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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Sanhedrin veha’Onashin haMesurin lahem - Chapter 19, Sanhedrin veha’Onashin haMesurin lahem - Chapter 20, Sanhedrin veha’Onashin haMesurin lahem - Chapter 21

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Sanhedrin veha’Onashin haMesurin lahem - Chapter 19


There are a total of 21 negative commandments that are punishable by kerait, but which are not punishable by execution by the court, for which lashes are administered. They are:

i) a person who has relations with his sister;

ii) ...with his father's sister;

iii) ...with his mother's sister;

iv) ...with the sister of his wife;

v) ...with his brother's wife;

vi) ...with the wife of the brother of his father;

vii) ...with a woman in the niddah state;

viii) a person who eats forbidden fat;

ix) ...blood;

x) ...leaven on Passover;

xi) ...on Yom Kippur;

xii) a person who performs forbidden labor on Yom Kippur;

xii) a person who partakes of sacrificial meat after the designated time;

xiv) ...of sacrificial meat disqualified as piggul;

xv) ...of sacrificial meat while ritually impure;

xvi) a person who enters the Temple Courtyard while ritually impure;

xvii) a person who slaughters a consecrated animal outside the Temple;

xviii) a person who burns a consecrated animal as a sacrifice outside the Temple;

xix) a person who prepares the anointing oil for personal use;

xx) a person who anoints himself with the anointing oil for his own benefit

xxi) a person who prepares the incense offering for his personal use;


כָּל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כָּרֵת וְאֵין בּוֹ מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין שֶׁלּוֹקִין עֲלֵיהֶן אֶחָד וְעֶשְׂרִים וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. א) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ. ב) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו. ג) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ. ד) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ. ה) הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו. ו) הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אֲחִי אָבִיו. ז) הַבָּא עַל הַנִּדָּה. ח) הָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב. ט) הָאוֹכֵל דָּם. י) הָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח. יא) הָאוֹכֵל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. יב) הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. יג) הָאוֹכֵל הַנּוֹתָר. יד) הָאוֹכֵל פִּגּוּל. טו) הַטָּמֵא שֶׁאָכַל בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ. טז) הַטָּמֵא שֶׁנִּכְנַס לָעֲזָרָה. יז) הַשּׁוֹחֵט קָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ. יח) הַמַּעֲלֶה קָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ. יט) הַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן. כ) הַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. כא) הַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת:


There are a total of 18 negative commandments that are punishable by death by the hand of heaven, whose transgression involve a deed, for which lashes are administered. They are:

i) a person other than a priest who partakes of primary terumah whether it was ritually pure or ritually impure;

ii) a person other than a priest who partakes of terumat ma'aser;

iii) a person other than a priest who partakes of the first fruits after they entered Jerusalem;

iv) a person other than a priest who partakes of challah;

v) a person who partakes of tevel before the primary terumah and terumat ma'aser were separated from it;

vi) a person who partakes of the product of dough from which challah was not separated;

vii) a priest who partakes of terumah that was ritually pure while he was in a state of ritual impurity;

viii) a priest who entered the Holy of Holies for a purpose other than sacrificial worship;

ix) a priest who departed from the Temple in the midst of the sacrificial worship;

x) a Levite who performed the service of the priests;

xi) a person other than a priest who performs service in the Temple;

xii) a person who does not wear all the priestly garments; he is considered as if he is not a priest and receives lashes if he serves in the Temple;

xiii) a priest who serves in the Temple while in a state of ritual impurity;

xiv) a person who was intoxicated from wine who served in the Temple;

xv) a person who immersed himself to emerge from a state of ritual impurity but must still wait until the end of the day to attain a state of purity who served in the Temple;

xvi) a priest who served in the Temple although he did not yet bring the required sacrifices to attain atonement;

xvii) a person who let his hair grow long who served in the Temple;

xviii) a person whose clothes are ripped who served in the Temple;


כָּל מְחֻיָּבִין מִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם שֶׁהֵן בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁלּוֹקִין עֲלֵיהֶן שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. א) זָר שֶׁאָכַל תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה בֵּין טְהוֹרָה בֵּין טְמֵאָה. ב) זָר שֶׁאָכַל תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר. ג) זָר שֶׁאָכַל בִּכּוּרִים אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. ד) זָר שֶׁאָכַל חַלָּה. ה) הָאוֹכֵל טֶבֶל שֶׁלֹּא הוּרַם מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר. ו) הָאוֹכֵל עִסָּה שֶׁלֹּא הוּרְמָה חַלָּתָהּ. ז) כֹּהֵן טָמֵא שֶׁאָכַל תְּרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה. ח) כֹּהֵן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲבוֹדָה. ט) כֹּהֵן שֶׁיָּצָא מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ בִּשְׁעַת עֲבוֹדָה. י) לֵוִי שֶׁעָבַד בַּעֲבוֹדַת כֹּהֲנִים. יא) זָר שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. יב) מְחֻסַּר בְּגָדִים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּזָר וְלוֹקֶה אִם עָבַד. יג) כֹּהֵן טָמֵא שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ. יד) שְׁתוּי יַיִן שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ. טו) טְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ. טז) מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ. יז) פְּרוּעַ רֹאשׁ שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ. יח) קְרוּעַ בְּגָדִים שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ:


When, however, a person serves in the Temple without sanctifying his hands and feet, although he is worthy of death, he does not receive lashes, because he has violated only a positive commandment. Similarly, the following three - a prophet who withheld his prophecy or transgressed his own prophecy and a person who violated the words of a prophet - although they all are worthy of death - they do not receive lashes. For their transgression stems from a positive commandment, as Deuteronomy 18:15 states: "And you shall listen to him." In all contexts, a prohibition that stems from a positive commandment has the status of a positive commandment and lashes are not administered because of it.


אֲבָל הַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּלֹא קִדּוּשׁ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב מִיתָה אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. וְכֵן נָבִיא שֶׁכָּבַשׁ נְבוּאָתוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁעָבַר עַל דִּבְרֵי עַצְמוֹ. וְהָעוֹבֵר עַל דִּבְרֵי נָבִיא. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּמִיתָה אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. שֶׁהֵן בָּאִין מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח טו) "אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן" וְלָאו הַבָּא מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה הֲרֵי הוּא כַּעֲשֵׂה וְאֵין לוֹקִין עָלָיו:


13There are a total of 168 negative commandments that are neither punishable by kerait, nor by execution by the court, for which lashes are administered. They are:

i) a person who fashions an idol;

ii) a person who makes an image for artistic purposes;

iii) a person who turns to idolatry with any deed;

iv) a person who erects a monument;

v) a person who plants a tree in the Temple;

vi) a person who places down an engraved stone on which to prostrate oneself;

vii) a person who takes a vow in the name of a false divinity;

viii) a person who takes an oath in the name of a false divinitiy;

ix) a person who derives benefit from a false divinity;

x) a person who rebuilds a city destroyed because it was swayed to idolatry;

xi) a person who benefits from the property of such a city;

xii) a person who follows the statutes of the gentiles;

xiii) a diviner;

xiv) an augurer;

xv) a reader of omens;

xvi) a person who casts spells;

xvii) a necromancer;

xviii) a person who erases God's name, or the like, e.g., he destroys a stone from the altar or destroys wood consecrated to the Sanctuary;

xix) a person who extinguishes fire from the altar;

xx) a person who ascends the altar with steps;

xxi) a person who enters the Temple Courtyard with impure garments;

xxii) a zav and the like who enters the Temple Mount;

xxiii) a person who removes the staves of the ark;

xxiv) a person who removes the High Priest's breastplate from his ephod;

xxv) a person who tears the collar of the High Priest's cloak;

xxvi) a person who offers anything else than the commanded offerings on the golden altar;

xxvii) a priest who enters the Sanctuary while not in the midst of sacrificial worship;

xxviii) a priest with a physical deformity who enters the Sanctuary;

xxix) a priest with who enters the Sanctuary while intoxicated;

xxx) a priest with a physical deformity who performs sacrificial worship;

xxxi) an uncircumcised priest who performs sacrificial worship;

xxxii) a priest who performs the tasks of the Levites;

xxxiii) a priest who enters the Sanctuary with uncut hair;

xxxiv) a priest who enters the Sanctuary with torn clothes;

xxxv) a person who consecrates an animal with a physical deformity;

xxxvi) a person who slaughters such an animal as an offering;

xxxvii) a person who sprinkles the blood of such animals on the altar;

xxxviii) a person who burns the fats of such animals on the altar;

xxxix) a person who offers an animal with a physical deformity on behalf of gentile;

xl) a person who produces a blemish in a consecrated animal at the time the Temple is standing;

xli) a person who performs labor with consecrated animals;

xlii) a person who shears consecrated animals

xliii) a person who makes a fire-offering of yeast or honey;

xliv) a person who allows the remainder of the meal-offerings to leaven;

xlv) a person who offers a sacrifice without salt;

xlvi) a person who offers a present given to a prostitute or an animal given in exchange for a dog;

xlvii) a person who adds oil to the meal-offering of a sinner;

xlviii) a person who adds frankincense to such an offering;

xlix) a person who adds oil to the meal-offering of a sotah;

l) a person who adds frankincense to such an offering;

li) a person who separates the head of a bird brought as a sin offering from its trunk;

lii) a person who transfers the holiness of one animal to another;

liii) a person who partakes of sacrificial meat after it became ritually impure;

liv) a person who partakes of sacrifices that have been disqualified;

lv) a priest who partakes of the meat of sacrifices of the most sacred order outside the Temple courtyard;

lvi) a non-priest who partakes of the meat of sacrifices of the most sacred order after their blood has been sprinkled on the altar;

lvii) a non-priest who partakes of the meat of a firstborn animal;

lviii) a daughter of a priest who married a non-priest who partakes of the breast and the foreleg given to the priests; this applies even after the death of her husband; lix) a chalalah who partakes of terumah;

lx) a person who partakes of sacrifices of lesser sanctity outside of Jerusalem;

lxi) a person who partakes of sacrifices of lesser sanctity before their blood is sprinkled on the altar

lxii) a person who partakes of an unblemished firstborn animal outside of Jerusalem;

lxiii) a person who partakes of the second tithe after it had entered Jerusalem once it had been taken outside Jerusalem again;

lxiv) a priest who partakes of the first fruits after they entered Jerusalem, but before they were placed down in the Temple Courtyard;

lxv) a priest who partakes of the first fruits after they were placed down in the Temple Courtyard and were then taken outside Jerusalem again;

lxvi) a person who partakes of ma'aser sheni in Jerusalem after it became impure, before it was redeemed;

lxvii) a person who is ritually impure who partakes of ma'aser sheni which was pure in Jerusalem;

lxviii) a person who partakes of ma'aser sheni - and similarly, any other consecrated food - while in a state of acute mourning;

lxix) an uncircumcised person who partakes of sacrificial meal or terumot;

lxx) a person who partakes of a meal offering brought by a priest or any other sacrifice that should be totally consumed by the fire of the altar;

lxxi) a person who partakes of the meat of the sin-offerings that are burned and any other sacrifices that must be burnt;

lxxii) a person who slaughters the Paschal sacrifice while he possesses chametz;

lxxiii) a person who breaks a bone from the Paschal sacrifice; this applies with regard to the first sacrifice or the second sacrifice;

lxxiv) a person who removes meat from the Paschal sacrifice outside the company of people partaking of it;

lxxv) a person who partakes of meat from the Paschal sacrifice outside of that company;

lxxvi) a person who partakes of meat from the Paschal sacrifice partially roasted or cooked; lxxvii) a person who purposely derives benefit from consecrated property;

lxxviii) a person who partakes of tevel from which the tithes, even the tithe for the poor, has not been separated, even though the terumot have been separated;

lxxix) a person who partakes of the meat of an animal that was condemned to be stoned to death, even if the condemned animal was slaughtered correctly;

lxxx) a person who eats meat from a non-kosher animal;

lxxxi) ... a non-kosher fowl;

lxxxii) ... a non-kosher fish;

lxxxiii) a person who partakes of a flying teeming animal;

lxxxiv) ... an earthbound teeming animal;

lxxxv) ... an aquatic teeming animal;

lxxxvi) ... an animal that crawls on the earth even though it does not reproduce;

lxxxvii) ... worms from fruit after they emerged from the fruit;

lxxxviii) a person who eats carrion;

lxxxix) ... an animal that was critically injured;

xc) ... a limb from a living animal;

xci) ... the sciatic nerve;

xcii) ... meat cooked with milk;

xciii) a person who cooks meat with milk;

xciv) a person who partakes of fresh grain before the bringing of the omer;

xcv) a person who partakes of orlah;

xcvi) a person who partakes of kilai hakerem;

xcvii) a person who partakes of chametz in a mixture on Pesach;

xcviii) ...after midday on the fourteenth of Nissan;

xcix) a person who maintains possession of chametz on Pesach, e.g., he causes his dough to leaven;

c) a person who drinks wine used as a libation for false deities;

ci) a nazarite who partakes of the products of the vine;

cii) ... cuts his hair,

ciii) ...who contracts impurity imparted by a corpse;

civ) a person who shaves the hair next to a blemish of tzara'at

cv) a person who cuts off signs of tzara'at or removes them with fire;

cvi) a person who tills a wadi where the neck of a calf was broken to atone for an unsolved murder;

cvii) a person who sows in Eretz Yisrael in the Sabbatical year;

cviii) a person who trims a tree in the Sabbatical year;

cix) a person who reaps freely growing produce in the Sabbatical year without deviating from his ordinary pattern;

cx) a person who harvests fruit in the Sabbatical year without deviating from his ordinary pattern;

cxi) a person who sows in the Jubilee year;

cxii) a person who reaps in the Jubilee year without deviating from his ordinary pattern;

cxiii) a person who harvests fruit in the Jubilee year without deviating from his ordinary pattern;

cxiv) a person who destroys the produce from the corners of his harvest without giving it to a poor person;

cxv) a person who collects the grapes that grow individually in his vineyard and does not give them to a poor person;

cxvi) a person who collects the grain that falls from the reapers and does not give it to a poor person;

cxvii) a person who collects the grapes that grow in underdeveloped clusters in his vineyard and does not give them to a poor person;

cxviii) a person who takes a forgotten sheaf and does not give it to a poor person;

cxix) a person who takes a mother bird together with her young and does not send away the mother bird;

cxx) a person who sows mixed species of seeds together while sowing in Eretz Yisrael;

cxxi) a person who sows mixed species in a vineyard in Eretz Yisrael;

cxxii) a person who grafts mixed species of trees; this prohibition applies in every place;

cxxiii) a person who mates mixed species of animals; this prohibition applies in every place;

cxxiv) a person who leads mixed species of animals; this prohibition applies in every place;

cxxv) a person who muzzles an animal while it is working; this prohibition applies in every place;

cxxvi) a person who slaughters an animal and its offspring on the same day; this prohibition applies in every place;

cxxvii) a person who takes security from a colleague and does not return it to him when he requires it;

cxxviii) a person who takes security from a widow and does not return it to her;

cxxix) a person who takes utensils used in the preparation of food as security;

cxxx) a lying witness who is not penalized financially;

cxxxi) a person who strikes a colleague with a blow that does not require a p'rutah to be paid as compensation;

cxxxii) a wayward and rebellious son after the first testimony was delivered against him;

cxxxiii) a person who spreads a libelous report about his wife who is discovered to have lied;

cxxxiv) a person who curses a colleague using God's name;

cxxxv) a person who takes a false oath

cxxxvi) a person who takes an unnecessary oath

cxxxvii) a person who abrogates his vow;

cxxxiii) a person who goes beyond the Sabbath limits on the Sabbath;

cxxxix) a person who performs a forbidden labor on a festival;

cxl) a person who removes the hair at the corner of his head;

cxli) a person who removes the hair at the corner of his beard;

cxlii) a person who gouges his flesh because of a person's death;

cxliii) a person who shaves his head because of a person's death;

cxliv) a person who tatoos himself;

cxlv) a person who wears shaatnez;

cxlvi) a person who chops down a fruit tree for a destructive purpose;

cxlvii) a man who wears the garments of a woman;

cxlviii) a woman who wears the garments of a man;

cil) a priest who contracts impurity because of contact with a corpse;

cl) a priest who consecrates a woman classified as a zonah and has relations with her;

cli) a priest who consecrates a divorcee and has relations with her;

clii) a priest who consecrates a woman classified as a challalah and has relations with her;

cliii) a High Priest who had relations with a widow even though he did not consecrate her;

cliv) a person who remarries his divorcee after she has been consecrated by another man;

clv) a person who marries a woman who is obligated to perform yibbum;

clvi) a man who has relations with a woman outside the context of marriage;

clvii) a mamzer who marries a native-born Jewess and has relations with her;

clviii) a person with crushed testicles who marries a native-born Jewess and has relations with her;

clix) a person who castrates another man, or a male animal, beast, or fowl;

clx) a rapist who divorces his victim and does not remarry her;

clxi) a person who spreads a libelous report about his wife, divorces her without remarrying her;

clxii) a person who enjoys intimacy with a woman forbidden him even though he did not engage in sexual relations; such a person is suspect of forbidden sexual activity;

clxiii) a person who marries out of the faith;

clxiv) an Ammonite convert who marries a native-born Jewess and had relations with her;

clxv) a Moabite convert who marries a native-born Jewess and had relations with her;

clxvi) a king who takes more wives than allowed by the Torah;

clxvii) a king who acquires more horses than allowed by the Torah;

clxviii) a king who acquires more wealth than necessary;

Thus there are a total of 207 violations which are punishable by lashes. An acronym for them is yilaku zerim The strangers will be lashed.


כָּל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן לֹא כָּרֵת וְלֹא מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין שֶׁלּוֹקִין עֲלֵיהֶן קס''ח וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. א) הָעוֹשֶׂה אֱלִיל. ב) הָעוֹשֶׂה אֱלִיל לְנוֹי. ג) הַפּוֹנֶה אֶל אֱלִילִים בְּאֶחָד מִן הַמַּעֲשִׂים. ד) הַמֵּקִים מַצֵּבָה. ה) הַנּוֹטֵעַ אִילָן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. ו) הַנּוֹתֵן אֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית. ז) הַנּוֹדֵר בְּשֵׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. ח) הַנִּשְׁבָּע בִּשְׁמָהּ. ט) הַנֶּהֱנֶה בָּהּ. י) הַבּוֹנֶה עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת. יא) הַנֶּהֱנֶה מִמֶּנָּה. יב) הָעוֹשֶׂה כְּחֻקּוֹת הָעַכּוּ''ם. יג) הַקּוֹסֵם. יד) הַמְעוֹנֵן. טו) הַמְנַחֵשׁ. טז) הַחוֹבֵר. יז) הַדּוֹרֵשׁ אֶל הַמֵּתִים. יח) הַמּוֹחֵק שֵׁם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ כְּגוֹן הוֹרֵס אֶבֶן מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אוֹ שׂוֹרֵף עֵץ מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. יט) הַמְכַבֶּה אֵשׁ מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. כ) הָעוֹלֶה עָלָיו בְּמַעֲלוֹת. כא) הַנִּכְנָס לַעֲזָרָה בִּבְגָדִים טְמֵאִים. כב) זָב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְהַר הַבַּיִת. כג) הַמֵּסִיר בַּדֵּי אָרוֹן. כד) הַמֵּזִיחַ חשֶׁן מֵעַל הָאֵפוֹד. כה) הַקּוֹרֵעַ פִּי הַמְּעִיל. כו) הַמַּקְרִיב עַל מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב. כז) כֹּהֵן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַהֵיכָל שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הָעֲבוֹדָה. כח) בַּעַל מוּם שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְשָׁם. כט) שָׁתוּי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְשָׁם. ל) בַּעַל מוּם שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ. לא) עָרֵל שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ. לב) כֹּהֵן שֶׁעָבַד בַּעֲבוֹדַת הַלְוִיִּם. לג) כֹּהֵן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמִּקְדָּשׁ פְּרוּעַ רֹאשׁ. לד) כֹּהֵן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמִּקְדָּשׁ קְרוּעַ בְּגָדִים. לה) הַמַּקְדִּישׁ בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין. לו) הַשּׁוֹחֲטָן. לז) הַזּוֹרֵק דְּמֵיהֶן. לח) הַמַּקְטִיר אֵימוּרֵיהֶן. לט) הַמַּקְרִיב קָרְבְּנוֹת עַכּוּ''ם בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין. מ) הַמַּטִּיל מוּם בְּקָדָשִׁים בִּזְמַן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. מא) הָעוֹבֵד בְּקָדָשִׁים. מב) הַגּוֹזֵז אוֹתָן. מג) הַמַּקְטִיר שְׂאוֹר אוֹ דְּבַשׁ. מד) הָעוֹשֶׂה שְׁיָרֵי מְנָחוֹת מֵחָמֵץ. מה) הַמַּקְרִיב בְּלֹא מֶלַח. מו) הַמַּקְרִיב אֶתְנָן אוֹ מְחִיר כֶּלֶב. מז) הַנּוֹתֵן שֶׁמֶן עַל מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא. מח) הַנּוֹתֵן עָלֶיהָ לְבוֹנָה. מט) הַנּוֹתֵן שֶׁמֶן בְּקָרְבַּן סוֹטָה. נ) הַנּוֹתֵן עָלָיו לְבוֹנָה. נא) הַמַּבְדִּיל בְּחַטַּאת הָעוֹף. נב) הַמֵּימֵר בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ. נג) הָאוֹכֵל בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁנִּטְמָא. נד) הָאוֹכֵל מִפְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין. נה) כֹּהֵן שֶׁאָכַל בְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה. נו) זָר שֶׁאָכַל בְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים אַחַר מַתַּן דָּמִים. נז) זָר שֶׁאָכַל בְּשַׂר בְּכוֹר. נח) כֹּהֶנֶת שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת לְזָר שֶׁאוֹכֶלֶת חָזֶה וְשׁוֹק אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר מִיתַת בַּעְלָהּ. נט) חֲלָלָה שֶׁאָכְלָה תְּרוּמָה. ס) הָאוֹכֵל קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. סא) הָאוֹכֵל קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים קֹדֶם זְרִיקַת דָּמִים. סב) הָאוֹכֵל בְּכוֹר חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. סג) הָאוֹכֵל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אַחַר שֶׁרָאָה פְּנֵי הַבַּיִת חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. סד) כֹּהֵן שֶׁאָכַל בִּכּוּרִים מִשֶּׁנִּכְנְסוּ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם קֹדֶם הַנָּחָה בָּעֲזָרָה. סה) כֹּהֵן שֶׁאָכַל בִּכּוּרִים חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם אַחַר שֶׁהִנִּיחוּ בָּעֲזָרָה. סו) הָאוֹכֵל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּפָּדֶה. סז) טָמֵא שֶׁאָכַל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי הַטָּהוֹר בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. סח) הָאוֹכֵל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בַּאֲנִינוּת וְכֵן כָּל הַקָּדָשִׁים. סט) עָרֵל שֶׁאָכַל בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ אוֹ תְּרוּמוֹת. ע) הָאוֹכֵל מִמִּנְחַת כֹּהֵן וְכֵן מִכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא כָּלִיל לְאִשִּׁים. עא) הָאוֹכֵל מִבְּשַׂר חַטָּאוֹת הַנִּשְׂרָפוֹת וְכֵן מִכָּל הַטָּעוּן שְׂרֵפָה. עב) הַשּׁוֹחֵט פֶּסַח עַל הֶחָמֵץ. עג) הַשּׁוֹבֵר בּוֹ עֶצֶם בֵּין בְּרִאשׁוֹן בֵּין בְּשֵׁנִי. עד) הַמּוֹצִיא מִבְּשָׂרוֹ חוּץ לַחֲבוּרָתוֹ. עה) הָאוֹכֵל מִבְּשָׂרוֹ חוּץ מֵחֲבוּרָתוֹ. עו) הָאוֹכֵל מִבְּשָׂרוֹ נָא אוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל. עז) הַנֶּהֱנֶה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ בְּמֵזִיד. עח) הָאוֹכֵל טֶבֶל שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הֻפְרַשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר אֲפִלּוּ מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּרְמוּ תְּרוּמוֹתָיו. עט) הָאוֹכֵל מִבְּשַׂר נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה שֶׁנִּגְמַר דִּינָהּ לִסְקִילָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטָה. פ) הָאוֹכֵל בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה. פא) הָאוֹכֵל עוֹף טָמֵא. פב) הָאוֹכֵל דָּג טָמֵא. פג) הָאוֹכֵל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף. פד) הָאוֹכֵל שֶׁרֶץ הָאָרֶץ. פה) הָאוֹכֵל שֶׁרֶץ הַמַּיִם. פו) הָאוֹכֵל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָבֶה. פז) הָאוֹכֵל תּוֹלָעִים שֶׁבַּפֵּרוֹת אַחַר שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ. פח) הָאוֹכֵל נְבֵלָה. פט) הָאוֹכֵל טְרֵפָה. צ) הָאוֹכֵל אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי. צא) הָאוֹכֵל גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה. צב) הָאוֹכֵל בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב. צג) הַמְבַשֵּׁל בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב. צד) הָאוֹכֵל מִתְּבוּאָה חֲדָשָׁה קֹדֶם הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר. [הַמַּקְרִיב מִנְחָה מִתְּבוּאָה חֲדָשָׁה קֹדֶם הֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם]. צה) הָאוֹכֵל עָרְלָה. צו) הָאוֹכֵל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. צז) הָאוֹכֵל תַּעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח. צח) הָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ אַחַר חֲצוֹת. צט) הַמְקַיֵּם חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וּכְגוֹן שֶׁחִמֵּץ עִסָּתוֹ. ק) הַשּׁוֹתֶה יֵין נֶסֶךְ. קא) נָזִיר שֶׁאָכַל מִגֶּפֶן הַיַּיִן. קב) נָזִיר שֶׁגִּלֵּחַ. קג) נָזִיר שֶׁנִּטְמָא לְמֵת. קד) הַמְגַלֵּחַ אֶת הַנֶּתֶק. קה) הַחוֹתֵךְ סִימָנֵי צָרַעַת אוֹ שֶׁכְּוָאָן בְּאֵשׁ. קו) הָעוֹבֵד בְּנַחַל שֶׁנִּתְעָרְפָה בּוֹ הָעֶגְלָה. קז) הַזּוֹרֵעַ אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּשְׁבִיעִית. קח) הַזּוֹמֵר אֶת הָאִילָן בִּשְׁבִיעִית. קט) הַקּוֹצֵר סְפִיחַ בְּלֹא שִׁנּוּי. קי) הַבּוֹצֵר בְּלֹא שִׁנּוּי. קיא) הַזּוֹרֵעַ בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל. קיב) הַקּוֹצֵר בָּהּ בְּלֹא שִׁנּוּי. קיג) הַבּוֹצֵר בָּהּ בְּלֹא שִׁנּוּי. קיד) הַמְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדֶה וְלֹא נְתָנָהּ לֶעָנִי. קטו) הַמְעוֹלֵל כַּרְמוֹ וְלֹא נְתָנָהּ לֶעָנִי. קטז) הַמְלַקֵּט לֶקֶט וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ לֶעָנִי. קיז) פָּרַט כַּרְמוֹ וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ לֶעָנִי. קיח) הַלּוֹקֵחַ עֹמֶר הַשִּׁכְחָה וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ לֶעָנִי. קיט) הַלּוֹקֵחַ אֵם עַל בָּנִים וְלֹא שִׁלֵּחַ הָאֵם. קכ) הַזּוֹרֵעַ כִּלְאַיִם בָּאָרֶץ בִּזְרָעִים. קכא) הַזּוֹרֵעַ כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם בָּאָרֶץ. קכב) הַמַּרְכִּיב אִילָנוֹת כִּלְאַיִם בְּכָל מָקוֹם. קכג) הַמַּרְבִּיעַ בְּהֵמָה כִּלְאַיִם בְּכָל מָקוֹם. קכד) הַמַּנְהִיג בְּכִלְאַיִם בְּכָל מָקוֹם. קכה) הַחוֹסֵם בְּהֵמָה בְּעֵת מְלָאכָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם. קכו) הַשּׁוֹחֵט אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ בְּכָל מָקוֹם. קכז) הַמְמַשְׁכֵּן חֲבֵרוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְלֹא הֶחְזִיר לוֹ הָעֲבוֹט. קכח) הַחוֹבֵל אַלְמָנָה וְלֹא הֶחְזִיר הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן. קכט) הַחוֹבֵל כֵּלִים שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ. קל) עֵד זוֹמֵם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ תַּשְׁלוּמִין. קלא) הַמַּכֶּה חֲבֵרוֹ הַכָּאָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה. קלב) בֶּן סוֹרֵר וּמוֹרֶה בְּעֵדוּת רִאשׁוֹנָה. קלג) הַמּוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע שֶׁנִּמְצָא דְּבָרוֹ שֶׁקֶר. קלד) הַמְקַלֵּל אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בְּשֵׁם. קלה) הַנִּשְׁבָּע לַשֶּׁקֶר. קלו) הַנִּשְׁבָּע לַשָּׁוְא. קלז) הַמְחַלֵּל נִדְרוֹ. קלח) הַיּוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם בְּשַׁבָּת. קלט) הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב. קמ) הַמַּקִּיף פְּאַת הָרֹאשׁ. קמא) הַמַּקִּיף פְּאַת זָקָן. קמב) הַשּׂוֹרֵט עַל מֵת. קמג) הַקּוֹרֵחַ רֹאשׁוֹ עַל הַמֵּת. קמד) הַכּוֹתֵב כְּתֹבֶת קַעֲקַע. קמה) הַלּוֹבֵשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז. קמו) הַקּוֹצֵץ אִילָנֵי מַאֲכָל דֶּרֶךְ הַשְׁחָתָה. קמז) אִישׁ שֶׁלָּבַשׁ מַלְבּוּשׁ אִשָּׁה. קמח) אִשָּׁה שֶׁלָּבְשָׁה מַלְבּוּשׁ אִישׁ. קמט) כֹּהֵן שֶׁנִּטְמָא לְמֵת. קנ) כֹּהֵן שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ אִשָּׁה זוֹנָה וּבְעָלָהּ. קנא) כֹּהֵן שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ גְּרוּשָׁה וּבְעָלָהּ. קנב) כֹּהֵן שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ חֲלָלָה וּבְעָלָהּ. קנג) כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּעַל אַלְמָנָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קִדְּשָׁהּ. קנד) הַמַּחֲזִיר גְּרוּשָׁתוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְקַדְּשָׁה. קנה) הַנּוֹשֵׂא זְקוּקָה לְיָבָם. קנו) הַבָּא עַל הַקְּדֵשָׁה. קנז) מַמְזֵר שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבָעַל. קנח) פְּצוּעַ דַּכָּא שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבָעַל. קנט) הַמְסָרֵס אִישׁ וְכֵן שְׁאָר זִכְרֵי בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף. קס) אוֹנֵס שֶׁגֵּרֵשׁ אֲנוּסָתוֹ וְלֹא הֶחְזִירָהּ. קסא) הַמּוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע שֶׁגֵּרֵשׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא הֶחֱזִירָהּ. קסב) הַקָּרֵב אֶל הָעֲרָיוֹת בְּדֶרֶךְ מִדַּרְכֵי הַזְּנוּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא גִּלָּה עֶרְוָה וְזֶהוּ הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הָעֲרָיוֹת. קסג) הַמִּתְחַתֵּן בְּעַכּוּ''ם. קסד) גֵּר עַמּוֹנִי שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבָעַל. קסה) גֵּר מוֹאָבִי שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבָעַל. קסו) מֶלֶךְ שֶׁהִרְבָּה נָשִׁים. קסז) מֶלֶךְ שֶׁהִרְבָּה סוּסִים. קסח) מֶלֶךְ שֶׁהִרְבָּה כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב: נִמְצְאוּ כָּל הַלּוֹקִים ר''ז וְסִימָן לָהֶם יִלְקוּ זָרִים:

Sanhedrin veha’Onashin haMesurin lahem - Chapter 20


A court does not inflict punishment on the basis of conclusions which it draws, only on the basis of the testimony of witnesses with clear proof. Even if witnesses saw a person pursuing a colleague, they gave him a warning, but then diverted their attention, punishment is not inflicted on the basis of their testimony. Or to give a graphic example, the pursuer entered into a ruin, following the pursued and the witnesses followed him. They saw the victim slain, in his death throes, and the sword dripping blood in the hand of the killer, since they did not see him strike him, the court does not execute the killer based on this testimony. Concerning this and the like, Exodus 23:7 states: "Do not kill an innocent and righteous person."

Similarly, if two people testified that a person served a false deity in different circumstances, e.g., one saw him serve the sun and warned him, while the other saw him serve the moon and warned him, their testimonies are not combined. This can also be inferred from the verse: "Do not kill an innocent and righteous person." Since there is a rationale on which basis he could be held innocent and righteous, he should not be executed.


אֵין בֵּית דִּין עוֹנְשִׁין בְּאֹמֶד הַדַּעַת אֶלָּא עַל פִּי עֵדִים בִּרְאָיָה בְּרוּרָה. אֲפִלּוּ רָאוּהוּ הָעֵדִים רוֹדֵף אַחַר חֲבֵרוֹ וְהִתְרוּ בּוֹ וְהֶעֱלִימוּ עֵינֵיהֶם אוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ אַחֲרָיו לְחֻרְבָּה וְנִכְנְסוּ אַחֲרָיו וּמְצָאוּהוּ הָרוּג וּמְפַרְפֵּר וְהַסַּיִף מְנַטֵּף דָּם בְּיַד הַהוֹרֵג הוֹאִיל וְלֹא רָאוּהוּ בְּעֵת שֶׁהִכָּהוּ אֵין בֵּית דִּין הוֹרְגִין בְּעֵדוּת זוֹ וְעַל זֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ נֶאֱמַר (שמות כג ז) "וְנָקִי וְצַדִּיק אַל תַּהֲרֹג". וְכֵן אִם הֵעִידוּ עָלָיו שְׁנַיִם שֶׁעָבַד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה זֶה רָאָהוּ שֶׁעָבַד אֶת הַחַמָּה וְהִתְרָה בּוֹ וְזֶה רָאָהוּ שֶׁעָבַד אֶת הַלְּבָנָה וְהִתְרָה בּוֹ אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְנָקִי וְצַדִּיק אַל תַּהֲרֹג הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ שָׁם צַד לְנַקּוֹתוֹ וְלִהְיוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק אַל תַּהַרְגוּהוּ:


Whenever a person violates a prohibition punishable by execution by the court under duress, the court should not execute him. Even in situations where the transgressor was commanded to sacrifice his life and not transgress, if he sinned under duress, although he desecrated God's name, he should not be executed. This is derived from Deuteronomy 22:26: "To the maiden, you should not do anything." This verse is a warning to the court not to punish a person who transgresses under duress.


כָּל מִי שֶׁעָשָׂה דָּבָר שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלָיו מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין בְּאֹנֶס אֵין בֵּית דִּין מְמִיתִין אוֹתוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה מְצֻוֶּה שֶׁיֵּהָרֵג וְאַל יַעֲבֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחִלֵּל אֶת הַשֵּׁם וְהוּא אָנוּס אֵינוֹ נֶהֱרָג שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כו) "וְלַנַּעֲרָה לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה דָבָר" זוֹ אַזְהָרָה לְבֵית דִּין שֶׁלֹּא יַעַנְשׁוּ אֶת הָאָנוּס:


When a man is compelled to engage in relations with a woman forbidden to him, he is liable for execution by the court. The rationale is that an erection can only come about willingly. When a woman is raped, by contrast, she is absolved. This applies even if, in the midst of the rape, she says: "Allow him to continue." It is her natural inclination that overcame her.


אִישׁ שֶׁאֲנָסוּהוּ עַד שֶׁבָּא עַל הָעֶרְוָה חַיָּב מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין שֶׁאֵין קִשּׁוּי אֶלָּא לְדַעַת. אֲבָל הָאִשָּׁה הַנִּבְעֶלֶת בְּאֹנֶס אֲפִלּוּ אָמְרָה אַחַר שֶׁנֶּאֶנְסָה הָנִיחוּ לוֹ הֲרֵי הִיא פְּטוּרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיִּצְרָהּ נִתְגַּבֵּר עָלֶיהָ:


It is forbidden for the court to have compassion for the killer. The judges should not say: "Since this person has already been killed, what advantage is there in killing another person," and thus be lax in executing him. This is implied by Deuteronomy 19:13: "Do not allow your eyes to take pity. You shall eliminate innocent bloodshed."

Similarly, it is forbidden for the court to take pity on a person who was obligated to pay a fine. They should not say: "He is poor. He acted unintentionally." Instead, they should exact the entire payment from him without compassion, as Ibid.:21 states: "You shall not take pity."

Similarly, in questions of monetary law, one should not show mercy to the poor, saying: "He is indigent and the other litigant is wealthy. Since both I and the wealthy man are obligated to provide for the poor person's livelihood, I will vindicate him in judgment and thus he will derive his livelihood with honor." With regard to this, the Torah warned Exodus 23:3: "Do not glorify the indigent in his dispute," and Leviticus 19:15: "Do not show favor to the poor."

It is forbidden to show favor to a person of stature. What is implied? Two people come before one for judgment, one a wise man of stature and one, an ordinary person. One may not ask about the welfare of the person of stature first, nor treat him with favor, nor show him honor, lest this cause the other litigant to become tongue-tied. Instead, the judge should not turn to either of them in a personal manner until the judgment is concluded. This is derived from [Ibid.: "Do not glorify the countenance of a person of stature." Our Sages said: One should not say: "This man is affluent; he is the son of people of stature, how can I embarrass him and witness his humiliation." With regard to this, it is written: "Do not glorify the countenance of a person of stature."


אָסוּר לְבֵית דִּין לָחוּס עַל הַהוֹרֵג שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ כְּבָר נֶהֱרַג זֶה וּמַה תּוֹעֶלֶת יֵשׁ בַּהֲרִיגַת הָאַחֵר וְנִמְצְאוּ מִתְרַשְּׁלִין בַּהֲרִיגָתוֹ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט יג) "וְלֹא תָחוֹס עֵינְךָ עָלָיו וּבִעַרְתָּ דַם הַנָּקִי". וְכֵן אָסוּר לְבֵית דִּין לָחוּס עַל מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב קְנָס שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ עָנִי הוּא זֶה שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה עָשָׂה אֶלָּא מַגְבִּין מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּלֹא חֲנִינָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְלֹא תָחוֹס עֵינְךָ. וְכֵן בְּדִינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת אֵין מְרַחֲמִין עַל הַדַּל. שֶׁלֹּא תֹּאמַר עָנִי הוּא זֶה וּבַעַל דִּינוֹ עָשִׁיר הוֹאִיל וַאֲנִי וְהֶעָשִׁיר חַיָּבִין לְפַרְנְסוֹ אֲזַכֶּנּוּ בַּדִּין וְנִמְצָא מִתְפַּרְנֵס בְּכָבוֹד. עַל זֶה הִזְהִירָה תּוֹרָה (שמות כג ג) "וְדָל לֹא תֶהְדַּר בְּרִיבוֹ". וְנֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יט טו) "לֹא תִשָּׂא פְנֵי דָל". אָסוּר לְהַדֵּר פְּנֵי גָּדוֹל. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁבָּאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ שְׁנַיִם לְדִין אֶחָד חָכָם גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד הֶדְיוֹט לֹא תַּקְדִּים לִשְׁאל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ שֶׁל גָּדוֹל וְלֹא תַּסְבִּיר לוֹ פָּנִים וְלֹא תְּכַבְּדֶנּוּ. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִסְתַּתְּמוּ טַעֲנוֹתָיו שֶׁל אַחֵר. אֶלָּא אֵינוֹ נִפְנֶה לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן עַד שֶׁיִּגָּמֵר הַדִּין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט טו) "לֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל". אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים אַל תֹּאמַר עָשִׁיר הוּא זֶה בֶּן גְּדוֹלִים הוּא זֶה הֵיאַךְ אֲבַיְּשֶׁנּוּ וְאֶרְאֶה בְּבוּשָׁתוֹ. לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר לֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל:


If two people come before a judge one observant and one wicked, he should not say : "Since he is wicked and it can be presumed that he is lying and conversely, it can be assumed that the other litigant does not falsify his statements, I will be biased against the wicked in judgment." With regard to this, Exodus 23:7 states: "Do not be biased in the judgment of the poor person." The intent is even if a person is poor in the observance of mitzvot, do not be biased in his judgment.


בָּאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ שְׁנַיִם אֶחָד כָּשֵׁר וְאֶחָד רָשָׁע אַל תֹּאמַר הוֹאִיל וְרָשָׁע הוּא וְחֶזְקָתוֹ מְשַׁקֵּר וְחֶזְקַת זֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְשַׁנֶּה בִּדְבָרוֹ אַטֶּה הַדִּין עַל הָרָשָׁע. עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (שמות כג ו) "לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט אֶבְיֹנְךָ בְּרִיבוֹ" אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אֶבְיוֹן בְּמִצְוֹת לֹא תַּטֶּה דִּינוֹ:


Leviticus 19:15: "Do not act perversely in judgment" refers to a person who distorts the judgment and vindicates the litigant who should be held liable and obligates the litigant who should be vindicated. Similarly, a person who delays rendering judgment and extends his deliberations even though the matter is clear-cut in order to aggravate one of the litigants is also considered as one who acts perversely.


(ויקרא יט טו) "לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט" זֶה הַמְעַוֵּת אֶת הַדִּין וּמְזַכֶּה אֶת הַחַיָּב וּמְחַיֵּב אֶת הַזַּכַּאי. וְכֵן הַמְעַנֶּה אֶת הַדִּין וּמַאֲרִיךְ בִּדְבָרִים בְּרוּרִים כְּדֵי לְצַעֵר אֶחָד מִבַּעֲלֵי דִּינִים הֲרֵי זֶה בִּכְלַל עָוֶל:


A person who is haughty when rendering judgment and hurries to deliver a judgment before he examines the matter in his own mind until it is as clear as the sun to him is considered a fool, wicked, and conceited. Our Sages commanded: "Be patient in judgment." And similarly, Job 29:16 states: "When I did not understand a complaint, I would investigate."


הַגַּס לִבּוֹ בְּהוֹרָאָה וְקוֹפֵץ וְחוֹתֵךְ אֶת הַדִּין קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּחְקְרֵהוּ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא לוֹ בָּרוּר כַּשֶּׁמֶשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹטֶה רָשָׁע וְגַס רוּחַ. כָּךְ צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים (גמרא סנהדרין ז ב) "הֱווּ מְתוּנִין בַּדִּין". וְכֵן אִיּוֹב הוּא אוֹמֵר (איוב כט טז) "וְרִב לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֶחְקְרֵהוּ":


A judge who begins comparing a judgment that is brought before him to a judgment that was already rendered with which he was familiar is considered as wicked and haughty when rendering judgment if there is a scholar in his city who is wiser than him and he fails to consult him. Our Sages comment: "May evil upon evil befall him." For these and similar concepts stem from haughtiness which leads to the perversion of justice.

Proverbs 7:26: "She cast down many corpses" refers to a student who has not reached the level where he can deliver rulings, but does so. Awesome are all she has slain" Ibid. refers to a scholar who has reached the level where he can deliver rulings, but does not do so.

The latter denunciation applies provided his generation requires his services. If, however, he knows that there is another scholar capable of rendering decisions, and therefore he refrains from doing so, he is praiseworthy. Whenever a person refrains from becoming involved in a judgment, he removes the responsibility for antagonism, theft, and false oaths from himself. A person who is haughty in rendering judgment is foolish, wicked, and arrogant.


כָּל דַּיָּן שֶׁבָּא לְפָנָיו דִּין וְהִתְחִיל לְדַמּוֹתוֹ בְּדִין פָּסוּק שֶׁכְּבָר יָדַע אוֹתוֹ וְיֵשׁ בַּמְּדִינָה גָּדוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּחָכְמָה וְאֵינוֹ הוֹלֵךְ וְנִמְלָךְ בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה בִּכְלַל הָרְשָׁעִים שֶׁלִּבָּם גַּס בְּהוֹרָאָה. וְאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים רָעָה עַל רָעָה תָּבוֹא לוֹ שֶׁכָּל הַדְּבָרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִגַּסּוּת הָרוּחַ הֵן הַמְּבִיאוֹת לִידֵי עִוּוּת הַדִּין. (משלי ז כו) "כִּי רַבִּים חֲלָלִים הִפִּילָה" זֶה תַּלְמִיד שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לְהוֹרָאָה וּמוֹרֶה. (משלי ז כו) "וַעֲצֻמִים כָּל הֲרֻגֶיהָ" זֶה שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְהוֹרָאָה וְאֵינוֹ מוֹרֶה. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַדּוֹר צָרִיךְ לוֹ. אֲבָל אִם יָדַע שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְשָׁם רָאוּי לְהוֹרָאָה וּמָנַע עַצְמוֹ מִן הַהוֹרָאָה הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח. וְכָל הַמּוֹנֵעַ עַצְמוֹ מִן הַדִּין מוֹנֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ אֵיבָה וְגֵזֶל וּשְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא וְהַגַּס לִבּוֹ בְּהוֹרָאָה שׁוֹטֶה רָשָׁע וְגַס רוּחַ:


A student should not give a ruling in the presence of his teacher unless he is three parseot removed from him. This distance is the length of the encampment of the Jews in the desert.


תַּלְמִיד אַל יוֹרֶה הֲלָכָה לִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה רָחוֹק מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ פַּרְסָאוֹת כְּנֶגֶד מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל:


A person should not say: "All of the above applies with regard to a judgment that involves the expropriation of a large sum of money from one person to another." Instead, a judgment involving 1000 maneh and one involving a p'rutah should be regarded as identical with regard to all matters.


אַל תֹּאמַר שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים בְּדִין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ הוֹצָאַת מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה מִזֶּה וּנְתִינָתוֹ לָזֶה. לְעוֹלָם יְהִי דִּין אֶלֶף מָנֶה וְדִין פְּרוּטָה אַחַת שָׁוִין בְּעֵינֶיךָ לְכָל דָּבָר:


Judges should not sit down to adjudicate a case involving less than a p'rutah. If, however, they were required to adjudicate a complaint involving a p'rutah, they render a judgment even if ultimately, the outcome concerns less than a p'rutah.


אֵין הַדַּיָּנִין יוֹשְׁבִין לָדִין בְּדִין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה. וְאִם הֻזְקְקוּ לִשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה גּוֹמְרִין אֶת דִּינוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְפָחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה:


Anyone who perverts a judgment against another Jew transgresses a negative commandment, as Leviticus 19:15 states: "Do not act perversely in judgment." If the litigant was a convert, he transgresses two negative commandments, as Deuteronomy 24:17 states: "Do not distort the judgment of a convert." If he was an orphan, the transgressor violates three negative commandments as that verse continues: "...the judgment of an orphaned convert."


כָּל הַמַּטֶּה מִשְׁפָּט אֶחָד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹבֵר בְּלָאו אֶחָד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט טו) "לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט". וְאִם הָיָה גֵּר עוֹבֵר בִּשְׁנֵי לָאוִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יז) "לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר". וְאִם הָיָה יָתוֹם עוֹבֵר בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה לָאוִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יז) "מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר יָתוֹם":

Sanhedrin veha’Onashin haMesurin lahem - Chapter 21


It is a positive commandment for a judge to adjudicate righteously, as Leviticus 19:15 states: "Judge your colleagues with righteousness."

What is meant by a righteous judgment? Equating the litigants with regard to all matters. One should not be allowed to speak to the full extent he feels necessary while the other is told to speak concisely. One should not treat one favorably and speak gently to him and treat the other harshly and speak sternly to him.


מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִשְׁפֹּט הַשּׁוֹפֵט בְּצֶדֶק שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט טו) "בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ". אֵי זֶהוּ צֶדֶק הַמִּשְׁפָּט זוֹ הַשְׁוָיַת שְׁנֵי בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין בְּכָל דָּבָר. לֹא יְהֵא אֶחָד מְדַבֵּר כָּל צָרְכּוֹ וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לוֹ קַצֵּר דְּבָרֶיךָ. וְלֹא יַסְבִּיר פָּנִים לְאֶחָד וִידַבֵּר לוֹ רַכּוֹת וְיָרֵעַ פָּנָיו לְאַחֵר וִידַבֵּר לוֹ קָשׁוֹת:


When there are two litigants, one wearing precious garments and the other degrading garments, we tell the litigant who carries himself honorably: "Either clothe him as you are clothed for the duration of your judgment or dress like him, so that you will be equal. Afterwards, stand judgment."


שְׁנֵי בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין שֶׁהָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶם מְלֻבָּשׁ בְּגָדִים יְקָרִים וְהַשֵּׁנִי מְלֻבָּשׁ בְּגָדִים בְּזוּיִין אוֹמֵר לַמְכֻבָּד אוֹ הַלְבִּישֵׁהוּ כְּמוֹתְךָ עַד שֶׁתָּדוּן עִמּוֹ אוֹ לְבשׁ כְּמוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁתִּהְיוּ שָׁוִין אַחַר כָּךְ תַּעַמְדוּ בַּדִּין:


One of the litigants should not be allowed to sit, while the other stands. Instead, they both should stand. If the court desires to seat both of them, they may. One should not be seated on a higher plane than the other. Instead, they should sit on the same level.

When does this apply? During the give and take of the arguments. When, however, the judgment is being delivered, both litigants must stand, as Exodus 18:13 states: "And the people stood before Moses."

What is meant by the delivery of the judgment? The announcement: "So and so, you are vindicated? So and so, you are liable."

When does the above apply? To the litigants. The witnesses, by contrast, must always stand, as Deuteronomy 19:17 states: "And the two men shall stand."


לֹא יִהְיֶה אֶחָד יוֹשֵׁב וְאֶחָד עוֹמֵד אֶלָּא שְׁנֵיהֶם עוֹמְדִים. וְאִם רָצוּ בֵּית דִּין לְהוֹשִׁיב אֶת שְׁנֵיהֶם מוֹשִׁיבִין. וְלֹא יֵשֵׁב אֶחָד לְמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד לְמַטָּה אֶלָּא זֶה בְּצַד זֶה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁעַת מַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן. אֲבָל בִּשְׁעַת גְּמַר דִּין שְׁנֵיהֶם בַּעֲמִידָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יח יג) "וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם עַל משֶׁה". וְאֵי זֶהוּ גְּמַר דִּין אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי אַתָּה זַכַּאי אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי אַתָּה חַיָּב. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּבַעֲלֵי דִּינִין. אֲבָל הָעֵדִים לְעוֹלָם בַּעֲמִידָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט יז) "וְעָמְדוּ שְׁנֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים":


When a Torah scholar and a common person come to adjudicate a dispute, the Torah scholar is seated. And the common person is instructed to sit. If, however, he does not sit, it is of no consequence.

A student who wishes to have a dispute adjudicated should not come early and sit before his teacher if he desires to have him adjudicate the case. If, however, each one of the judge's students had a fixed time to read before the judge and one of them came to read at the time of his judgment, it is permitted for the judge to hear the case.


תַּלְמִיד חָכָם וְעַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁבָּאוּ לְדִין מוֹשִׁיבִין אֶת הֶחָכָם וְאוֹמְרִים לְעַם הָאָרֶץ שֵׁב. אִם לֹא יָשַׁב אֵין מַקְפִּידִין עַל כָּךְ. וְלֹא יַקְדִּים הַתַּלְמִיד כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא לְדִין וְיֵשֵׁב לִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ כְּרוֹצֶה לָדוּן לְפָנָיו. וְאִם הָיָה קוֹבֵעַ לוֹ זְמַן לִקְרוֹת וּבָא זְמַנּוֹ מֻתָּר:


It has already become customary in all the courts throughout Israel after the era of Talmud, in all the yeshivot, to have the litigants and the witnesses sit so that there will be no controversy. For we do not have the power to establish the judgments of our faith in a firm manner.


כְּבָר נָהֲגוּ כָּל בָּתֵּי דִּינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאַחַר הַגְּמָרָא בְּכָל הַיְשִׁיבוֹת שֶׁמּוֹשִׁיבִין בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין וּמוֹשִׁיבִין הָעֵדִים כְּדֵי לְסַלֵּק הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת. שֶׁאֵין בָּנוּ כֹּחַ לְהַעֲמִיד מִשְׁפְּטֵי הַדָּת עַל תִּלָּם:


If there were many litigants before the judges, precedence should be give to a case involving an orphan to one involving a widow, as implied by Isaiah 1:17: "Judge an orphan, enter in a dispute on behalf of a widow." A case involving a widow receives precedence over a case involving a Torah scholar. A case involving a Torah scholar takes precedence over a case involving a common person. And a case involving a woman takes precedence over one involving a man, because the shame felt by a woman is greater.


הָיוּ לִפְנֵי הַדַּיָּנִים בַּעֲלֵי דִּין הַרְבֵּה מַקְדִּימִין אֶת דִּין הַיָּתוֹם לְדִין הָאַלְמָנָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה א יז) "שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה". וְדִין אַלְמָנָה קוֹדֵם לְדִין תַּלְמִיד חָכָם. וְדִין תַּלְמִיד חָכָם קוֹדֵם לְדִין עַם הָאָרֶץ. וְדִין הָאִשָּׁה קוֹדֵם לְדִין הָאִישׁ שֶׁבּשֶׁת הָאִשָּׁה מְרֻבָּה:


It is forbidden for a judge to hear the words of one of the litigants before the other comes or outside the other's presence. Even hearing one word is forbidden, as implied by Deuteronomy 1:16: "Listen among your brethren." A judge who listens to only one litigant violates a negative commandment, as Exodus 23:1 states: "Do not bear a false report." Included in this prohibition is a warning to a person who listens to malicious gossip, one who speaks malicious gossip, and one who bears false testimony.

Similarly, each litigant is warned not to tell his arguments to a judge before the other litigant comes. With regard to this and similar matters, Exodus 23:7 states: "Keep distant from words of falsehood."


אָסוּר לְדַיָּן לִשְׁמֹעַ דִּבְרֵי אֶחָד מִבַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבוֹא חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי חֲבֵרוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר אֶחָד אָסוּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים א טז) "שָׁמֹעַ בֵּין אֲחֵיכֶם". וְכָל הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ מֵאֶחָד עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג א) "לֹא תִשָּׂא שֵׁמַע שָׁוְא". וּבִכְלַל לָאו זֶה אַזְהָרָה לִמְקַבֵּל לָשׁוֹן הָרַע וּמְסַפֵּר לָשׁוֹן הָרַע וּמֵעִיד עֵדוּת שֶׁקֶר. וְכֵן בַּעַל דִּין מֻזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁמִיעַ דְּבָרָיו לַדַּיָּן קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבוֹא בַּעַל דִּין חֲבֵרוֹ. וְגַם עַל זֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ נֶאֱמַר (שמות כג ז) "מִדְּבַר שֶׁקֶר תִּרְחָק":


A judge should not hear from a translator. If he understands the language of the litigants and listens to their arguments, but is not fluent in their language in order to respond to them, he should appoint a translator to inform them of the ruling and the rationale why this person's claim was vindicated and the other was held liable.


לֹא יִהְיֶה הַדַּיָּן שׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי הַתֻּרְגְּמָן אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה מַכִּיר לְשׁוֹן בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין וְשׁוֹמֵעַ טַעֲנוֹתֵיהֶם. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מָהִיר בִּלְשׁוֹנָם כְּדֵי לְהָשִׁיב לָהֶם יַעֲמֹד הַתֻּרְגְּמָן לְהוֹדִיעַ אוֹתָם פְּסַק הַדִּין וּמֵאֵי זֶה טַעַם חַיָּב זֶה וְזָכָה זֶה:


A judge must listen to the arguments of the litigants and restate their claims, as evident from I Kings 3:23 which states: "And the king said: 'This one says: "Mine is the son who lives and your son is the one who is dead."...'"

He should determine the just resolution of the judgment in his heart and then pronounce judgment.


צָרִיךְ הַדַּיָּן לִשְׁמֹעַ טַעֲנוֹת בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין וְלִשְׁנוֹת טַעֲנוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים א ג כג) "וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ זֹאת אֹמֶרֶת זֶה בְּנִי הַחַי וּבְנֵךְ הַמֵּת" וּמְצַדֵּק אֶת הַדִּין בְּלִבּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹתְכוֹ:


What is the source which teaches that a judge should not justify the arguments of one of the litigants? "Keep distant from words of falsehood." Instead, the litigant should tell the judge what appears correct to him and the judge should remain silent.

He should not teach one of the litigants an argument at all. Even if the plaintiff brings only one witness, the judge should not say: "We do not accept the testimony of one witness." Instead, he should tell the defendant: "See, he has testified against you." Preferably, he will acknowledge the other's claim, saying: "He testified truthfully." The judge should not ignore the witness's testimony unless the other litigant says: "He is only one witness and I do not accept his testimony." Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.


מִנַּיִן לַדַּיָּן שֶׁלֹּא יֵעָשֶׂה מֵלִיץ לִדְבָרָיו שֶׁל בַּעַל דִּין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג ז) "מִדְּבַר שֶׁקֶר תִּרְחָק" אֶלָּא יֹאמַר מַה שֶּׁנִּרְאֶה לוֹ וְיִשְׁתֹּק. וְלֹא יְלַמֵּד אֶחָד מִבַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין טַעֲנָה כְּלָל. אֲפִלּוּ הֵבִיא עֵד אֶחָד לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ אֵין מְקַבְּלִין עֵד אֶחָד אֶלָּא יֹאמַר לַנִּטְעָן הֲרֵי זֶה הֵעִיד עָלֶיךָ. הַלְוַאי שֶׁיּוֹדֶה וְיֹאמַר אֱמֶת הֵעִיד. עַד שֶׁיִּטְעֹן הוּא וְיֹאמַר עֵד אֶחָד הוּא וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן עָלַי. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


If a judge sees a vindicating argument for one of the litigants and realizes that the litigant is seeking to state it, but does not know how to articulate the matter, sees that one was painfully trying to extricate himself with a true claim, but because of his anger and rage, he lost touch of the argument, or sees that one became confused because of his intellectual inadequacy, he may assist him somewhat to grant him an initial understanding of the matter, as indicated by Proverbs 31:8: "Open your mouth for the dumb person." One must reconsider the matter amply, lest one become like a legal counselor.


רָאָה הַדַּיָּן זְכוּת לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן וּבַעַל דִּין מְבַקֵּשׁ לְאָמְרָהּ וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְחַבֵּר הַדְּבָרִים. אוֹ שֶׁרָאָהוּ מִצְטַעֵר לְהַצִּיל עַצְמוֹ בְּטַעֲנַת אֱמֶת וּמִפְּנֵי הַחֵמָה וְהַכַּעַס נִסְתַּלֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ נִשְׁתַּבֵּשׁ מִפְּנֵי הַסִּכְלוּת. הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְסַעֲדוֹ מְעַט לַהֲבִינוֹ תְּחִלַּת הַדָּבָר מִשּׁוּם (משלי לא ח) "פְּתַח פִּיךָ לְאִלֵּם". וְצָרִיךְ לְהִתְיַשֵּׁב בְּדָבָר זֶה הַרְבֵּה שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה כְּעוֹרְכֵי הַדַּיָּנִין:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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