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ב"ה

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Kelim - Chapter 27, Kelim - Chapter 28, Mikvaot - Chapter 1

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Kelim - Chapter 27

1

There are types of three chests:

a) a chest that was broken open from its side; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one that was broken open from above; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) an oversized one; it is pure entirely.

א

שָׁלֹשׁ תֵּבוֹת הֵן. תֵּבָה שֶׁנִּפְחֲתָה מִצִּדָּהּ טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס. מִלְּמַעְלָה טְמֵאָה טְמֵא מֵת. וְהַבָּאָה בְּמִדָּה טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם:

2

There are three types of kneading troughs:

a) a kneading trough that contains between two lugin and nine kabbin that was cracked; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one that is intact; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) an oversized one; it is pure entirely.

ב

שָׁלֹשׁ עֲרֵבוֹת הֵן. עֲרֵבָה מִשְּׁנֵי לוֹגִין וְעַד תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס. שְׁלֵמָה טְמֵאָה טְמֵא מֵת. וְהַבָּאָה בְּמִדָּה טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם:

3

There are three types of wagons:

a) a wagon made like a chair; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one that is made like a bed; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) one made to transport large stones; it is pure entirely.

ג

שָׁלֹשׁ עֲגָלוֹת הֵן. הָעֲשׂוּיָה כְּקָתֵדְרָה טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס. כְּמִטָּה טְמֵאָה טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁל אֲבָנִים טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם:

4

There are three types of shields:

a) a shield that is bent over; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one used for sport in a stadium; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) one made for Arabs to play with; it is pure entirely. The rationale is that it is made only to use as a shape and does not serve a functional purpose for people. Any k'li that does not serve a functional purpose for people is not susceptible to impurity at all.

ד

שְׁלֹשָׁה תְּרִיסִין הֵן. תְּרִיס הַכָּפוּף טָמֵא מִדְרָס. וְשֶׁמְּשַׂחֲקִין בּוֹ בְּקֻמְפּוֹן טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. וְדִיצַת הָעַרְבִיִּים טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם. לְפִי שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה לְצוּרָה בִּלְבַד וְאֵינָהּ מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם וְכָל כְּלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה כָּל עִקֵּר:

5

There are three types of leather wrappers:

a) one used by bloodletters; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one upon which people eat; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) one upon which olives are spread; it is pure entirely, because it is not used for a purpose directly benefitting man.

ה

שְׁלֹשָׁה תַּרְבּוּסִין שֶׁל עוֹר הֵן. שֶׁל סְפָרִים טָמֵא מִדְרָס. וְשֶׁאוֹכְלִין עָלָיו טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁשּׁוֹטְחִים עָלָיו אֶת הַזֵּיתִים טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם:

6

There are three types of bases:

a) one placed before a bed or before scribes; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one for a table; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) one for a closet; it is pure entirely, because it is considered as part of the closet and its shape indicates such.

ו

שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּסִיסָאוֹת הֵן. שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַמִּטָּה וְשֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסּוֹפְרִים טָמֵא מִדְרָס. שֶׁל שֻׁלְחָן טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁל מִגְדָּל טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מִקְצָת מִגְדָּל וְצוּרָתוֹ מוֹכַחַת עָלָיו:

7

There are three types of beds:

a) one made to lie on; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one for glass workers upon which they place glass utensils; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) one for weavers upon which they weave clothes; it is pure entirely, because it is not used for a purpose directly benefitting man.

ז

שָׁלֹשׁ מִטּוֹת הֵן. הָעֲשׂוּיָה לִשְׁכִיבָה טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס. וְשֶׁל זַגָּגִים שֶּׁנּוֹתְנִין בָּהּ כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת מֵת. וְשֶׁל סָרָגִין שֶׁמְּסָרְגִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַסְּבָכוֹת טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם:

8

There are three types of baskets that serve as dispensers:

a) one for fertilizer; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one for straw; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) a rope net carrier borne by camels; it is pure entirely, because its ropes are very coarse and thick, nor is it fit to serve as a container for straw and the like. Thus it is not considered as a k'li at all; it is only ropes.

ח

שָׁלֹשׁ מִשְׁפָּלוֹת הֵן. שֶׁל זֶבֶל טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס. שֶׁל תֶּבֶן טְמֵאָה טְמֵא מֵת. וְהַפֻּחְלָץ שֶׁל גְּמַלִּים טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁהַחֲבָלִים שֶׁלּוֹ קָשִׁים בְּיוֹתֵר וְעָבִים וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְקַבֵּל תֶּבֶן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלֵי אֶלָּא חֲבָלִים בִּלְבַד:

9

There are three types of mats:

a) one made for sitting; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one on which dyers place their garments; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) those used for vats upon which grapes are placed and which are used as covers; they are pure entirely, because they are not used for a purpose directly benefitting man.

ט

שְׁלֹשָׁה מַפָּצִין הֵן. הֶעָשׂוּי לִישִׁיבָה טָמֵא מִדְרָס. וְשֶׁל צַבָּעִים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ אֶת הַכֵּלִים טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁל גִּתּוֹת שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין עָלָיו עֲנָבִים וּמְחַפִּין בּוֹ טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם:

10

There are three types of leather pouches and three types of leather satchels:

a) those that contained the specified measures susceptible to midras impurity. What are their specified measures? For a leather pouch, four kabbin and for a satchel, five.

b) those that do not contain the specified measure are susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse; and

c) those made from the skin of a fish are pure entirely.

י

שָׁלֹשׁ חֲמָתוֹת הֵן וּשְׁלֹשָׁה תּוּרְמְלִין הֵן. הַמְקַבְּלִין כְּשִׁעוּר טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרָן הַחֵמֶת אַרְבָּעָה קַבִּין וְהַתּוּרְמִיל חֲמִשָּׁה. וְשֶׁאֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין כְּשִׁעוּר טְמֵאִים טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁל עוֹרוֹת הַדָּג טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם:

11

There are three types of hides:

a) one made to serve as a rug; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one used to wrap keilim; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) one used for straps and for sandals; it is pure entirely, because it does not have the form of a k'li.

יא

שְׁלֹשָׁה עוֹרוֹת הֵן. הֶעָשׂוּי לְשָׁטִיחַ טְמֵא מִדְרָס. וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְתַכְרִיךְ כֵּלִים טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁל רְצוּעוֹת וְשֶׁל סַנְדָּלִין טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי:

12

There are three types of sheets:

a) one made to lie upon; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one used for a curtain; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) one with forms used for an embroiderer to learn from; it is pure entirely, because it is not used for a purpose directly benefitting man.

יב

שְׁלֹשָׁה סְדִינִין הֵן. הֶעָשׂוּי לִשְׁכִיבָה טָמֵא מִדְרָס. וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְפָרֹכֶת טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁל צוּרוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְלַמֵּד מִמֶּנּוּ הָרוֹקֵם טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם:

13

There are three types of clothes:

a) a cloth napkin; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one used for scrolls; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) the shrouds of a corpse and the wrappings for the harps of the Levites; they are pure entirely, because they are not used for a purpose directly benefitting man.

יג

שָׁלֹשׁ מִטְפָּחוֹת הֵן. שֶׁל יָדַיִם טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס. וְשֶׁל סְפָרִים טְמֵאָה טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁל תַּכְרִיכֵי הַמֵּת וְשֶׁל נִבְלֵי בְּנֵי לֵוִי טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם:

14

A leather garment made in the shape of a hand into which one inserts one's hand and fingers because of the cold and the like is called a firaklin (a glove). There are three types of gloves:

a) one used by trappers of wild beasts and fowl; it is susceptible to midras impurity, because the trapper rests against it;

b) one used to catch grasshoppers; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse, because the grasshoppers are placed inside of it;

c) one of harvesters with which fruit is harvested; it is pure entirely, because it is not used for a purpose directly benefitting man.

יד

עוֹר הֶעָשׂוּי כְּמוֹ יָד שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין בּוֹ הַיָּד וְהָאֶצְבָּעוֹת מִפְּנֵי הַצִּנָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הוּא הַנִּקְרָא פְּרַקְלִינִין. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה פְּרַקְלִינִין הֵן. שֶׁל צַיָּדֵי חַיָּה וְעוֹף טָמֵא מִדְרָס שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁעָן עָלָיו. וְשֶׁל חֲגָבִים טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת שֶּׁנּוֹתְנִין בּוֹ הַחֲגָבִים. וְשֶׁל קַיָיצִים שֶׁבּוֹ מְקַיְּצִין פֵּרוֹת טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם:

15

There are three types of hairnets:

a) one worn by girls; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) one worn by an older woman; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) one worn to entertain drinkers; it is pure entirely, because it is not used for a purpose directly benefitting man.

