1

According to Scriptural Law,1 a woman does not become impure as a niddah or a zavah until she experiences a physical sensation,2 menstruates, and discovers blood which emerges within her flesh as we explained.3 She becomes impure from the time she menstruates and onward only.4

If she does not experience a physical sensation, but conducts an internal examination, and discovers bleeding within the vaginal channel, we operate under the presumption that it was accompanied by a physical sensation,5 as explained previously.6

א

אֵין הָאִשָּׁה מִתְטַמְּאָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּנִדָּה אוֹ בְּזִיבָה עַד שֶׁתַּרְגִּישׁ וְתִרְאֶה דָּם וְיֵצֵא בִּבְשָׂרָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְתִהְיֶה טְמֵאָה מֵעֵת שֶׁתִּרְאֶה וּלְהַבָּא בִּלְבַד. וְאִם לֹא הִרְגִּישָׁה וּבָדְקָה וּמָצְאָה הַדָּם לְפָנִים בַּפְּרוֹזְדוֹר הֲרֵי זֶה בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁבָּא בְּהַרְגָּשָׁה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

2

According to Rabbinic Law, whenever a woman discovers a bloodstain on her flesh7 or on her clothes,8 she is impure, as if she discovered bleeding within [the vaginal channel] on her flesh. [This applies] even if she did not experience a physical sensation [and] even if she conducted an internal examination and did not discover bleeding.9 This impurity is [because of our] doubt;10 perhaps the stain came from uterine bleeding.

ב

וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁכָּל הָרוֹאָה כֶּתֶם דָּם עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ אוֹ עַל בְּגָדֶיהָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִרְגִּישָׁה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ וְלֹא מָצְאָה דָּם הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה וּכְאִלּוּ מָצְאָה דָּם לְפָנִים בִּבְשָׂרָהּ. וְטֻמְאָה זוֹ בְּסָפֵק שֶׁמָּא כֶּתֶם זֶה מִדַּם הַחֶדֶר בָּא:

3

Similarly, according to Rabbinic Law: Whenever a woman discovers bleeding at a time other than her veset11 and whenever she discovers a bloodstain, she is impure retroactively for 24 hours.12 If she conducted an internal examination within this time and discovered that she was pure, she is impure retroactively until the time of the inspection.13

Although she is impure retroactively, she does not cause a man who engages in relations with her to become impure, as we explained.14 Nor may she begin counting her "days of niddah" or counting because of the stain except from the time she discovered the bleeding or the stain.

Whenever a woman discovers a stain, her reckoning [of her veset] is confused. For it is possible that the bleeding came from the uterus and her veset must be recalculated.15

ג

וְכֵן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁכָּל הָרוֹאָה דָּם בְּלֹא עֵת וֶסְתָּהּ וְכָל הָרוֹאָה כֶּתֶם טְמֵאָה לְמַפְרֵעַ עַד כ''ד שָׁעוֹת. וְאִם בָּדְקָה בְּתוֹךְ זְמַן זֶה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר טְמֵאָה לְמַפְרֵעַ עַד זְמַן בְּדִיקָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה לְמַפְרֵעַ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה אֶת בּוֹעֲלָהּ לְמַפְרֵעַ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאֵינָהּ מוֹנָה לְנִדָּתָהּ אוֹ לְכִתְמָהּ אֶלָּא מֵעֵת שֶׁתִּרְאֶה הַדָּם אוֹ שֶׁמָּצְאָה הַכֶּתֶם. וְכָל הָרוֹאָה כֶּתֶם הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקֻלְקֶלֶת (לְמִנְיָנָהּ) שֶׁמָּא מִן הַחֶדֶר בָּא וְנִתְקַלְקְלָה וֶסְתָּהּ:

4

When a woman discovers bleeding at the time of her veset, she does not become impure retroactively. Instead, [the impurity begins] at the time [of discovery]. Similarly, a woman who is pregnant, nursing, a virgin,16 or elderly do not become impure retroactively.

What is meant by a pregnant woman? A woman whose pregnancy has become obvious, i.e., she is three months pregnant.17 What is meant by a woman who is nursing? A woman within 24 months of childbirth, even if her child died, she weaned him, or gave him to a nursemaid.18

ד

הָרוֹאָה דָּם בִּשְׁעַת וֶסְתָּהּ אֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה לְמַפְרֵעַ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעָתָהּ בִּלְבַד. וְכֵן מְעֻבֶּרֶת וּמֵינִיקָה בְּתוּלָה וּזְקֵנָה דַּיָּן שְׁעָתָן וְאֵינָן מְטַמְּאוֹת לְמַפְרֵעַ. אֵיזוֹ הִיא מְעֻבֶּרֶת. מִשֶּׁיֻּכַּר עֻבָּרָהּ. וְהוּא שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים. מֵינִיקָה כָּל כ''ד חֹדֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ מֵת בְּנָהּ אוֹ גְּמָלַתּוּ אוֹ נְתָנַתּוּ לְמֵינִיקָה:

5

[The term] "virgin" refers to a girl who has never menstruated even through she experienced uterine bleeding because of marriage19 or because of birth.20

The term "elderly woman" refers to a woman who did not menstruate for 90 days near her old age.21 When is she considered elderly? When she is called an old woman [by others] and she does not protest.

[The laws that apply when] a pregnant, nursing, or elderly woman [discovers] a stain are the same as when she discovers bleeding. She does not become impure retroactively. With regard to a virgin who has never menstruated and who is still a minor, a stain that is discovered is pure until she menstruates on three successive months.

ה

בְּתוּלָה כָּל שֶׁלֹּא רָאֲתָה דָּם מִיָּמֶיהָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָאֲתָה מֵחֲמַת נִשּׂוּאִין אוֹ מֵחֲמַת לֵדָה. זְקֵנָה כָּל שֶׁעָבְרוּ עָלֶיהָ תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם סָמוּךְ לְזִקְנָתָהּ. וְאֵי זוֹ הִיא זְקֵנָה כָּל שֶׁקּוֹרְאִין לָהּ זְקֵנָה וְאֵינָהּ מַקְפֶּדֶת. מְעֻבֶּרֶת וּמֵינִיקָה וּזְקֵנָה כִּתְמָן כִּרְאִיָּתָן וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא לְמַפְרֵעַ. בְּתוּלָה שֶׁלֹּא רָאֲתָה דָּם מִיָּמֶיהָ וַעֲדַיִן הִיא קְטַנָּה כִּתְמָהּ טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁתִּרְאֶה דָּם שָׁלֹשׁ וְסָתוֹת:

6

What is the difference between a stain which is found on a woman's flesh and one found on her clothing? There is no minimum measure for a stain found on a woman's flesh.22 A stain on a garment, by contrast, does not render a woman impure unless it is the size of half a Cilikean bean (a gris)23 which is equivalent to a square large enough to contain nine lentils, i.e., three rows of three. If it is smaller than this, she is pure.24

If [a stain] is composed of small spots, they are not considered as a single entity.25 If it is extended, it is considered as a single entity.26

ו

מַה בֵּין כֶּתֶם הַנִּמְצָא עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ לְכֶתֶם הַנִּמְצָא עַל בִּגְדָהּ. שֶׁהַכֶּתֶם הַנִּמְצָא עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ אֵין לוֹ שִׁעוּר. וְהַנִּמְצָא עַל הַבֶּגֶד אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כִּגְרִיס הַקִּלְקִי שֶׁהוּא מְרֻבָּע שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כְּדֵי תֵּשַׁע עֲדָשׁוֹת שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ. הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר זֶה טָהוֹר. נִמְצָא טִפִּין טִפִּין אֵין מִצְטָרְפוֹת. הָיָה אָרֹךְ הֲרֵי זֶה מִצְטָרֵף:

7

[When] a stain is discovered on an article that is not susceptible to ritual impurity, the woman is pure and she need not be concerned about it.

What is implied? If a woman sat on a utensil made of stone,27 earth, animal dung, on fish skin, on the outside of an earthenware utensil,28 or on a cloth that is smaller than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths29 and blood was discovered on the above, she is pure. Even if she inspected earth,30 then sat on it, and when she arose, a stain was discovered, she is pure. For our Sages did not decree that a woman would be impure when a stain was discovered on an article that is not susceptible to ritual impurity.31 Nor did they decree [that a stain discovered on an article susceptible to ritual impurity renders a woman] impure unless that article is white.32 If, however an article is colored, we are not concerned with a stain. For this reason, our Sages ordained that a woman should wear colored garments33 so that she be protected from problems arising due to stains.

ז

כֶּתֶם שֶׁנִּמְצָא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה טָהוֹר וְאֵינָהּ חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לוֹ. כֵּיצַד. יָשְׁבָה עַל כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה וּכְלֵי גְּלָלִים אוֹ עַל עוֹר הַדָּג אוֹ עַל כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ מִגַּבּוֹ אוֹ עַל בֶּגֶד שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת וְנִמְצָא עֲלֵיהֶן דָּם טְהוֹרָה. אֲפִלּוּ בָּדְקָה הַקַּרְקַע וְיָשְׁבָה עָלֶיהָ וְנִמְצָא כֶּתֶם עַל הַקַּרְקַע כְּשֶׁעָמְדָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה. שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה לֹא גָּזְרוּ עַל כֶּתֶם שֶׁיִּמָּצֵא בּוֹ. וְלֹא בִּמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה לָבָן. אֲבָל כְּלֵי צִבְעוֹנִין אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְכֶתֶם הַנִּמְצָא בָּהֶן. לְפִיכָךְ תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁתִּלְבַּשׁ הָאִשָּׁה בִּגְדֵי צִבְעוֹנִין כְּדֵי לְהַצִּילָהּ מִדִּין הַכְּתָמִים:

8

[A woman] does not become impure because of a bloodstain found on every place on her body, only due to those found opposite her genital area.

What is implied? If a stain is found on her heel, she is impure. For perhaps she touched her genital area when she sat.34 Similarly, she is impure if a stain was found on her calves or on the inner side of her ankles, [the portions of her legs] that will touch each other when she stands with her feet and calves together. If it is found on the tip of her toe, she is impure. Perhaps [blood] dripped from the uterus to her foot when she walked.

Similarly, if blood is found in any place where her menstrual blood could have spattered when she walked, she is impure. Similarly, if blood is found on her hands, even on the backs of her fingers, she is impure. For the hands are active.35 If, however, blood is found on the outer or side portions of her calves and, needless to say, if it is found from her thighs upward,36 she is pure. For this is certainly blood that was spattered on her from another place.37

ח

לֹא בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּמְצָא הַדָּם עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ תִּטְמָא מִשּׁוּם כֶּתֶם עַד שֶׁיִּמָּצֵא כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית הַתֻּרְפָּה. כֵּיצַד. נִמְצָא עַל עֲקֵבָהּ טְמֵאָה שֶׁמָּא נָגַע בְּבֵית תֻּרְפָּה בְּעֵת יְשִׁיבָתָהּ. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצָא עַל שׁוֹקָהּ אוֹ עַל פַּרְסוֹתֶיהָ מִבִּפְנִים וְהֵם הַמְּקוֹמוֹת הַנִּדְבָּקוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד וְתִדְבֹּק רֶגֶל לְרֶגֶל וְשׁוֹק לְשׁוֹק הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה. נִמְצָא עַל רֹאשׁ גּוּדַל רַגְלָהּ טְמֵאָה שֶׁמָּא נָטַף מִן הַחֶדֶר עַל רַגְלָהּ בְּעֵת שֶׁהָלְכָה. וְכֵן כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּנָּתֵז עָלָיו דַּם נִדָּתָהּ כְּשֶׁתְּהַלֵּךְ וְנִמְצָא שָׁם דָּם טְמֵאָה. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצָא הַדָּם עַל יָדֶיהָ אֲפִלּוּ עַל קִשְׁרֵי אֶצְבְּעוֹת יָדֶיהָ טְמֵאָה שֶׁהַיָּדַיִם עַסְקָנִיּוֹת הֵן. אֲבָל אִם נִמְצָא הַדָּם עַל שׁוֹקָהּ וְעַל פַּרְסוֹתֶיהָ מִבַּחוּץ אוֹ מִן הַצְּדָדִין וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם נִמְצָא מִן הַיְרֵכַיִם וּלְמַעְלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין זֶה אֶלָּא דָּם שֶׁנִּתַּז עָלֶיהָ מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר:

9

When a bloodstain that is found on a woman's body is long like a strand or round, or made up of small drops, the length of the stain was across the width of her thigh, it looks like it came from below upward,38 since it is opposite her genital area, she is impure. We do not say: Had it dripped from her body, it would not be found in such a form.39 Instead, we are stringent with regard to all blood that is found in these places, even though there is a doubt concerning it.

