give him a place four cubits by six cubits. Similarly, when a person agrees to build a wedding home for a colleague's son or a home for a widowed daughter he should build a home of this size.

If he sells him property to build a large house, he should give him a space eight cubits by ten cubits. If he sells him a place for a reception hall, he should give him a space ten cubits by ten cubits. A place for a garden of a courtyard is twelve cubits by twelve cubits.

The height of a structure is half of its combined length and width.

ה

הַמּוֹכֵר מָקוֹם לַחֲבֵרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת בַּיִת אוֹ רֶפֶת בָּקָר. וְכֵן הַמְקַבֵּל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בֵּית חַתְנוּת לִבְנוֹ אוֹ בֵּית אַלְמָנוּת לְבִתּוֹ עוֹשֶׂה לוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַל שֵׁשׁ. מָכַר לוֹ מְקוֹם בַּיִת גָּדוֹל עוֹשֶׂה שְׁמוֹנֶה עַל עֶשֶׂר. מָכַר לוֹ מְקוֹם טְרַקְלִין עוֹשֶׂה עֶשֶׂר עַל עֶשֶׂר. תַּרְבָּץ שֶׁל חָצֵר שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה עַל שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה. וְרוּם כָּל בַּיִת וּבַיִת כַּחֲצִי אָרְכּוֹ וַחֲצִי רָחְבּוֹ:

6

Similarly, when a person sells a property to a colleague for a family burial plot or if a person agrees to prepare a burial plot for a person, he should build a crypt beneath the earth and prepare for eight graves, three on one side, three on the other side and two opposite the entrance to the crypt.

The measure of the crypt should be four cubits by six cubits, and each grave should be four cubits long, six handbreadths wide and seven handbreadths deep. Thus, there should be a cubit and a half between each of the graves on the sides and two cubits between the graves opposite the entrance.

ו

הַמּוֹכֵר מָקוֹם לַחֲבֵרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ קְבוּרָה. אוֹ הַמְקַבֵּל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ קְבוּרָה. עוֹשֶׂה מְעָרָה וּפוֹתֵחַ לְתוֹכָהּ שְׁמוֹנָה קְבָרִים שְׁלֹשָׁה מִכָּאן וּשְׁלֹשָׁה מִכָּאן וּשְׁנַיִם מִכְּנֶגֶד הַנִּכְנָס לַמְּעָרָה. מִדַּת הַמְּעָרָה אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַל שֵׁשׁ. וְכָל קֶבֶר וְקֶבֶר אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אֹרֶךְ וְרֹחַב שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים וְרוּם שִׁבְעָה. נִמְצָא בֵּין כָּל קֶבֶר וְקֶבֶר שֶׁמִּן הַצְּדָדִין אַמָּה וּמֶחֱצָה. וּבֵין הַשְּׁנַיִם הָאֶמְצָעִיִּים שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת:

7

When a person sells a colleague a place in his own field to make an irrigation ditch to water a parched field, he must give him a ditch two cubits wide, with a cubit on each side for its banks.

If he sells him a place for an irrigation ditch that uses a pipe, he must give him a ditch that is a cubit wide, with half a cubit on each side for its banks.

ז

הַמּוֹכֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ מְקוֹם אַמַּת מַיִם לְהַשְׁקוֹת בָּהּ בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין. נוֹתֵן לוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ אַמָּה שֶׁרָחְבָּהּ שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת וְאַמָּה מִכָּאן וְאַמָּה מִכָּאן לַאֲגַפֶּיהָ. וְאִם מָכַר לוֹ אַמַּת הַמַּיִם לְהַשְׁקוֹת בָּהּ בְּסִילוֹן. נוֹתֵן לוֹ אַמָּה שֶׁרָחְבָּהּ אַמָּה וַחֲצִי אַמָּה מִכָּאן וַחֲצִי אַמָּה מִכָּאן לַאֲגַפֶּיהָ:

8

The seller may plant trees on this land at the banks of the ditch, but he may not sow grain there, for grain weakens the land and damages the irrigation ditch. Should this land at the banks of the ditch become washed away, the purchaser may replace it by taking from the earth in that field. For the seller's acceptance of the fact that an irrigation ditch will pass through his field is conditional to this stipulation.

ח

אֵלּוּ הָאֲגַפִּין בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה נוֹטְעָן אֲבָל אֵינוֹ זוֹרְעָן. שֶׁהַזְּרָעִים מְחַלְחְלִין אֶת הַקַּרְקַע וּמְקַלְקְלִין אֶת אַמַּת הַמַּיִם. וְאַמַּת הַמַּיִם זֹאת שֶׁכָּלוּ אֲגַפֶּיהָ בַּעַל הָאַמָּה מְתַקְּנָן בַּעֲפַר אוֹתָהּ שָׂדֶה. שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן קִבֵּל עָלָיו הַמּוֹכֵר לִהְיוֹת אַמַּת הַמַּיִם בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ:

9

The following rules apply when a person sells a colleague a path in his field. If he sells him a path for one person, is he must give him a path two and a half cubits wide, so that a donkey and its burden can pass on the path.'

If he sells him a path that leads from one city to another, he must give him a path that is eight cubits wide. If he sells him a path for use as a public thoroughfare, he should give him a path that is sixteen cubits wide.

ט

הַמּוֹכֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ דֶּרֶךְ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ. אִם דֶּרֶךְ יָחִיד מָכַר לוֹ נוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה רֹחַב כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד חֲמוֹר בְּמַשָּׂאוֹ עַל אֹרֶךְ הַדֶּרֶךְ. מָכַר לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ בֵּין עִיר לָעִיר נוֹתֵן לוֹ רֹחַב שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת בְּאֹרֶךְ הַדֶּרֶךְ. מָכַר לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הָרַבִּים נוֹתֵן לוֹ רֹחַב שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה:

10

A path for a king and a path to a grave have no limits. It appears to me that this is considered as if one sells an object whose species is not identified, in which instance the transaction is not binding.

י

דֶּרֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדֶרֶךְ הַקֶּבֶר אֵין לָהּ שִׁעוּר. וְנִרְאָה לִי שֶׁזֶּה כְּמוֹכֵר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין מִינוֹ יָדוּעַ:

11

If a person sells a colleague a place for relatives to stand and eulogize a person who has passed away,he must give him a place large enough to sow four kabbim of grain.

יא

מָכַר לוֹ מָקוֹם לְמַעֲמָד נוֹתֵן לוֹ בֵּית אַרְבָּעָה קַבִּים:

12

When a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you a cistern and its walls," he must give him a wall three handbreadths wide.

יב

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בּוֹר וּכְתָלֶיהָ אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ נוֹתֵן לוֹ רֹחַב הַכֹּתֶל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים:

13

The following rules apply when a person sells a field to a colleague and while defining the boundaries of the field draws one boundary line long and another short. If the field on the boundary line that he drew longer belongs to only one person, the purchaser does not acquire any more land on that side of the field than on the side that he drew short. If the fields on that side belong to two individuals, the purchaser acquires the land as separated by a diagonal.

יג

הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ וּמֵצֵר לוֹ מֵצַר אֶחָד אָרוֹךְ וּמֵצַר אֶחָד קָצָר. אִם הָיָה הָאָרֹךְ שֶׁל אִישׁ אֶחָד לֹא קָנָה מִן הָאָרֹךְ אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד קָצָר. וְאִם הָיָה שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם יִקְנֶה כְּנֶגֶד רֹאשׁ תּוֹר:

14

If the fields on the east and the west belong to Reuven, and those on the north and the south belong to Shimon, when drawing the map, the seller must write "the boundary of Reuven" on two sides and "the boundary of Shimon" on two sides.

יד

הָיָה מֵצַר רְאוּבֵן מִזְרָח וּמַעֲרָב וּמֵצַר שִׁמְעוֹן צָפוֹן וְדָרוֹם צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לוֹ מֵצַר רְאוּבֵן מִשְּׁתֵי רוּחוֹת וּמֵצַר שִׁמְעוֹן מִשְּׁתֵי רוּחוֹת:

15

If the seller drew three boundary lines, but did not draw the fourth, the purchaser acquires the entire field. With regard to the fourth boundary, however, he does not acquire it.

If the fourth boundary is included within the other boundaries, and it is not designated by a row of palm trees, and it is not large enough for nine kabbim of grain to be sown within, the purchaser also acquires the fourth boundary.

If it is not included within the other boundaries, and it is designated by a row of palm trees, or it is large enough for nine kabbim of grain to be sown within, the purchaser does not acquire the fourth boundary.If it is included within the other boundaries, but it is designated by a row of palm trees, or it is large enough for nine kabbim of grain to be sown within, or it is not included within the other boundaries, but it is not designated by a row of palm trees, nor is it large enough for nine kabbim of grain to be sown within, the matter is entrusted to the court, and they divide it in the manner in which they see fit.

טו

מֵצֵר לוֹ מֵצַר רִאשׁוֹן וּמֵצַר שֵׁנִי וּמֵצַר שְׁלִישִׁי וְלֹא מֵצֵר מֵצַר רְבִיעִי קָנָה הַשָּׂדֶה כֻּלָּהּ אֲבָל מֵצַר הָרְבִיעִי לֹא קָנָה. וְאִם הָיָה מֻבְלָע בֵּין הַמְּצָרִים וְאֵין עָלָיו רֶכֶב שֶׁל דְּקָלִים וְאֵין בּוֹ תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין קָנָה אַף הַמֵּצַר הָרְבִיעִי. וְאִם לֹא הָיָה מֻבְלָע וְיֵשׁ עָלָיו רֶכֶב שֶׁל דְּקָלִים אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין לֹא קָנָהוּ. הָיָה מֻבְלָע וְיֵשׁ עָלָיו רֶכֶב דְּקָלִים אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה מֻבְלָע וְאֵין עָלָיו רֶכֶב דְּקָלִים וְאֵין בּוֹ תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין. הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר מָסוּר לְבֵית דִּין כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁיִּרְאוּ לְאֵיזוֹ דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁדַּעְתָּן נוֹטָה יַעֲשׂוּ:

16

If the seller designates only the corners of the property, without designating the entire boundary line in each direction, or he designates two corners in an L-shape, or he designates certain portions in each direction,the purchaser does not acquire the entire property. Instead, he acquires only the portion the seller transfers to him and the portion granted to him by the judges.

טז

סִיֵּם לוֹ אֶת הַזָּוִיּוֹת בִּלְבַד וְלֹא סִיֵּם לוֹ אֶת הַמֵּצַר שֶׁלְּכָל רוּחַ. אוֹ שֶׁסִּיֵּם לוֹ שְׁנֵי מְצָרִים כְּמִין גַּא''ם. אוֹ שֶׁסִּיֵּם לוֹ חֵלֶק מִכָּל רוּחַ וְרוּחַ. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא קָנָה אֶת כֻּלָּם אֶלָּא יִקְנֶה מִמֶּנָּה כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁמָּסַר לוֹ וְכַמָּה שֶׁיִּרְאוּ הַדַּיָּנִין:

17

If a person sells a colleague a bayit in a larger building, although he drew for the purchaser the external boundaries of the entire building, and there are some who would call the entire building a bayit, the purchaser acquires only the apartment; he merely made the boundaries appear larger.

Had he sold him the entire building, he would have written in the deed of sale: "I did not retain ownership of anything in this sale."

Similarly, when a person sells a field in a large valley, although he drew him the boundaries of the entire valley, he merely made the boundaries appear larger.

יז

הַמּוֹכֵר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּבִירָה גְּדוֹלָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּצֵר לוֹ מְצָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם מְעַט שֶׁקּוֹרְאִין לְבִירָה בַּיִת. לֹא קָנָה אֶלָּא הַבַּיִת בִּלְבַד. שֶׁהַמְּצָרִים הוּא שֶׁהִרְחִיב לוֹ. וְאִלּוּ מָכַר לוֹ כָּל הַבִּירָה הָיָה כּוֹתֵב לוֹ וְלֹא הִנַּחְתִּי לְפָנַי בְּמֶכֶר זֶה כְּלוּם. וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה בְּבִקְעָה גְּדוֹלָה וּמֵצֵר לוֹ מְצַרֵי הַבִּקְעָה. מְצָרִים הֵם שֶׁהִרְחִיב לוֹ:

18

When a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you fields," we interpret his intent to be the very minimum that would justify the use of the plural term: two.

If he tells him: "...all my fields...," then all his fields, even three or four are acquired by the purchaser, with the exception of gardens and orchards. If he tells him: "...my property...," even his gardens and orchards are sold. If he tells him: "...all my property...," everything he owns, even his servants, his buildings, all the movable property that he is known to own, including even the tefillin he wears on his head, are encompassed in the sale.

יח

האוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שָׂדוֹת אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. מִעוּט שָׂדוֹת שְׁתַּיִם. אָמַר לוֹ כָּל שָׂדוֹת אֲפִלּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ וְאַרְבַּע חוּץ מִגַּנּוֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִים. אָמַר לוֹ נְכָסִים אֲפִלּוּ גַנּוֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִים חוּץ מִבָּתִּים וַעֲבָדִים. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ כָּל נְכָסַי אֲפִלּוּ עֲבָדִים וּבָתִּים וְכָל הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין הַיְּדוּעִים לוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ תְּפִלִּין שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁוֹ בִּכְלַל הַמֶּכֶר:

19

When a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you one of my homes," or "...one of my oxen," he is required only to give him the smallest one. If one of the oxen dies or one of the homes collapses, the seller may show the purchaser the one that died or collapsed and tell him that it is his, for the claim of the person possessing the deed of sale is considered at a disadvantage.