טו

שָׁלֹשׁ סְבָכוֹת הֵן. שֶׁל יַלְדָּה טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס. וְשֶׁל זְקֵנָה טְמֵאָה טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁעוֹשִׂין לְשַׂחֵק בָּהּ לְשׁוֹתֵי שֵׁכָר טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם:

16

There are three types of sandals:

a) those worn by humans; they are susceptible to midras impurity;

b) metal shoes for animals; they are susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) those made of cork or reeds; they are pure entirely.

The general principle is: Any entity that is not fit to sit upon or to ride upon - or which could be used for those purposes, but was not made for those purposes, but for another reason - is not susceptible to midras impurity. If it was made for another purpose, but is also used for sitting, e.g., a cloak or a veil; it is susceptible to midras impurity.

Whenever an article is susceptible to midras impurity; it is also susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse. There are, however, articles that are susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse, but are not susceptible to midras impurity, as we explained. Whenever an article is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse; it is also susceptible to the other types of impurity, whether of Scriptural origin or of Rabbinic origin, and they are susceptible to impurity imparted by liquids.

טז

שְׁלֹשָׁה סַנְדָּלִין הֵן. שֶׁל אָדָם טָמֵא מִדְרָס. שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. שֶׁל שַׁעַם וְשֶׁל צְפִירָה טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְמִשְׁכָּב אוֹ לְמֶרְכָּב אוֹ שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה [לְכָךְ] אֶלָּא לִמְלָאכָה אַחֶרֶת הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר מִן הַמִּדְרָס. נַעֲשָׂה לִמְלָאכָה אַחֶרֶת וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִמָּהּ אֶת הַיְשִׁיבָה כְּגוֹן הַטַּלִּית וְהָרְדִיד מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס. וְכָל הַמִּתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמֵת וְיֵשׁ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמֵת וְאֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכָל הַמִּתְטַמֵּא בְּמֵת מִתְטַמֵּא בִּשְׁאָר אֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאוֹת בֵּין אָבוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בֵּין שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם וּמִתְטַמְּאִין בְּמַשְׁקִין:

17

There are three general principles applying to storage baskets:

a) when a worn-out one is patched on to one that is intact, the status of the one that is intact determines the ruling;

b) if a small one is patched on to a large one, the status of the large one determines the ruling;

c) if they are equal in size, the status of the inner one determines the ruling.

What is meant by saying: its status determines the ruling? That if it is perforated to the extent that a pomegranate would fall through it, they are both pure.

יז

שָׁלֹשׁ קֻפּוֹת הֵן. מְהוּהָה שֶׁטְּלָאָהּ עַל הַבְּרִיאָה הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הַבְּרִיאָה. קְטַנָּה עַל הַגְּדוֹלָה הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הַגְּדוֹלָה. הָיוּ שָׁווֹת הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הַפְּנִימִית. כֵּיצַד הוֹלְכִין אַחֲרֶיהָ. שֶׁאִם נִקְּבָה בְּמוֹצִיא רִמּוֹן שְׁתֵּיהֶן טְהוֹרוֹת:

18

There are three types of tablets:

a) one which scrolls are placed upon; it is susceptible to midras impurity;

b) a writing tablet that has a receptacle for wax; it is susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse;

c) those that are flat are entirely pure, because they do not have the form of a k'li and they are not fit to sit or lie upon.

יח

שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּנְקָסוֹת הֵן. הָאַפִּיפְיוֹרִין שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין עָלָיו הַסְּפָרִים טְמֵא מִדְרָס. וְשֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ בֵּית קִבּוּל שַׁעֲוָה טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. חִלְּקָהּ טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְמִדְרָס:

Kelim - Chapter 28

1

Whenever the external surface of a k'li that has a receptacle contracts impurity from liquids, its inner side does not contract impurity vis-à-vis terumah. Nor does the outer side of the k'li's neck, its handles, or the fingerhold on the rim of the k'li contract impurity. If the inner portion of the k'li contracts impurity, all of the above components also contract impurity.