ט

הַכֶּתֶם הַנִּמְצָא עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ שֶׁהוּא אָרֹךְ כִּרְצוּעָה אוֹ עָגל. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ טִפִּין טִפִּין. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אֹרֶךְ הַכֶּתֶם עַל רֹחַב יְרֵכָהּ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ הוּא מִמַּטָּה לְמַעְלָה. הוֹאִיל וְהוּא כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית תֻּרְפָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים אִלּוּ נָטַף מִן הַגּוּף לֹא הָיָה כָּזֶה. שֶׁכָּל דָּם הַנִּמְצָא בִּמְקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ מַחֲמִירִין בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק:

10

A stain that is found below the belt on a woman's garment40 renders her impure.41 If it is above the belt, she is pure. If it is found on her sleeve, if it could reach her genital area,42 she is impure. If not, she is pure.

י

הַכֶּתֶם הַנִּמְצָא עַל הֶחָלוּק שֶׁלָּהּ מֵחֲגוֹרָהּ וּלְמַטָּה טְמֵאָה מֵחֲגוֹרָהּ וּלְמַעְלָה טְהוֹרָה. נִמְצָא עַל בֵּית יָד שֶׁלָּהּ אִם מַגִּיעַ כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית תֻּרְפָּה טְמֵאָה וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרָה:

11

If she would remove her garment and cover herself with it at night, she is impure wherever blood is found.43 Similarly, if blood is found anywhere on her girdle, she is impure.

יא

הָיְתָה פּוֹשַׁטְתוֹ וּמִתְכַּסָּה בּוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּמָּצֵא בּוֹ דָּם טְמֵאָה. וְכֵן הָאֵזוֹר שֶׁלָּהּ כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּמָּצֵא בּוֹ הַדָּם טְמֵאָה:

12

If a woman wears one tunic for three days or more during a time that is not part of her "days of niddah" and inspected it and discovered three stains or one stain that contains the measure of three stains,44 there is a doubt whether she is a [major] zavah.45 For it is possible that each day, she stained the garment.46

Similarly, if she wore three garments that had been inspected47 for three days in her "days of zivah" and discovered a stain in each of them, there is a doubt whether she is a [major] zavah.48 [This applies] even if the stains are one opposite the other.49

יב

הָיְתָה לוֹבֶשֶׁת חָלוּק אֶחָד וְשָׁהָה עָלֶיהָ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים אוֹ יֶתֶר בְּלֹא עֵת נִדָּתָהּ וּבָדְקָה וּמָצְאָה עָלָיו שְׁלֹשָׁה כְּתָמִים אוֹ כֶּתֶם אֶחָד גָּדוֹל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁעוּר שְׁלֹשָׁה כְּתָמִים הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה שֶׁמָּא כֶּתֶם נָטַף מִמֶּנָּה בְּכָל יוֹם. וְכֵן אִם לָבְשָׁה שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּגָדִים בְּדוּקִים וְשָׁהוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ וּמָצְאָה כֶּתֶם בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה כְּנֶגֶד זֶה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה:

13

[The following rules apply if] she found one stain that did not contain the measure of three stains.50 If she inspected herself throughout bein hashamashot51 of the first day and found that she was pure, but did not inspect her clothes and on the third day, discovered this stain which is not the measure of three stains, she need not worry about being a zavah.52

If she did not inspect herself throughout bein hashamashot, she must suspect that she is a zavah. [The rationale is that] she did not inspect her garment and continued wearing it for three days during her "days of zivah."53

יג

מָצְאָה כֶּתֶם אֶחָד שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּדֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה כְּתָמִים אִם בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר וְלֹא בָּדְקָה חֲלוּקָהּ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי מָצְאָה זֶה הַכֶּתֶם שֶׁאֵינוֹ כִּשְׁלֹשָׁה כְּתָמִים אֵינָהּ חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְזִיבוּת. וְאִם לֹא בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הוֹאִיל וְלֹא בָּדְקָה חֲלוּקָהּ וְשָׁהָה עָלֶיהָ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְזִיבוּת וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַכֶּתֶם כְּדֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה כְּתָמִים:

14

If she discovered a stain on her garment on one day and then experienced bleeding for two successive days or experienced bleeding for two [successive] days and discovered a stain on the third day, there is a doubt whether she is a [major] zavah.54

יד

מָצְאָה כֶּתֶם עַל חֲלוּקָהּ הַיּוֹם וְרָאֲתָה דָּם אַחַר כָּךְ שְׁנֵי יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה. אוֹ שֶׁרָאֲתָה שְׁנֵי יָמִים וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי רָאֲתָה כֶּתֶם. הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה:

15

When a woman discovers a stain and then discovers bleeding, she associates the stain with the bleeding for a 24-hour period.55 [This applies] whether she inspected herself at the time she discovered the stain and found herself to be pure or whether she did not inspect herself. If, however, she discovers one stain after another stain within 24 hours, she does not associate one stain with the other unless she carried out an inspection in the interim. If, however, she carried out an inspection and found herself to be pure between [the discovery of the first] stain and the second, they should not be associated with regard to the counting of zivut.56

