ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Kilaayim - Chapter 7

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Kilaayim - Chapter 7

1

When a person comes to sow [crops] next to a vineyard, he should move four cubits from the roots of the vines1 and sow.2 From a single vine, he should move six handbreadths away and sow.

If there was a row of vines, one next to each other - even 100 of them - it is not considered as a vineyard, but as a single vine. One must move [only] six handbreadths away from the row [before] sowing. If there were two rows, one must move four cubits away from every side before sowing.3

א

הַבָּא לִזְרֹעַ בְּצַד הַכֶּרֶם מַרְחִיק מִמֶּנּוּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת מֵעִקְּרֵי הַגְּפָנִים וְזוֹרֵעַ. וְאִם גֶּפֶן יְחִידִית הִיא מַרְחִיק מִמֶּנָּה שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים וְזוֹרֵעַ. הָיְתָה שׁוּרָה אַחַת שֶׁל גְּפָנִים זוֹ בְּצַד זוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הֵן מֵאָה אֵין זֶה כֶּרֶם אֶלָּא כְּגֶפֶן יְחִידִית וּמַרְחִיק מִן הַשּׁוּרָה שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים וְזוֹרֵעַ. הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי שׁוּרוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כֶּרֶם וְצָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת מִכָּל צַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִזְרַע:

2

How many vines must there be in each row? Three or more.4

When does the above apply?5 When there are between four and eight cubits between each vine. If, however, there are eight cubits besides the place of the vines between the two rows, they are considered as distinct from each other. They are not considered as a single vineyard and there is no need to separate more than six handbreadths from each row. Similarly, if there are less than four cubits6 between each of [the two rows], they are considered as a single vine and it is [only necessary] to make a distinction of six handbreadths on each side.

ב

וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה בְּכָל שׁוּרָה שָׁלֹשׁ גְּפָנִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהָיָה בֵּין כָּל גֶּפֶן וְגֶפֶן מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַד שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בֵּין שְׁתֵּי הַשּׁוּרוֹת שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת חוּץ מִמְּקוֹם הַגְּפָנִים עַצְמָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּמֻבְדָּלוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ וְאֵינָן כֶּרֶם אֶחָד וְאֵינוֹ מַרְחִיק אֶלָּא שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים מִכָּל שׁוּרָה. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה בֵּינֵיהֶן פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּגֶפֶן אַחַת וּמַרְחִיק שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים לְכָל רוּחַ:

3

If there were three rows, even though there are less than four cubits between them, they are considered as a vineyard, for we consider the middle row as if it does not exist.7 Similarly, if there were three rows and eight cubits or more between each row, one may sow between the rows.8

ג

הָיוּ שָׁלֹשׁ שׁוּרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶן פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כֶּרֶם וְרוֹאִין אֶת הָאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת כְּאִלּוּ אֵינָם. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ שָׁלֹשׁ שׁוּרוֹת וּבֵין כָּל שׁוּרָה וְשׁוּרָה שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת אוֹ יוֹתֵר הֲרֵי זֶה זוֹרֵעַ בֵּין הַשּׁוּרוֹת:

4

Therefore if a person sows his vineyard from the outset with an eight cubit separation left between each row, he is permitted to sow crops within it, leaving a distance of only six handbreadths between [the crops and] every row of vines.9 If, however, he sowed [crops] outside the vineyard, he must make a separation of four cubits from the outer row, as applies with regard to other vineyards.10 The laws [applying to the space] between the rows of this vineyard are not the same as those that apply to a vineyard whose center was devastated,11 for from the outset, he planted them in a separate manner.

ד

לְפִיכָךְ הַנּוֹטֵעַ אֶת כַּרְמוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה וְהִרְחִיק בֵּין כָּל שׁוּרָה וְשׁוּרָה שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת מֻתָּר לְהָבִיא זֶרַע בְּתוֹכוֹ. וּמַרְחִיק מִכָּל שׁוּרָה שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל אִם זָרַע חוּצָה לוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק מִשּׁוּרָה הַחִיצוֹנָה אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כִּשְׁאָר הַכְּרָמִים וְאֵין דִּין בֵּין הַשּׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל זֶה הַכֶּרֶם כְּכֶרֶם שֶׁחָרַב בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי מִתְּחִלָּה נְטָעָן מְרֻחָקִין:

5

When there was one row of vines in a field and another row in a field belonging to a colleague that was opposite it and close to it, [the two rows] can be combined to be considered as a vineyard12 although there is a private path, a communal path,13 or a fence which is less than ten handbreadths high14 provided there are less than eight cubits between them.

ה

הָיְתָה בְּשָׂדֶה זוֹ שׁוּרָה אַחַת שֶׁל גְּפָנִים וּבִשְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ שׁוּרָה אַחֶרֶת כְּנֶגְדָּהּ קְרוֹבָה לָהּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶן דֶּרֶךְ הַיָּחִיד אוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הָרַבִּים אוֹ גָּדֵר שֶׁהוּא נָמוּךְ מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת לִהְיוֹת שְׁתֵּיהֶן כֶּרֶם וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בֵּינֵיהֶן פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁמוֹנֶה:

6

[The following rules apply if one] planted one row on ground level and one row on a terrace: If the terrace is ten handbreadths above ground level, they are not considered as a single entity.15 If it is lower than that, they are.16

ו

נָטַע שׁוּרָה אַחַת בָּאָרֶץ וְשׁוּרָה אַחַת בְּמַדְרֵגָה. אִם גְּבוֹהָה הַמַּדְרֵגָה מִן הָאָרֶץ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אֵינָם מִצְטָרְפִין. פָּחוֹת מִיכַּן מִצְטָרְפִין:

7

A vineyard with five vines, two pairs opposite of each other and the fifth projecting like a tail.
This diagram and the two following are adopted from diagrams drawn by the Rambam in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:6)
A vineyard with five vines, two pairs opposite of each other and the fifth projecting like a tail.

This diagram and the two following are adopted from diagrams drawn by the Rambam in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:6)
When a person plants five vines: two opposite each other and one which projects like a tail, it is called a small vineyard.17 It is necessary to separate four cubits from it on all sides. If, however, he planted two opposite two and one in the middle or one row of three and two opposite them in a second row,18 they are not considered a vineyard and it is only necessary to make a separation of six handbreadths on each side.
A vineyard with five vines, one with a row of two and another with a row of three
A vineyard with five vines, one with a row of two and another with a row of three
A vineyard with five vines, two pairs opposite each other and the fifth in the center
A vineyard with five vines, two pairs opposite each other and the fifth in the center

ז

הַנּוֹטֵעַ חָמֵשׁ גְּפָנִים שְׁתַּיִם כְּנֶגֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְאַחַת יוֹצֵאת זָנָב הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא כֶּרֶם קָטָן וְצָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק מֵהֶן אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לְכָל רוּחַ. אֲבָל אִם נְטָעָן שְׁתַּיִם כְּנֶגֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְאַחַת בָּאֶמְצַע אוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ בְּשׁוּרָה זוֹ וּשְׁתַּיִם כְּנֶגְדָּן בְּשׁוּרָה שְׁנִיָּה אֵינָם כֶּרֶם וְאֵינוֹ מַרְחִיק מֵהֶן אֶלָּא שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים לְכָל רוּחַ:

8

[The following laws apply when] a vineyard has been devastated. If there are ten vines [whose produce] can be reaped in an area fit to harvest a se'ah [of grain]19 and they are planted two opposite two and one projecting like a tail or it is possible to see them as two rows of three, it is called a meager vineyard20 and it is forbidden to sow [crops] in it.

ח

כֶּרֶם שֶׁחָרַב אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ לְלַקֵּט עֶשֶׂר גְּפָנִים לְכָל בֵּית סְאָה וְיִהְיוּ נְטוּעוֹת שְׁתַּיִם כְּנֶגֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְאַחַת יוֹצְאָה זָנָב. אוֹ יֵשׁ בּוֹ לְכַוֵּן שָׁלֹשׁ כְּנֶגֶד שָׁלֹשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא כֶּרֶם דַּל וְאָסוּר לִזְרֹעַ בְּכֻלּוֹ:

9

[The following laws apply when] a vineyard is not planted in rows, but rather randomly. If it is possible to see [the vines] as having been planted two opposite three,21 it is considered as a vineyard.22 If not, it is not considered a vineyard and it is sufficient to separate only six handbreadths from each individual vine before sowing.

ט

כֶּרֶם שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָטוּעַ שׁוּרוֹת שׁוּרוֹת אֶלָּא מְעֵרְבָּב. אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ לְכַוֵּן שְׁתַּיִם כְּנֶגֶד שָׁלֹשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה כֶּרֶם וְאִם לָאו אֵינוֹ כֶּרֶם. אֶלָּא דַּיּוֹ לְהַרְחִיק שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים מִכָּל גֶּפֶן וְגֶפֶן וְזוֹרֵעַ:

10

When the base of the vines are [planted] opposite each other, but the branches are not growing opposite each other, it is considered a vineyard.23 If the branches are [growing] opposite each other, but the bases are not [planted] opposite each other, it is not considered a vineyard. If when the vines were thin, they were not [positioned] opposite each other, but when they grew thick, they were positioned opposite each other, it is considered a vineyard.

How should one know if the vines are planted opposite each other? He should take a measuring line and measure from one to the other.

י

הָיוּ הָעִקָּרִים מְכֻוָּנִין וְהַנּוֹף אֵינוֹ מְכֻוָּן הֲרֵי זֶה כֶּרֶם. הַנּוֹף מְכֻוָּן וְהָעִקָּר אֵינוֹ מְכֻוָּן אֵינוֹ כֶּרֶם. הָיוּ דַּקּוֹת וְאֵינָן מְכֻוָּנוֹת הֶעֱבוּ וַהֲרֵי הֵן מְכֻוָּנוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה כֶּרֶם. כֵּיצַד הוּא יוֹדֵעַ אִם הֵן מְכֻוָּנוֹת. מֵבִיא חוּט הַמִּדָּה וּמוֹתֵחַ מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ:

11

[The following laws apply when] the middle of a vineyard has been devastated, but it remains complete on all its sides. If the empty portion in the center [has a diameter of] sixteen cubits, one may separate four cubits24 from the base of the vines on each side and sow in the midst of the empty portion.25 If [the diameter] is less than sixteen cubits, he should not bring seed there.26 If he did sow there, since he made a separation of four cubits from the vineyard's vines on all sides, [the produce] does not become hallowed.

יא

כֶּרֶם שֶׁחָרַב בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ וְנִשְׁאָר שָׁלֵם מִכָּל סְבִיבָיו. אִם יֵשׁ בַּקָּרַחַת שֶׁבְּאֶמְצָעוֹ שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה הֲרֵי זֶה מַרְחִיק מֵעִקְּרֵי הַגְּפָנִים אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לְכָל רוּחַ וְזוֹרֵעַ בְּאֶמְצַע הַקָּרַחַת. וְאִם אֵין בָּהּ שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יָבִיא זֶרַע לְשָׁם. וְאִם הֵבִיא הוֹאִיל וְהִרְחִיק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לְכָל רוּחַ מִן הַגְּפָנִים שֶׁל כֶּרֶם הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא קִדֵּשׁ:

12

Similarly, if an empty portion was left without vines between the end of the vineyard and its fence, it is called "a forsaken [portion of a] vineyard."27 If it is [at least] twelve cubits wide,28 one may [merely] separate four cubits from the vines and sow the remainder.

יב

וְכֵן מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר פָּנוּי בְּלֹא גְּפָנִים בֵּין סוֹף הַכֶּרֶם וּבֵין הַגָּדֵר שֶׁלּוֹ וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא מְחוֹל הַכֶּרֶם אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה מַרְחִיק מִן הַגְּפָנִים אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְזוֹרֵעַ אֶת הִשָּׁאֵר:

13

If it was less than twelve cubits wide, he should not bring seeds [to sow] there. If he did, since he made a separation of four cubits [between the seeds and the vineyard, the produce] does not become hallowed.29

When does the above apply? In a large vineyard.30 [The laws of] "a forsaken portion," by contrast, do not apply with regard to a small vineyard.31 Instead, one may make a separation of four cubits from the end of the vines and sow until the fence. Similarly, if there are eight cubits or more between each row of a large vineyard,32 [the laws of] "a forsaken portion," do not apply.33

יג

הָיָה בּוֹ פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה לֹא יָבִיא זֶרַע לְשָׁם. וְאִם הֵבִיא הוֹאִיל וְהִרְחִיק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא קִדֵּשׁ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּכֶרֶם גָּדוֹל. אֲבָל בְּקָטָן אֵין לוֹ מָחוֹל אֶלָּא מַרְחִיק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת מִסּוֹף הַגְּפָנִים וְזוֹרֵעַ עַד הַגָּדֵר. וְכֵן כֶּרֶם גָּדוֹל שֶׁהָיָה בֵּין כָּל שׁוּרָה וְשׁוּרָה שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת אוֹ יֶתֶר אֵין לוֹ מָחוֹל:

14

If the fence surrounding the vineyard was less than ten handbreadths high or it was ten handbreadths high, but not four handbreadths wide,34 [the laws of] "a forsaken portion," do not apply.35 Instead, one should make a separation of four cubits from the base of the vines and sow until the barrier. Even if there are four and a half cubits between the vines and the barrier, he may sow the half cubit.

יד

הָיָה הַגָּדֵר הַמַּקִּיף אֶת הַכֶּרֶם פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה גָּבְהוֹ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וְאֵין בּוֹ רֹחַב אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים. אֵין לוֹ מָחוֹל. אֶלָּא מַרְחִיק מִסּוֹף הַגְּפָנִים אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְזוֹרֵעַ עַד הַמְּחִצָּה. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בֵּין הַגְּפָנִים וּבֵין הַמְּחִצָּה אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה זוֹרֵעַ אֶת חֲצִי הָאַמָּה:

15

When a fence is ten handbreadths high or a trench is ten handbreadths and four handbreadths wide, it is permitted to plant a vineyard on one side and vegetables on the other side.36 Even if there is a barrier made of reeds [with spaces in between them], as long as there is less than three handbreadths between one reed and another,37 the fence is considered as separating between the vineyard and the vegetables.

טו

גָּדֵר שֶׁהוּא גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וְכֵן חָרִיץ שֶׁהוּא עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וְרָחָב אַרְבַּע הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לִטַּע כֶּרֶם בְּצִדּוֹ מִכָּאן וִירָקוֹת בְּצִדּוֹ מִכָּאן. אֲפִלּוּ מְחִצָּה שֶׁל קָנִים אִם אֵין בֵּין קָנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי זוֹ מַבְדֶּלֶת בֵּין הַכֶּרֶם וְהַיָּרָק בְּגָדֵר:

16

[The following laws apply when] the fence separating between the vineyard and the vegetables is breached. If it is ten cubits or less, it is considered as an entrance and it is permitted. If the breach was more than ten [cubits], [it is] forbidden [to sow vegetables] opposite the open portion unless he moves the required measure away38 from the vines.

[The following rules apply when] there are many breaches39 in the fence.40 If the [portions of the fence that remain] standing are equal to those that have been breached, it is permitted as if there was no breach. If the breached portions exceed those which remain standing, he should not sow in front of all those open spaces unless he separates in the appropriate manner.41

טז

גָּדֵר הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין כֶּרֶם וְיָרָק שֶׁנִּפְרַץ עַד עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה כְּפֶתַח וּמֻתָּר. הָיְתָה פְּרוּצָה יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר כְּנֶגֶד הַפִּרְצָה אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיַּרְחִיק מִן הַגְּפָנִים כַּשִּׁעוּר. נִפְרְצוּ בּוֹ פְּרָצוֹת רַבּוֹת אִם הָיָה הָעוֹמֵד כְּפָרוּץ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר כְּאִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם פִּרְצָה. הָיָה פָּרוּץ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד לֹא יִזְרַע כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת הַפְּרוּצִים עַד שֶׁיַּרְחִיק כַּשִּׁעוּר:

17

When the partition of a vineyard is breached,42 [the court] tells [the owner]:43 "Close it." If he closed it and it was breached [again], [the court] tells him: "Close it." If he despairs and does not close it,44 [the produce] becomes hallowed.45

יז

מְחִצַּת הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה אוֹמְרִים לוֹ גְדֹר. גְּדָרָהּ וְנִפְרְצָה אוֹמְרִים לוֹ גְדֹר. נִתְיָאֵשׁ מִמֶּנָּה וְלֹא גְּדָרָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה קִדֵּשׁ:

18

When a building is partially covered by a roof and partially open and vines are planted on one side, it is permissible to plant vegetables on the other. [The rationale is that] we consider it as if the end of the roof descends and closes [the area] off and creates a barrier between them.46 If he completes the roof, it is forbidden [to plant two species].47

יח

בַּיִת שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ מְקֹרֶה וְחֶצְיוֹ אֵינוֹ מְקֹרֶה וּגְפָנִים נְטוּעוֹת בְּצַד זֶה מֻתָּר לִזְרֹעַ יְרָקוֹת בַּצַּד הָאַחֵר. שֶׁהֲרֵי פִּי תִּקְרָה כְּאִלּוּ יָרַד וְסָתַם וְנַעֲשָׂה בֵּינֵיהֶן כִּמְחִצָּה. וְאִם הִשְׁוָה אֶת קֵרוּיוֹ אָסוּר:

19

A - The Small Courtyard
B - The Large Courtyard
A - The Small Courtyard
B - The Large Courtyard
When [the walls of] a small courtyard were breached entirely to a large courtyard and there were vines in the large courtyard, it is forbidden to sow [other produce] in the smaller one.48 If he sows there, that produce is forbidden and the vines are permitted. If there were vines in the smaller [courtyard], it is permitted to sow other produce in the larger one.49 [The rationale is] that since the larger [courtyard] has barriers on either side,50 it is considered as separate from the smaller one. The smaller one, by contrast, is not considered as separate from the larger one.

יט

חָצֵר קְטַנָּה שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה בִּמְלוֹאָהּ לִגְדוֹלָה וְהָיוּ הַגְּפָנִים בַּגְּדוֹלָה אָסוּר לִזְרֹעַ בַּקְּטַנָּה. וְאִם זָרַע הַזְּרָעִים אֲסוּרִין וְהַגְּפָנִים מֻתָּרִין. הָיוּ הַגְּפָנִים בַּקְּטַנָּה מֻתָּר לִזְרֹעַ בַּגְּדוֹלָה הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בַּגְּדוֹלָה פַּסִּין מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן הֲרֵי הִיא כְּמֻבְדֶּלֶת מִן הַקְּטַנָּה וְאֵין הַקְּטַנָּה מֻבְדֶּלֶת מִן הַגְּדוֹלָה:

20

[The following laws apply when] a trench that is ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths] wide passes through a vineyard. If it passes from the beginning of the vineyard to the end, [since] it appears as [passing] between two [separate] vineyards, it is permitted to sow [other crops] in it, provided the vines do not become draped over it, as we explained.51

If it did not pass from side to side,52 it is considered as a vat in the midst of a vineyard, in which instance even if it is ten [handbreadths] deep and four handbreadths wide or more, it is forbidden to sow within it unless the empty portion is at least sixteen cubits wide.53

כ

חָרִיץ שֶׁהוּא עוֹבֵר בַּכֶּרֶם עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחָב אַרְבָּעָה אִם הָיָה מְפֻלָּשׁ מֵרֹאשׁ הַכֶּרֶם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כְּבֵין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרָמִים וּמֻתָּר לִזְרֹעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַגְּפָנִים מְסַכְּכִין עָלָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאִם לֹא הָיָה מְפֻלָּשׁ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּגַת שֶׁבְּאֶמְצַע הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה וּרְחָבָה אַרְבָּעָה אוֹ יֶתֶר אָסוּר לוֹ לִזְרֹעַ בְּתוֹכָהּ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בַּקָּרַחַת שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה:

21

A path54 between two vineyards resembles a vineyard that was devastated in its midst.55 If there are sixteen cubits between them, he may make a separation of four cubits on either side and sow in the remainder. If there was less than that between them, he should not bring seeds there.

כא

שְׁבִיל שֶׁבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרָמִים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּכֶרֶם שֶׁחָרַב מֵאֶמְצָעוֹ. אִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה מַרְחִיק מִזֶּה אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּמִזֶּה אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְזוֹרֵעַ אֶת הַמּוֹתָר. וְאִם הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן לֹא יָבִיא זֶרַע לְשָׁם:

22

[The following laws apply with regard to] a mound56 in a vineyard. If it is ten [handbreadths] high and four [handbreadths] wide,57 it is permitted to sow vegetables on its top as long as the branches of the vine do not touch58 it so that from above, there does not appear to be vegetables in the midst of the vineyard.

When does the above apply? [When the mound] is rectangular.59 If, however, the mound is circular, there must be an empty space of four handbreadths in its midst60 so that it will be separated from the earth and there must be three handbreadths of earth on its top.61

כב

שׁוֹמֵרָה שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם אִם גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה וּרְחָבָה אַרְבָּעָה מֻתָּר לִזְרֹעַ בְּרֹאשָׁהּ יָרָק. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַשָּׂרִיגִין נוֹגְעִין בָּהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵרָאֶה יָרָק בְּתוֹךְ הַכֶּרֶם מִלְּמַעְלָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּמְרֻבַּעַת. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה הַשּׁוֹמֵרָה עֲגֻלָּה צְרִיכָה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּתוֹכָהּ חָלָל אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה מֻפְלֶגֶת מִן הָאָרֶץ. וּצְרִיכָה עָפָר עַל רֹאשָׁהּ מִלְּמַעְלָה שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים:

23

When there is a building in a vineyard, if it is three handbreadths or more62 by three handbreadths until four handbreadths,63 one may sow vegetables inside of it.64 If it is less than three handbreadths by three handbreadth, it is considered as closed65 and one should not sow [vegetables] within it.

כג

הַבַּיִת שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם אִם הָיָה יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַד אַרְבָּעָה זוֹרְעִין בְּתוֹכוֹ יָרָק. וְאִם הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּסָתוּם וְאֵין זוֹרְעִין בְּתוֹכוֹ:

24

When one vine is planted in a pit66 or in the midst of a trench, one must separate six handbreadths67 from it, [then] one may sow [other crops] in the remainder of the trench as one would do on flat ground. If the trench was ten handbreadths deep and there was a border on the edge of the trench with a top four handbreadths wide, it is forbidden to sow other crops inside of it even though one made a separation of six handbreadths.68

כד

גֶּפֶן יְחִידִית שֶׁהָיְתָה נְטוּעָה בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּקַע אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הֶחָרִיץ מַרְחִיק מִמֶּנָּה שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים לְכָל רוּחַ וְזוֹרֵעַ אֶת כָּל הֶחָרִיץ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בַּמִּישׁוֹר. וְאִם הָיָה עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה וְהָיָה רֹחַב שְׂפַת הֶחָרִיץ לְמַעְלָה אַרְבָּעָה אָסוּר לִזְרֹעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִרְחִיק שִׁשָּׁה:

25

Similarly, when there is one vine that is surrounded by a fence that is ten handbreadths high and four handbreadths wide, one should not sow [other produce] in the entire area set off by the barriers69 even though one makes a separation of six handbreadths. If one made a separation of six handbreadths and sowed, however, the produce is not hallowed.70

What is the initial and preferred size of the separation one should make? Four cubits on every side.71 Afterwards, he may sow [other produce] in the remainder of the trench or in the remainder of the area surrounded by a fence.

כה

וְכֵן גֶּפֶן יְחִידִית שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻקֶּפֶת גָּדֵר גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחָב אַרְבָּעָה לֹא יִזְרַע בְּכָל הַמְּחִצָּה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶּׁהִרְחִיק שִׁשָּׁה. וְאִם הִרְחִיק שִׁשָּׁה וְזָרַע לֹא קִדֵּשׁ. וְכַמָּה יַרְחִיק לְכַתְּחִלָּה וְיִזְרַע אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לְכָל רוּחַ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִזְרַע שְׁאָר הֶחָרִיץ אוֹ שְׁאָר הַמָּקוֹם הַמֻּקָּף גָּדֵר:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

See Chapter 8, Halachah 3.

2.

For this is the space necessary to tend to the vineyard (Kilayim 7:1).

3.

For this is considered as a vineyard.

4.

Note, however, the exception in Halachah 7.

5.

I.e., when are the vines considered as a collective, a vineyard, and not individual entities.

6.

Here the four cubits are measured tightly, rather than amply. See Chapter 8, Halachah 12.

7.

When the vines are planted so densely, they will not grow well. Thus we assume that ultimately, the middle vines will be uprooted. Since that is their eventual fate, even while they exist, they are not considered as significant entities.

8.

For each row is considered as an independent entity and hence, it is only necessary to make a six handbreadth separation between them.

The Ra'avad follows a more stringent view and maintains that since there are three rows, they appear as a vineyard. Unless there is a significant distance - sixteen cubits - between them, they are considered as a collective. The Kessef Mishneh states that although the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:8) appears to support the Ra'avad's view, the Rambam's opinion has its source in the Jerusalem Talmud.

9.

For, with regard to the produce sowed within it, each row is considered like an individual vine.

10.

The rationale is that this vineyard was designated as a vineyard from the outset and an outside observer should be able to see that it is separate from an adjoining field. Hence, a proper separation must be made from its outer borders. The Ra'avad differs, stating that if a separation is required outside it, one certainly should be required inside it. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's view.

11.

In which instance, it is necessary to make a separation of four cubits, as stated in Halachah 11.

12.

Despite the fact that the two rows of vines belong to two separate individuals, since they are close enough to appear as a single entity, it is forbidden to sow crops between them and one must make a separation of four cubits on the outside [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:7)].

13.

Inspired by the Ra'avad's gloss, we have chosen this translation, rather than the term "public thoroughfare" which is usually used, because, here the road is no more than eight handbreadths wide, as stated at the conclusion of the halachah, while a "public thoroughfare" is sixteen cubits wide, as stated in Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 3:3 and Hilchot Shabbat 14:1. Notably, in his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.), the Rambam mentions the figure of sixteen cubits.

14.

If, however, it is ten handbreadths high, it is considered as a distinguishing factor, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 15.

15.

Certain restrictions, nevertheless, apply, as stated in Chapter 6, Halachah 5.

16.

According to the standard published text of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:2), the Rambam changed his mind when issuing the ruling here. Rav Kappach, however, maintains that a printing error crept into that text.

17.

Ordinarily, a vineyard must have at least two rows of three vines each, as implied by Halachot 1-2. The differences between an ordinary vineyard and a small vineyard are mentioned in Halachah 13.

During the Talmudic era in Eretz Yisrael, it was very common to plant vineyards with five vines. See the accompanying diagram.

18.

This represents the Rambam's interpretation of the phrase "two opposite two, and one in between" in Kilayim 4:6.

19.

50 cubits by 50 cubits.

20.

I.e., it is obviously sparsely planted. Nevertheless, there are enough vines in it for it to be called a vineyard and sowing other species is forbidden.

21.

The Radbaz and Rav Yosef Corcus interprets this as meaning "two opposite two and one projecting like a tail" as in the previous halachot.

22.

And it is forbidden to sow other crops there and one must separate four cubits from its outer perimeter before sowing other crops.

23.

I.e., and not as individual vines. Hence, the restrictions mentioned in the previous note apply.

24.

The amount of space necessary to perform work in the vineyard.

25.

Thus he will save a circle with a radius of at least 8 cubits in which to sow crops [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:1)].

26.

For the area is still considered as a vineyard.

27.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.).

28.

The requirement of twelve cubits is determined as follows: Four cubits are required for the tilling of the vineyard and four cubits are required for a path near the fence. If the remaining space is less than four cubits wide, it is not significant and is considered subsumed to the vineyard. If it is larger than that, it is considered as an independent entity and it is permitted to sow crops in it (Eruvin 93ab).

29.

For the prohibition is a Rabbinic safeguard.

30.

I.e., one with at least three rows of three vines.

31.

From the Jerusalem Talmud (Kilayim 4:1), it appears that this term refers to a vineyard with three rows of two vines. Certainly it applies to one with only five vines, as described in Halachah 7.

As mentioned above, with regard to a large vineyard, the owner is willing to refrain from sowing the four cubits next to the fence so that they can be used as a path. With regard to a small vineyard, he is not prepared to forgo the use of so much space.

32.

In which instance, the leniency mentioned in Halachah 3 applies (Kessef Mishneh).

33.

Since this vineyard is planted irregularly, the laws governing the ordinary pattern in which vines are planted do not apply (ibid.).

34.

This is referring to a stone fence, which was usually built ten by four.

35.

One of the reasons four cubits were left open next to the fence for people to walk was that walking there strengthened the fence. A fence that does not possess those dimensions does not need to be strengthened.

36.

Without moving away from the fence or trench. The fence or the trench itself creates a distinction between the two crops.

37.

The rationale is that within three cubits, we apply the principle of l'vud and the open space between the reeds is considered as closed [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:3)].

38.

Four cubits.

39.

That are less than ten cubits wide.

40.

With regard to the following, note the parallels to Hilchot Shabbat 16:16.

41.

He may, however, sow opposite the portions that remain standing, provided they are four cubits wide.

42.

And there is grain or vegetables growing outside it.

43.

As a warning. At this stage, the status of the produce is not changed.

44.

And the produce increases 1/200th in size.

45.

Because there is no distinction between the other produce and the vineyard.

46.

Note the parallels in Hilchot Shabbat 17:35; Hilchot Sukkah 4:5, 8-9.

47.

Even though the vineyard is indoors, there is still a Rabbinic prohibition involved.

48.

For the two courtyards are considered as a single entity. Note the parallels in Hilchot Tefilah 8:7-8; Hilchot Eruvin 3:24.

Rashi, Eruvin 92b states that even if one makes a separation of four cubits, it is forbidden to sow in the smaller courtyard, because it is considered as an entranceway to the larger one.

49.

Provided one separates four cubits.

50.

I.e., a portion of its walls remain standing.

51.

See Chapter 5, Halachah 8, Chapter 6, Halachah 11, and Halachah 22 of this chapter.

52.

And is thus surrounded by the vineyard on all three sides. Accordingly, although the trench is a separate entity, it is forbidden to sow within it.

53.

As stated in Halachah 11.

54.

When mentioning the principles upon which this law is based, Kilayim 4:2-3 does not speak of a path. The Rambam, however, mentions it as a further inclusion, teaching that even if people use it to walk back and forth, it is not considered a separation unless it is of the appropriate length (Radbaz).

55.

Halachah 11.

56.

Alternatively, a guardhouse.

57.

Since it has these dimensions, it is considered as a separate entity, distinct from the vineyard. Although a trench must pass from one end of the vineyard to the other as stated in Halachah 20, greater leniency is granted in this instance, because the mound stands out because of its height.

58.

This reflects the Rambam's translation of the word kotesh in Kilayim 5:3.

59.

Since the space is rectangular, it is distinct and considered significant, even if it is not four handbreadths by four handbreadths (P'nei Moshe, Jerusalem Talmud, Kilayim 5:3).

60.

I.e., it must be able to circumscribe a square four handbreadths by four handbreadths (Radbaz).

61.

I.e., if the base of the mound was a stone, there must be three handbreadths of loose earth.

62.

Our translation, though not literal, is based on the gloss of the Radbaz.

63.

The meaning of this phrase is somewhat problematic and in fact it is lacking in certain versions of the Mishneh Torah. According to the Jerusalem Talmud, this refers to the height of the building. The intent being that if the building is not four cubits high, one must hollow out its earth so that it reaches the height of four handbreadths.

64.

Because of its walls, the building is a distinct entity and one may sow up to the wall itself, even at the entrance. There is no need to make a separation (Radbaz).

65.

Based on the halachic principle of l'vud.

66.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 5:4), the Rambam writes that this refers to a pit used to store water.

67.

For this is the amount of space necessary to till one vine (ibid.).

68.

This is a continuation of the principle stated in the following halachah (Rav Yosef Corcus).

69.

Since the fence is significant, it causes everything contained within it to be considered as a single entity. Hence, the entire enclosed area is considered as a vineyard even though it contains only one vine (Radbaz).

70.

For the minimum requirements have been met.

71.

For this is sufficient even in a vineyard.

The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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