Get the best of content every week!
Find answers to fascinating Jewish questions, enjoy holiday tips and guides, read real-life stories and more!

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Tum'at Met - Chapter 25

Show content in:

Tum'at Met - Chapter 25

"God, create for me a pure heart and renew within me an upright spirit" (Psalms 51:12).

The Tenth Book


It includes eight halachot. They are:

Hilchot Tum'at Meit - The Laws of the Impurity Imparted by a Human Corpse

Hilchot Parah Adumah - The Laws of the Red Heifer

Hilchot Tum'at Tzara'at - The Laws of the Impurity Imparted by Tzara'at

Hilchot Metamei Mishkav UMoshav - The Laws of the Sources of Impurity

that Impart Impurity to the Places Where One Lies and Sits

Hilchot Sha'ar Avot HaTum'ah - The Laws of Other Primary Categories of Impurity

Hilchot Tum'at Ochalin - The Laws of the Impurity Contracted by Foods

Hilchot Keilim - The Laws of the Impurity Contracted by Keilim

Hilchot Mikveot - The Laws Governing Mikveot


If there is a pillar standing in a house and impurity is flush under it, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends. It imparts impurity only to entities that are directly above or below the impurity. If there is a flower, projecting from the pillar and there are keilim under the flower, the keilim are pure. Impurity is imparted only to the entities under or above the impurity.


עַמּוּד הָעוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְטֻמְאָה רְצוּצָה תַּחְתָּיו. טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת. וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה בִּלְבַד. וְאִם הָיָה פֶּרַח יוֹצֵא מֵעַמּוּד זֶה וְכֵלִים תַּחַת הַפֶּרַח הַכֵּלִים טְהוֹרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה:


If there is open space a handbreadth by a handbreadth and a handbreadth high in the pillar where the impurity is located, it is considered as a closed grave and it imparts impurity to all its surroundings. The entire house is impure because it is standing over a grave.


[וְאִם יֵשׁ בִּמְקוֹם הַטֻּמְאָה] טֶפַח עַל טֶפַח עַל רוּם טֶפַח הֲרֵי הוּא כְּקֶבֶר סָתוּם וּמְטַמֵּא מִכָּל סְבִיבָיו. וְהַבַּיִת כֻּלּוֹ טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי הֶאֱהִיל עַל הַקֶּבֶר:


When there is impurity in a wall and it is an open space a handbreadth by a handbreadth and a handbreadth high, all of the stories built on this wall - even ten - are impure. The rationale is that the wall is considered a closed grave until its highest point. It is the wall for these upper stories and every upper storey is considered to be an ohel over the grave.

If he built a structure next to that wall on one side and another structure next to the wall on the other side and a second storey that spans both those structures and thus the top of the impure wall is in the middle of the floor of the second storey, the second storey is impure because it serves as an ohel over a grave. A third storey built over it is pure, because they are one on top of the other and the impure wall is not one of the walls of this storey.


טֻמְאָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכֹּתֶל וּמְקוֹמָהּ טֶפַח עַל טֶפַח עַל רוּם טֶפַח כָּל הָעֲלִיּוֹת הַבְּנוּיוֹת עַל כֹּתֶל זֶה אֲפִלּוּ עֶשֶׂר טְמֵאוֹת. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַכֹּתֶל כֻּלּוֹ קֶבֶר סָתוּם עַד סוֹפוֹ וְהוּא כֹּתֶל הָעֲלִיּוֹת וְכָל עֲלִיָּה מֵהֶן מַאֲהֶלֶת עַל הַקֶּבֶר. בָּנָה בַּיִת בְּצַד הַכֹּתֶל מִכָּאן וּבַיִת מִכָּאן וּבָנָה עֲלִיָּה עַל גַּבֵּי שְׁנֵי הַבָּתִּים עַד שֶׁנִּמְצָא רֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל הַטָּמֵא הוּא בְּאֶמְצַע קַרְקַע הָעֲלִיָּה. הֲרֵי הָעֲלִיָּה טְמֵאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הֶאֱהִילָה עַל הַקֶּבֶר. וְהָעֲלִיָּה הַשְּׁנִיָּה הַבְּנוּיָה עַל גַּבָּהּ טְהוֹרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ וְאֵין הַכֹּתֶל הַטָּמֵא כָּתְלָהּ:


The following rules apply when there is a large hole in the thickness of a wall which people would employ for functional purposes which was called a pardisek. If there was impurity within it and it had closed doors, the house is pure. If there is impurity flush in its floor, its wall, or its roof, we consider the entire hole as if it is a solid mass and see where the impurity is located. If it is located in the inner portion of the thickness of the wall, the house is impure. If it is in the outer portion, the house is pure. If it is in the exact center, the house is impure.


חֹר גָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּעֳבִי הַכְּתָלִים שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ לְתַשְׁמִישׁ. וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא פַּרְדַּסִּיק. שֶׁהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה מֻנַּחַת בְּתוֹכוֹ וְיֵשׁ עָלָיו דְּלָתוֹת סְגוּרוֹת. הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה רְצוּצָה בְּקַרְקָעִיתוֹ אוֹ בִּכְתָלָיו אוֹ בְּגַגּוֹ רוֹאִין אֶת כָּל הַחֹר כֻּלּוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא אָטוּם וְרוֹאִין מְקוֹם הַטֻּמְאָה אִם הוּא בַּחֲצִי עֳבִי הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁלְּפָנִים הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. וְאִם הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה מֵחֲצִי כֹּתֶל וְלַחוּץ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה הַבַּיִת טָמֵא:


If there are two pardiskin - one next to the other or one on top of the other - and there is impurity located in one of them and it is opened, it and the house are impure, but the other one is pure. If there was impurity flush in the walls of the building, we consider the pardiskin as if they were a solid mass and the status of the house depends on the half of the wall in which the impurity is located.


שְׁנֵי פַּרְדַּסְקִין זֶה בְּצַד זֶה אוֹ זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה וְטֻמְאָה מֻנַּחַת בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וְנִפְתַּח. הוּא וְהַבַּיִת טָמֵא וַחֲבֵרוֹ טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה רְצוּצָה בְּתוֹךְ הַבִּנְיָן רוֹאִין אֶת הַפַּרְדַּסְקִין כְּאִלּוּ הֵן אֲטוּמִין וְיִדּוֹן מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה:


If there is an olive-sized portion of a corpse attached to the doorstep of the house from the outside, the house is pure. If it was flush below the doorstep, the status of the house depends on the half of the doorstep in which the impurity is located. If it is attached to the lintel, the house is impure.


כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת מֻדְבָּק בְּאַסְקֻפַּת הַבַּיִת מִבַּחוּץ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הָיָה רָצוּץ תַּחַת הָאַסְקֻפָּה יִדּוֹן מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה. הָיָה מֻדְבָּק לַמַּשְׁקוֹף הַבַּיִת טָמֵא:


When a dog ate the flesh of a corpse, died within three days of doing so, and was lying on the doorstep of a house, we consider the place where the impurity is located in his body. If it is under the lintel and inward, the house is impure. If it is beyond the lintel and outward, the house is pure.


כֶּלֶב שֶׁאָכַל בְּשַׂר הַמֵּת וּמֵת בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים וַהֲרֵי הוּא מֻטָּל עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה רוֹאִין חֲלַל הַטֻּמְאָה מִגּוּפוֹ אִם הוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְלִפְנִים הַבַּיִת טָמֵא וּמִכְּנֶגֶד הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְלַחוּץ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר:


The following laws apply when the fetus being carried by a woman dies in her womb. If its head has reached the size of a weaving needle, when her womb opens and the head becomes visible, the house becomes impure because of the fetus even if it has not emerged yet.


הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁמֵּת עֵבָּרָהּ בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֶיהָ אִם נַעֲשֵׂית רֹאשׁ הַנֵּפֶל כְּפִיקָה שֶׁל שְׁתִי כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּפְתַּח הָרֶחֶם עַד שֶׁנִּרְאֶה הָרֹאשׁ נִטְמָא הַבַּיִת מִפְּנֵי הָעֻבָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא יָצָא:


If a woman was in the midst of labor and went from one house to another and miscarried in the second house, the first house is still impure because of a doubt: perhaps the head of the fetus had emerged while she was there.

When does the above apply? When its head did not reach the size of a weaving needle. If, however, its head reached the size of a weaving needle, the first house is pure. For if her womb had opened to that degree, she would not be able to walk unsupported. Therefore if she was being supported by her shoulders and taken from one house to the other, the first is impure because of a doubt, even though its head reached the size of a weaving needle.


הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁמַּקְשָׁה לֵילֵד וְיָצְאָה מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת וְהִפִּילָה נֵפֶל מֵת בְּבַיִת שֵׁנִי הַבַּיִת הָרִאשׁוֹן טָמֵא בְּסָפֵק. שֶׁמָּא כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה בּוֹ יָצָא רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל נֵפֶל הַזֶּה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיָה רֹאשׁ הַנֵּפֶל כְּפִיקָה שֶׁל שְׁתִי. אֲבָל אִם הֶעֱגֵיל רֹאשׁ הַנֵּפֶל כְּפִיקָה הַבַּיִת הָרִאשׁוֹן טָהוֹר שֶׁאִלּוּ נִפְתַּח רַחְמָהּ שָׁם לֹא הָיְתָה יְכוֹלָה לְהַלֵּךְ עַל רַגְלֶיהָ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה נִטֶּלֶת בַּאֲגַפַּיִים וְהוֹצִיאוּהָ מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת הַבַּיִת הָרִאשׁוֹן טָמֵא בְּסָפֵק אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶעֱגֵיל רֹאשׁ הַנֵּפֶל כְּפִיקָה שֶׁל שְׁתִי:


When a woman discharged a placenta, the house in which she was located is certainly impure. It can be presumed that there is no placenta without a fetus.


הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִפִּילָה שִׁלְיָא הַבַּיִת טָמֵא וַדַּאי. חֲזָקָה הוּא שֶׁאֵין שִׁלְיָא בְּלֹא וָלָד:


The following laws apply when a woman gave birth to two children, one a viable birth and the other, stillborn. If the stillborn child emerged first, the living child is pure, because he did not touch the stillborn child after he emerged into the world. If the living child emerged first, he is impure, because it is impossible that the stillborn child did not touch him, for the stillborn tumbles out after the living child like a stone that does not have any vitality and cannot hold itself back.


מִי שֶׁיָּלְדָה שְׁנֵי יְלָדִים אֶחָד חַי וְאֶחָד מֵת. אִם הַמֵּת יָצָא רִאשׁוֹן הַחַי טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נָגַע בּוֹ מִשֶּׁיָּצָא לַאֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם. וְאִם הַחַי יָצָא רִאשׁוֹן הֲרֵי הוּא טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בּוֹ הַמֵּת מִשֶּׁיֵּצֵא לַאֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְגַּלְגֵּל אַחֲרָיו כְּאֶבֶן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים כְּדֵי לְהַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ:


When a woman discharges a stillborn infant - even, as we explained, a tiny fetus - she contracts the impurity that lasts seven days. If the fetus dies within her womb and the midwife extended her hand inside the womb and touched it, the midwife contracts the impurity that lasts seven days, but the woman is pure until the fetus emerges.

The impurity of the midwife is a Rabbinical decree, instituted since she may have touched the fetus after it emerged into the vaginal channel. According to Scriptural Law, touching a hidden portion of the body is not considered as touching. Since the fetus is in the mother's inner organs, anyone who touches it is pure. Similar laws apply to one who swallowed an impure ring and then swallowed a pure ring. Although the two certainly touched each other in his digestive system, this is not considered as touch. The impure one is considered as impure and the pure one, as pure.


הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּלְדָה וָלָד מֵת אֲפִלּוּ נֵפֶל קָטָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֲרֵי הִיא טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת ז'. מֵת עֻבָּרָהּ בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֶיהָ וּפָשְׁטָה הַחַיָּה אֶת יָדָהּ וְנָגְעָה בּוֹ הַחַיָּה טְמֵאָה ז' וְהָאִשָּׁה טְהוֹרָה עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא הַוָּלָד. וְטֻמְאַת הַחַיָּה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תִּגַּע בּוֹ מִשֶּׁיֵּצֵא לַפְּרוֹזְדוֹר. אֲבָל מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין מַגַּע בֵּית הַסְּתָרִים מַגָּע הוֹאִיל וְהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַמֵּעַיִם הַנּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ טָהוֹר. וְכֵן הַבּוֹלֵעַ טַבַּעַת טְמֵאָה וְחָזַר וּבָלַע אַחֲרֶיהָ טַבַּעַת טְהוֹרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּגְעוּ זוֹ בָּזוֹ בְּוַדַּאי בְּתוֹךְ מֵעָיו אֵינוֹ מַגָּע וְהַטֻּמְאָה בְּטֻמְאָתָהּ וּטְהוֹרָה בְּטָהֳרָתָהּ: סְלִיקוּ לְהוּ הִלְכוֹת טֻמְאַת מֵת

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות טומאת מת:

Published and copyright by Moznaim Publications, all rights reserved.
To purchase this book or the entire series, please click here.
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Vowelized Hebrew text courtesy Torat Emet under CC 2.5 license.
The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah