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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Mikvaot - Chapter 8, Mikvaot - Chapter 9, Mikvaot - Chapter 10

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Mikvaot - Chapter 8

1

Any body of water that is in contact with a mikveh, is considered as the mikveh itself and it can be used for immersion. When cavities that are next to the opening of a mikveh or the footprints left by animals share a point of contact with the water of the mikveh that is as large as the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch, they may be used for immersion.

א

כָּל הַמְעֹרָב לַמִּקְוֶה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִקְוֶה וּמַטְבִּילִין בּוֹ. גּוּמוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְפִי הַמִּקְוֶה וּמְקוֹם רַגְלֵי פַּרְסוֹת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהָיוּ בָּהֶן מַיִם מְעֹרָבִין עִם מֵי הַמִּקְוֶה כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶן:

2

Cavities at the side of the mikveh or crevices at the side of mikveh may be used for immersion even if they have only the slightest point of contact with the water of the mikveh.

ב

חוֹרֵי הַמְּעָרָה וְסִדְקֵי הַמְּעָרָה מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהֶן מְעֹרָבִין עִם מֵי הַמִּקְוֶה אֶלָּא בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:

3

When a needle was placed on the steps leading to a mikveh, one may move his hand back and forth in the water to create waves. Once the wave passes over the needle, it regains purity.

ג

מַחַט שֶׁהָיְתָה נְתוּנָה עַל מַעֲלוֹת הַמִּקְוֶה וְהָיָה מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא בַּמַּיִם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָבַר עָלֶיהָ הַגַּל טְהוֹרָה:

4

The following laws apply to a hidden reservoir in a mikveh: If the ground that separates between the mikveh and the reservoir is sturdy and capable of remaining over the course of time, one may not use the water in the reservoir for immersion unless it shares a point of contact with the mikveh as large as the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch. If it is not capable of remaining for an extended period, one may immerse in its water as long as it shares any contact whatsoever with the water of the mikveh.

ד

עוּקָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ מִקְוֶה אִם הָיְתָה הַקַּרְקַע הַמַּבְדֶּלֶת בֵּין הָעוּקָה וְהַמִּקְוֶה בְּרִיאָה וִיכוֹלָה לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת עַצְמָהּ אֵין מַטְבִּילִין בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבָּעוּקָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְעֹרָבִין עִם הַמִּקְוֶה כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. וְאִם אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת עַצְמָהּ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן מְעֹרָבִין אֶלָּא בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶן:

5

When the wall between two mikveot is cracked in half, the two mikveot are considered as joined. If together they contain 40 se'ah, either of them may be used for immersion. If the wall is cracked horizontally, they are not considered as joined unless there is a point of contact the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch. If the water is joined above the wall, they are considered as joined provided there is a layer of water even as thin as a garlic peel connecting them over the width of a space the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch.

ה

כֹּתֶל שֶׁבֵּין שְׁנֵי מִקְוָאוֹת שֶׁנִּסְדַּק לִשְׁנַיִם מִצְטָרְפִין וְאִם הָיָה בִּשְׁנֵיהֶן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַטְבִּילִין בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן. וְאִם נִסְדַּק לָעֵרֶב אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. נִפְרַץ הַכֹּתֶל מִלְּמַעְלָה אִם נִתְעָרְבוּ הַמַּיִם לְמַעְלָה מִן הַכֹּתֶל כִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם עַל רֹחַב שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד מִצְטָרְפִין:

6

How large is the measure of a hole the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch? A circle with a diameter the width sufficient to enable two average-sized fingers of an ordinary person to rotate within it. The fingers mentioned do not refer to the thumb, but to the first two of the four on the palm of one's hand.

Any entity present in the hole the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch reduces that measure. This applies even to entities that were created from the water.

If there is a doubt whether a hole is the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch or not, the mikveot are not considered as joined. The rationale is that the primary obligation to immerse is Scriptural. And whenever the primary obligation is Scriptural, even when the measure stated is conveyed by the Oral Tradition, we rule stringently when there is an unresolved doubt regarding its measure.

ו

כַּמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּר הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁהוּא כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. בְּרֹחַב שְׁתֵּי אֶצְבָּעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִיּוֹת שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם וְחוֹזְרוֹת בּוֹ. וְאֵינָן בַּגּוּדָל אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי אֶצְבָּעוֹת רִאשׁוֹנוֹת מִן הָאַרְבַּע שֶׁבְּפַס הַיָּד. כָּל שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד מְמַעֵט וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁהֵן מִבְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל מַיִם. סָפֵק יֵשׁ בַּנֶּקֶב כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד סָפֵק אֵין בּוֹ אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעִקַּר הַטְּבִילָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְכָל שֶׁעִקָּרוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשִּׁעוּרוֹ הֲלָכָה סְפֵק שִׁעוּרוֹ לְהַחְמִיר:

7

Mikveot may be purified from each other, an upper mikveh from a lower one and a far-away mikveh from one that is close.

What is implied? An earthenware or lead pipe - for pipes do not disqualify a mikveh - is brought and inserted into the acceptable mikveh. One places his hand under it until it becomes full and then takes it and connects it so that the water in the pipe will become intermingled with the water of the other mikveh. Even if the point where they become intermingled is only a hairsbreadth, it is sufficient. Then the two mikveot connected by the pipe are considered as one.

ז

מְטַהֲרִין אֶת הַמִּקְוָאוֹת הָעֶלְיוֹן מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹן וְהָרָחוֹק מִן הַקָּרוֹב. כֵּיצַד. מְבִיאִין סִילוֹן שֶׁל חֶרֶס אוֹ שֶׁל אֲבָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁאֵין הַסִּילוֹנוֹת פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת יָדָיו תַּחְתָּיו עַד שֶׁיִּתְמַלֵּא מַיִם וּמוֹשְׁכוֹ וּמַשִּׁיקוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתְעָרֵב הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּסִּילוֹן עִם מֵי הַמִּקְוֶה כְּאֶחָד אֲפִלּוּ כְּשַׂעֲרָה דַּיּוֹ וַהֲרֵי שְׁנֵי הַמִּקְוָאוֹת שֶׁהַסִּילוֹן בֵּינֵיהֶן כְּמִקְוֶה אֶחָד:

8

The following rules apply when there are three cavities in a wadi, the higher one and the lower one contain only 20 se'ah, the middle one contains 40 se'ah, and a current of rain water flows through the wadi. Although the current of water flows into the cavities and out of them, it does not join the cavities as one. Hence, only the middle one is acceptable for immersion. The rationale is that water that is flowing does not join mikveot unless it collects in one place.

ח

שָׁלֹשׁ גֻּמּוֹת שֶׁבַּנַּחַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה וְהָעֶלְיוֹנָה שֶׁל עֶשְׂרִים סְאָה וְהָאֶמְצָעִית שֶׁל אַרְבָּעִים וְשֶׁטֶף שֶׁל גְּשָׁמִים עוֹבֵר בְּתוֹךְ הַנַּחַל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נִכְנָס לְתוֹכָן וְיוֹצֵא מִתּוֹכָן אֵין זֶה עֵרוּב. וְאֵין מַטְבִּילִין אֶלָּא בָּאֶמְצָעִית שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם הַנִּזְחָלִין מְעָרְבִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָמְדוּ:

9

Soft mud from which a cow drinks may be measured as part of a mikveh. If it is so thick that a cow would not drink from it, it should not be measured as part of it.

ט

טִיט רַךְ שֶׁהַפָּרָה שׁוֹחָה וְשׁוֹתָה מִמֶּנּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה נִמְדָּד עִם הַמִּקְוֶה. הָיָה עָבֶה עַד שֶׁאֵין הַפָּרָה שׁוֹחָה וְשׁוֹתָה אֵינוֹ נִמְדָּד עִמּוֹ:

10

When a mikveh contains 40 se'ah of water and mud, one may immerse in both the mud and the water. In which mud may one immerse? In soft mud over which water collects. If the water was on one side and the soft mud on the other side, one may immerse in the water, but not in the mud.

י

מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַיִם וְטִיט מַטְבִּילִין בַּטִּיט וּבַמַּיִם. בְּאֵי זֶה טִיט מַטְבִּילִין בַּטִּיט הָרַךְ שֶׁהַמַּיִם צָפִין עַל גַּבָּיו. הָיוּ הַמַּיִם מִצַּד אֶחָד וְהַטִּיט הָרַךְ מִצַּד אַחֵר מַטְבִּילִין בַּמַּיִם וְלֹא בַּטִּיט:

11

Any substance that was created from the water, e.g., red worms, is acceptable for immersion. One may immerse in the eye of a giant fish.

יא

כָּל שֶׁתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ מִן הַמַּיִם כְּגוֹן יַבְחוּשִׁין אֲדֻמִּין מַטְבִּילִין בּוֹ. וּמַטְבִּילִין בְּעֵינוֹ שֶׁל דָּג:

12

When a mikveh contains exactly 40 se'ah of water and two people descended and immersed, one after the other, the first is pure and the second remains impure. The rationale is that some of water contained in the original 40 se'ah was removed. This stringency applies even in the feet of the first person were still in the water when the second immerses.

If one immersed a thick sponge or the like in such a mikveh and lifted it up, as long as part of the sponge is touching the water, one who immerses afterwards is pure. The rationale is that all of the water is considered as intermingled.

When one immerses a bed or the like, even though he pushed its legs into the thick mud on the bottom of the mikveh until the water covers it from above, it is pure. The rationale is that it does not become sunk in the water until it becomes immersed in the water first.

When one immerses a large pot in a mikveh with a limited amount of water, it is impure, as it was beforehand, because the water will splash out of the mikveh. Thus the mikveh will be less than 40 se'ah. What should he do? He should lower it via its opening, turn it over in the mikveh, immerse it, and lift it up by its base, so that the water inside will not become "drawn," and return to the mikveh and disqualify it.

יב

מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מְכֻוָּנוֹת וְיָרְדוּ שְׁנַיִם וְטָבְלוּ זֶה אַחַר זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרַגְלָיו שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן נוֹגְעוֹת בַּמַּיִם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָהוֹר וְהַשֵּׁנִי בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי חָסְרוּ הַמַּיִם מֵאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה. הִטְבִּיל בּוֹ תְּחִלָּה סָגוֹס עָבֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְהִגְבִּיהוֹ אִם הָיְתָה מִקְצָת הַסָּגוֹס נוֹגַעַת בַּמַּיִם הֲרֵי הַטּוֹבֵל בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמַּיִם כֻּלָּן מְעֹרָבִין. הִטְבִּיל בּוֹ אֶת הַמִּטָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדָּחַק רַגְלֵי הַמִּטָּה בְּטִיט עָבֶה שֶׁבְּקַרְקַע הַמִּקְוֶה עַד שֶׁצָּפוּ הַמַּיִם עָלֶיהָ לְמַעְלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִטְבְּעוּ בַּטִּיט עַד שֶׁטָּבְלוּ בַּמַּיִם תְּחִלָּה. הִטְבִּיל בּוֹ יוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם נִתָּזִין וְיוֹצְאִין חוּץ לַמִּקְוֶה וְנִמְצָא חָסֵר מֵאַרְבָּעִים. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. מוֹרִידָהּ דֶּרֶךְ פִּיהָ וְהוֹפְכָהּ בַּמִּקְוֶה וּמַטְבִּילָהּ וּמַעֲלֶה אוֹתָהּ דֶּרֶךְ שׁוּלֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ שְׁאוּבִים וְיַחְזְרוּ לַמִּקְוֶה וְיִפְסְלוּהוּ:

13

When the water in a mikveh is dispersed, one may press even bundles of straw and bundles of reeds into the water from the sides until the water level will rise and one can descend and immerse within.

יג

מִקְוֶה שֶׁמֵּימָיו מְרֻדָּדִין כּוֹבֵשׁ אֲפִלּוּ חֲבִילֵי קַשׁ וַחֲבִילֵי קָנִים בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם וּמִן הַצְּדָדִין עַד שֶׁיֵּעָרְמוּ הַמַּיִם לְמַעְלָה וְיוֹרֵד וְטוֹבֵל לְתוֹכָן:

Mikvaot - Chapter 9

1

There are six categories of mikveot, one superior to another. The first is the water of pit, cisterns, storage trenches, storage caverns, and the like, where water is collected on the earth. Even though the water was "drawn" and even though there were less than 40 se'ah, since the water only contracts impurity through willful activity, as we explained, the prevailing assumption is that it is pure. It is fit to use such water to make dough from which challah must be separated or to wash one's hands, provided he washes his hands with a container, as we explained.

א

שֵׁשׁ מַעֲלוֹת בְּמִקְוָאוֹת זוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ. הָרִאשׁוֹן מֵי גְּבָאִים. וּמֵי בּוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת. וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִמַּיִם הַמְכֻנָּסִין בַּקַּרְקַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן שְׁאוּבִין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן מִתְטַמְּאִין אֶלָּא לְרָצוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֲרֵי הֵן בְּחֶזְקַת טְהוֹרִין וּכְשֵׁרִין לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן עִסָּה הַטְּבוּלָה לְחַלָּה וְלִטּל מֵהֶן לַיָּדַיִם וְהוּא שֶׁיִּטּל מֵהֶן בִּכְלִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

2

On a superior level is rainwater that has not ceased flowing, i.e., the rain is still descending and the mountains are still gushing with water and that water flows down and collects on the ground. It is not "drawn;" however, there are not 40 se'ah. Such water is acceptable for terumah, for the washing of hands, and for the immersion of water that became impure.

If the rains ceased descending, but the water was still flowing from the mountains, such water is still considered in this category. If water is no longer flowing from mountains and they are not gushing, it is considered as water collected in a pit.

ב

לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן מֵי תַּמְצִית שֶׁלֹּא פָּסְקוּ אֶלָּא עֲדַיִן הַגְּשָׁמִים יוֹרְדִין וְהֶהָרִים בּוֹצְצִין וְהֵן נִמְשָׁכִין וְנִקְוִין וְאֵינָן שְׁאוּבִין אֲבָל אֵין בָּהֶן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה הֲרֵי הֵן כְּשֵׁרִין לִתְרוּמָה וְלִטּל מֵהֶן לַיָּדַיִם וּמַטְבִּיל בָּהֶן אֶת הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ. פָּסְקוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים וְלֹא פָּסְקוּ הֶהָרִים מִלְּהַזְחִיל עֲדַיִן הֵן מֵי תַּמְצִית. פָּסְקוּ הֶהָרִים וְאֵינָן בּוֹצְצִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּמֵי גְּבָאִין:

3

When one digs at the side of the sea, a river, or a swamp, and water from these bodies flows into the pit that was dug, the water is considered like water that has not ceased flowing.

ג

הַחוֹפֵר בְּצַד הַיָּם וּבְצַד הַנָּהָר וּבִמְקוֹם הַבֵּצִין הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמֵי תַּמְצִית שֶׁלֹּא פָּסְקוּ:

4

When one digs at the side of a spring, as long as the water emerges because of the spring, even though at times, its flow is interrupted, but then it flows again, it is considered as a spring. If it ceased flowing entirely, it is considered as water collected in a pit.

ד

הַחוֹפֵר בְּצַד הַמַּעְיָן כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ בָּאִין מֵחֲמַת הַמַּעְיָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפּוֹסְקִין וְחוֹזְרִין וּמוֹשְׁכִין הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמֵי מַעְיָן. פָּסְקוּ מִלִּהְיוֹת מוֹשְׁכִין הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמֵי גְּבָאִין:

5

On a superior level is a mikveh that contains 40 se'ah of water that was not drawn. Every person can immerse in such a mikveh to regain purity except a male zav. All impure keilim and hands that must be immersed to touch sacrificial foods are immersed in such a mikveh, as we explained.

ה

לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַיִם שֶׁאֵינָם שְׁאוּבִין שֶׁבּוֹ טוֹבֵל כָּל אָדָם טָמֵא חוּץ מִן הַזָּב הַזָּכָר וּבוֹ מַטְבִּילִין אֶת כָּל הַכֵּלִים הַטְּמֵאִים וְאֶת הַיָּדָיִם שֶׁמַּטְבִּילִין לְקֹדֶשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

6

On a superior level is a natural spring whose water is minimal and drawn water was added to it. The laws governing it resemble those governing a mikveh in that it does not impart purity through immersion in the water that flows from it, only in water that is collected and stationary in a reservoir. And they resemble those governing a natural spring in that even the smallest amount of its water imparts purity. For there is no minimum measure required for the water of a natural spring. Even the slightest amount can impart purity.

ו

לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה הַמַּעְיָן שֶׁמֵּימָיו מוּעָטִין וְהִרְבּוּ עָלָיו מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין שָׁוֶה לְמִקְוֶה שֶׁאֵין מְטַהֲרִין בְּמַיִם הַנִּמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם הַנִּקְוִין וְעוֹמְדִין בְּאֶשְבּוֹרֶן וְשָׁוֶה לַמַּעְיָן שֶׁהוּא מְטַהֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא שֶׁהַמַּעְיָן אֵין לְמֵימָיו שִׁעוּר אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהֵן מְטַהֲרִין:

7

On a superior level is a natural spring in which drawn water was not mixed, but its water was spoiled; it was bitter or salty. It imparts purity when its water is flowing, i.e., the water emerges and streams forth from the spring.

ז

לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה הַמַּעְיָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעָרֵב בּוֹ מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין אֲבָל מֵימָיו מֻכִּים כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ מֵימָיו מָרִים אוֹ מְלוּחִים שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מְטַהֵר בְּזוֹחֲלִים וְהֵן הַמַּיִם הַנִּגְרָרִים וְנִמְשָׁכִין מִן הַמַּעְיָן:

8

On a superior level is a natural spring whose water is "living water." In such springs alone may male zavim immerse and from them alone water may be taken for the purification of a person afflicted with tzara'at and for the sanctification of the water used for the ashes of the red heifer.

What are the differences between the laws governing a natural spring and a mikveh? A mikveh does not impart purity unless it contains 40 se'ah of water, while even the smallest amount of water from a natural spring imparts purity. And the water of a mikveh imparts purity only if it is collected in a reservoir. Any water flowing out from it does not impart purity. The water of a natural spring, by contrast, imparts purity when flowing. Also, immersion in a mikveh is not effective for zavim, while a zav may immerse in a natural spring of "living water."

ח

לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה הַמַּעְיָן שֶׁמֵּימָיו מַיִם חַיִּים שֶׁבָּהֶן בִּלְבַד טוֹבְלִים בּוֹ הַזָּבִים הַזְּכָרִים וְלוֹקְחִין מֵהֶן לְטָהֳרַת הַמְצֹרָע וּלְקַדֵּשׁ מֵי חַטָּאת. מַה בֵּין מַעְיָן לְמִקְוֶה הַמִּקְוֶה אֵינוֹ מְטַהֵר אֶלָּא בְּאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה וְהַמַּעְיָן מְטַהֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. הַמִּקְוֶה אֵינוֹ מְטַהֵר אֶלָּא בְּאֶשְבּוֹרֶן וְהַמַּיִם הַנִּזְחָלִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֵינָן מְטַהֲרִין וְהַמַּעְיָן מְטַהֵר בְּזוֹחֲלִים. הַמִּקְוֶה לֹא תַּעֲלֶה בּוֹ טְבִילָה לְזָבִים וְהַמַּעְיָן אִם הָיוּ מֵימָיו מַיִם חַיִּים הַזָּב טוֹבֵל בָּהֶן:

9

When the waters of a spring flow outward and into a receptacle in a stone and afterwards emerge from the receptacle and flow further, all of the water in the receptacle and all that flowed out of it is unacceptable for immersion. If some of the water from the spring - even the slightest amount - was flowing over the edge of the receptacle, the water outside the receptacle is acceptable for immersion. The rationale is that a natural spring purifies water as long as it shares even the slightest amount of contact with it.

When water from a natural spring was flowing into a pool that was filled with water and collects there, that pool is considered as a mikveh. If the water flows outside the pool, that water is not acceptable for the purification of zavim and those afflicted with tzara'at or for the sanctification of the water for the ashes of the red heifer until one is certain that all of the collected water that was originally in the pool has flowed out.

ט

מַעְיָן שֶׁמֵּימָיו יוֹצְאִין וְנִמְשָׁכִין לְתוֹךְ הַשֹּׁקֶת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יוֹצְאִין מִן הַשֹּׁקֶת וְנִזְחָלִין הֲרֵי כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּשֹּׁקֶת וְשֶׁחוּץ לוֹ פְּסוּלִין. הָיוּ מִקְצָתָן נִמְשָׁכִין עַל שְׂפַת הַשֹּׁקֶת אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁחוּץ לַשֹּׁקֶת כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁהַמַּעְיָן מְטַהֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. הָיוּ מֵימָיו נִמְשָׁכִין לְתוֹךְ בְּרֵכָה שֶׁהִיא מַיִם וְנִקְוִין שָׁם הֲרֵי אוֹתָהּ הַבְּרֵכָה כְּמִקְוֶה. הָיָה יוֹצֵא חוּץ לַבְּרֵכָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל לְזָבִים וְלִמְצֹרָעִים וּלְקַדֵּשׁ מֵי חַטָּאת עַד שֶׁיֵּדַע שֶׁיָּצְאוּ כָּל מֵי הַמִּקְוֶה שֶׁהָיוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַבְּרֵכָה:

10

When the waters of a spring flow over articles that do not have a receptacle, e.g., a table, a bench, or the like, the water is considered as a mikveh, provided one does not immerse above the articles themselves.

י

מַעְיָן שֶׁמֵּימָיו נִמְשָׁכִין עַל גַּבֵּי כֵּלִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן בֵּית קִבּוּל כְּגוֹן שֻׁלְחָן וְסַפְסָל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִקְוֶה וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַטְבִּיל עַל גַּבֵּי הַכֵּלִים:

11

When there was a natural spring with small irrigation ditches flowing out from it and one poured water into the spring so that the water in the ditches would increase and flow powerfully, the water is considered as a spring in all regards.

If the water of the spring was stationary and not flowing and one added water until it flowed into the irrigation ditches, the water that flows into those ditches is comparable to a mikveh in that it imparts purity only when collected in a reservoir and it is comparable to a spring in that even the slightest amount imparts purity.

יא

מַעְיָן שֶׁהָיוּ אַמּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת נִמְשָׁכוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ וְרִבָּה עָלָיו מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין לְתוֹךְ הַמַּעְיָן עַד שֶׁגָּבְרוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּאַמּוֹת וְשָׁטְפוּ הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמַעְיָן לְכָל דָּבָר. הָיוּ מֵימֵי הַמַּעְיָן עוֹמְדִים וְאֵינָן נִמְשָׁכִין וְרִבָּה עָלָיו מַיִם עַד שֶׁמָּשְׁכוּ מִמֶּנּוּ אַמּוֹת הַמַּיִם הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁמְּשׁוּכִין שָׁוִין לַמִּקְוֶה לְטַהֵר בָּאֶשְבּוֹרֶן בִּלְבַד וְשָׁוִין לַמַּעְיָן לְטַהֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:

12

All of the seas impart purity despite the fact that their water is flowing, but they are invalid for the purification of zavim and persons afflicted with tzara'at and for the sanctification of the water used for the ashes of the red heifer.

יב

כָּל הַיַּמִים מְטַהֲרִין בְּזוֹחֲלִין וּפְסוּלִין לְזָבִים וְלִמְצֹרָעִים וּלְקַדֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מֵי חַטָּאת:

13

Water that flows from a natural spring is considered as an extension of the spring in all contexts. Water that drips from a spring, even though the dripping is continuous, is considered only as a mikveh and does not impart purity unless there are 40 se'ah standing in one place. Such water is not acceptable for the purification of zavim and those afflicted with tzara'at or for the sanctification of the water for the ashes of the red heifer.

If the water flowing from the spring becomes mixed with water dripping from it, it is considered like a stream in all respects. If, however, the amount of the water of the stream that was dripping was greater than that which was flowing, or if an amount of rainwater greater than the water in a river flowed into it, the water does not impart purity when flowing, only when in a reservoir. Therefore one must use a mat or the like to surround the portion of the river where the water is mixed until the water will be gathered in a single place so that one can immerse in it.

יג

הַמַּיִם הַזּוֹחֲלִין מִן הַמַּעְיָן הֲרֵי הֵם כְּמַעְיָן לְכָל דָּבָר. וְהַמְנַטְּפִין מִן הַמַּעְיָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן טוֹרְדִין הֲרֵי הֵם כְּמִקְוֶה וְאֵין מְטַהֲרִין אֶלָּא בְּאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה עוֹמְדִין. וּפְסוּלִין לְזָבִים וְלִמְצֹרָעִים וּלְקַדֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מֵי חַטָּאת. הָיוּ הַזּוֹחֲלִין מִן הַמַּעְיָן מִתְעָרְבִין עִם הַנּוֹטְפִין [מִמֶּנּוּ אִם רַבּוּ הַזּוֹחֲלִין עַל הַנּוֹטְפִין] הֲרֵי הַכּל כְּמַעְיָן לְכָל דָּבָר. וְאִם רַבּוּ הַנּוֹטְפִים עַל הַזּוֹחֲלִין וְכֵן אִם רַבּוּ מֵי גְּשָׁמִים עַל מֵי הַנָּהָר אֵינָן מְטַהֲרִין בְּזוֹחֲלִין אֶלָּא בְּאֶשְבּוֹרֶן. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְהַקִּיף מַפָּץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַנָּהָר הַמְעֹרָב עַד שֶׁיִּקָּווּ הַמַּיִם וְיִטְבּל בָּהֶן:

14

When one caused water that was dripping to flow, e.g., one placed a smooth earthenware tablet next to a mikveh whose water was dripping and thus the water was flowing as it descended down the tablet, it is acceptable. Any article that is susceptible to impurity, even by Rabbinic decree, should not be used as a conduit for water.

יד

נוֹטְפִין שֶׁעֲשָׂאָן זוֹחֲלִין כְּגוֹן שֶׁסָּמַךְ לְמִקְוֶה הַמְנַטֵּף טַבְלָא שֶׁל חֶרֶס חֲלָקָה וַהֲרֵי הַמַּיִם נִזְחָלִין וְיוֹרְדִין עָלֶיהָ הֲרֵי הֵן כְּשֵׁרִין. וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה וַאֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵין מַזְחִילִין בּוֹ:

15

When one uses the external green shell of a nut to change the direction of the flow of water the water is acceptable as water from a spring, as it was before. It is not disqualified, because a fresh nut shell which imparts color is not considered as a container.

טו

זוֹחֲלִין שֶׁקִּלְּחָן בַּעֲלֵי אֱגוֹז כְּשֵׁרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵי הָאֱגוֹז הַלַּח שֶׁהוּא צוֹבֵעַ חָשׁוּב כְּכֵלִים:

16

When rainwater is cascading down a hill, flowing as it descends, even though there are more than 40 se'ah of water from the beginning of the torrent to its end, it is not acceptable for immersion while it is flowing. It must be collected in a reservoir containing 40 se'ah. If one surrounded the water with containers, having them serve as partitions, i.e., walls for a body of water to collect, and 40 se'ah of rainwater flowed into it and collected there, it is acceptable for immersion. The containers with which one surrounded the water are not considered to have been immersed.

טז

מֵי גְּשָׁמִים הַבָּאִין מִן הַמִּדְרוֹן וְהִנָּם נִזְחָלִין וְיוֹרְדִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְּחִלָּתָן וְעַד סוֹפָן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה אֵין מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶן כְּשֶׁהֵן נִזְחָלִין עַד שֶׁיִּקָּווּ וְיָנוּחוּ בְּאֶשְבּוֹרֶן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה. הֲרֵי שֶׁהִקִּיף כֵּלִים וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן מְחִצּוֹת עַד שֶּׁנִּתְקַבֵּץ בֵּינֵיהֶן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מִמַּיִם הַנִּזְחָלִין מִן הַגְּשָׁמִים הֲרֵי זֶה טוֹבֵל בָּהֶן. וְכֵלִים שֶׁעָשָׂה מֵהֶן הַגָּדֵר לֹא עָלְתָה לָהֶן טְבִילָה:

17

When a wave becomes separated from the sea and falls on a person or on keilim, they are pure for ordinary purposes, provided the wave contains 40 se'ah, for a person who immerses does not have to have a specific intent, as we explained in Hilchot Sha'ar Avot HaTum'ah. If the person focused his intent on purifying himself for a specific level of purity, and was waiting in anticipation of the wave falling upon him, he is considered to have purified himself for the activity for which he desired to purify himself.

יז

גַּל שֶׁנִּתְלַשׁ מִן הַיָּם וְנָפַל עַל הָאָדָם אוֹ עַל הַכֵּלִים אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין לְחֻלִּין שֶׁאֵין הַטּוֹבֵל לְחֻלִּין צָרִיךְ כַּוָּנָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁאָר אָבוֹת הַטֻּמְאוֹת. וְאִם נִתְכַּוֵּן וְהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וּמְצַפֶּה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל עָלָיו הַגַּל עָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה לְדָבָר שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לוֹ:

18

One may not immerse in a wave when it is in the air before it falls on the earth even if it contains 40 se'ah of water. The rationale is that just as we do not immerse in water that is flowing, how much more so do we not immerse in water that is in the air. When the two ends of a wave are touching the earth, we can immerse in it. We do not, however, immerse in its crest, because that water is in the air.

יח

אֵין מַטְבִּילִין בְּגַל כְּשֶׁהוּא בָּאֲוִיר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּפּל עַל הָאָרֶץ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה. לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַטְבִּילִין בְּזוֹחֲלִים קַל וָחֹמֶר בָּאֲוִיר. הָיוּ שְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁי הַגַּל נוֹגְעִין בָּאָרֶץ מַטְבִּילִין בּוֹ וְאֵין מַטְבִּילִין בַּכִּפָּה שֶׁלּוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא אֲוִיר:

Mikvaot - Chapter 10

1

What is meant by an unresolved doubt regarding drawn water that our Sages ruled as pure? A mikveh about which one was unsure whether drawn water fell into it. Or even if one was certain that drawn water fell into it, but was in doubt whether there were three lugim or not. Or even when one was certain that there were three lugim of drawn water, but there was a doubt whether the mikveh into which the water fell contained 40 se'ah or not. In all instances, the mikveh is acceptable.

א

סָפֵק מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין שֶׁטִּהֲרוּ חֲכָמִים כֵּיצַד. מִקְוֶה שֶׁנִּסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם נָפְלוּ לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם שְׁאוּבִים אוֹ לֹא. וַאֲפִלּוּ יָדַע בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁנָּפְלוּ סָפֵק יֵשׁ בָּהֶן שְׁלֹשֶׁת לוֹגִין סָפֵק אֵין בָּהֶן. וַאֲפִלּוּ יָדַע בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן שְׁלֹשֶׁת לוֹגִין סָפֵק שֶׁהָיָה בַּמִּקְוֶה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה סָפֵק לֹא הָיָה הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר:

2

The following law applies when there are two mikveot, one containing 40 se'ah and one containing a lesser amount. Three lugim of drawn water fell into one of them, but it is not known into which they fell. Because of the doubt, we rule that the acceptable mikveh is pure, because there is a factor on which one can rely.

If they both contained less than 40 se'ah and three lugim fell into one of them, they are both disqualified, because there is no factor on which one can rely. If the drawn water fell into one, it would be disqualified and if it fell into the other, it would be disqualified.

ב

שְׁנֵי מִקְוָאוֹת אֶחָד יֵשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה וְאֶחָד אֵין בּוֹ. נָפְלוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ לְאֵיזֶה מֵהֶן נָפְלוּ סְפֵקוֹ טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּמָה יִתְלֶה. הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּחוּתִין מֵאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה וְנָפְלוּ לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ לְאֵיזֶה מֵהֶן כָּל אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶן פָּסוּל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בְּמָה יִתְלֶה אִם לָזֶה נָפְלוּ נִפְסַל וְאִם לָזֶה נָפְלוּ נִפְסַל:

3

When one left a mikveh empty, and returned and found it full, it is acceptable, for there is an unresolved doubt whether the water for this mikveh was drawn.

ג

מִקְוֶה שֶׁהֱנִיחוֹ רֵיקָן וּבָא וּמְצָאוֹ מָלֵא כָּשֵׁר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּה סְפֵק מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין לְמִקְוֶה זֶה:

4

When a pipe carried water into a mikveh, but there is a mill next to it, if there is a doubt whether water flowed into the mikveh from the pipe or from the mill, it is unacceptable, because the disqualifying factor is evident. If, however, the mikveh contains a majority of acceptable water, it is acceptable because the doubt involves drawn water and there is an acceptable mikveh whose presence had been established.

ד

צִנּוֹר שֶׁמְּקַלֵּחַ לַמִּקְוֶה וְהַמַּכְתֶּשֶׁת נְתוּנָה בְּצִדּוֹ סָפֵק מִן הַצִּנּוֹר לַמִּקְוֶה סָפֵק מִן הַמַּכְתֶּשֶׁת לַמִּקְוֶה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַפְּסוּל מוּכָח. וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּמִּקְוֶה רֻבּוֹ מַיִם כְּשֵׁרִים הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר שֶׁזֶּה סְפֵק מַיִם שְׁאוּבִים הוּא שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ שָׁם מִקְוֶה כָּשֵׁר קָבוּעַ:

5

All of the mikveot found in the lands of the nations are invalid for immersion, for we operate under the presumption that the water is drawn. All of the mikveot found in Eretz Yisrael, in the cities, within the gates are assumed to be invalid, because the inhabitants of the cities wash their garments in them and pour drawn water into them at all times. All of the mikveot found in Eretz Yisrael outside the gates of a city are presumed to be pure. For it is assumed that they came from rainwater.

ה

כָּל הַמִּקְוָאוֹת הַנִּמְצָאִים בְּאֶרֶץ הָעַמִּים פְּסוּלִין שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן שְׁאוּבִין. וְכָל הַמִּקְוָאוֹת הַנִּמְצָאִים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמְּדִינוֹת לְפָנִים מִן הַמַּפְתֵּחַ בְּחֶזְקַת פְּסוּלִין שֶׁאַנְשֵׁי הַמְּדִינָה מְכַבְּסִים בָּהֶן וּמְטִילִין לְתוֹכָן מַיִם שְׁאוּבִים תָּמִיד. וְכָל הַמִּקְוָאוֹת הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל חוּץ לַמַּפְתֵּחַ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן מִן הַגְּשָׁמִים:

6

In all the following situations, when an impure person descends to purify himself and:

a) there is a doubt whether he immersed or did not immerse,

b) even if it was known that he immersed, but there is a doubt whether the mikveh contained 40 se'ah or not, or

c) there were two mikveot, one containing 40 se'ah and one that did not contain 40 se'ah, he immersed in one of them and did not know in which one he immersed, he is impure because of the doubt. The rationale is that we presume that the impure person is impure until it is certain that he immersed in the proper manner.

Similarly, if a mikveh was measured and it was discovered that it did not contain the required amount of water, whether the mikveh was located in the public domain or a private domain, all of the pure articles that were immersed in it are considered as impure retroactively until a time when it was measured and it was complete.

When does the above apply? When the immersion was intended to purify the person or the article from severe impurity. When, however, the immersion was because of a light impurity, e.g., one ate impure foods or drank impure beverages, his head and the majority of his body entered drawn water, or three lugim of drawn water fell on his head and on the majority of his body, since the primary aspect of these types of impurity are Rabbinical in origin, he is pure despite the doubt, as we explained. Even though the person is in doubt whether he immersed or not, the mikveh in which he immersed was discovered to be lacking afterwards, or other doubts of this nature arise, he is pure.

ו

הַטָּמֵא שֶׁיָּרַד לִטְבּל סָפֵק טָבַל סָפֵק לֹא טָבַל וַאֲפִלּוּ טָבַל סָפֵק יֵשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה סָפֵק אֵין בּוֹ. שְׁנֵי מִקְוָאוֹת אֶחָד יֵשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה וְאֶחָד אֵין בּוֹ וְטָבַל בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּאֵיזֶה מֵהֶן טָבַל סְפֵקוֹ טָמֵא לְפִי שֶׁהַטָּמֵא בְּחֶזְקָתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע שֶׁטָּבַל כָּרָאוּי. וְכֵן מִקְוֶה שֶׁנִּמְדַּד וְנִמְצָא חָסֵר בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה הַמִּקְוֶה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד כָּל הַטָּהֳרוֹת שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל גַּבָּיו לְמַפְרֵעַ טְמֵאוֹת עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע זְמַן שֶׁנִּמְדַּד בּוֹ וְהָיָה שָׁלֵם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה הַטְּבִילָה מִטֻּמְאָה חֲמוּרָה. אֲבָל אִם טָבַל מִטֻּמְאָה קַלָּה כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָכַל אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִין אוֹ שָׁתָה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין אוֹ בָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל רֻבּוֹ שְׁלֹשֶׁת לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין. הוֹאִיל וְעִקַּר דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן הֲרֵי סְפֵקוֹ טָהוֹר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם טָבַל אוֹ לֹא טָבַל אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצָא הַמִּקְוֶה חָסֵר לְאַחַר זְמַן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּסְפֵקוֹת אֵלּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר:

7

When there were two mikveot, one kosher and one unacceptable, a person immersed in one to purify himself from a severe type of impurity, and touched pure foods, their status is questionable. If he immersed in the second mikveh as well and touched pure foods, the status of the first remains questionable as before and the second ones are pure. If these two batches of foods touch each other, the status of the first remain questionable and the second should be consigned to fire. This ruling also applies if in the interim he contracted impurity from a light source of impurity, as we explained, immersed in the second mikveh and touched pure foods.

If, however, he immersed in one of the mikveot because of a light impurity and then touched pure foods and then contracted a severe type of impurity, immersed in the second, and then touched pure foods, the first batch are pure and the status of the second is questionable. If these two batches of foods touch each other, the first should be consigned to fire and the status of the second remains the same as before.

The following rules apply if one of two mikveot contained 40 se'ah of acceptable water and the other was filled entirely with drawn water and two people immersed in them without knowing which one immersed in the acceptable mikveh and which immersed in the unacceptable one. One of the two had contracted a severe type of impurity and one had contracted a light type of impurity. They both touched pure foods. The status of the foods touched by the one who immersed because of a severe type of impurity is questionable, but those touched by the one who immersed because of the light type of impurity are pure.

In the situation described in the above clause, if one person was impure and descended to immerse and the other was pure and descended merely to cool off, pure foods touched by the one who descended to immerse in one of them are of questionable status, as we explained. And the one who descended to cool off is pure as he was previously. The rationale is that this is a doubt concerning drawn water, for the question is: perhaps he immersed in the pool of drawn water when he cooled off and thus contracted impurity.

ז

שְׁנֵי מִקְוָאוֹת אֶחָד כָּשֵׁר וְאֶחָד פָּסוּל וְטָבַל בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן מִטֻּמְאָה חֲמוּרָה וְעָשָׂה טָהֳרוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ תְּלוּיוֹת. טָבַל בַּשֵּׁנִי וְעָשָׂה טָהֳרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת תְּלוּיוֹת כְּשֶׁהָיוּ וְהַשְּׁנִיּוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת. וְאִם נָגְעוּ אֵלּוּ בְּאֵלּוּ רִאשׁוֹנוֹת תְּלוּיוֹת וּשְׁנִיּוֹת יִשָּׂרְפוּ. וְכֵן אִם נִטְמָא בָּאֶמְצַע טֻמְאָה קַלָּה שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְטָבַל בַּשֵּׁנִי וְעָשָׂה טָהֳרוֹת. אֲבָל אִם טָבַל בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן מִטֻּמְאָה קַלָּה וְעָשָׂה טָהֳרוֹת וְנִטְמָא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה וְטָבַל בַּשֵּׁנִי וְעָשָׂה טָהֳרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת וְהַשְּׁנִיּוֹת תְּלוּיוֹת. וְאִם נָגְעוּ אֵלּוּ בְּאֵלּוּ רִאשׁוֹנוֹת יִשָּׂרְפוּ וְהַשְּׁנִיּוֹת תְּלוּיוֹת כְּשֶׁהָיוּ. הָיָה בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה וְאֶחָד כֻּלּוֹ שָׁאוּב וְטָבְלוּ בָּהֶן שְׁנַיִם אֶחָד מִטֻּמְאָה חֲמוּרָה וְאֶחָד מִטֻּמְאָה קַלָּה וְעָשׂוּ טָהֳרוֹת הַטּוֹבֵל מִטֻּמְאָה חֲמוּרָה טָהֳרוֹתָיו תְּלוּיוֹת וְהַטּוֹבֵל מִטֻּמְאָה קַלָּה טָהֳרוֹתָיו טְהוֹרוֹת. הָיָה אֶחָד טָמֵא וְיָרַד לִטְבּל וְהַשֵּׁנִי יֵרֵד לְהָקֵר זֶה שֶׁיָּרַד לִטְבּל בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן טָהֳרוֹתָיו תְּלוּיוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְזֶה שֶׁיָּרַד לְהָקֵר טָהוֹר כְּשֶׁהָיָה. שֶׁזֶּה סְפֵק מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין הוּא שֶׁמָּא בַּשָּׁאוּב טָבַל כְּשֶׁהֵקֵר וְנִטְמָא:

8

The following rules apply when there are two mikveot, each containing 20 se'ah, one of drawn water and one of acceptable water. If a person cooled off in one of them and then touched pure foods, they are considered pure. If afterwards, he cooled off in the second and touched pure foods, they should be consigned to fire. For his head and the larger greater of his body certainly entered drawn water, as we explained.

ח

שְׁנֵי מִקְוָאוֹת שֶׁל עֶשְׂרִים עֶשְׂרִים סְאָה אֶחָד שָׁאוּב וְאֶחָד כָּשֵׁר. הֵקֵר בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן וְעָשָׂה טָהֳרוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרוֹת. הֵקֵר בַּשֵּׁנִי וְעָשָׂה טָהֳרוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יִשָּׂרְפוּ. שֶׁהֲרֵי וַדַּאי בָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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