יט

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בַּיִת מִבָּתַּי וְשׁוֹר מִשְּׁוָרַי אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. נוֹתֵן לוֹ הַקָּטָן שֶׁבָּהֶן. מֵת אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁוָרִים אוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל אֶחָד מִן הַבָּתִּים. מַרְאֶה לוֹ זֶה שֶׁמֵּת אוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל. שֶׁיַּד בַּעַל הַשְּׁטָר עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה:

20

When a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you a field from the house of Chiyya," and he possesses two fields that are described in this manner, the purchaser acquires only the lesser one. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

כ

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שָׂדֶה דְּבֵי חִיָּא אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. וְהָיוּ שְׁתֵּי שָׂדוֹת הַנִּקְרָאִים בְּשֵׁם זֶה. אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה אֶלָּא הַפָּחוּת שֶׁבָּהֶן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

21

The purchaser's claim is favored in the following situation: A person tells a colleague: "I am selling you Reuven's field." When the purchaser comes to make use of the field that is popularly known by that name, the seller tells him: "This is not the field that was owned by Reuven. It is only called that by people, but it never belonged to him. This is the field that belonged to Reuven" he says, pointing to another field. "I purchased it from him, and this is the field that I sold to you."

The seller must prove his claim. If he does not prove it, the purchaser acquires the field that is popularly known as belonging to Reuven. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations. We follow the name that is accepted universally.

כא

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׂדֵה רְאוּבֵן אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבָּא הַלּוֹקֵחַ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ אָמַר לוֹ הַמּוֹכֵר אֵינָהּ זוֹ הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן אֶלָּא כָּךְ הִיא קְרוּיָה וּלְעוֹלָם לֹא הָיְתָה לוֹ אֶלָּא זוֹ הִיא שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן וּלְקַחְתִּיהָ מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִיא שֶׁמְּכַרְתִּיהָ לְךָ. עַל הַמּוֹכֵר לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה. וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיא זוֹכֶה הַלּוֹקֵחַ בָּזוֹ שֶׁכָּל הָעָם קוֹרְאִים שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַשֵּׁם שֶׁהוּא פָּשׁוּט בְּפִי הַכּל:

22

When a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you half a field," we should evaluate the worth of the entire field, and the seller should give the purchaser a portion worth half the value of the entire field, from its lesser portion.

Similarly, when a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you the southern half of a field," we should evaluate the worth of the entire field, and the seller should give the purchaser a portion worth half the value of the entire field from its southern half.

Implicit in such an agreement is a commitment by the purchaser to make a place for a fence in his portion, including a small trench three handbreadths wide behind the fence, but close to it - and a larger trench, six handbreadths wide, outside the fence - and to leave the width of a handbreadth between the two trenches. All this is necessary to prevent a marten or the like from jumping from one field to the other.

כב

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ חֲצִי שָׂדֶה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ שָׁמִין כַּמָּה שָׁוֶה כָּל הַשָּׂדֶה וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ מִן הַכָּחוּשׁ שֶׁבָּהּ מַה שֶּׁשָּׁוֶה חֲצִי הַדָּמִים שֶׁל כָּל הַשָּׂדֶה. וְכֵן אִם אָמַר לוֹ חֶצְיָהּ בַּדָּרוֹם אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ שָׁמִין דְּמֵי כֻּלָּהּ וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ בִּדְרוֹמָהּ כַּחֲצִי כָּל הַדָּמִים וּמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו הַלּוֹקֵחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּחֶלְקוֹ מְקוֹם הַגָּדֵר. וּמֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַגָּדֵר סָמוּךְ לַגָּדֵר חָרִיץ קָטָן רָחָב שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. וְחוּצָה לוֹ חָרִיץ אֶחָד גָּדוֹל רָחָב שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים. וּבֵין שְׁנֵי הַחֲרִיצִין רָחָב טֶפַח. כָּל זֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְפֹּץ הַנְּמִיָּה בָּהּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ:

23

The following rules apply when a person owns half of a field: If he tells a colleague: "I am selling you the half of the field that I own," the purchaser acquires the entire half. If he tells him: "I am selling you half the field that I own," the purchaser acquires only one fourth.

The following rules apply when a seller tells a purchaser: "These are the boundaries of the field from which a portion is divided...," "...is separated...," or"...is apportioned for you."If he tells him: "And these are its boundaries,"the purchaser acquires half. If he does not specify its boundaries, the purchaser acquires merely a portion on which he could sow nine kabbim.

כג

הָיְתָה לוֹ חֲצִי שָׂדֶה וְאָמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ חֲצִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בַּשָּׂדֶה מָכַרְתִּי לְךָ. קָנָה הַחֵצִי כֻּלּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ חֲצִי הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי לֹא קָנָה אֶלָּא רְבִיעַ. אָמַר לוֹ מֵצַר שָׂדֶה שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה [נֶחְלֶקֶת אוֹ שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה נִפְסֶקֶת אוֹ שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה] נֶחֱצֵת. אִם אָמַר לוֹ וְאֵלּוּ מְצָרֶיהָ קָנָה חֶצְיָהּ. וְאִם לֹא מֵצֵר לוֹ מְצָרֶיהָ לֹא קָנָה אֶלָּא בֵּית תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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