טו

הָרוֹאָה כֶּתֶם וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָאֲתָה דָּם תּוֹלָה כִּתְמָהּ בִּרְאִיָּתָהּ כָּל מֵעֵת לְעֵת. בֵּין שֶׁבָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ בְּעֵת שֶׁמָּצְאָה הַכֶּתֶם וּמְצָאתָהּ טָהוֹר. בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקָה. אֲבָל הָרוֹאָה כֶּתֶם אַחַר כֶּתֶם בְּתוֹךְ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת אֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה כֶּתֶם בַּכֶּתֶם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּדְקָה בֵּינֵיהֶם. שֶׁאִם הִפְסִיקָה טָהֳרָה בֵּין הַכְּתָמִים אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין לְמִנְיַן זִיבוּת:

16

What is implied? She discovered a stain on Friday during the first hour of the day and then she discovered menstrual bleeding at any time until the first hour of the day on the Sabbath, she does not count [her impurity] from [the time she discovered] the stain. Instead, she associates the stain with the bleeding. [This applies] even if she did not inspect herself [after discovering the stain] and did not know whether she was impure or not. Thus if she discovers bleeding on Sunday and on Monday, she is a [major] zavah.57

If, however, she discovered bleeding during the second hour on the Sabbath, she is considered as if she was impure for two days: Friday because of the stain she discovered and the Sabbath because of the bleeding, because there are more than 24 hours between them. Hence, if she discovers bleeding on Sunday, she must suspect that she is a zavah.58

טז

כֵּיצַד. רָאֲתָה כֶּתֶם עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בְּשָׁעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה מִן הַיּוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ וְלֹא יָדְעָה אִם טְהוֹרָה הִיא אִם טְמֵאָה וְרָאֲתָה דָּם אַחַר כָּךְ עַד שָׁעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה מִיּוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת אֵינָהּ מוֹנָה לַכֶּתֶם. אֶלָּא תּוֹלָה הַכֶּתֶם בִּרְאִיָּה. וְאִם רָאֲתָה בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְשֵׁנִי בְּשַׁבָּת תִּהְיֶה זָבָה. רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּיוֹם שַׁבָּת בְּשָׁעָה שְׁנִיָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה שְׁנֵי יָמִים עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁמָּצְאָה בּוֹ הַכֶּתֶם וּבְשַׁבָּת שֶׁרָאֲתָה הַדָּם שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת. וְאִם רָאֲתָה הַדָּם בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְזִיבוּת:

17

[The following rules apply if] she did not experience bleeding on the Sabbath, but instead discovered a stain during the first hour on the Sabbath. If she inspected herself on Friday and discovered that she was pure, she only counts from [the time of] the later stain [that was discovered] on the Sabbath, because they both were discovered within the same 24 hour period. If she did not inspect herself and did not know whether or not she was in fact pure between the two, she begins counting from Friday. Thus if she discovers bleeding on Sunday, she must suspect that she is a zavah.59

יז

לֹא רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּשַׁבָּת אֲבָל רָאֲתָה כֶּתֶם אַחֵר בְּשָׁעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה מִיּוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת. אִם בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר אֵינָהּ מוֹנָה אֶלָּא לְכֶתֶם אֶחָד שֶׁהוּא בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת הוֹאִיל וּשְׁנֵיהֶם בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת. וְאִם לֹא בָּדְקָה וְלֹא יָדְעָה אִם הִפְסִיקָה טָהֳרָה בֵּינֵיהֶן אִם לֹא הִפְסִיקָה הֲרֵי זוֹ מוֹנָה לְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְאִם רָאֲתָה בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְזִיבוּת:

18

If she discovered the second stain during the second hour of the Sabbath day, she is considered as impure for two days, for the two are not within the same 24 hour period. [This applies] whether she inspected herself or did not inspect herself. [In such a situation,] if she discovers bleeding on Sunday after 24 hours have passed, she must suspect that she is a zavah.60

[The following laws apply if] she discovered a third stain during the first hour on Sunday. If she inspected herself and discovered that she was pure, they are not considered as coming in succession61 and she need not suspect that she is a zavah. If she does not carry out such an inspection, she must suspect that she is a zavah.62

יח

רָאֲתָה הַכֶּתֶם הַשֵּׁנִי בְּשָׁעָה שְׁנִיָּה מִיּוֹם שַׁבָּת בֵּין בָּדְקָה בֵּין לֹא בָּדְקָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה שְׁנֵי יָמִים שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת. וְאִם רָאֲתָה בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת אַחַר מֵעֵת לְעֵת חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְזִיבוּת. רָאֲתָה בְּשָׁעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה מִיּוֹם אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת כֶּתֶם שְׁלִישִׁי אִם הִפְסִיקָה טָהֳרָה בֵּינֵיהֶן אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין וְאֵינָהּ חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְזִיבוּת. וְאִם לֹא בָּדְקָה חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְזִיבוּת:

19

[The following rules apply] whenever there is a stain that causes a woman to be considered impure and there is a factor to which she could attribute the stain, saying: "The stain came because of this factor."63 If [the stain] is found on a garment, she is pure. For our Sages did not say that one should rule stringently regarding these matters, only leniently.64 If the stain is found on her flesh, she is impure because of the doubt and she may not attribute the stain to the external factor.65 If she has a greater reason to attribute a stain on her flesh [t an outside factor] than one on her clothes,66 she may attribute even a stain on her flesh [to the factor] and she is pure despite the doubt.

יט

כָּל כֶּתֶם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה בִּגְלָלוֹ אִם יֵשׁ לָהּ דָּבָר לִתְלוֹת בּוֹ וְלוֹמַר שֶׁמָּא כֶּתֶם זֶה מִדָּבָר פְּלוֹנִי הוּא אִם נִמְצָא עַל הַבֶּגֶד הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה. שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים בַּדָּבָר לְהַחֲמִיר אֶלָּא לְהָקֵל. וְאִם נִמְצָא עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ סְפֵקוֹ טָמֵא וְאֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה בּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה לָהּ לִתְלוֹת בִּבְשָׂרָהּ יֶתֶר מֵחֲלוּקָהּ אַף עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ תּוֹלָה וּסְפֵקוֹ טָהוֹר:

20

What is implied? If she slaughtered an animal, a beast, or a fowl, became occupied with stains, sat next to people who were, or passed through a marketplace of butchers and blood was found on her outer garment, she is pure. She may attribute the stain to these factors for it is [likely] to have come from them.

כ

כֵּיצַד. שָׁחֲטָה בְּהֵמָה אוֹ חַיָּה אוֹ עוֹף אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְעַסְּקָה בִּכְתָמִים אוֹ שֶׁיָּשְׁבָה בְּצַד הָעוֹסְקִין בָּהֶן אוֹ שֶׁעָבְרָה בְּשׁוּק שֶׁל טַבָּחִים וְנִמְצָא דָּם עַל חֲלוּקָהּ טְהוֹרָה וְתוֹלָה בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁמֵּהֶן בָּא הַכֶּתֶם:

21

[The following rules apply if] the stain was found on her flesh alone. If the stain is at her belt or lower, she is impure.67 If she turned upside down and flipped,68 even [a stain] from her belt and above renders her impure.69 For if the blood had come from slaughtering or from the market, it would also have been found on her garments. Since it was found on her flesh and not on her garments, she is impure.

כא

נִמְצָא הַכֶּתֶם עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ בִּלְבַד אִם הַכֶּתֶם מֵחֲגוֹר וּלְמַטָּה טְמֵאָה. וְאִם נִתְהַפְּכָה וְקָפְצָה אֲפִלּוּ מֵחֲגוֹר וּלְמַעְלָה טְמֵאָר שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה דָּם זֶה מִן הַשְּׁחִיטָה אוֹ מִן הַשּׁוּק הָיָה לָהּ שֶׁיִּמָּצֵא גַּם עַל בְּגָדֶיהָ וְהוֹאִיל וְנִמְצָא עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ וְלֹא בְּבִגְדָּהּ טְמֵאָה

22

If she has a wound, even if it is covered by a scab, if it could be opened and discharge blood70 and blood was found on her flesh, she may attribute the stain to her wound.71 Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

כב

הָיְתָה בָּהּ מַכָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָיְתָה אִם יְכוֹלָה לְהִתְגַּלַּע וּלְהוֹצִיא דָּם וְנִמְצָא דָּם עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ תּוֹלָה בַּמַּכָּה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

23

When a stain is found on both her garments and her flesh, she may attribute it with all [the external factors] possible.72 And she may explain that [the stain was caused by] a louse, for perhaps when she sat down, a louse was killed and this blood came from the louse.73

Until when [does the above apply]? [When the stain is no larger than] a gris. If, however, the stain is larger than a gris, she may not attribute it to a louse. [This applies] even if there is a crushed louse on the stain. Since the stain is larger than a gris, she may not attribute it to a louse.74

כג

נִמְצָא הַכֶּתֶם עַל בְּגָדֶיהָ וּבְשָׂרָהּ כְּאֶחָד תּוֹלָה בְּכָל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ לִתְלוֹת. וְתוֹלָה בְּמַאֲכלֶת שֶׁמָּא בְּעֵת שֶׁיָּשְׁבָה נֶהֶרְגָה מַאֲכלֶת וְדָם זֶה דַּם מַאֲכלֶת הוּא. וְעַד כַּמָּה עַד כִּגְרִיס. אֲבָל אִם מָצְאָה הַכֶּתֶם יֶתֶר מִכִּגְרִיס אֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה בְּמַאֲכלֶת וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה מַאֲכלֶת רְצוּצָה בַּכֶּתֶם הוֹאִיל וְהוּא יֶתֶר מִכִּגְרִיס אֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה בְּמַאֲכלֶת:

24

Similarly, she may attribute the stain to her son or her husband.75If they were occupied with blood, their hands were soiled, or they had a wound, she may attribute the stain to them saying that they touched her without her knowing it and the blood came from them.76

כד

וְכֵן תּוֹלָה בִּבְנָהּ וּבְבַעְלָהּ אִם הָיוּ עֲסוּקִין בְּדָם אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ יְדֵיהֶן מְלֻכְלָכוֹת אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה בָּהֶן מַכָּה תּוֹלָה בָּהֶן וְאוֹמֶרֶת הֵן נָגְעוּ בָּהּ וְהִיא לֹא יָדְעָה וְדָם זֶה מֵחֲמָתָן הוּא:

25

We do not consider the possibility that blood was [transferred] from one place to another to attribute a stain to it. What is implied? If a woman had a wound on her shoulder and a stain was discovered on her calf,77 we do not say: Maybe she touched the wound with her hand and then touched this other portion of her body.78 Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. We attribute neither stains on her body, nor those on her garment [to such wounds].79

כה

אֵין מַחֲזִיקִין דָּם מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם לִתְלוֹת בּוֹ. כֵּיצַד. הָיְתָה לָהּ מַכָּה בִּכְתֵפָהּ וְנִמְצָא כֶּתֶם עַל שׁוֹקָהּ. אֵין אוֹמְרִין שֶׁמָּא בְּיָדֶיהָ נָגְעָה בַּמַּכָּה וְנָגְעָה בְּמָקוֹם זֶה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה אֵין תּוֹלִין בּוֹ בֵּין בְּגוּפָהּ בֵּין בַּחֲלוּקָהּ:

26

[The following laws apply when] two women were occupied with [slaughtering] one fowl and it contained only an amount of blood equal in size to a sela. If a stain the size of a sela is found on both of them, they are both impure.80

If a woman was occupied with blood that could produce a stain no larger than a gris and a stain the size of two grisim was found on her, she may attribute a gris to the blood with which she was occupied with and a gris to a louse.81 If, however, the stain was larger than two grisim, she is impure.

כו

שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֶׁנִּתְעַסְּקוּ בְּצִפּוֹר אֶחָד וְאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא כְּסֶלַע דָּם וְנִמְצָא עַל כָּל אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן כֶּתֶם כְּסֶלַע שְׁתֵּיהֶן טְמֵאוֹת. נִתְעַסְּקָה בְּדָם שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִמֶּנּוּ כֶּתֶם אֶלָּא כִּגְרִיס וְנִמְצָא עָלֶיהָ כֶּתֶם כִּשְׁנֵי גְּרִיסִין הֲרֵי זוֹ תּוֹלָה כִּגְרִיס בַּדָּם שֶׁנִּתְעַסְּקָה בּוֹ וְכִגְרִיס בְּמַאֲכלֶת. נִמְצָא הַכֶּתֶם יֶתֶר מִכִּשְׁנֵי גְּרִיסִין טְמֵאָה:

27

If she was occupied with red [blood], she may not attribute a black [stain] to it. If she was occupied with a fowl that had many different colors of blood and one of them was found on her, she may attribute [the stain] to [the fowl].

If she was wearing three outer garments, if there is an external factor to which she could attribute [a stain], she may attribute even [a stain] on the bottom garment to it.82 If she [knows of] no external factor to attribute it to, she may not attribute it to any factor, even if it is found only on the upper one.83

What is implied? If she passed through a butcher's market place, even if the stain is found only on the bottom garment, she may attribute it to the blood of the butcher's. If she did not pass through a butcher's market or the like, even if the stain is only on the upper garment, she is impure. If she is in doubt whether or not she passed through [such a place] or whether or not she was occupied [with an object that could produce a stain], she may not attribute it [to an external factor].84

כז

נִתְעַסְּקָה בְּאָדֹם אֵין תּוֹלָה בּוֹ שָׁחוֹר. נִתְעַסְּקָה בְּעוֹף שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִינֵי דָּם הַרְבֵּה וְנִמְצָא עָלֶיהָ מַרְאֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶן תּוֹלָה בּוֹ. הָיְתָה לוֹבֶשֶׁת שְׁלֹשָׁה חֲלוּקוֹת אִם יְכוֹלָה לִתְלוֹת תּוֹלָה אַף בַּתַּחְתּוֹן. וְאִם אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לִתְלוֹת אֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה אַף בָּעֶלְיוֹן. כֵּיצַד. עָבְרָה בְּשׁוּק שֶׁל טַבָּחִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְצָא הַכֶּתֶם עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹן לְבַדּוֹ תּוֹלָה בְּדַם הַטַּבָּחִים. לֹא עָבְרָה בְּשׁוּק הַטַּבָּחִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְצָא הַכֶּתֶם בָּעֶלְיוֹן לְבַדּוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה סָפֵק עָבְרָה סָפֵק לֹא עָבְרָה סָפֵק נִתְעַסְּקָה סָפֵק לֹא נִתְעַסְּקָה אֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה:

28

When a city has pigs [that roam freely] or [such animals] enter it at all times, [a woman] need not be concerned with stains that are found on her outer garment.85

כח

עִיר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ חֲזִירִים אוֹ שֶׁהֵם בָּאִין לָהּ תָּמִיד אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לִכְתָמֶיהָ הַנִּמְצָאִין בַּחֲלוּקָהּ:

29

When a woman lent her garment to a niddah, whether a Jewess or a gentile woman,86 and then put it on before checking it,87 she can attribute a stain she finds upon it to the niddah who wore it.88

[Similarly,] if she lent [a garment] to a minor zavah on a day that she is impure,89 one who is experiencing [the post-birth] blood of purity,90 or to [a woman who was] a virgin and is experiencing [hymeneal] bleeding [which is] pure, she may attribute the stain to them.91

[A different ruling applies,] however, if she lent [a garment] to a minor zavah on the day she is watching or a major zavah during her seven "spotless" days, put it on before checking it and then discovered a stain. [In such an instance,] the halachic status of both is impaired., the lender and the borrower. For perhaps this one caused the stain or perhaps the other did.92

If she lent [the garment] to a woman who is watching herself because of the discovery of a stain, she may not attribute the stain to her. [The rationale is that] we do not attribute one stain to another.93

כט

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִשְׁאִילָה חֲלוּקָהּ לְנִדָּה בֵּין עַכּוּ''ם בֵּין יִשְׂרְאֵלִית וְחָזְרָה וְלָבְשָׁה אוֹתוֹ קֹדֶם בְּדִיקָה וּמָצְאָה עָלָיו כֶּתֶם הֲרֵי זוֹ תּוֹלָה בַּנִּדָּה שֶׁלָּבְשָׁה אוֹתוֹ. הִשְׁאִילָה אוֹתוֹ לְזָבָה קְטַנָּה בַּיּוֹם הַטָּמֵא שֶׁלָּהּ אוֹ לַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל דַּם טֹהַר אוֹ לִבְתוּלָה שֶׁדָּמֶיהָ טְהוֹרִין הֲרֵי זוֹ תּוֹלָה בָּהּ. אֲבָל אִם הִשְׁאִילָה אוֹתוֹ לְזָבָה קְטַנָּה בַּיּוֹם הַשָּׁמוּר אוֹ לְזָבָה גְּדוֹלָה בְּשִׁבְעָה יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְחָזְרָה וְלָבְשָׁה אוֹתוֹ קֹדֶם בְּדִיקָה וְנִמְצָא עָלָיו כֶּתֶם שְׁתֵּיהֶן מְקֻלְקָלוֹת הַשּׁוֹאֶלֶת וְהַמַּשְׁאֶלֶת אוֹתָהּ שֶׁמָּא מִזּוֹ שֶׁמָּא מִזּוֹ. הִשְׁאִילָה אוֹתוֹ לְיוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל הַכֶּתֶם אֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה בָּהּ שֶׁאֵין תּוֹלִין כֶּתֶם בְּכֶתֶם:

30

[The following law applies when a woman] inspected her outer garment and then inspected herself94 and discovered that she was pure and afterwards, lent that garment to a colleague. If the borrower wore the garment and then a stain was discovered upon it when she returned it, the borrower is impure. She cannot attribute the stain to the owner, because the owner inspected it before she lent it to her.

ל

בָּדְקָה חֲלוּקָהּ וּבָדְקָה עַצְמָהּ וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר וְהִשְׁאִילָה הֶחָלוּק לַחֲבֵרְתָהּ וּלְבָשַׁתּוּ וְנִמְצָא עָלָיו כֶּתֶם כְּשֶׁהֶחֱזִירָתוֹ לָהּ הַשּׁוֹאֶלֶת טְמֵאָה. וְאֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה בְּבַעֲלַת הֶחָלוּק שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּדְקָה אוֹתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּשְׁאִילֵהוּ לָהּ:

31

[The following laws apply when] a tall woman wears an outer garment belonging to a short woman and a stain is discovered upon it. If [the place where the stain is located] reaches her genital area, she is impure.95 If it does not, she is pure, because [it is probable] that the stain came from the short woman.

לא

אֲרֻכָּה שֶׁלָּבְשָׁה חֲלוּקָהּ שֶׁל קְצָרָה וְנִמְצָא בּוֹ כֶּתֶם אִם מַגִּיעַ כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית הַתֻּרְפָּה טְמֵאָה וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרָה. שֶׁכֶּתֶם זֶה שֶׁל קְצָרָה הוּא:

32

When three woman wore one garment in succession and afterwards, a stain was found upon it, [they are all impure].96 Similarly, if they slept in one bed together97 and a blood [stain] was found under one, they are all impure.98

If one of them inspected herself immediately99 and found herself impure, the [other] two are pure.100

לב

שָׁלֹשׁ נָשִׁים שֶׁלָּבְשׁוּ חָלוּק אֶחָד זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְצָא עָלָיו כֶּתֶם. וְכֵן אִם יְשֵׁנוֹת בְּמִטָּה אַחַת כְּאַחַת וְנִמְצָא דָּם תַּחַת אַחַת מֵהֶן כֻּלָּן טְמֵאוֹת. וְאִם בָּדְקָה אַחַת מֵהֶן עַצְמָהּ מִיָּד וּמָצְאָה עַצְמָהּ טְמֵאָה הֲרֵי הַשְּׁתַּיִם טְהוֹרוֹת:

33

[The following principle applies when, in the above situation, the women] all inspected themselves and discovered that they were pure. A woman who is not likely to discover bleeding may attribute the stain to one who is likely to discover bleeding. Thus the one who is unlikely [to discover bleeding] will be pure and the one who is likely will be impure.

What is implied? If one of the woman is pregnant and another is not pregnant, the pregnant101 woman is pure102 and the one who is not pregnant is impure. If one was nursing103 and one was not nursing, the one who is nursing is pure.104 If one is an elderly woman,105 and one is not elderly, the elder woman is pure.106 If one has not experienced menstrual bleeding107 and one has, the one who has no experience is pure.108 If they are all pregnant, all elderly, all nursing, or all have not experienced menstrual bleeding, they are all impure.109

לג

בָּדְקוּ כֻּלָּן וּמָצְאוּ עַצְמָן טְהוֹרוֹת תּוֹלָה מִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לִרְאוֹת דָּם בְּמִי שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה. וְתִהְיֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה טְהוֹרָה וְהָרְאוּיָה טְמֵאָה. כֵּיצַד. הָיְתָה אַחַת מְעֻבֶּרֶת וְאַחַת אֵינָהּ מְעֻבֶּרֶת הַמְעֻבֶּרֶת טְהוֹרָה וְשֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֻבֶּרֶת טְמֵאָה. מֵינִיקָה וְשֶׁאֵינָהּ מֵינִיקָה הַמֵּינִיקָה טְהוֹרָה. זְקֵנָה וְשֶׁאֵינָהּ זְקֵנָה הַזְּקֵנָה טְהוֹרָה. בְּתוּלָה וְשֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּתוּלָה הַבְּתוּלָה טְהוֹרָה. הָיוּ כֻּלָּן מְעֻבָּרוֹת כֻּלָּן זְקֵנוֹת כֻּלָּן מֵינִיקוֹת כֻּלָּן בְּתוּלוֹת הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן טְמֵאוֹת:

34

[The following laws apply when] three women ascended from the foot of a bed,110 and went to sleep. If a blood[stain] was discovered under the middle one, all three are impure.111 If [a stain] was discovered under112 the innermost one, she and the woman to her side are impure and the outermost one is pure.113 If [the stain] was under the outermost, she and the woman to her side are impure and the innermost is pure. If, however, they did not ascend from the foot of the bed, and thus they have no order, if a blood[stain] is discovered under any one of them, they are all impure.

לד

שָׁלֹשׁ נָשִׁים שֶׁעָלוּ דֶּרֶךְ מַרְגְּלוֹת הַמִּטָּה וְיָשְׁנוּ כֻּלָּן וְנִמְצָא דָּם תַּחַת הָאֶמְצָעִית שְׁלָשְׁתָּן טְמֵאוֹת. תַּחַת הַפְּנִימִית הִיא וְשֶׁבְּצִדָּהּ טְמֵאוֹת וְהַחִיצוֹנָה טְהוֹרָה. תַּחַת הַחִיצוֹנָה הִיא וְשֶׁבְּצִדָּהּ טְמֵאוֹת וְהַפְּנִימִית טְהוֹרָה. וְאִם לֹא עָלוּ דֶּרֶךְ מַרְגְּלוֹת הַמִּטָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לָהֶם סֵדֶר וְנִמְצָא דָּם תַּחַת אַחַת מֵהֶן כֻּלָּן טְמֵאוֹת:

35

When does the above apply? When the woman all inspected themselves and found themselves to be pure. Thus none of them could attribute [the stain] to the other as we explained. If, however, one of them inspected herself and discovered that she was pure, the woman who is pure can attribute the stain to the one who did not check, and that woman is impure.

לה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁבָּדְקוּ כֻּלָּן וּמָצְאוּ טָהוֹר וְלֹא תּוּכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן לִתְלוֹת בַּחֲבֵרְתָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל אִם בָּדְקָה אַחַת וּמָצְאָה עַצְמָהּ טְהוֹרָה וַחֲבֵרְתָהּ לֹא בָּדְקָה תּוֹלָה הַטְּהוֹרָה בְּזוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקָה וַהֲרֵי זוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקָה טְמֵאָה:

36

Whenever a stain is found on a garment and there is no external source to attribute it to, it, [nevertheless,] does not cause a woman to be considered impure until it is proven to be blood.114 If a doubt arises for [the experts]115 whether [a stain] was blood or [simply] red dye, they [wash the stain] with [the following] seven cleaning agents in order. If it is washed away or its color becomes weaker,116 it is a bloodstain and [the woman] is considered impure. If the stain remains the same color, it is a dye and [she] is pure.117

לו

כָּל כֶּתֶם שֶׁנִּמְצָא עַל הַבֶּגֶד שֶׁאֵין לָהּ בְּמַה יִּתְלֶה אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע שֶׁהוּא דָּם. וְאִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לָהֶם שֶׁמָּא הוּא דָּם אוֹ צֶבַע אָדֹם מַעֲבִירִין עָלָיו שִׁבְעָה סַמָּנִין אֵלּוּ עַל הַסֵּדֶר. אִם עָבַר אוֹ כֵּהָה עֵינוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כֶּתֶם דָּם וּטְמֵאָה וְאִם עָמַד כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא הֲרֵי זֶה צֶבַע וּטְהוֹרָה:

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These are the seven cleaning agents in the order [in which they should be used]: the saliva of a person who has not eaten, beans that have been chewed, urine that has become sour, lye,118 natron,119 cumin powder,120 and bleach.121 [The garment] must be rubbed three times with each cleansing agent and it must be passed back and forth while being rubbed.

If a person did not use these cleansing agents in the above order or used them all at once, his deeds are of no consequence.122 If he used the last substances before the first ones, the fact that he used the last ones - i.e., the first ones in the proper order - is significant. He may then use [merely] the last ones - which he used first - so that he will have used all seven in order.

לז

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַשִּׁבְעָה סַמָּנִים עַל סִדְרָן. רֹק תָּפֵל. וּלְעִיסַת גְּרִיסִין שֶׁל פּוֹל. וּמֵי רַגְלַיִם שֶׁהֶחֱמִיצוּ. וּבֹרִית. וְנֶתֶר. וְקִימוֹנְיָא. וְאַשְׁלָג. וְצָרִיךְ לְכַסְכֵּס שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל סַם וְסַם וּמוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא בְּכָל כִּסְכּוּס. הֶעֱבִירָן שֶׁלֹּא עַל הַסֵּדֶר אוֹ שֶׁהֶעֱבִירָן כְּאֶחָד לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם. הִקְדִּים הָאַחֲרוֹנִים לָרִאשׁוֹנִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁהֵן הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עָלוּ לוֹ וְחוֹזֵר וּמַעֲבִיר אַחֲרֵיהֶם אַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁהִקְדִּים עַד שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ הַשִּׁבְעָה עַל הַסֵּדֶר:

38

What is meant by "the saliva of a person who has not eaten"? [Saliva taken from a person who did not eat from the beginning of the night and slept the second half of the night and gave this saliva before he ate the next morning. [Moreover,] he must not have spoken excessively for the first three hours of the day. If, however, a person arose and repeated his studies before three hours of the day passed, his saliva is not placed in this category. For speaking nullifies the power of the saliva and causes it to be like water.

What is meant by beans that have been chewed? Beans that have been chewed thoroughly until a large quantity of saliva has been mixed with them. What is meant by urine that has soured? Urine that is three days old or more.

לח

אֵי זֶהוּ רֹק תָּפֵל שֶׁלֹּא טָעַם כְּלוּם מִתְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה וְהָיָה יָשֵׁן מֵחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה הָאַחֲרוֹן לְמָחָר קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכַל נִקְרָא רֹק תָּפֵל. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא רֹב דִּבּוּרוֹ עַד שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת בַּיּוֹם. וְאִם הִשְׁכִּים וְשָׁנָה פִּרְקוֹ קֹדֶם שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת אֵין זֶה רֹק תָּפֵל שֶׁהַדִּבּוּר מְבַטֵּל חֹזֶק הָרֹק וּמַחֲזִירוֹ כְּמַיִם. וְאֵי זוֹ הִיא לְעִיסַת גְּרִיסִין הוּא שֶׁיִּלְעֹס הַגְּרִיסִין עַד שֶׁיִּתְעָרֵב עִם הַפּוֹל רֹק הַרְבֵּה מִפִּיו. וְאֵי זֶהוּ מֵי רַגְלַיִם שֶׁהֶחֱמִיצוּ אַחַר שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים אוֹ יֶתֶר:

39

[The following laws apply to] any woman who becomes impure because of a stain. If she discovers the stain during her "days of niddah," she must consider herself a niddah because of the doubt. She must remain [impure] for seven days and immerses herself on the eighth night. Afterwards, she is permitted to her husband.

If she discovered [the stain] during her "days of zivah," because of the doubt, she must consider herself as a minor zavah or a major zavah as clarified in this chapter.123 She must remain [impure] for one day if she is a minor zavah or count seven "spotless" days if there is a doubt whether she is a major zavah.

All this stems from Rabbinic decree as we explained.124 Therefore if a man engages in relations with such a woman in conscious violation, he is given stripes for rebellious conduct125 and he is not obligated to bring a sacrifice.126

לט

כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה מִשּׁוּם כֶּתֶם אִם מָצְאָה הַכֶּתֶם בִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נִדָּה וְיוֹשֶׁבֶת עָלָיו שִׁבְעָה יָמִים וְטוֹבֶלֶת בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ תִּהְיֶה מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ. וְאִם מָצְאָה אוֹתוֹ בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה אוֹ קְטַנָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק זֶה. וְיוֹשֶׁבֶת יוֹם אֶחָד אִם הָיְתָה קְטַנָּה אוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים אִם הָיְתָה גְּדוֹלָה מִסָּפֵק. וְהַכּל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. לְפִיכָךְ הַבָּא עָלֶיהָ בְּזָדוֹן מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת וּפְטוּרִין מִקָּרְבָּן: