ב"ה

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Arachim Vacharamim - Chapter 4

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Arachim Vacharamim - Chapter 4

1

A field which a person inherited from his testators is called "an ancestral field." One that he purchased or acquired1 is called "purchased property."2 When a person consecrates an ancestral field, it is measured and its airech is the fixed airech prescribed by the Torah.3

א

שָׂדֶה שֶׁיְּרָשָׁהּ אָדָם מִמּוֹרִישָׁיו הִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה. וְשָׂדֶה שֶׁלְּקָחָהּ אוֹ זָכָה בָּהּ הִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת שְׂדֵה מִקְנָה. וְהַמַּקְדִּישׁ שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ מוֹדְדִין אוֹתָהּ וְעֶרְכָּהּ הוּא הָעֵרֶךְ הַקָּצוּב בַּתּוֹרָה:

2

How much is that? For every place where it is fit to sow a chomer4of barley,5 sowing it by hand6 without sowing it too closely or to distantly, its airech is 50 shekel for all the years of the Jubilee.7 The yovel is not counted. [This applies] whether one is consecrating a good field which has no parallel in Eretz Yisrael or a poor field which has none as bad as it. [The above] is the airech for it.

ב

וְכַמָּה הוּא. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁרָאוּי לִזְרֹעַ בּוֹ חֹמֶר שְׂעוֹרִים וְיִזְרָעֶנּוּ בַּיָּד וְלֹא יְקָרֵב זְרִיעָתוֹ וְלֹא יְרַחֵק אוֹתָהּ. עֶרְכּוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים שְׁקָלִים לְכָל שְׁנֵי יוֹבֵל. וְאֵין שְׁנַת יוֹבֵל מִן הַמִּנְיָן. וְאֶחָד הַמַּקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֶה טוֹבָה שֶׁאֵין בְּכָל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמוֹתָהּ. אוֹ שָׂדֶה רָעָה שֶׁאֵין כָּמוֹהָ לְרֹעַ. כָּזֶה מַעֲרִיכִין אוֹתוֹ:

3

We have already explained in Hilchot Shekalim8 that the shekel referred to by the Torah was called a sela in our Sages' terminology and a gerah referred to by the Torah was called a ma'ah in our Sages' terminology.

They added to the value of a shekel, making it equivalent to a sela.9 A sela is equivalent to four dinarim. A dinar is equivalent to six ma'yin. And a ma'ah is equivalent to two pundiyonin.

Thus [the airech for] each year is a sela and a pundiyon.10 Although a sela is 48 pundiyonin,11 when one gives pundiyonin to purchase a sela from a money-changer, one gives 49.12

ג

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁקָלִים שֶׁהַשֶּׁקֶל הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא סֶלַע בִּלְשׁוֹן חֲכָמִים. וְהַגֵּרָה הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה הִיא הַמָּעָה בְּדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים וְהוֹסִיפוּ עַל הַשֶּׁקֶל וְעָשׂוּ אוֹתוֹ סֶלַע. וְהַסֶּלַע אַרְבָּעָה דִּינָרִין. וְהַדִּינָר שֵׁשׁ מָעִין. וְהַמָּעָה שְׁנֵי פּוּנְדְיוֹנִין. נִמְצָא לְכָל שָׁנָה סֶלַע וּפוּנְדְיוֹן. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַסֶּלַע שְׁמוֹנָה וְאַרְבָּעִים פּוּנְדְיוֹנִין. כְּשֶׁיִּתֵּן פּוּנְדְיוֹנוֹת לִקַּח סֶלַע מִן הַשֻּׁלְחָנִי נוֹתֵן תִּשְׁעָה וְאַרְבָּעִים:

4

A chomer is equivalent to a kor which is equivalent to two letachim. A letach is fifteen se'ah.13 Thus a letach is equivalent to 30 se'ah which are ten efot, for an efah is three se'ah. We already explained in Hilchot Shabbat14 that a place with an area of 50 cubits by 50 cubits is called a beit se'ah, because a se'ah can be sown in it.

Thus a place with an area of 75000 sq. cubits, i.e., a square approximately 274 cubits by 274 cubits.15 This is a beit kor in which a chomer of barley can be sown.

ד

הַחֹמֶר הוּא הַכּוֹר. וְהוּא שְׁנֵי לְתָכִין. וְהַלֶּתֶךְ חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה סְאִין. נִמְצָא הַחֹמֶר שְׁלֹשִׁים סְאָה שֶׁהֵן עֶשֶׂר אֵיפוֹת כָּל שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין אֵיפָה. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שַׁבָּת שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּשְׁבוֹרוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה עַל חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה הוּא בֵּית סְאָה וְהוּא מִזְרַע סְאָה. נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּשְׁבוֹרוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אַמָּה שֶׁהוּא בְּרִבּוּעַ מָאתַיִם אַרְבַּע וְשִׁבְעִים אַמּוֹת עַל מָאתַיִם אַרְבַּע וְשִׁבְעִים אַמּוֹת בְּקֵרוּב הוּא בֵּית כּוֹר וְהוּא (ויקרא כז טז) "זֶרַע חֹמֶר שְׂעוֹרִים":

5

What is the manner in which the arechim of fields are calculated? If a person consecrated his ancestral field when eight years remain until the Jubilee - not including the Jubilee, as we explained16 - whoever desires to redeem it from the domain of the Temple treasury must give eight selaim and eight pundiyonin for every portion in which a chomer of barley can be sown.

If the [prior] owners desire to redeem it,17 they must give ten selaim and ten pundiyonin [for every portion of that size], for owners add a fifth.18 Similarly, whenever the Torah mentions a fifth, the intent is that the principal and the addition will be [a multiple of] five.19 Thus he adds a fourth of the principle. Similarly, if the wife of the one who consecrated it or one of his heirs redeems it, they must add a fifth.20

ה

כֵּיצַד דֶּרֶךְ הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן בְּעֶרְכֵי שָׂדוֹת. הֲרֵי שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְנִשְׁאַר לַיּוֹבֵל שְׁמוֹנֶה שָׁנִים חוּץ מִשְּׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל שֶׁאֵינָהּ בַּחֶשְׁבּוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. כָּל הָרוֹצֶה לִפְדּוֹתָהּ מִיַּד הֶקְדֵּשׁ נוֹתֵן לְכָל (ויקרא כז טז) "זֶרַע חֹמֶר שְׂעוֹרִים" שְׁמוֹנָה סְלָעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה פּוּנְדְיוֹנוֹת. וְאִם רָצוּ הַבְּעָלִים לִפְדּוֹתָהּ נוֹתְנִין עֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים וַעֲשָׂרָה פּוּנְדְיוֹנוֹת לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מוֹסִיפִין חֹמֶשׁ. וְכֵן כָּל חֹמֶשׁ הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקֶּרֶן עִם הַתּוֹסָפוֹת חֲמִשָּׁה נִמְצָא שֶׁהוֹסִיף רְבִיעַ הַקֶּרֶן. וְכֵן אִם פָּדְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל מַקְדִּישׁ אוֹ אֶחָד מִיּוֹרְשָׁיו הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוֹסִיפִין חֹמֶשׁ:

6

If four years remain until the Jubilee, the one who redeems it must give four selaim and four pundiyonin for every [portion in which a] chomer [of barley can be sown]. If the owners redeem it, they must pay five.21 Similarly, we calculate the sum [of every field dedicated based on multiples of] a sela and a pundiyon. One may not pay the sum year by year. Instead, it must be paid all at once.22

ו

נִשְׁאַר לַיּוֹבֵל אַרְבַּע שָׁנִים נוֹתֵן הַפּוֹדֶה אַרְבַּע סְלָעִים וְאַרְבָּעָה פּוּנְדְיוֹנוֹת לְכָל חֹמֶר וְאִם הַבְּעָלִים פָּדוּ אוֹתָהּ נוֹתֵן חֹמֶשׁ. וְכֵן לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן זֶה סֶלַע וּפוּנְדְיוֹן לְכָל שָׁנָה. וְאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן שָׁנָה בְּשָׁנָה אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן הַכּל כְּאֶחָד:

7

If there remains only a year between [the time the field was consecrated] and the Jubilee, one cannot redeem it by paying a sela and a pundiyon, as [implied by Leviticus 27:18]: "And the priest shall calculate for him [the amount to be paid] according to the years that remain." [The use of the plural indicates] that the field cannot be redeemed by [the payment of] a reduced amount of silver23 except two or more years before the Jubilee.

ז

נִשְׁאַר בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַיּוֹבֵל שָׁנָה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִתֵּן סֶלַע וּפוּנְדְיוֹן לִפְדּוֹתָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז יח) "וְחִשַּׁב לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן" (ויקרא כז יח) "עַל פִּי הַשָּׁנִים הַנּוֹתָרוֹת" אֵינָהּ נִפְדֵית בְּגִרְעוֹן כֶּסֶף אֶלָּא קֹדֶם לַיּוֹבֵל בִּשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר:

8

If there remains a year and [several] months between [the time the field was consecrated] and the Jubilee and the Temple treasurer desires to calculate the months as a year so that [the donor] will give two shekelim and two pundiyonin for every [portion in which a] chomer [of barley] can be sown, this is permissible.24 [The rationale is that] we do not calculate months with regard to consecrated articles, as [indicated by the prooftext]: "According to the years that remain." [Implied is that one] should calculate years with regard to consecrated property, but one does not calculate months.

ח

נִשְׁאַר בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַיּוֹבֵל שָׁנָה וְחֳדָשִׁים אִם רָצָה הַגִּזְבָּר לַחְשֹׁב הֶחֳדָשִׁים שָׁנָה וְיִתֵּן שְׁנַיִם שְׁקָלִים וּשְׁנַיִם פּוּנְדְיוֹנִים לְכָל זֶרַע חֹמֶר הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מְחַשְּׁבִין חֳדָשִׁים לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז יח) "עַל פִּי הַשָּׁנִים הַנּוֹתָרֹת". שָׁנִים אַתָּה מְחַשֵּׁב לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְאֵי אַתָּה מְחַשֵּׁב חֳדָשִׁים:

9

Accordingly, it is not appropriate for a person to consecrate his field less than two years before the Jubilee. If he does consecrate it, it is consecrated and it cannot be redeemed by [paying] a reduced amount of silver. Instead, if the one redeeming it is willing to pay 50 shekel for [each parcel in which] a chomer [can be sown], he may redeem it. If not, it is given to the priests in the Jubilee year, as will be explained.25

ט

לְפִיכָךְ אֵין רָאוּי לְאָדָם לְהַקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ לִפְנֵי הַיּוֹבֵל בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁתֵי שָׁנִים. וְאִם הִקְדִּישָׁהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת. וְאֵינָהּ נִפְדֵית בְּגִרְעוֹן כֶּסֶף אֶלָּא אִם רָצָה הַפּוֹדֶה לִתֵּן חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל לְכָל חֹמֶר פּוֹדֶה אוֹתָהּ וְאִם לֹא פְּדָאָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ יוֹצְאָה לַכֹּהֲנִים בַּיּוֹבֵל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

10

When a person consecrates his field in the Jubilee year itself, it is not consecrated.26 If a priest or a Levite consecrate [their property] in the Jubilee itself, it is consecrated.27

י

הִקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל עַצְמָהּ אֵינָהּ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת. וְכֹהֵן וְלֵוִי שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁוּ בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל עַצְמָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת:

11

Just as they can redeem [their fields] at all times,28 so too, they can consecrate them at all times.

יא

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁגּוֹאֲלִין לְעוֹלָם כָּךְ מַקְדִּישִׁין לְעוֹלָם:

12

When a person consecrates his field after the Jubilee year, it is not redeemed by [paying] a reduced amount of silver until the completion of a year after the Jubilee, because we do not calculate months with regard to consecrated property.29 Therefore if the one redeeming it is willing to pay 50 shekel for [each parcel in which] a chomer can be sown, he may redeem it even on the day after the Jubilee year. He does not reduce its price at all.

יב

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל אֵינָהּ נִפְדֵית בְּגִרְעוֹן כֶּסֶף עַד שֶׁיִּגָּמֵר שָׁנָה אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל. לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מְחַשְּׁבִין חֳדָשִׁים לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם רָצָה הַפּוֹדֶה לִתֵּן חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל לְכָל זֶרַע חֹמֶר הֲרֵי זֶה פּוֹדֶה אֲפִלּוּ בַּיּוֹם שֶׁאַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל וְאֵינוֹ גּוֹרֵעַ כְּלוּם:

13

When [a field] is measured,30 we measure only those places fit to be sown. If there are stones that are ten [handbreadths] high or hollows filled with water that are ten handbreadths deep, they are not measured with it. If they are less than this, they are measured with it.31

יג

כְּשֶׁמּוֹדְדִין אֵין מוֹדְדִין אֶלָּא מְקוֹמוֹת הָרְאוּיִין לִזְרִיעָה. הָיוּ שָׁם סְלָעִים גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אוֹ נְקָעִים מְלֵאִים מַיִם עֲמוּקִים עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אֵין נִמְדָּדִין עִמָּהּ. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן נִמְדָּדִין עִמָּהּ:

14

If there are hollows that are ten handbreadths or more deep that do not contain water, they are measured independently and calculated according to their worth.32

יד

הָיוּ בָּהּ מְקוֹמוֹת נְמוּכוֹת עֲשָׂרָה אוֹ יוֹתֵר וְאֵין בָּהֶן מַיִם נִמְדָּדִין בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן וּמְחַשְּׁבִין לָהֶם מַה שֶּׁרָאוּי לָהֶם:

15

[If the consecrated field] contains trees, the trees are consecrated even if [the donor] did not say so explicitly. [The rationale is that] when a person consecrates property, he does so with a generous spirit. We calculate the worth of the trees [and add that to the sum arrived at by] measuring the land and placing its airech at a sela and a pundiyon for every [parcel in which] a chomer can be sown, as we explained.33

טו

הָיְתָה מְלֵאָה אִילָנוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ הֲרֵי הִקְדִּישׁ גַּם הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁכָּל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ בְּעַיִן יָפָה הוּא מַקְדִּישׁ וּמְחַשְּׁבִין אֶת הָאִילָנוֹת בְּשָׁוְיֵיהֶן וְהַקַּרְקַע מוֹדְדִין אוֹתָהּ וְיִהְיֶה עֶרְכָּהּ סֶלַע וּפוּנְדְיוֹן לְכָל שָׁנָה וּלְכָל זֶרַע חֹמֶר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

16

When a person consecrates a field that is not fit to be sown and is referred to as rocky terrain, it is redeemed for its value.34 Similarly, if a person consecrates trees alone, they are redeemed according to their value.

טז

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לִזְרִיעָה וְהִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת טְרָשִׁין פּוֹדִין אוֹתָהּ בְּשָׁוְיָהּ. וְכֵן הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הָאִילָנוֹת בִּלְבַד פּוֹדִין אוֹתָן בְּשָׁוְיֵיהֶן:

17

If there were three trees35 planted in an area large enough to sow a se'ah36 and [the donor] did not explicitly say that he was consecrating only the trees, he is considered to have consecrated the land37 and the [small] trees between [the three larger ones].38 If, however, the trees were planted [more sparsely - i.e.,] every three or less trees were planted in more than the area large enough to sow a se'ah39 or he consecrated [each of the trees individually,] one after the other,40 he did not consecrate the land41 or the [small] trees between [the larger ones].

יז

הָיוּ הָאִילָנוֹת שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת לְתוֹךְ בֵּית סְאָה וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ שֶׁהָאִילָנוֹת בִּלְבַד הוּא שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ הֲרֵי זֶה הִקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַקַּרְקַע וְאֶת הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ הָאִילָנוֹת נְטוּעִים כָּל שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת בְּיֶתֶר מִבֵּית סְאָה אוֹ בְּפָחוֹת אוֹ שֶׁהִקְדִּישָׁן זֶה אַחַר זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא הִקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַקַּרְקַע וְלֹא אֶת הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם:

18

If he consecrated the trees and then consecrated the land, he redeems the trees according to their worth and the land according to its measure.42

יח

הִקְדִּישׁ הָאִילָנוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַקַּרְקַע פּוֹדֶה אֶת הָאִילָנוֹת בְּשָׁוְיֵיהֶן וְאֶת הַקַּרְקַע עַל פִּי מִדָּתָהּ:

19

When a person consecrates an ancestral field and the Jubilee arrives without it being redeemed, but instead, it has remained in the domain of the Temple treasury, the priests [of the watch in which the Jubilee falls]43 must pay its airech44 and it becomes their ancestral heritage.45 [They are required to pay,46 because] consecrated property is never released without being redeemed. The money paid is given to the Temple treasury for improvements to its structure.47

יט

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְהִגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל וְלֹא נִפְדֵית אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הִיא תַּחַת יַד הַקֹּדֶשׁ. הַכֹּהֲנִים נוֹתְנִין אֶת דָּמֶיהָ וְתִהְיֶה אֲחֻזָּה לָהֶם. שֶׁאֵין הֶקְדֵּשׁ יוֹצֵא בְּלֹא פִּדְיוֹן. וְאוֹתָן הַדָּמִים יִפְּלוּ לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת:

20

If the person who consecrated it redeemed it before the Jubilee, it returns to its owner [in the Jubilee].48 The airech which he pays is given for improvements to the Temple, as we have explained.49 Similarly, if the son of the person who consecrated it redeemed it, it returns to his father in the Jubilee.50 If, however, his daughter, another relative, or an unrelated person redeemed it, [different laws apply]. If the person who consecrated it redeems it from them, it returns to him at all times [before the Jubilee year].51 If, however, he did not redeem it from their possession and when the Jubilee arrived it is in the possession of the daughter, another relative, or an unrelated person, it is expropriated from them52 [and becomes the property of] the Temple treasury. It never returns to its owners again. Instead, it becomes the ancestral property of the priests, as [Leviticus 27:21] states: "When the field departs [from the purchaser's domain] in the Jubilee, it shall become the priests." The priests do not have to pay its value,53 because it was already redeemed from the Temple treasury and [the Temple treasury] received its airech from another person. Hence, it is returned to the priests as if they are its owners.

כ

גְּאָלָהּ הַמַּקְדִּישׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל הֲרֵי זוֹ חוֹזֶרֶת לִבְעָלֶיהָ וְהָעֵרֶךְ שֶׁנָּתַן יִפּל לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵן אִם גְּאָלָהּ בְּנוֹ שֶׁל מַקְדִּישׁ הֲרֵי זוֹ חוֹזֶרֶת לְאָבִיו בַּיּוֹבֵל. אֲבָל אִם גָּאֲלָה אוֹתָהּ בִּתּוֹ אוֹ שְׁאָר קְרוֹבָיו אוֹ נָכְרִי מִיַּד הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. אִם חָזַר הַמַּקְדִּישׁ וּגְאָלָהּ מִיָּדָן חוֹזֶרֶת לוֹ לְעוֹלָם. וְאִם לֹא גְּאָלָהּ מִיָּדָן אֶלָּא הִגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל וְהִיא תַּחַת יַד הַבַּת אוֹ שְׁאָר קְרוֹבִים אוֹ נָכְרִי הֲרֵי זוֹ יוֹצְאָה לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְאֵינָהּ חוֹזֶרֶת לַבְּעָלִים לְעוֹלָם. אֶלָּא תִּהְיֶה אֲחֻזָּה לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז כא) "וְהָיָה הַשָּׂדֶה בְּצֵאתוֹ בַיֹּבֵל לַכֹּהֵן" וְגוֹ'. וְאֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים צְרִיכִין לִתֵּן דָּמִים שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְדֵית מִיַּד הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְלָקַח עֶרְכָּהּ מֵאַחֵר אֶלָּא תַּחְזֹר לַכֹּהֲנִים כְּאִלּוּ הֵם בְּעָלֶיהָ:

21

To whom does the above54 apply? To an Israelite. If, however, the person who consecrated the field was a priest or a Levite,55 he may redeem it at all times. Even if the Jubilee passed and it was not redeemed from the Temple treasury, he may redeem it after the Jubilee, as [Leviticus 25:32] states: "The Levites have an eternal right of redemption."

כא

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה הַמַּקְדִּישׁ כֹּהֵן אוֹ לֵוִי הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹאֵל לְעוֹלָם. וַאֲפִלּוּ עָבַר עָלֶיהָ הַיּוֹבֵל וְלֹא נִפְדֵית מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ פּוֹדֶה אוֹתָהּ אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה לב) "גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לַלְוִיִּם":

22

When a woman consecrated her ancestral field, her husband redeemed it from the Temple treasury, and it is in his possession when the Jubilee arrives, there is an unresolved question whether it returns to the woman56 or it is given to the priests.57 Therefore if the woman came first and took possession of it after the arrival of the Jubilee, the priests cannot expropriate it from her domain. If the priests took possession of it first, she cannot expropriate it from their possession.58

כב

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִקְדִּישָׁה שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתָהּ וּגְאָלָהּ בַּעְלָהּ מִיַּד הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְהִגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל וְהִיא תַּחַת יַד הַבַּעַל הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר סָפֵק אִם תַּחְזֹר לָאִשָּׁה אוֹ תֵּצֵא לַכֹּהֲנִים. לְפִיכָךְ קָדְמָה הָאִשָּׁה (נ"א אם קדמה האשה) וְהֶחֱזִיקָה בָּהּ אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל אֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים יְכוֹלִין לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָהּ. וְכֵן אִם קָדְמוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ בָּהּ אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָם:

23

If a person consecrated a field and a priest redeemed it from the Temple treasury and it is in his domain when the Jubilee arrives, he should not say: "Since it is expropriated for the sake of the priests and it is in my possession, I should acquire it." Instead, it is given to all of his brethren, the priestly family.

כג

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ וּפָדָה אוֹתָהּ כֹּהֵן מִיַּד הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְהִגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל וְהִיא תַּחַת יַד הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וַהֲרֵי הִיא יוֹצְאָה לַכֹּהֲנִים הֲרֵי הִיא תַּחַת יָדִי וְזָכִיתִי בָּהּ אֶלָּא יוֹצְאָה לְכָל אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים:

24

When it is expropriated on behalf of the priests in the Jubilee, it should be given to those priests59 in the watch60 in which the Jubilee begins. If the Rosh HaShanah of the Jubilee falls on the Sabbath and thus one watch will enter and one will depart,61 it should be given to the watch which departs.62

כד

כְּשֶׁתֵּצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה לַכֹּהֲנִים בַּיּוֹבֵל תִּנָּתֵן לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁבַּמִּשְׁמָר שֶׁפָּגַע בּוֹ הַיּוֹבֵל. וְאִם הָיָה רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל יוֹבֵל בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי מִשְׁמָר יוֹצֵא וּמִשְׁמָר נִכְנָס תִּנָּתֵן לַמִּשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא:

25

When a person consecrates trees and the Jubilee arrives without him having redeemed them, they are not expropriated [and given] to the priests, for [Leviticus 27:21] states: "When the field is expropriated in the Jubilee... [it shall become the priests]." [Trees,] however, are not a field.63 If, however, a person consecrates rocky terrain64 and the Jubilee arrives without it being redeemed, it is expropriated [and given] to the priests, for [the prooftext] states "And the field shall..." and this is called a field.

כה

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הָאִילָנוֹת וְהִגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל וְלֹא פָּדוּ אוֹתָם אֵינָן יוֹצְאִין לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז כא) "וְהָיָה הַשָּׂדֶה בְּצֵאתוֹ בַיֹּבֵל" וְאֵין אֵלּוּ שָׂדֶה. אֲבָל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַטְּרָשִׁים וְהִגִּיעַ יוֹבֵל וְלֹא פָּדוּ אוֹתָן הַבְּעָלִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יוֹצְאִין לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהָיָה הַשָּׂדֶה וְזוֹ נִקְרֵאת שָׂדֶה:

26

What are the laws that apply when a person consecrates purchased property? Its worth is evaluated and we see what its value will be65 until the Jubilee.66 Anyone who desires may redeem it. If the person who consecrated it redeems it, he is not required to add a fifth. The redemption is given for the purpose of improvements to the Temple as are other arechim and pledges of worth.

When the Jubilee arrives, it returns to its original owner who sold it. [This applies] whether it was redeemed from the Temple treasurer and it is departing from the domain of another person or whether it was not redeemed and it is departing from the domain of the Temple treasury, it returns to the seller and is not expropriated for the priests. [The rationale is that] a person cannot consecrate an article that is not his.67

כו

כֵּיצַד דִּין מַקְדִּישׁ שְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ. שָׁמִין אוֹתָהּ בְּדָמֶיהָ וְרוֹאִין כַּמָּה הִיא שָׁוָה עַד הַיּוֹבֵל וּפוֹדֶה אוֹתָהּ כָּל מִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְאִם פָּדָה אוֹתָהּ הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ וּפִדְיוֹנָהּ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת כִּשְׁאָר עֲרָכִין וְדָמִים. וּכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל תַּחְזֹר לַבְּעָלִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁמְּכָרוּהָ. בֵּין שֶׁנִּפְדֵית מִיַּד הַגִּזְבָּר וַהֲרֵי הִיא יוֹצְאָה מִיַּד אַחֵר. בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדֵית וַהֲרֵי הִיא יוֹצְאָה מִיַּד הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ הֲרֵי זוֹ חוֹזֶרֶת לַמּוֹכֵר וְאֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְדִּישׁ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ:

27

Whenever a field is evaluated for the Temple treasury so that it can be sold for its worth, we announce its sale for 60 consecutive days in the morning when workers come to work and in the evening when they leave. We mark its boundaries and say how much it produces and what is it worth.68 Whoever wishes to purchase it may come and purchase it.

כז

כָּל שָׂדֶה שֶׁשָּׁמִין אוֹתָהּ לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ לִמְכֹּר אוֹתָהּ בְּדָמֶיהָ מַכְרִיזִין עָלֶיהָ שִׁשִּׁים יוֹם רְצוּפִין בַּבֹּקֶר בִּשְׁעַת הַכְנָסַת פּוֹעֲלִים וּבָעֶרֶב בִּשְׁעַת הוֹצָאַת פּוֹעֲלִים. וּמְסַיְּמִין מְצָרֶיהָ וְאוֹמֵר כָּךְ הִיא יָפָה וּבְכָךְ הִיא שׁוּמָה כָּל הָרוֹצֶה לִקַּח יָבוֹא וְיִקַּח:

28

[The following laws apply when a person] purchases a field from his father or from another person from whom he could inherit it and consecrates it to the Temple treasury. Whether he consecrated it after the death of his father or the other testator or he consecrated it during the lifetime of his father or the other testator and then his father [or that testator] died, it is considered as an ancestral field.69 [This is derived from Leviticus 27:22:] "[If he will consecrate] a field that he acquired which is not an ancestral field...." [Implied is that the subject is] a field that is not fit to be an ancestral field, thus excluding this one which is fit for him to inherit.70

כח

הַלּוֹקֵחַ שָׂדֶה מֵאָבִיו אוֹ מִשְּׁאָר הַמּוֹרִישִׁין אוֹתוֹ וְהִקְדִּישָׁהּ. בֵּין שֶׁהִקְדִּישָׁהּ אַחַר מוֹת אָבִיו אוֹ מוֹרִישׁוֹ. וּבֵין שֶׁהִקְדִּישָׁהּ בְּחַיֵּי אָבִיו אוֹ שְׁאָר מוֹרִישָׁיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת אָבִיו הֲרֵי זוֹ כִּשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז כב) "וְאִם אֶת שְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ" שָׂדֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לִהְיוֹת שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה יָצָאת זוֹ שֶׁרְאוּיָה לוֹ לְיוֹרְשָׁהּ:

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Footnotes
1.

As a present or the like.

2.

The Rambam begins describing the laws involving the consecration of ancestral fields. Those involving the consecration of purchased property are described from Halachah 26 onward.

3.

Leviticus 27:16. Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 117) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 355) include the commandment to deal with the consecration of a field as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. These laws apply only in Eretz Yisrael (Hilchot Bikkurim 1:6), but not in the Diaspora and only during the time the Jubilee year is observed (Chapter 5, Halachah 1; Hilchot Shemitah V'Yovel 10:9).

4.

See Halachah 4 for a definition of this measure.

5.

This is a larger area than that required to sow an equivalent amount of wheat (the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Arachin 3:2).

6.

Arachin 25a makes this distinction, differentiating between a field that is sown by hand or sown by leading an animal with an open bag of seed through the field.

7.

As indicated by the following halachah, the airech is given for every year individually. We calculate the number of years left until the Jubilee and divide the sum of 50 shekalim accordingly.

8.

Hilchot Shekalim 1:2-3; see Chapter 1, Halachah 4.

9.

As mentioned above, a sela is equivalent to 384 barley corns of silver.

10.

I.e., we divide the 50 selaim into 49 years.

11.

And thus seemingly one is overpaying by a fractional amount.

12.

That is the money-changer's profit for the transaction.

13.

A se'ah is 8.3 liter in modern measure according to Shiurei Torah and 16.2 liter according to Chazon Ish.

14.

Hilchot Shabbat 16:3.

15.

The measure mentioned by the Rambam produces a square with an area of 75076 sq. cubits.

16.

See Halachah 2.

17.

As stated in Chapter 5, Halachah 1, the owners are commanded to redeem it and they are given the option of doing so before another person.

18.

As Leviticus 27:19 states: "If the person who consecrates it redeems it, he shall add a fifth in silver of its airech."

19.

See also Hilchot Terumot 10:26; Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 5:1.

20.

The Mishneh LiMelech states that this refers to a heir redeeming the field after his testator's death, but not during his lifetime. A person's wife, however, must add a fifth even during her husband's lifetime, for they are considered as a single entity.

21.

I.e., five selaim and five pundiyonin.

22.

One may, however, redeem half the field by paying half the required sum, as stated in Chapter 5, Halachah 2.

23.

We have taken some liberty in the translation. The Hebrew term used by the Rambam, girayon kessef, means "the subtraction of silver," i.e., we subtract the sum due for the years of the Jubilee cycle that have already passed from the sum of fifty shekel. See Leviticus 26:18.

The Rambam uses this wording because, as stated in Halachah 9, if the person desires to pay the full 50 shekelim, he may redeem the field even if less than a year remains to the Jubilee.

24.

The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's ruling, noting that although this appears to be the meaning of Arachin 25a, it is illogical to say so. If the field is not redeemed by its owner before the Jubilee, he must pay 50 shekel a measure to redeem it in the Jubilee. If he does not redeem it, it is given to the priests who are required to pay its fair value (see Halachah 19). Thus the Temple treasury will almost certainly be losing by allowing the person to redeem it for the 2 year amount. Why then would the Temple treasurer be allowed to do so?

The Kessef Mishneh notes the Ra'avad's logic, but states that this is the new concept taught: that even if it is not to the benefit of the Temple treasury, the treasurer may make such a decision. The Radbaz states that the law applies in an instance when there will be a benefit to the Temple treasury to enable the property to be redeemed in this manner.

25.

See Halachah 19.

26.

There is a difference of opinion concerning this issue in Arachin 25b. Shmuel interprets Leviticus 27:17 as excluding fields consecrated in the Jubilee itself. Rav differs. Significantly, although here the Rambam follows the opinion of Shmuel, in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Arachin 7:1), he originally follows Rav's view, as indicated by the standard published version. Rav Kapach maintains that the manuscript copies of the Commentary to the Mishnah reflect a change of view and as in the text here, he follows Shmuel's view.

27.

As stated in the following halachah and in Halachah 21, they are governed by different laws than ordinary Israelites in this regard. See also Hilchot Shemitah ViYoval 13:7.

28.

See Halachah 21.

29.

As stated in Halachah 8.

30.

To calculate its size so that the amount required to be paid can be determined, as explained in Halachah 2.

31.

If they are not that high or that deep, they are not considered as significant entities (Arachin 25a).

32.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, noting that from Arachin 25a, it appears that such patches of land are measured together with the field. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain that the Talmud is stating that they are consecrated, but that they are considered as independent from the field. Hence, rather than be measured according to the standard value, they are measured according to their worth.

33.

Halachah 5. The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that although the trees are consecrated, they are redeemed when the field as a whole is redeemed. The Radbaz justifies the Rambam's view.

34.

The Torah passage pertaining to consecrated fields mentions a field that is "sown." Since such a field is not fit to be sown, the general principles that apply to arechim for fields at large do not apply to it. Instead, it is considered as an ordinary vow.

35.

This reflects the Rambam's version of Arachin 14a. The standard printed text of that source reads differently.

36.

Fifty cubits by fifty cubits, as stated in Halachah 4.

37.

In which instance, he adds the value of the trees to the standard airech of the field, as stated in Halachah 15. The rationale for this ruling is evident from Hilchot Shemitah V'Yoval 3:2; Hilchot Bikkurim 2:13: Once trees have grown, they need this much land to be maintained. Hence when one sells the trees, he is considered to have sold the land with them and when he consecrates the trees, he consecrates the land with them.

38.

Because these are considered to be included in the land on which they are planted.

39.

Since the trees are scattered, we do not consider the land as subservient to them. Hence, unless the land is consecrated explicitly, it is not considered as included in his statement.

40.

Since the trees are all mentioned individually, each is considered as a discrete entity and we do not view him as having consecrated the property as a whole.

41.

Since the land is not consecrated, the small trees are also not consecration, because their consecration depends on that of the land.

42.

The Radbaz states that seemingly this ruling is self-evident, for it is the same as that of Halachah 15 where the donor does not mention the trees explicitly. He explains that there is a new dimension in the Rambam's ruling, for one might think that since the donor mentioned the trees explicitly, the land associated with them should be considered as a distinct entity and evaluated according to its worth and not its measure. Hence, the Rambam feels it necessary to emphasize that this is not the case.

43.

See Halachah 24 and notes.

44.

The Kessef Mishneh states that the Rambam shares the understanding of Rashi (Arachin 25b) who maintains that the priests pay the standard amount for a beit kor.

45.

I.e., it never returns to its original owner or his heirs.

46.

From a simple reading of Leviticus 27:20, one might think that they are given the field without any charge. Hence, the Rambam adds this explanation.

47.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 10; Chapter 5, Halachah 7.

48.

The Rambam is referring to the law (Hilchot Shemitah ViYoval, ch. 11) that an ancestral field which is sold returns to its owner in the Jubilee year. The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's wording, for since the donor redeemed the field, it need not return to him in the Jubilee; it is in his possession. The Radbaz explains that the intent is that even if the donor gave the money, but did not take possession before the beginning of the Jubilee, the field returns to him in the Jubilee. The fact that he consecrated it does not cause it to be removed from the category of an ancestral field. The Kessef Mishneh states that the Rambam is using wording that will enable the different clauses of the halachah to appear similar.

49.

From a simple reading of Leviticus 27:20, one might think that they are given the field without any charge. Hence, the Rambam adds this explanation.

50.

Leviticus 27:20 states that a person loses his right to have his ancestral field return in the Jubilee: "If he [the Temple treasurer] sold the field to another man...." Nevertheless, since in many contexts, a son is considered an extension of his father, he is not considered as "another man" and his purchase of the field does not cause his father to lose his claim to it (Arachin 25b).

51.

As is the law with regard to an ancestral field. The fact that it was consecrated and redeemed by another person does not remove it from this category.

This ruling follows the Rambam's version of Arachin 7:3 and his interpretation in his Commentary to the Mishnah. The standard printed text of Arachin 25a differs, however, and states that the field is given to the priests in such an instance. The Ra'avad notes the existence of the two versions of the source.

52.

For they purchased the right to it only until the Jubilee year.

53.

In contrast to the situation mentioned in the previous halachah. The rationale for the difference is that they are required to pay in the previous instance, because consecrated property never leaves the domain of the Temple treasury without being redeemed. In this instance, however, the field has already been redeemed as the Rambam continues to explain.

54.

That a field which is not redeemed becomes the property of the priests.

55.

This refers to a field that was given to a priest or a Levite as an ancestral heritage, not one that they purchased.

56.

Because her husband's redemption of it could be considered as if she redeemed it herself.

57.

Because in actual fact, she did not redeem it.

58.

We follow the principle: "When a person desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is upon him." The Ra'avad differs with this ruling, stating that since her husband is working the field, it is considered as having been acquired by him, for her. The Kessef Mishneh questions the Ra'avad's ruling, stating that since the Talmud (Arachin 25b) left the matter unresolved, it is not appropriate for the Ra'avad to resolve it by logic. The Radbaz adds that the husband (as his wife's agent) must intend to acquire the field and it is possible to work a field without having this intent.

59.

It is sold and its value divided among all the priests of that watch, not only those serving in the Temple on Rosh HaShanah.

60.

The priestly family is broken up into 24 watches who each serve for a week in the Temple (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:3). Thus over the course of the years, there is a revolution of the times when each of the priestly watches serve.

61.

See Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 4:9.

62.

Because when Rosh HaShanah began, it was in their possession (Radbaz).

63.

The Ra'avad states that this law applies when the person consecrates only one or two trees, but not when he consecrates three. For in that instance, they are consecrated together with the land on which they grow (see Halachah 17) and hence, the consecrated property could be referred to as a field.

64.

Although certain aspects of the laws of ancestral fields do not apply to it (see Halachah 16), this dimension of them does.

65.

This is in contrast to an ancestral field where a standard amount is given, as explained above. In his commentary to the Torah (Leviticus 27:22), Rashi writes that it is redeemed in the same manner as an ancestral field. Nevertheless, in his commentary to the Talmud (Arachin 26b), he states that it is redeemed according to its worth.

66.

For in the Jubilee, it was to return to its ancestral owner. The donor's ownership did not extend past that time. Hence he cannot consecrate it for longer, as the Rambam proceeds to explain.

67.

And the person who consecrated the field never possessed permanent ownership of it, only the right to partake of its produce. Hence, he cannot consecrate it to the Temple treasury permanently (the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Arachin 7:4).

68.

As evaluated by the court.

69.

I.e., the price for its redemption becomes fixed and if he does not redeem it, it becomes the property of the priests, as stated above.

70.

See also Hilchot Shemitah V'Yoval, ch. 11, where more details concerning ancestral fields and purchased property are discussed.

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

As a present or the like.

2.

The Rambam begins describing the laws involving the consecration of ancestral fields. Those involving the consecration of purchased property are described from Halachah 26 onward.

3.

Leviticus 27:16. Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 117) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 355) include the commandment to deal with the consecration of a field as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. These laws apply only in Eretz Yisrael (Hilchot Bikkurim 1:6), but not in the Diaspora and only during the time the Jubilee year is observed (Chapter 5, Halachah 1; Hilchot Shemitah V'Yovel 10:9).

4.

See Halachah 4 for a definition of this measure.

5.

This is a larger area than that required to sow an equivalent amount of wheat (the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Arachin 3:2).

6.

Arachin 25a makes this distinction, differentiating between a field that is sown by hand or sown by leading an animal with an open bag of seed through the field.

7.

As indicated by the following halachah, the airech is given for every year individually. We calculate the number of years left until the Jubilee and divide the sum of 50 shekalim accordingly.

8.

Hilchot Shekalim 1:2-3; see Chapter 1, Halachah 4.

9.

As mentioned above, a sela is equivalent to 384 barley corns of silver.

10.

I.e., we divide the 50 selaim into 49 years.

11.

And thus seemingly one is overpaying by a fractional amount.

12.

That is the money-changer's profit for the transaction.

13.

A se'ah is 8.3 liter in modern measure according to Shiurei Torah and 16.2 liter according to Chazon Ish.

14.

Hilchot Shabbat 16:3.

15.

The measure mentioned by the Rambam produces a square with an area of 75076 sq. cubits.

16.

See Halachah 2.

17.

As stated in Chapter 5, Halachah 1, the owners are commanded to redeem it and they are given the option of doing so before another person.

18.

As Leviticus 27:19 states: "If the person who consecrates it redeems it, he shall add a fifth in silver of its airech."

19.

See also Hilchot Terumot 10:26; Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 5:1.

20.

The Mishneh LiMelech states that this refers to a heir redeeming the field after his testator's death, but not during his lifetime. A person's wife, however, must add a fifth even during her husband's lifetime, for they are considered as a single entity.

21.

I.e., five selaim and five pundiyonin.

22.

One may, however, redeem half the field by paying half the required sum, as stated in Chapter 5, Halachah 2.

23.

We have taken some liberty in the translation. The Hebrew term used by the Rambam, girayon kessef, means "the subtraction of silver," i.e., we subtract the sum due for the years of the Jubilee cycle that have already passed from the sum of fifty shekel. See Leviticus 26:18.

The Rambam uses this wording because, as stated in Halachah 9, if the person desires to pay the full 50 shekelim, he may redeem the field even if less than a year remains to the Jubilee.

24.

The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's ruling, noting that although this appears to be the meaning of Arachin 25a, it is illogical to say so. If the field is not redeemed by its owner before the Jubilee, he must pay 50 shekel a measure to redeem it in the Jubilee. If he does not redeem it, it is given to the priests who are required to pay its fair value (see Halachah 19). Thus the Temple treasury will almost certainly be losing by allowing the person to redeem it for the 2 year amount. Why then would the Temple treasurer be allowed to do so?

The Kessef Mishneh notes the Ra'avad's logic, but states that this is the new concept taught: that even if it is not to the benefit of the Temple treasury, the treasurer may make such a decision. The Radbaz states that the law applies in an instance when there will be a benefit to the Temple treasury to enable the property to be redeemed in this manner.

25.

See Halachah 19.

26.

There is a difference of opinion concerning this issue in Arachin 25b. Shmuel interprets Leviticus 27:17 as excluding fields consecrated in the Jubilee itself. Rav differs. Significantly, although here the Rambam follows the opinion of Shmuel, in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Arachin 7:1), he originally follows Rav's view, as indicated by the standard published version. Rav Kapach maintains that the manuscript copies of the Commentary to the Mishnah reflect a change of view and as in the text here, he follows Shmuel's view.

27.

As stated in the following halachah and in Halachah 21, they are governed by different laws than ordinary Israelites in this regard. See also Hilchot Shemitah ViYoval 13:7.

28.

See Halachah 21.

29.

As stated in Halachah 8.

30.

To calculate its size so that the amount required to be paid can be determined, as explained in Halachah 2.

31.

If they are not that high or that deep, they are not considered as significant entities (Arachin 25a).

32.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, noting that from Arachin 25a, it appears that such patches of land are measured together with the field. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain that the Talmud is stating that they are consecrated, but that they are considered as independent from the field. Hence, rather than be measured according to the standard value, they are measured according to their worth.

33.

Halachah 5. The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that although the trees are consecrated, they are redeemed when the field as a whole is redeemed. The Radbaz justifies the Rambam's view.

34.

The Torah passage pertaining to consecrated fields mentions a field that is "sown." Since such a field is not fit to be sown, the general principles that apply to arechim for fields at large do not apply to it. Instead, it is considered as an ordinary vow.

35.

This reflects the Rambam's version of Arachin 14a. The standard printed text of that source reads differently.

36.

Fifty cubits by fifty cubits, as stated in Halachah 4.

37.

In which instance, he adds the value of the trees to the standard airech of the field, as stated in Halachah 15. The rationale for this ruling is evident from Hilchot Shemitah V'Yoval 3:2; Hilchot Bikkurim 2:13: Once trees have grown, they need this much land to be maintained. Hence when one sells the trees, he is considered to have sold the land with them and when he consecrates the trees, he consecrates the land with them.

38.

Because these are considered to be included in the land on which they are planted.

39.

Since the trees are scattered, we do not consider the land as subservient to them. Hence, unless the land is consecrated explicitly, it is not considered as included in his statement.

40.

Since the trees are all mentioned individually, each is considered as a discrete entity and we do not view him as having consecrated the property as a whole.

41.

Since the land is not consecrated, the small trees are also not consecration, because their consecration depends on that of the land.

42.

The Radbaz states that seemingly this ruling is self-evident, for it is the same as that of Halachah 15 where the donor does not mention the trees explicitly. He explains that there is a new dimension in the Rambam's ruling, for one might think that since the donor mentioned the trees explicitly, the land associated with them should be considered as a distinct entity and evaluated according to its worth and not its measure. Hence, the Rambam feels it necessary to emphasize that this is not the case.

43.

See Halachah 24 and notes.

44.

The Kessef Mishneh states that the Rambam shares the understanding of Rashi (Arachin 25b) who maintains that the priests pay the standard amount for a beit kor.

45.

I.e., it never returns to its original owner or his heirs.

46.

From a simple reading of Leviticus 27:20, one might think that they are given the field without any charge. Hence, the Rambam adds this explanation.

47.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 10; Chapter 5, Halachah 7.

48.

The Rambam is referring to the law (Hilchot Shemitah ViYoval, ch. 11) that an ancestral field which is sold returns to its owner in the Jubilee year. The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's wording, for since the donor redeemed the field, it need not return to him in the Jubilee; it is in his possession. The Radbaz explains that the intent is that even if the donor gave the money, but did not take possession before the beginning of the Jubilee, the field returns to him in the Jubilee. The fact that he consecrated it does not cause it to be removed from the category of an ancestral field. The Kessef Mishneh states that the Rambam is using wording that will enable the different clauses of the halachah to appear similar.

49.

From a simple reading of Leviticus 27:20, one might think that they are given the field without any charge. Hence, the Rambam adds this explanation.

50.

Leviticus 27:20 states that a person loses his right to have his ancestral field return in the Jubilee: "If he [the Temple treasurer] sold the field to another man...." Nevertheless, since in many contexts, a son is considered an extension of his father, he is not considered as "another man" and his purchase of the field does not cause his father to lose his claim to it (Arachin 25b).

51.

As is the law with regard to an ancestral field. The fact that it was consecrated and redeemed by another person does not remove it from this category.

This ruling follows the Rambam's version of Arachin 7:3 and his interpretation in his Commentary to the Mishnah. The standard printed text of Arachin 25a differs, however, and states that the field is given to the priests in such an instance. The Ra'avad notes the existence of the two versions of the source.

52.

For they purchased the right to it only until the Jubilee year.

53.

In contrast to the situation mentioned in the previous halachah. The rationale for the difference is that they are required to pay in the previous instance, because consecrated property never leaves the domain of the Temple treasury without being redeemed. In this instance, however, the field has already been redeemed as the Rambam continues to explain.

54.

That a field which is not redeemed becomes the property of the priests.

55.

This refers to a field that was given to a priest or a Levite as an ancestral heritage, not one that they purchased.

56.

Because her husband's redemption of it could be considered as if she redeemed it herself.

57.

Because in actual fact, she did not redeem it.

58.

We follow the principle: "When a person desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is upon him." The Ra'avad differs with this ruling, stating that since her husband is working the field, it is considered as having been acquired by him, for her. The Kessef Mishneh questions the Ra'avad's ruling, stating that since the Talmud (Arachin 25b) left the matter unresolved, it is not appropriate for the Ra'avad to resolve it by logic. The Radbaz adds that the husband (as his wife's agent) must intend to acquire the field and it is possible to work a field without having this intent.

59.

It is sold and its value divided among all the priests of that watch, not only those serving in the Temple on Rosh HaShanah.

60.

The priestly family is broken up into 24 watches who each serve for a week in the Temple (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:3). Thus over the course of the years, there is a revolution of the times when each of the priestly watches serve.

61.

See Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 4:9.

62.

Because when Rosh HaShanah began, it was in their possession (Radbaz).

63.

The Ra'avad states that this law applies when the person consecrates only one or two trees, but not when he consecrates three. For in that instance, they are consecrated together with the land on which they grow (see Halachah 17) and hence, the consecrated property could be referred to as a field.

64.

Although certain aspects of the laws of ancestral fields do not apply to it (see Halachah 16), this dimension of them does.

65.

This is in contrast to an ancestral field where a standard amount is given, as explained above. In his commentary to the Torah (Leviticus 27:22), Rashi writes that it is redeemed in the same manner as an ancestral field. Nevertheless, in his commentary to the Talmud (Arachin 26b), he states that it is redeemed according to its worth.

66.

For in the Jubilee, it was to return to its ancestral owner. The donor's ownership did not extend past that time. Hence he cannot consecrate it for longer, as the Rambam proceeds to explain.

67.

And the person who consecrated the field never possessed permanent ownership of it, only the right to partake of its produce. Hence, he cannot consecrate it to the Temple treasury permanently (the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Arachin 7:4).

68.

As evaluated by the court.

69.

I.e., the price for its redemption becomes fixed and if he does not redeem it, it becomes the property of the priests, as stated above.

70.

See also Hilchot Shemitah V'Yoval, ch. 11, where more details concerning ancestral fields and purchased property are discussed.

The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Vowelized Hebrew text courtesy Torat Emet under CC 2.5 license.
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.