If impure liquids fall on the bases of keilim, their rims, their projections, or handles of keilim with receptacles, one should dry them and the receptacle is pure. Even the entire outer surface does not become impure.

א

כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן בֵּית קִבּוּל שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרֵיהֶן בְּמַשְׁקִין לֹא נִטְמָא תּוֹכָן לִתְרוּמָה וְלֹא אָגְנֵיהֶן וְלֹא אָזְנֵיהֶן וְלֹא מְקוֹם אֶצְבַּע הַשּׁוֹקֵעַ בִּשְׂפַת הַכְּלִי. נִטְמָא תּוֹךְ הַכְּלִי נִטְמְאוּ כֻּלָּן. נָפְלוּ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין עַל כַּנֵּי הַכֵּלִים אוֹ עַל אָגְנֵיהֶן אוֹ עַל אָזְנֵיהֶן אוֹ עַל יְדוֹת הַכֵּלִים הַמְקַבְּלִין הֲרֵי זֶה מְנַגְּבָן וְהֵן טְהוֹרִין וַאֲפִלּוּ אֲחוֹרֵי הַכְּלִי כֻּלּוֹ לֹא נִטְמְאוּ:

2

The following law applies to keilim made from goats hair, e.g., sacks and carrying bags, leather keilim, e.g., pillows and bolsters, and wooden keilim, even baskets and dispensers. If their external surface contracts impurity from liquids, their inner portion does not contract impurity.

ב

אֶחָד כְּלֵי הַשַּׂק כְּגוֹן הַשַּׂקִּין וְהַמַּרְצּוּפִין. אוֹ כְּלֵי הָעוֹר כְּגוֹן הַכָּרִים וְהַכְּסָתוֹת. וְאֶחָד כְּלֵי עֵץ אֲפִלּוּ קֻפּוֹת וּמִשְׁפָּלוֹת אִם נִטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרֵיהֶן בְּמַשְׁקִין לֹא נִטְמָא תּוֹכָן:

3

Flat keilim that can be purified by immersion, that are not fit to sit or lie upon, e.g., a table or countertop that does not have a side are not susceptible to impurity according to Scriptural Law. Accordingly, if the external surface of such a k'li contracts impurity from liquids, its inner surface does not contract impurity. If, however, flat keilim that can be purified by immersion are fit to sit or lie upon, e.g., a bed, a hide on which one sleeps, a chair or the like, the distinction between an inner surface and an outer surface does not apply. Instead, whether impure liquids touch their inner surface or their outer surface, the entire k'li contracts impurity.

Similarly, the distinction between an inner surface and an outer surface does not apply with regard to measures for wine and oil, a two-sided cooking k'li, a filter for mustard, and a filter for wine. If impure liquids fell on a portion of the k'li, the entire k'li contracts impurity, as is the law with regard to garments.

ג

פְּשׁוּטֵי כְּלֵי שֶׁטֶף שֶׁאֵין רְאוּיִין לְמִדְרָס כְּגוֹן הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְטַבְלָא שֶׁאֵין לָהּ דֹּפֶן הוֹאִיל וְאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה אִם נִטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרֵיהֶן בְּמַשְׁקִין לֹא נִטְמָא תּוֹכָן. אֲבָל פְּשׁוּטֵי כְּלֵי שֶׁטֶף הָרְאוּיִים לְמִדְרָס כְּגוֹן הַמִּטָּה וְהָעוֹר שֶׁיְּשֵׁנִים עָלָיו וְהַכִּסֵּא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֵין לָהֶם אֲחוֹרַיִם וְתוֹךְ אֶלָּא בֵּין שֶׁנָּגְעוּ מַשְׁקִין בָּהֶן מִתּוֹכָן אוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן נִטְמָא הַכְּלִי כֻּלּוֹ. וְכֵן מִדּוֹת יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן וְזוֹמָא לִיסְטְרוֹת וּמְסַנֶּנֶת שֶׁל חַרְדָּל וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת שֶׁל יַיִן אֵין לָהֶן אֲחוֹרַיִם וְתוֹךְ אֶלָּא אִם נָפַל מַשְׁקִין עַל מִקְצָתָן נִטְמְאוּ כֻּלָּן כְּמוֹ הַבְּגָדִים:

4

A concept paralleling an external surface and an inner surface apply with regard to a plow.

What is implied? If impure liquids fall on the lance, only seven handbreadths of the beam adjacent to the lance become impure and the remainder of the beam is pure. Similarly, if impure liquids fall on the metal peg, only the four handbreadths of the beam that is adjacent to the metal peg become impure. If the liquids fell beyond the seven handbreadths and the four handbreadths, the situation resembles a receptacle whose outer surface was touched by impure liquids, in which instance, only the place where the liquids touched and the outer surface contract impurity.

ד

הַמַּרְדֵּעַ וְהַמַּלְמָד יֵשׁ לָהֶן אֲחוֹרַיִם וְתוֹךְ. כֵּיצַד. נָפְלוּ מַשְׁקִין עַל הַחַרְחוּר לֹא נִטְמָא מִן הָעֵץ הַסָּמוּךְ לַחַרְחוּר אֶלָּא שִׁבְעָה טְפָחִים בִּלְבַד וּשְׁאָר הָעֵץ טָהוֹר. וְכֵן אִם נָפְלוּ מַשְׁקִין עַל הַדָּרְבָן לֹא נִטְמָא אֶלָּא אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים הַסְּמוּכִין לַדָּרְבָן. נָפְלוּ חוּץ לְשִׁבְעָה וְחוּץ לְאַרְבָּעָה הֲרֵי זֶה כִּכְלִי קִבּוּל שֶׁנָּגְעוּ מַשְׁקִין בַּאֲחוֹרָיו וְלֹא נִטְמְאוּ אֶלָּא מִמְּקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ וְלַחוּץ:

5

When there is a pouch with an inner pocket and one of the two contracted impurity due to contact with impure liquids, the other does not contract impurity.

When does the above apply? When their rims are on the same level. If, however, the external one overlaps the inner one, and the inner one contracts impurity, the external one also contracts impurity. If the external one contracts impurity, the inner one does not contract impurity. If the impurity stems from the carcass of a crawling animal, in all instances, if one contracted impurity, the others also did.

ה

כִּיס שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ כִּיס שֶׁנִּטְמָא אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּמַשְׁקִין לֹא נִטְמָא חֲבֵרוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן שָׁוִין. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה הַחִיצוֹן עוֹדֵף וְנִטְמָא הַפְּנִימִי. נִטְמָא הַחִיצוֹן נִטְמָא הַחִיצוֹן לֹא נִטְמָא הַפְּנִימִי וּבְשֶׁרֶץ בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ אִם נִטְמָא אֶחָד מֵהֶם לֹא נִטְמָא חֲבֵרוֹ:

6

When one carves out a measure of a revi'it and half a revi'it into one piece of wood and one of them contracted impurity from impure liquids, the other does not contract impurity even though they are on the same piece of wood.

What is implied? If impure liquids touched the inner surface of the revi'it measure, that measure and its outer side are impure, the half-revi'it measure and its outer side are pure. If the liquids touched the inner surface of the half-revi'it measure, that measure and its outer side are impure, the revi'it measure and its outer side are pure.

When one immerses this piece of wood in a mikveh, it should be immersed in its entirety all at one time. If the outer surface of the revi'it measure or of the half-revi'it measure contracted impurity from liquids, the entire outer surface of the piece of wood contracts impurity, because an outer surface is not divided.

ו

הַחוֹקֵק רֹבַע וַחֲצִי רֹבַע בְּעֵץ אֶחָד וְנִטְמָא אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּמַשְׁקִין לֹא נִטְמָא הַשֵּׁנִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן עֵץ אֶחָד. כֵּיצַד. נָגְעוּ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בְּתוֹךְ הָרֹבַע הָרֹבַע וַאֲחוֹרָיו טְמֵאִין וַחֲצִי הָרֹבַע וַאֲחוֹרָיו טְהוֹרִין. נָגְעוּ בַּחֲצִי הָרֹבַע מִתּוֹכוֹ חֲצִי הָרֹבַע וַאֲחוֹרָיו טְמֵאִים הָרֹבַע וַאֲחוֹרָיו טְהוֹרִין. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מַטְבִּיל מַטְבִּיל אֶת הַכּל. נִטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרֵי הָרֹבַע אוֹ אֲחוֹרֵי חֲצִי הָרֹבַע בְּמַשְׁקִין הֲרֵי אֲחוֹרֵי הַכְּלִי טָמֵא שֶׁאֵין חוֹלְקִין אֶת הָאֲחוֹרַיִם:

7

When the outer surface of a kettle was impure and it was boiling, we do not suspect that maybe liquids flowed out from it, touched its outer surface, and then receded back inside it. Instead, the liquids that are inside it are pure with regard to terumah.

ז

קוּמְקוּמוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ אֲחוֹרָיו טְמֵאִין וְהָיָה מַרְתִּיחַ אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יָצְאוּ מַשְׁקִין מִתּוֹכוֹ וְנָגְעוּ בַּאֲחוֹרָיו וְחָזְרוּ לְתוֹכוֹ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טְהוֹרִין לִתְרוּמָה: בְּרִיךְ רַחֲמָנָא דְּסַיְּעָן

Mikvaot - Chapter 1

Introduction to Hilchos Mikvaot

Included in this text is one positive commandment: that all impure individuals should immerse themselves in a mikveh and then regain purity.

This mitzvah is explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות מקואות - הקדמה הלכות מקואות מצות עשה אחת והיא שיטבול כל טמא במי מקוה ואחר כך יטהר וביאור מצוה זו בפרקים אלו:

1

All impure entities - whether humans or keilim, whether they contracted a severe impurity of Scriptural origin or whether they contracted Rabbinic impurity - regain purity only through immersion in water that is collected in a pool in the ground.

א

כָּל הַטְּמֵאִין בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים בֵּין שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בֵּין שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְּטֻמְאָה שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶן אֵין לָהֶן טָהֳרָה אֶלָּא בִּטְבִילָה בְּמַיִם הַנִּקְוִין בְּקַרְקַע:

2

Whenever the Torah mentions washing one's flesh or laundering one's garments from impurity, the intent is solely the immersion of the entire body or article in a mikveh. The phrase, Leviticus 15:11: "And he did not wash his hands in water," also refers to the immersion of the entire body. This also applies to other impure people. If one immersed himself entirely with the exception of the tip of his little finger, he is still ritually impure.

Although all of these matters have their source in the Oral Tradition, Leviticus 11:32 does state: "He shall enter water; he remains impure until the evening and then he becomes pure." This rule is then applied with regard to all those impure: They must enter water.

ב

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה רְחִיצַת בָּשָׂר וְכִבּוּס בְּגָדִים מִן הַטֻּמְאָה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא טְבִילַת כָּל הַגּוּף בְּמִקְוֶה. וְזֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּזָב (ויקרא טו יא) "וְיָדָיו לֹא שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם" כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁיִּטְבּל כָּל גּוּפוֹ. וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר הַטְּמֵאִין שֶׁאִם טָבַל כֻּלּוֹ חוּץ מֵרֹאשׁ אֶצְבַּע הַקְּטַנָּה עֲדַיִן הוּא בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ. וְכָל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה הֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לב) "בַּמַּיִם יוּבָא וְטָמֵא עַד הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר" בִּנְיַן אָב לְכָל הַטְּמֵאִים שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ בַּמַּיִם:

3

All keilim that contract impurity can be purified through immersion in a mikveh with the exception of an earthenware container, a glass k'li, and a reed mat.

With regard to an earthenware container, Leviticus 11:33 states: "You shall break it," implying that its purification comes only through breaking it. Even if it was joined to the earth, even affixed to it with a nail, and even if it was filled with lime or gypsum, it retains its impurity until it is broken. Our Sages considered glass keilim like earthenware containers in this respect.

