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Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 9

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Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 9


The following laws apply when a support is firmly joined to the earth or nailed down. If it is sound and strong and a zav banged upon it and when doing so, a k'li, food, or liquids that were resting on it were moved or caused to fall from the power of his blow, they are pure. If the support was not sound or strong, but shaky and a zav banged upon it and caused keilim, food, or liquids to fall or move from the power of his blow, they are impure. It is as if he moved them, because they fell as a result of his power.

This is the general principle: Whatever falls as a direct result of the power of the zav's movement is impure. Anything that falls due to the trembling of the support is pure.

What is implied? If he knocked on a tree or a booth that were not sturdy, on an Egyptian ladder that was not affixed with nails, on a ramp, a beam, or a door that was not firmly held in place with mortar or he knocked on a door-bolt, a lock, or an oar, and when he knocked upon these entities, he caused food, liquids, or keilim to fall - or even caused them to shake without falling - they are impure. If, however, he knocked on a tree or a booth that was strong, or an Egyptian ladder that was nailed down, or a ramp, a beam, or a door that was held in place with mortar, a central building beam or an oven, and when he knocked on that entity, keilim, foods, and liquids on it were moved - and even if they fell - they remain pure. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.


דָבָר שֶׁהָיָה מְחֻבָּר בָּאָרֶץ אוֹ מְסֻמָּר בְּמַסְמְרִים. אִם הָיָה כֹּחוֹ יָפֶה וְחָזָק וְהִקִּישׁ עָלָיו הַזָּב וּבְעֵת שֶׁהִקִּישׁ הֵנִיד כְּלִי אוֹ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין מִכֹּחַ הַכָּאָתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהִפִּילָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִים. וְאִם לֹא הָיָה כֹּחוֹ יָפֶה וְחָזָק אֶלָּא מִתְנַדְנֵד וְהִקִּישׁ עָלָיו הַזָּב וְהִפִּיל אוֹ הֵנִיד בְּכֹחַ הַכָּאָתוֹ כֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין. וּכְאִלּוּ הֱסִיטָן שֶׁהֲרֵי מִכֹּחוֹ נָפְלוּ. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁנָּפַל מִכֹּחַ הֶסֵּטוֹ טָמֵא. מִכֹּחַ הָרְעָדָה טָהוֹר. כֵּיצַד. הִקִּישׁ עַל אִילָן אוֹ סֻכָּה שֶׁכֹּחָן רַע. אוֹ עַל סֻלָּם מִצְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ בְּמַסְמֵר. אוֹ עַל קוֹרָה וְדֶלֶת וְכֶבֶשׁ שֶׁאֵינָם מְחֻבָּרִים בְּטִיט. אוֹ שֶׁהִקִּישׁ עַל הַנֶּגֶר עַל הַמַּנְעוּל וְהַמָּשׁוֹט. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִקִּישׁ הִפִּיל אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין אוֹ כֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ הֱנִידָן וְלֹא נָפְלוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִים. אֲבָל אִם הִקִּישׁ עַל אִילָן אוֹ עַל סֻכָּה שֶׁכֹּחָן יָפֶה. אוֹ עַל סֻלָּם מְסֻמָּר. אוֹ עַל כֶּבֶשׁ אוֹ עַל דֶּלֶת אוֹ קוֹרָה הַמְחֻבָּרִין בְּטִיט. אוֹ עַל הַמָּרִישׁ. אוֹ עַל הַתַּנּוּר. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִקִּישׁ הֵנִיד כֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין אֲפִלּוּ הִפִּילָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּאֵלּוּ:


When there was a loaf of bread attached to the wall of an oven and a zav knocked on the oven and caused the loaf to fall, it is pure, even if the loaf is terumah. If a shard from the oven is clinging to the loaf that fell, it is impure, even if the loaf is ordinary food.


תַּנּוּר שֶׁהָיְתָה הַפַּת דְּבוּקָה בּוֹ וְהִקִּישׁ עַל הַתַּנּוּר וְנָפַל כִּכָּר אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. וְאִם הָיָה חֶרֶס מִן הַתַּנּוּר מְדֻבָּק בַּכִּכָּר שֶׁנָּפַל אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה חֻלִּין הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא:


A surface on which one lies or rides that has contracted midras impurity does not impart impurity to keilim, foods, or liquids, unless it touches them. If, however, the keilim, foods, or liquids were above the impure midras or the impure midras was above them, as long as they do not touch it, even if there is only a paper separating between them, they are pure. Similarly, if an object on which one sits caused keilim, foods, or liquids to move, they are pure.


אֵין הַמִּשְׁכָּב אוֹ הַמֶּרְכָּב מְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין אֶלָּא בְּמַגָּע בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמִּדְרָס אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַמִּדְרָס לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם אֶלָּא נְיָר הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נָגַע בָּהֶן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן אִם הֵסִיט הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֶת הַכֵּלִים אוֹ אֶת הָאֳכָלִים וְהַמַּשְׁקִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין:


When a zav and a pure person were sitting in a small boat that could tip due to the movement of one person, on a dinghy, or riding an animal together, even if their clothes are not touching each other, the clothes of the pure person are considered to have contracted midras impurity. This impurity comes as a result of a doubt; perhaps the zav stepped upon them. Similarly, if a woman in the nidah state sat together with a woman who is pure on a bed, the other woman's clothes are impure because of midras impurity, with the exception of the cap on her head. Similarly, when a zav was in a small boat, clothes on top of the masthead are pure.


הַזָּב וְהַטָּהוֹר שֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ בִּסְפִינָה קְטַנָּה הַיְכוֹלָה לְהָמִיט בָּאָדָם אֶחָד אוֹ בְּאַסְדָּא אוֹ שֶׁרָכְבוּ עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בִּגְדֵיהֶן נוֹגְעִין זֶה בָּזֶה הֲרֵי בִּגְדֵי הַטָּהוֹר טְמֵאִים מִדְרָס וְטֻמְאָתָן בְּסָפֵק שֶׁמָּא דָּרַס הַזָּב עֲלֵיהֶן. וְכֵן נִדָּה שֶׁיָּשְׁבָה עִם הַטְּהוֹרָה בַּמִּטָּה בְּגָדֶיהָ טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס חוּץ מִכִּפָּה שֶׁבְּרֹאשָׁהּ. וְכֵן הַבְּגָדִים שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הַנֵּס שֶׁבַּסְּפִינָה טְהוֹרִין:


When one pushes into a mill in which a gentile, a zav, or the like is located, his clothes contract midras impurity.

With regard to which type of mill was this said? One that shakes the ground to the extent that it will raise the person standing there and force him from his place.

It is obvious that this impurity was decreed due to a doubt: perhaps the impure person was displaced and stepped on the clothes of the pure person.


הַנִּדְחָק בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁהָעַכּוּ''ם בְּתוֹכָם אוֹ זָב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ הֲרֵי בְּגָדָיו טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס. בְּאֵי זֶה רֵחַיִם אָמְרוּ בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁמְּנַדְנְדִין אֶת הַקַּרְקַע עַד שֶׁעוֹקְרִין אֶת הָעוֹמֵד כָּאן וְדוֹחֲפִין אוֹתוֹ מִמְּקוֹמוֹ. וְדָבָר בָּרוּר הוּא שֶׁטֻּמְאָה זוֹ בְּסָפֵק שֶׁמָּא נֶעֱקַר הַטָּמֵא וְדָרַס עַל בִּגְדֵי הַטָּהוֹר:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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