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ב"ה

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 10, Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 11, Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 12

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Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 10

1

An unlearned person, even though he is Jewish and observant of the Torah and its mitzvot, is assumed to be impure and his clothes are considered a midras if they come into contact with pure substances. If his clothes touch food or liquids, they are impure. If he touches an earthenware container from the inside, he imparts impurity to it. Terumah should be burnt if such a person touches it, even though his impurity is of doubtful status.

The word of such persons is not accepted regarding the status of pure articles, because they are not knowledgeable regarding the intricacies of the laws of purity and impurity. We continue to operate under this presumption and the person's word is not accepted until he resolves to accept the restrictions of a chavair. What is meant by the restrictions of a chavair that he must resolve to accept? That he be careful with regard to sources of impurity, not to contract impurity from them; that he be careful with regard to pure articles that he not impart impurity to them; that he be careful with regard to washing hands and maintaining their purity; that he not take moist foods from an unlearned person; that he not accept his hospitality; nor offer hospitality to him while the unlearned person is wearing his own garments.

א

עַם הָאָרֶץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֶשְׁנוֹ בְּתוֹרָה וּבְמִצְוֹת הֲרֵי הוּא בְּחֶזְקַת טָמֵא וּבְגָדָיו מִדְרָס לְטָהֳרוֹת. וְאִם נָגְעוּ בְּגָדָיו בָּאֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין הֲרֵי הֵן טְמֵאִין. וְאִם נָגַע בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס מֵאֲוִירוֹ טִמְּאָהוּ. וְשׂוֹרְפִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה עַל מַגָּעָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטֻּמְאָתָן בְּסָפֵק. וְאֵינָן נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַטָּהֳרוֹת לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן בְּקִיאִין בְּדִקְדוּקֵי טָהֳרוֹת וְטֻמְאוֹת. וּלְעוֹלָם הוּא בְּחֶזְקָה זוֹ וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן עַל הַטָּהֳרוֹת עַד שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת. וּמַה הֵן דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו שֶׁיְּהֵא נִזְהָר בְּטֻמְאוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִטָּמֵּא בָּהֶן. וּבְטָהֳרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יְטַמֵּא אוֹתָם. וְיִזָּהֵר בִּנְטִילַת יָדַיִם וּבְטָהֳרָתָן שֶׁלֹּא יִקַּח מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ דָּבָר לַח וְלֹא יִתְאָרֵחַ אֶצְלוֹ וְלֹא יְאָרְחוֹ אֶצְלוֹ בִּכְסוּתוֹ:

2

When a person seeks to accept upon himself all the practices of a chavair except one, he is not accepted. If we see he carries out these practices privately in his own home, we accept him and then we teach him the concepts of impurity and purity. If we do not see him conducting himself in this manner privately at home, we teach him and then we accept him.

First, a person is accepted with regard to maintaining the purity of his hands. Afterwards, he is accepted with regard to dealing with pure objects. If he said: "I only accept upon myself, the purity of hands," he is accepted. If he sought to accept the restrictions regarding pure objects, but not those that apply to the purity of hands, we do not accept him, even for pure objects.

When he is accepted, we are cautious with regard to his conduct for 30 days until he learns the intricacies of the laws and is used to dealing with pure objects. Once 30 days have passed since he accepted the customs of a chavair, his clothes are considered as pure and all of his food and liquids are considered as pure. His word is accepted with regard to pure objects like all other chavairim even though he is not a Torah scholar.

ב

הַבָּא לְקַבֵּל דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת חוּץ מִדָּבָר אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֵין מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ. רְאִינוּהוּ שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בְּצִנְעָה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְלַמְּדִין אוֹתוֹ עִסְקֵי טֻמְאָה וְטָהֳרָה. וְאִם לֹא רְאִינוּהוּ שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בְּצִנְעָה בְּבֵיתוֹ מְלַמְּדִין אוֹתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ. וּמְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ תְּחִלָּה לְטָהֳרַת הַיָּדָיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ לְטָהֳרוֹת. וְאִם אָמַר אֵינִי מְקַבֵּל אֶלָּא לְטָהֳרַת הַיָּדָיִם מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ. קִבֵּל לְטָהֳרוֹת וְלֹא לַיָּדַיִם אַף לְטָהֳרוֹת אֵין מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ. כְּשֶׁמְּקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ חוֹשְׁשִׁין לוֹ כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם עַד שֶׁיִּלְמַד וְיִהְיֶה רָגִיל בְּטָהֳרוֹת. וְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם מִשֶּׁיְּקַבֵּל דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת הֲרֵי בְּגָדָיו טְהוֹרִין וְכָל אֳכָלָיו וּמַשְׁקָיו טְהוֹרִין וְנֶאֱמָן עַל כָּל הַטָּהֳרוֹת כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַחֲבֵרִים וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם:

3

Torah scholars are assumed to be chavairim. Their word is accepted regarding pure articles and they do not have to undertake a formal acceptance of the practices of chaveirim. Nevertheless, after the destruction of the Temple, the priests adopted an additional measure of stringency among themselves and they would not give pure objects to anyone, even Torah scholars, until they formally accepted the practices of chaveirim.

ג

תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים הֲרֵי הֵן בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה. נֶאֱמָנִין וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְקַבֵּל דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת אֲבָל מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ נָהֲגוּ כֹּהֲנִים סִלְסוּל בְּעַצְמָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מוֹסְרִין טָהֳרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ לְתַלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים עַד שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת:

4

An elder who is a member of a Talmudic academy does not need to formally accept these practices, for he already accepted them at the time he became a member of the academy.

ד

זָקֵן וְיוֹשֵׁב בִּישִׁיבָה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְקַבֵּל שֶׁכְּבָר קִבֵּל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיָּשַׁב:

5

When a person seeks to accept the practices of a chavair, he must formalize this acceptance in the presence of three chaveirim. His sons and the members of his household need not formalize this acceptance in the presence of three chaveirim, because he will teach them and train them in the ways of purity. The wife of a chavair, his sons, the members of his household, and his servants are considered like a chavair. If a chavair dies, his wife, his sons, and the members of his household are considered as chavairim until their conduct arouses suspicion.

ה

הַמְקַבֵּל דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת צָרִיךְ לְקַבֵּל בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה חֲבֵרִים. וּבָנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְקַבֵּל בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְלַמְּדָן וּמַרְגִּילָן בְּדֶרֶךְ טָהֳרָה. וְאֵשֶׁת חָבֵר וּבָנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ וַעֲבָדָיו הֲרֵי הֵן כְּחָבֵר. וְחָבֵר שֶׁמֵּת אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת חֲבֵרִים עַד שֶׁיֵּחָשְׁדוּ:

6

When the widow of an unlearned person or the daughter of one marries a chavair or the servant of a such a person is sold to a chavair, the woman or the servant must accept the practices of a chavair as at the outset. When, by contrast, the widow of a chavair or his daughter marries an unlearned person or his servant is sold to an unlearned person, there is no need for them to accept the practices of a chavair as at the outset.

ו

אֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ אוֹ בִּתּוֹ שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת לְחָבֵר וְכֵן עַבְדּוֹ שֶׁנִּמְכַּר לְחָבֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ צְרִיכִין לְקַבֵּל עֲלֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת כְּבַתְּחִלָּה. אֲבָל אֵשֶׁת חָבֵר אוֹ בִּתּוֹ שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת לְעַם הָאָרֶץ וְכֵן עַבְדּוֹ שֶׁנִּמְכַּר לְעַם הָאָרֶץ אֵין צְרִיכִין לְקַבֵּל דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת כְּבַתְּחִלָּה:

7

When an unlearned person accepts the practices of a chavair, but had pure articles that remained from the time that he was unlearned, although he says: "I know with certainty that they did not contract impurity when others were involved with them," they are forbidden, as was their status initially. If he personally was involved with these pure articles before his status changed, the articles are permitted to him, but they are forbidden to all others.

A chavair may be asked about the state of his pure articles and he may rule in his own favor, that they are permitted. We do not harbor suspicions about him in this context.

ז

עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת וְהָיוּ לוֹ טָהֳרוֹת כְּשֶׁהָיָה עַם הָאָרֶץ וְאָמַר אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ וַדַּאי שֶׁלֹּא נִטְמְאוּ בִּזְמַן שֶׁנִּתְעַסְּקוּ בָּהֶן אֲחֵרִים הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרוֹת כְּמִקֹּדֶם וְאִם הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ נִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הֵן מֻתָּרוֹת לוֹ וַאֲסוּרוֹת לְכָל אָדָם. וְנִשְׁאַל הֶחָבֵר עַל טָהֳרוֹתָיו וּמוֹרֶה בָּהֶן טָהֳרָה לְעַצְמוֹ וְאֵין חוֹשְׁדִין אוֹתוֹ בְּכָךְ:

8

When a chavair becomes a tax collector, a collector of customs duty, or the like, he is stripped of his status as a chavair. If he abandons his evil deeds, he is considered as every other person. He must accept the practices of a chavair as at the outset.

ח

חָבֵר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה גַּבַּאי לַמֶּלֶךְ אוֹ מוֹכְסָן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן דּוֹחִין אוֹתוֹ מֵחֲבֵרוּתוֹ. פֵּרַשׁ מִמַּעֲשָׂיו הָרָעִים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּכָל אָדָם וְצָרִיךְ לְקַבֵּל דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת כְּבַתְּחִלָּה:

9

When an unlearned person accepted the practices of a chavair and then becomes suspect with regard to a particular matter, he is suspect only with regard to that particular matter. Nevertheless, one who became suspect with regard to a severe matter is suspect with regard to a slighter matter. If he becomes suspect for a slight matter, he is not considered suspect for a more severe matter.

ט

עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרוּת וְנֶחְשָׁד לְדָבָר אֶחָד אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּד אֶלָּא לְאוֹתוֹ דָּבָר. וְכָל הֶחָשׁוּד לֶחָמוּר נֶחְשָׁד עַל הַקַּל. לַקַּל לֹא נֶחְשָׁד לֶחָמוּר:

10

When a chavair becomes suspect with regard to permissiveness in connection with ritually pure articles, e.g., he sold ritually impure foods with the presumption that they were pure, he is no longer considered as trustworthy until it becomes known that he repented completely.

י

חָבֵר שֶׁנֶּחְשָׁד עַל הַטָּהֳרוֹת כְּגוֹן שֶׁמָּכַר אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִין בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְעוֹלָם עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע שֶׁחָזַר בִּתְשׁוּבָה גְּמוּרָה:

11

When a person is suspect with regard to the violation of the laws regarding the Sabbatical year or with regard to selling terumah as ordinary produce, he is considered to be suspect with regard to violating the restrictions concerning ritual purity. For a person who is suspect with regard to a Scriptural prohibition is considered suspect with regard to Rabbinic safeguards. And impure foods impart impurity to other entities only by virtue of Rabbinic decree, as will be explained.

Any person who is suspect with regard to a particular matter is, nevertheless, permitted to deliver testimony regarding such a matter with regard to others and to serve as a judge with regard to others. The rationale is that we operate under the assumption that a person will not transgress so that others will benefit.

יא

הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית אוֹ עַל הַתְּרוּמָה שֶׁמְּכָרָן לְשֵׁם חֻלִּין הֲרֵי זֶה חָשׁוּד עַל הַטָּהֳרוֹת שֶׁהֶחָשׁוּד עַל דָּבָר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה הֲרֵי הוּא חָשׁוּד עַל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְהָאֳכָלִין הַטְּמֵאִין אֵין מְטַמְּאִין אֲחֵרִים אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וְכָל הֶחָשׁוּד עַל דָּבָר נֶאֱמָן לְהָעִיד בּוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים וְלָדוּן בּוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים. חֲזָקָה הִיא שֶׁאֵין אָדָם חוֹטֵא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּהָנוּ בּוֹ אֲחֵרִים:

Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 11

1

We have already explained that the word of unlearned persons is accepted with regard to the purification process of the red heifer. Because of the severity involved, the matter is never treated lightly. Similarly, their word is accepted with regard to the wine and oil intended for the accompanying offerings of a sacrifice. If they say that they are pure, they are assumed to be pure. Because this is a very severe matter, they are mindful of it.

Similarly, their word is accepted with regard to the purity of terumah during the time when winepresses and olive vats are active, for all people purify themselves and their utensils to prepare their wine in a state of purity. When the time when winepresses and olive vats are active passes, their word is no longer accepted.

א

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ נֶאֱמָנִים הֵן עַל טָהֳרַת פָּרַת הַחַטָּאת מִפְּנֵי חֻמְרָתָהּ אֵין מְזַלְזְלִין בָּהּ. וְכֵן נֶאֱמָנִים הֵן עַל טָהֳרַת יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן שֶׁל נְסָכִים אִם אָמַר טָהוֹר הוּא הֲרֵי זֶה בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה מִפְּנֵי חֻמְרָתוֹ נִזְהָרִין בּוֹ. וְכֵן נֶאֱמָנִים הֵן עַל הַתְּרוּמָה בִּשְׁעַת הַגִּתּוֹת וְהַבַּדִּים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל הָעָם מְטַהֲרִין עַצְמָן וּכְלֵיהֶן כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת יֵינָם וְשַׁמְנָם בְּטָהֳרָה. עָבְרוּ הַגִּתּוֹת וְהַבַּדִּים אֵינָן נֶאֱמָנִים:

2

When an unlearned person brings a priest a barrel of wine or oil that is terumah, he should not accept it from him, because it is assumed to be impure. If the unlearned person left it in his own possession until the next time of the winepresses and olive vats and brought it to the priest, he should accept it even though he knows it is from the previous year. For no impurity was decreed on unlearned people during the time when winepresses and olive vats are active.

ב

כֹּהֵן שֶׁהֵבִיא לוֹ עַם הָאָרֶץ חָבִית יַיִן אוֹ שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה לֹא יְקַבְּלֶנָּה מִמֶּנּוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בְּחֶזְקַת טֻמְאָה. הִנִּיחָהּ עַם הָאָרֶץ אֶצְלוֹ עַד גַּת הַבָּאָה וֶהֱבִיאָהּ לוֹ יְקַבְּלֶנָּה מִמֶּנּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל אֶשְׁתָּקַד שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם טֻמְאָה בִּשְׁעַת הַגִּתּוֹת וְהַבַּדִּים:

3

When an unlearned person locks his olive press or wine vat when the people completed pressing and brought the key to a priest, even though several days pass since the pressing season was completed, there is room for leniency. The priest may come, open the press or vat in the unlearned person's presence, have him immerse himself, press the olives or grapes and take terumah in a state of ritual purity.

If he did not do this, he should only take olives and grapes that were not made fit to contract impurity from an unlearned person, for they will not contract impurity.

ג

עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁנָּעַל בֵּית בַּדּוֹ אוֹ גִּתּוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁגָּמְרוּ הָעָם לִדְרֹךְ וְהוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִיָּד לְכֹהֵן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁהָה כַּמָּה יָמִים אַחַר שֶׁעָבְרוּ הַגִּתּוֹת הֲרֵי הַכֹּהֵן בָּא וּפוֹתֵחַ בְּפָנָיו וּמַטְבִּילוֹ וְדוֹרֵךְ וְנוֹטֵל תְּרוּמָה בְּטָהֳרָה. וְאִם לֹא עָשָׂה כֵן לֹא יִטּל תְּרוּמָה מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים שֶׁאֵינָן מֻכְשָׁרִין שֶׁאֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

4

If an unlearned person brought a priest a barrel of terumah wine or oil during the remainder of the year and told him: "I have separated consecrated wine or oil from it," even if only a revi'it, since his word is accepted with regard to the purity of the consecrated wine or oil, his word is accepted with regard to the entire amount.

Even during the time when winepresses and olive vats are active and the word of unlearned people is accepted with regard to terumah, their word is not accepted with regard to the empty containers to say that they are pure and may be used for terumah. Similarly, their word is never accepted with regard to empty containers to say that they are pure and may be used for consecrated liquids.

ד

הֵבִיא לוֹ עַם הָאָרֶץ חָבִית שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה וְאָמַר הִפְרַשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹכָהּ קֹדֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ רְבִיעִית מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמָן עַל טָהֳרַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ נֶאֱמָן עַל הַכּל אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת הַגִּתּוֹת וְהַבַּדִּים שֶׁעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַתְּרוּמָה אֵינָן נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַכְּלִי הָרֵיקָם לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר לִתְרוּמָה. וְכֵן אֵין נֶאֱמָנִין לְעוֹלָם עַל כְּלִי רֵיקָם לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר לְקֹדֶשׁ:

5

When there was a container of wine or oil and we saw an unlearned person waiting and protecting it so that he could take accompanying offerings from it, his word is accepted with regard to the purity of the container for even 70 days before the time when winepresses and olive vats are active. Before these 70 days, by contrast, their word is not accepted.

Where does the above apply? In the other portions of the land of Israel. In Jerusalem, by contrast, the word of unlearned people that empty earthenware containers are pure for consecrated articles is always accepted. This applies with regard to small utensils or large ones, whether they are full or empty. Implied is that the word of an unlearned person that a container is pure is accepted even though the liquids in the container are impure. Even if the garment of the unlearned person which is considered as impure due to midras enters the container, the container is assumed to be pure with regard to sacrificial foods. Why was such leniency shown? Because kilns for earthenware containers are not made in Jerusalem.

ה

כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה בְּתוֹכוֹ יַיִן אוֹ שֶׁמֶן וְרָאִינוּ עַם הָאָרֶץ יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמְּרוֹ כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ נְסָכִים הֲרֵי הוּא נֶאֱמָן עַל טָהֳרַת הַכְּלִי וַאֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם לַגִּתּוֹת וְלַבַּדִּים בְּשִׁבְעִים יוֹם. אֲבָל קֹדֶם לְשִׁבְעִים אֵינָן נֶאֱמָנִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁאָר אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם נֶאֱמָנִים עַל כְּלִי חֶרֶס הָרֵיקָם לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר לְקֹדֶשׁ לְעוֹלָם בֵּין כֵּלִים דַּקִּים בֵּין כֵּלִים גַּסִּים בֵּין מְלֵאִין בֵּין רֵיקָנִים הֲרֵי הוּא נֶאֱמָן עַל הַכְּלִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טְמֵאִין. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בִּגְדוֹ שֶׁהוּא מִדְרָס בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי הֲרֵי הַכְּלִי בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה לְקֹדֶשׁ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הֵקֵלּוּ בָּהֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין כִּבְשׁוֹנוֹת בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם:

6

From Modi'it and closer, the word of unlearned people is accepted with regard to earthenware containers. Outside that area, their word is not accepted. Modi'it itself is sometimes considered as within that area and sometimes as outside.

What is implied? If a chavair was entering that town and an unlearned person carrying an earthenware container was departing, his word - that the container is pure with regard to sacrificial food - is accepted in Modi'it. If they were both either entering or departing, the word of the unlearned person is not accepted unless he is closer to Jerusalem than Modi'it.

ו

מִן הַמּוֹדִיעִית וּלְפָנִים נֶאֱמָנִים עַל כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִן הַמּוֹדִיעִית וְלַחוּץ אֵינָן נֶאֱמָנִין וְהַמּוֹדִיעִית עַצְמָהּ פְּעָמִים כְּלַחוּץ וּפְעָמִים כִּלְפָנִים. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה חָבֵר נִכְנָס וְעַם הָאָרֶץ יוֹצֵא וּכְלִי חֶרֶס בְּיָדוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה נֶאֱמָן בַּמּוֹדִיעִית לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר לְקֹדֶשׁ. הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן נִכְנָסִין אוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶן יוֹצְאִין אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא לְפָנִים מִן הַמּוֹדִיעִית:

7

The following rules apply when a potter brings pots and places them down closer to Jerusalem than Modi'it. Potential customers come and he tells them that it is pure. If a chavair purchases a pot and brings it in, it is considered as pure with regard to sacrificial food, but not with regard to terumah, as we explained. If he purchased a pot and took it outside of Modi'it, it is impure, both for sacrificial foods and for terumah. This applies even though these are the same pots and the same potter. His word is accepted only within a radius beginning from Modi'it.

ז

קַדָּר שֶׁהֵבִיא קְדֵרוֹת וְהִנִּיחָן לְפָנִים מִן הַמּוֹדִיעִית וּבָאוּ הַלּוֹקְחִין וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶן שֶׁטְּהוֹרוֹת הֵן. לָקַח קְדֵרָה וְנִכְנַס בָּהּ הֲרֵי הִיא טְהוֹרָה לְקֹדֶשׁ אֲבָל לֹא לִתְרוּמָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. לָקַח קְדֵרָה וְיָצָא בָּהּ חוּץ לַמּוֹדִיעִית הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה בֵּין לְקֹדֶשׁ בֵּין לִתְרוּמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן הֵן הַקְּדֵרוֹת. וְהוּא הַקַּדָּר עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן אֶלָּא לְפָנִים מִן הַמּוֹדִיעִית:

8

When one takes earthenware containers from a kiln no matter where it is located, they are considered pure, both with regard to sacrificial foods and with regard to terumah. We do not suspect that perhaps an unlearned person touched them. Even if they were taken from the first row and even if the kiln was open and half of its contents were already taken, containers taken by a chavair are considered as pure. For a decree was not established concerning utensils in a kiln.

ח

הַלּוֹקֵחַ כְּלֵי חֶרֶס מִן הַכִּבְשָׁן בְּכָל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין בֵּין לְקֹדֶשׁ בֵּין לִתְרוּמָה וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמָּא נָגַע בָּהֶן עַם הָאָרֶץ. וַאֲפִלּוּ לָקַח מִן הַסֵּדֶר הָרִאשׁוֹן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכִּבְשָׁן פָּתוּחַ וּכְבָר נִלְקַח חֶצְיוֹ שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ טֻמְאָה עַל כֵּלִים שֶׁבַּכִּבְשָׁן:

9

During the pilgrimage festivals, the impurity decreed upon the unlearned is suspended and they are considered as pure. For the entire Jewish people are considered as chavairim during the pilgrimage festivals. All of their utensils, their food, and their liquids are considered as pure during the festivals, for everyone purifies themselves and ascends to Jerusalem on the festivals. Therefore their word is accepted - whether with regard to sacrificial foods or with regard to terumah - throughout the festivals. After the festival passes, they are considered as impure again.

ט

טֻמְאַת עַם הָאָרֶץ בָּרֶגֶל כִּטְהוֹרָה הִיא חֲשׁוּבָה שֶׁכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרִים הֵן בָּרְגָלִים וּכְלֵיהֶם כֻּלָּם וְאוֹכְלֵיהֶם וּמַשְׁקֵיהֶן טְהוֹרִים בָּרֶגֶל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַכּל מְטַהֲרִין עַצְמָן וְעוֹלִים לָרֶגֶל. לְפִיכָךְ הֵן נֶאֱמָנִים כָּל יְמוֹת הָרֶגֶל בֵּין עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ בֵּין עַל הַתְּרוּמָה. מִשֶּׁעָבַר הָרֶגֶל חוֹזְרִין לְטֻמְאָתָן:

10

When a person opened his barrel of wine or of oil or began selling his dough during the festival, once the festival passes, the remainder of the contents of the barrel and the remainder of the dough are assumed to be impure, for they were touched by an unlearned person. Although he touched them only during the time that he is considered as a chavair, they are only considered as pure during the days of the festival.

י

הַפּוֹתֵחַ חָבִיתוֹ בָּרֶגֶל וְהַמַּתְחִיל בְּעִסָּתוֹ וְעָבַר הָרֶגֶל הֲרֵי שְׁאָר הֶחָבִית וּשְׁאָר הָעִסָּה בְּחֶזְקַת טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי נָגְעוּ בּוֹ עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָגַע בָּהּ אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא כְּחָבֵר אֵינָהּ טְהוֹרָה אֶלָּא בִּימֵי הָרֶגֶל בִּלְבַד:

11

After the festival, on the night following the festival, the priests would immerse all the utensils that were in the Temple in a mikveh, because the unlearned people had touched them during the festival. Therefore they would tell the people: "Do not touch the Golden Table," when they would show it to the festive pilgrims so that, after the festival, it would not be considered as impure because they touched it and thus would require immersion and waiting until nightfall before it would regain purity. This is undesirable, because with regard to the showbread, Exodus 25:30 states: "It should be before Me continuously."

All of the sacred utensils require immersion and waiting until nightfall with the exception of the Golden Altar and the Copper Altar. They do not contract impurity, because their metal plating is considered as subsidiary to their inner material.

יא

אַחַר הָרֶגֶל בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָיוּ מַטְבִּילִין כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁהָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בָּהֶן עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ בָּרֶגֶל בִּשְׁעַת הֶחָג. וּלְפִיכָךְ הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים לָהֶן אַל תִּגְּעוּ בַּשֻּׁלְחָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּרְאִין אוֹתוֹ לְעוֹלֵי רְגָלִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה טָמֵא בְּמַגָּעוֹ אַחַר הָרֶגֶל וְנִמְצָא צָרִיךְ טְבִילָה וְהַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ וְנֶאֱמַר בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים (שמות כה ל) "לְפָנַי תָּמִיד". וְכָל הַכֵּלִים הָיוּ טְעוּנִים טְבִילָה וְהַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ חוּץ מִמִּזְבַּח הַזָּהָב וּמִזְבַּח הַנְּחשֶׁת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצִּפּוּיֵיהֶן כִּבְטֵלִין לְגַבֵּיהֶן:

12

When an unlearned person says: "I have not contracted the impurity associated with a human corpse," or "This k'li has not contracted the impurity associated with a human corpse," his word is accepted. He or the k'li is immersed only because of the impurity associated with unlearned people and must wait until nightfall. There is, however, no need for the ashes of the red heifer to be sprinkled on him or it.

When does the above apply? When he is asked and he says that it is pure. When, however, a person takes a k'li from the domain of an unlearned person without clarification, it is suspected that it contracted the impurity associated with a human corpse and the ashes of the red heifer are sprinkled on it on the third and seventh days, as is the law regarding keilim that are found in any place outside of Jerusalem. As will be explained with regard to situations where impurity is questionable, a decree was not established with regard to the impurity of keilim found in Jerusalem.

יב

עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁאָמַר טָהוֹר אֲנִי מִטֻּמְאַת מֵת אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר כְּלִי זֶה טָהוֹר מִטֻּמְאַת מֵת נֶאֱמָן וּמַטְבִּילִין אוֹתוֹ מִשּׁוּם טֻמְאַת עַם הָאָרֶץ בִּלְבַד וְצָרִיךְ הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַזָּאָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁשָּׁאֲלוּ וְאָמַר טָהוֹר הוּא. אֲבָל הַלּוֹקֵחַ כְּלִי סְתָם מֵרְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ חוֹשְׁשִׁין לוֹ שֶׁמָּא טְמֵא מֵת הוּא וּמַזִּין עָלָיו שְׁלִישִׁי וּשְׁבִיעִי כְּכָל הַכֵּלִים הַנִּמְצָאִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ טֻמְאָה עַל הַכֵּלִים הַנִּמְצָאִים בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּטֻמְאַת הַסְּפֵקוֹת:

Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 12

1

When a person entrusts keilim to an unlearned person or gives a k'li to an unlearned artisan to fix, they are considered to be impure because of the impurity associated with a human corpse and the impurity of midras. If the watchman is familiar with the owner of the keilim and knows that he is a priest who partakes of terumah, they are considered as pure with regard to the impurity associated with a corpse, but are considered to have contracted midras impurity. The rationale is that it is suspected that his wife sat on them while she was in the nidah state without his knowledge, since care is not taken with regard to ritual impurity in the homes of unlearned people.

א

הַמַּפְקִיד כֵּלִים אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן כְּלִי לְאֻמָּן עַם הָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִים טְמֵא מֵת וּטְמֵאִין מִדְרָס. וְאִם מַכִּירוֹ שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל בִּתְרוּמָה טְהוֹרִים מִטְּמֵא מֵת אֲבָל טְמֵאִים מִדְרָס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ נִדָּה יוֹשֶׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין נִזְהָרִין מִן הַטֻּמְאוֹת בְּבָתֵּי עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ:

2

When a person places his keilim down before an unlearned person and tells him: "Watch these for me," they are considered to have contracted midras impurity, but not the impurity associated with a human corpse. If he placed them on the shoulder of the unlearned person, they are considered to have contracted both types of impurity.

If one left his keilim in a synagogue, they are considered as pure, for it is not entirely a domain of unlearned persons. If he left his keilim in a bathhouse and found them as he left them, they are pure, but he is taught not to do this in the future.

If one left his vat or his cistern unattended, even if he entered a city and returned and found an unlearned person next to the vat or the cistern, they are considered as pure, because the unlearned person does not have license to enter.

ב

הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלָיו בִּפְנֵי עַם הָאָרֶץ וְאָמַר לוֹ שְׁמֹר לִי אֶת אֵלּוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס וּטְהוֹרִין מִטְּמֵא מֵת. הִנִּיחָן עַל כְּתֵפוֹ טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס וּטְמֵא מֵת. שָׁכַח כֵּלָיו בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין שֶׁאֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ גְּמוּרָה. הִנִּיחַ כֵּלָיו בַּמֶּרְחָץ וּבָא וּמְצָאָן כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין. וּמְלַמְּדִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵן. הִנִּיחַ גִּתּוֹ וּבוֹרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לָעִיר וּבָא וּמָצָא עַם הָאָרֶץ בְּצִדּוֹ טְהוֹרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ רְשׁוּת שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס:

3

When a person entrusts the key to his house to an unlearned person, everything in the house is considered as pure, for he entrusted only the key to him for safekeeping.

ג

הַמּוֹסֵר מַפְתֵּחַ בֵּיתוֹ לְעַם הָאָרֶץ כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָהוֹר שֶׁלֹּא מָסַר לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁמִירַת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ:

4

When a person places his keilim in the lockers of a bathhouse and locked them, the keilim are pure, even if he gave the key to an unlearned person. Similarly, if he sealed the locker or made a sign on it, his keilim are pure even if the seal has been broken.

ד

הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלָיו בְּחַלּוֹנוֹת שֶׁל מֶרְחָץ וְנָעַל עֲלֵיהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן הַמַּפְתֵּחַ לְעַם הָאָרֶץ כֵּלָיו טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן אִם חָתַם עַל הַחַלּוֹן אוֹ עָשָׂה לוֹ סִימָן אֲפִלּוּ מָצָא הַחוֹתָם מְקֻלְקָל הֲרֵי כָּל אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין:

5

When a chavair leaves an unlearned person in his house to watch it and the owner sits a certain distance away, when he sees the people who enter and depart, all the foods, liquids, and earthenware containers that are not tightly sealed are impure. By contrast, surfaces on which one lies or rides and earthenware containers that are tightly sealed are pure. If the owner cannot see the people who enter or depart, everything in the house is impure. Even if the unlearned person he left in the home was bound or had his hands and feet cut off, everything is considered as impure, because it was in the domain of an unlearned person.

ה

הַמַּנִּיחַ עַם הָאָרֶץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ לְשָׁמְרוֹ וְיָשַׁב הוּא מֵרָחוֹק בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא רוֹאֶה אֶת הַנִּכְנָסִין וְאֶת הַיּוֹצְאִין הֲרֵי כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת מִן הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין וּכְלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל טְמֵאִין אֲבָל הַמִּשְׁכָּבוֹת וְהַמֶּרְכָּבוֹת וּכְלִי חֶרֶס הַמֻּקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה לֹא אֶת הַנִּכְנָסִין וְלֹא אֶת הַיּוֹצְאִין כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָמֵא אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כָּפוּת אוֹ כְּרוּת יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם הַכּל טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בִּרְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ:

6

When a chavair slept in the home of an unlearned person and his clothes were folded and placed under his head and his sandal and his jug were placed before him, they are considered as pure, because they are assumed to be guarded by their owner. The unlearned person will not touch them for he will say to himself: "Now he will wake up and see me."

ו

חָבֵר שֶׁהָיָה יָשֵׁן בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ וְהָיוּ כֵּלִים מְקֻפָּלִים וּמֻנָּחִין תַּחַת רֹאשׁוֹ וְסַנְדָּלוֹ וְחָבִיתוֹ לְפָנָיו הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בְּחֶזְקַת שְׁמִירַת בַּעֲלֵיהֶן וְלֹא יִגַּע בָּהֶן עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר עַתָּה יֵעוֹר וְיַבִּיט בִּי:

7

When an unlearned person borrows a bed from a chavair and sleeps on it in the house of the chavair, only that bed and the area which he can touch when extending his hand from the bed are impure.

ז

עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁשָּׁאַל מֵחָבֵר מִטָּה שֶׁיָּשֵׁן עָלֶיהָ וְיָשַׁן עָלֶיהָ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל חָבֵר אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא אוֹתָהּ הַמִּטָּה וְעַד מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ מֵאוֹתָהּ הַמִּטָּה וְלִגַּע:

8

When a chavair told an unlearned person: "Watch this cow for me so that it will not enter the house" or "...break these utensils," the house and the utensils are pure, for he charged him only with guarding the cow. If, however, he told him: "Watch this house for me so that the cow will not enter it" or "Watch these utensils so that it will not break them," the house and the utensils are impure.

ח

חָבֵר שֶׁאָמַר לְעַם הָאָרֶץ שְׁמֹר לִי פָּרָה זוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תִּכָּנֵס לַבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תְּשַׁבֵּר אֶת הַכֵּלִים הֲרֵי הַבַּיִת וְהַכֵּלִים טְהוֹרִים. שֶׁלֹּא מָסַר לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁמִירַת הַפָּרָה. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ שְׁמֹר לִי בַּיִת זֶה שֶׁלֹּא תִּכָּנֵס בּוֹ הַפָּרָה וְכֵלִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא תְּשַׁבְּרֵם הֲרֵי הֵן טְמֵאִין:

9

The following rules apply when one leaves an unlearned person lying down in his house and departs. Whether he left him awake and discovered him awake when he returned, he left him sleeping and found him sleeping, or left him awake and found him sleeping, everything in the house is pure. If he left him asleep and he found him awake, any place that is close to him to which he can extend his hand and touch is impure.

Similarly, if one leaves craftsmen in his house, only the places that they can reach when they extend their hands and touch are impure. We do not say that perhaps they climbed onto a chair or a ladder and touched a k'li or food that was hanging on a high place on the wall.

ט

הַמַּנִּיחַ עַם הָאָרֶץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְיָצָא הִנִּיחוֹ עֵר וּמְצָאוֹ עֵר יָשֵׁן וּמְצָאוֹ יָשֵׁן אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ עֵר וּמְצָאוֹ יָשֵׁן כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הִנִּיחוֹ יָשֵׁן וּמְצָאוֹ עֵר כָּל מָקוֹם הַקָּרוֹב מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִגַּע בּוֹ טָמֵא. וְכֵן הַמַּנִּיחַ אֻמָּנִין בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יְדֵיהֶן וְלִגַּע. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמָּא עָלוּ עַל גַּבֵּי כִּסֵּא אוֹ עַל סֻלָּם וְנָגְעוּ בַּכְּלִי אוֹ בָּאֳכָלִין הַתְּלוּיִין לְמַעְלָה בַּכֹּתֶל:

10

When the wife of a chavair leaves the wife of an unlearned person - or two such women - to grind flour in her home, only the places which the wife of the unlearned person can reach when she extends her hand and touch are impure. This applies even if the mill stops for a time. We do not say that while one was grinding, the other searched through everything in the house and maybe even suspended herself and ascended to high places.

י

אֵשֶׁת חָבֵר שֶׁהִנִּיחָה אֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ טוֹחֶנֶת בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתָה. אֲפִלּוּ פָּסְקָה הָרֵחַיִם וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ שְׁתַּיִם אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא מָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדָן וְלִגַּע. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין שֶׁמָּא הָאַחַת טוֹחֶנֶת וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה בָּלְשָׁה כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת וְשֶׁמָּא נִיתְלֵת וְעָלְתָה בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת הַגְּבוֹהוֹת:

11

When a woman standing at the entrance to her house went in to take out a loaf of bread for a poor man and when she came out, found him standing at the side of loaves of bread, they are pure - even if they are terumah. The rationale is that it can be assumed that he would not touch anything without permission. Similarly, if a woman departed and when she returned, found the wife of an unlearned person stirring the coals that are under her pot, the pot is pure.

יא

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לְהוֹצִיא פַּת לֶעָנִי יָצָאת וּמְצָאַתּוּ עוֹמֵד בְּצַד כִּכָּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁאֵין חֶזְקָתוֹ לִגַּע שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּת. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצְאָה וּמָצְאָה אֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ חוֹתָה גֶּחָלִים מִתַּחַת הַקְּדֵרָה הֲרֵי הַקְּדֵרָה טְהוֹרָה:

12

When tax-collectors for the ruling kingdom entered a house to take security for money that is owed, everything in the house is impure. If they are accompanied by a gentile, their word is accepted if they say they did not touch something, because they are possessed by fear of the gentile.

When does the above apply? When there are witnesses that they entered or they have security which they took in their hands. If, however, they say on their own initiative: "We entered, but did not touch anything," their word is accepted. The rationale is: the same person whose words aroused our suspicion also allayed it.

יב

גַּבָּאֵי מַלְכוּת שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת לְמַשְׁכֵּן כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָמֵא. אִם יֵשׁ עִמָּהֶם עַכּוּ''ם נֶאֱמָנִים לוֹמַר לֹא נָגַעְנוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵימַת הָעַכּוּ''ם עֲלֵיהֶן. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם עֵדִים שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן בְּיָדָם. אֲבָל אִם אָמְרוּ הֵן מֵעַצְמָן נִכְנַסְנוּ אֲבָל לֹא נָגַעְנוּ נֶאֱמָנִין שֶׁהַפֶּה שֶׁאָסַר הוּא הַפֶּה שֶׁהִתִּיר:

13

When thieves entered a house, only the path where the thieves walked is impure. The rationale is that they are afraid to search through the entire house. Instead, they take only what is at hand.

To what do they impart impurity on the path where they walk? To food, liquids, and open earthenware containers. Surfaces on which one lies or rides and earthenware containers that are sealed closed are pure. If there is a gentile or a woman among them, everything is impure.

יג

הַגַּנָּבִים שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא מְקוֹם רַגְלֵי הַגַּנָּבִים. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מְפַחֲדִין מִלִּבְלֹשׁ אֶלָּא (דָּבָר) שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין בִּמְזֻמָּן. וּמַה הֵן מְטַמְּאִין בִּמְקוֹם הֲלִיכָתָן הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין וּכְלֵי חֶרֶס הַפְּתוּחִים אֲבָל הַמִּשְׁכָּבוֹת וְהַמֶּרְכָּבוֹת וּכְלֵי חֶרֶס הַמֻּקָּפִין צָמִיד פָּתִיל טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם יֵשׁ עִמָּהֶן עַכּוּ''ם אוֹ אִשָּׁה הַכּל טָמֵא:

14

When tax-collectors and thieves repent and return the articles they took on their own initiative, and not because of fear, and when doing so, say: "When we entered, we did not touch anything that was in the house except what we took," their word is accepted even with regard to articles that were in their path.

יד

הַגַּבָּאִים וְהַגַּנָּבִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ תְּשׁוּבָה וְהֶחֱזִירוּ מֵעַצְמָן לֹא מֵחֲמַת יִרְאָה וְאָמְרוּ לֹא נָגַעְנוּ בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה בַּבַּיִת כְּשֶׁנִּכְנַסְנוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶאֱמָנִים וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל מְקוֹם רַגְלֵיהֶן:

15

When a person leaves his house open and finds it open or finds it locked - and even if he left it locked and found it open - and nothing was stolen from it, everything in the house is pure. We assume that thieves opened the door and then changed their minds and did not enter.

טו

הַמַּנִּיחַ אֶת בֵּיתוֹ פָּתוּחַ וּמְצָאוֹ פָּתוּחַ אוֹ שֶׁמְּצָאוֹ נָעוּל. אֲפִלּוּ הִנִּיחוֹ נָעוּל וּמְצָאוֹ פָּתוּחַ וְלֹא נִגְנַב מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָהוֹר. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר הַגַּנָּבִים פְּתָחוּהוּ וְנִמְלְכוּ וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם וְלֹא נִכְנְסוּ:

16

When a hatchet is lost in a house or left in one corner and found in another corner, all the contents of the house are impure, for we assume that an impure person entered the house and took it.

טז

קוֹרְדוֹם שֶׁאָבַד בַּבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ בְּזָוִית זוֹ וּבָא וּמְצָאוֹ בְּזָוִית אַחֶרֶת הַבַּיִת טָמֵא שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר אָדָם טָמֵא נִכְנַס לְשָׁם וּנְטָלוֹ:

17

When a person lives together with an unlearned person and shares a common courtyard, if he forgot articles in the courtyard - even barrels that were sealed close or an oven that was sealed close - they are considered as impure. For them to be considered as pure, he must construct a barrier ten handbreadths high around the oven so that it will not be in the domain of an unlearned person.

יז

הַדָּר עִם עַם הָאָרֶץ בֶּחָצֵר וְשָׁכַח כֵּלִים בֶּחָצֵר אֲפִלּוּ חָבִיּוֹת מֻקָּפוֹת צָמִיד פָּתִיל אוֹ תַּנּוּר מֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לַתַּנּוּר מְחִצָּה גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בִּרְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ:

18

When a chavair has a partition or a hut before the entrance to an unlearned person's home or an unlearned person has a partition or a hut before the entrance to a chavair's home, keilim in the hut or in the partition are impure, because the unlearned person has the right to enter this hut or this partition.

יח

חָבֵר שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ מְחִצָּה אוֹ סֻכָּה לִפְנֵי פִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה מְחִצָּה אוֹ סֻכָּה שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי פִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל חָבֵר. כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ כֵּלִים שֶׁבַּמְּחִצָּה טְמֵאִים. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְעַם הָאָרֶץ בְּסֻכָּה זוֹ אוֹ בִּמְחִצָּה זוֹ רְשׁוּת:

19

When the roof of a chavair is above the roof of an unlearned person, thechavair may lay out utensils there and place pure foods there under the presumption that their status has not changed, even though the unlearned person could extend his hand and touch them. Similarly, if his neighbor is a gentile, he need not be concerned about impurity or wine used for libations to a false deity.

If the roofs were next to each other on the same level or the roof of the unlearned person was higher and the chavair laid out utensils or left pure foods on his roof, every place to which the unlearned person could extend his hand and touch is considered to be impure.

יט

חָבֵר שֶׁהָיָה גַּגּוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִגַּגּוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹטֵחַ שָׁם כֵּלִים וּמַנִּיחַ טָהֳרוֹת וְהֵן בְּחֶזְקָתָן. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַם הָאָרֶץ יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט יָדוֹ וְלִגַּע. וְכֵן בְּעַכּוּ''ם אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לֹא מִשּׁוּם טֻמְאָה וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם יֵין נֶסֶךְ. הָיוּ הַגַּגּוֹת זֶה בְּצַד זֶה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה גַּגּוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ לְמַעְלָה וְשָׁטַח הֶחָבֵר כֵּלִים אוֹ הִנִּיחַ טָהֳרוֹת בְּגַגּוֹ. הֲרֵי כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיָּכוֹל עַם הָאָרֶץ לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִגַּע בְּחֶזְקַת טֻמְאָה:

20

When there are two courtyards, one inside the other, the inner one belonging to a chavair and the outer one, belonging to an unlearned person, the chavair may place his utensils in his courtyard and spread out his produce there, even though the unlearned person's hand could reach there. There is no suspicion that the unlearned person would touch them, because he would be considered as a thief.

כ

שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לְפָנִים מִזּוֹ הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁל חָבֵר וְהַחִיצוֹנָה שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ. חָבֵר מַנִּיחַ שָׁם כֵּלִים וְשׁוֹטֵחַ שָׁם פֵּרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּד עַם הָאָרֶץ מַגַּעַת לְשָׁם. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּתְפַּשׂ עָלָיו כְּגַנָּב:

21

When a courtyard is divided by a lattice-work barrier, with a chavair's domain on one side and an unlearned person's domain on the other side, the pure food belonging to the chavair is considered as pure, even though the unlearned person's hand could reach there. There is no suspicion that the unlearned person would touch it, because it is in the domain of the chavair.

כא

חָצֵר הַחֲלוּקָה בִּמְסִיפַס וְחָבֵר בְּצַד זֶה וְעַם הָאָרֶץ בְּצַד זֶה טָהֳרוֹתָיו טְהוֹרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּד עַם הָאָרֶץ מַגַּעַת. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם בִּרְשׁוּת הֶחָבֵר:

22

When the bucket of a chavair fell into the well of an unlearned person and the chavair went to get materials to lift it up, it is considered as impure. The rationale is that it was left unattended in the domain of an unlearned person for a given time.

כב

חָבֵר שֶׁנָּפַל דִּלְיוֹ לְתוֹךְ בּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ וְהָלַךְ לְהָבִיא בְּמָה יַעֲלֶנּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֻנַּח בִּרְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׁעָה אַחַת:

23

When the wife of an unlearned person enters the house of a chavair to take out the son or the daughter of the chavair or his animal, everything in the house is pure, because she entered without permission.

When a potter who is a chavair brings his pots to sell and he descends to a well to drink, those on the inner rows are pure, but those on the outer rows are impure. When does the above apply? When he placed them near the public domain, because the passersby will touch the outer ones as they walk by.

Different rules apply if they were placed down distant from the public domain. If he was carrying the tools of his trade in his hand, they are all impure, because his tools indicate that they were placed down to be sold and everyone will touch them. If he was not carrying the tools of his trade, they are all pure, for it can be assumed that no one touched them.

When a chavair places food or liquids down at the entrance to his store and enters, they are considered impure, for the passersby will touch them.

כג

אֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל חָבֵר לְהוֹצִיא בְּנוֹ אוֹ בִּתּוֹ אוֹ בְּהֶמְתּוֹ שֶׁל חָבֵר כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָהוֹר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּת. קַדָּר חָבֵר שֶׁהִכְנִיס קְדֵרוֹתָיו לִמְכֹּר וְיָרַד לִשְׁתּוֹת הֲרֵי הַפְּנִימִיּוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת וְהַחִיצוֹנוֹת טְמֵאוֹת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהִנִּיחָן סָמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִין נוֹגְעִים בַּחִיצוֹנוֹת בִּשְׁעַת הֲלִיכָה. אֲבָל הָיוּ רְחוֹקוֹת מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אִם הָיוּ כְּלֵי אֻמָּנוּתוֹ בְּיָדָיו הַכּל טְמֵאוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכֵּלָיו מוֹכִיחִין שֶׁהֻנְּחוּ לִמְכֹּר וְיַד הַכּל מְמַשְׁמְשׁוֹת בָּהֶן. אֵין כְּלֵי אֻמָּנוּתוֹ בְּיָדוֹ הַכּל טְהוֹרוֹת חֶזְקָתָן שֶׁלֹּא נָגַע בָּהֶן אָדָם. חָבֵר שֶׁהִנִּיחַ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין עַל פֶּתַח חֲנוּתוֹ וְנִכְנַס הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים מְמַשְׁמְשִׁין בָּהֶן:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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