ג

כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ יֵשׁ לָהֶן טָהֳרָה בְּמִקְוֶה חוּץ מִכְּלֵי חֶרֶס וּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית וְכֵן הַמַּפָּץ. כְּלִי חֶרֶס נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ (ויקרא יא לג) "וְאֹתוֹ תִשְׁבֹּרוּ "וְאֵין לוֹ טָהֳרָה אֶלָּא שְׁבִירָה. אֲפִלּוּ חִבְּרוֹ בְּקַרְקַע וַאֲפִלּוּ קְבָעוֹ בְּמַסְמֵר וַאֲפִלּוּ מִלְּאָהוּ סִיד אוֹ גְּפָסִים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה עַד שֶׁיִּשָּׁבֵר. וּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית כִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס עֲשָׂאוּם בְּדָבָר זֶה:

4

A reed mat is not included among the keilim that are susceptible to other types of impurity. Since it does not have a receptacle, it is not in the category of the wooden keilim mentioned by the Torah. Nevertheless, since it is fit to lie upon, it was included among the keilim susceptible to midras impurity according to Scriptural Law. Now since there is no explicit mention of its association with purity and impurity in the Torah and yet, it was included among the articles that contract impurity, it was not included with regard to purification through immersion in a mikveh. For only keilim mentioned in the Torah can be purified in a mikveh. A reed mat can be purified only by being torn to the extent that there remain less than six handbreadths by six handbreadths.

ד

הַמַּפָּץ אֵינוֹ בִּכְלַל הַכֵּלִים הַמְקַבְּלִים שְׁאָר כָּל הַטֻּמְאוֹת לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּלִי קִבּוּל אֵינוֹ מִכְּלַל כְּלֵי עֵץ הָאֲמוּרִין בַּתּוֹרָה וְהוֹאִיל וְהוּא רָאוּי לְמִשְׁכָּב נִתְרַבָּה לְטֻמְאַת מִדְרָס בִּלְבַד דִּין תּוֹרָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ טֻמְאָה וְטָהֲרָה בְּפֵרוּשׁ וְנִתְרַבָּה לַטֻּמְאָה לֹא יִתְרַבֶּה לְטַהֵר בְּמִקְוֶה שֶׁאֵין מִתְטַהֵר בְּמִקְוֶה אֶלָּא הַכֵּלִים הָאֲמוּרִין בַּתּוֹרָה וְאֵין לַמַּפָּץ טָהֳרָה אֶלָּא קְרִיעָתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁשָּׁה עַל שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים:

5

A zav can be purified only through immersion in a stream, for Leviticus 15:13 states that he must immerse "in living water." A zavah and other persons and keilim that are impure may immerse or be immersed in a mikveh.

ה

הַזָּב אֵין לוֹ טָהֳרָה אֶלָּא בְּמַעְיָן שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ (ויקרא טו יג) "בְּמַיִם חַיִּים" אֲבָל הַזָּבָה וּשְׁאָר הַטְּמֵאִין בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים טוֹבְלִין אַף בְּמִקְוֶה:

6

All those obligated to immerse may immerse during the day with the exception of a nidah and a woman after childbirth. They must immerse at night, as we explained with regard to the laws of nidah. One who has a seminal emission may immerse throughout the entire day from the beginning of the night. This is derived from Deuteronomy 23:12 which states: "And it shall be that toward evening, he shall immerse in water." This teaches that he may immerse and continue in his state from the beginning of the night until the night falls the following day.

ו

כָּל חַיָּבֵי טְבִילוֹת טְבִילָתָן בַּיּוֹם חוּץ מִנִּדָּה וְיוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁטְּבִילָתָן בַּלַּיְלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּעִנְיַן נִדָּה. וּבַעַל קֶרִי טוֹבֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ מִתְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג יב) "וְהָיָה לִפְנוֹת עֶרֶב יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם" מְלַמֵּד שֶׁטּוֹבֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ מִתְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה עַד הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ:

7

All those who immerse should immerse their entire bodies while naked at one time. If the person has hair, all of his hair must be immersed; it is considered as part of his body according to Scriptural Law.

Whenever impure individuals immersed while wearing clothes, the immersion is acceptable, because the water passes through the clothes and they do not intervene. Similarly, if a nidah immerses in her clothes, she is permitted to resume relations with her husband.

ז

כָּל הַטּוֹבֵל צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּטְבּל כָּל גּוּפוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא עָרוּם בְּבַת אַחַת. וְאִם הָיָה בַּעַל שֵׂעָר יַטְבִּיל כָּל שְׂעַר רֹאשׁוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּגוּפוֹ דִּין תּוֹרָה. וְכָל הַטְּמֵאִין שֶׁטָּבְלוּ בְּבִגְדֵיהֶן עָלְתָה לָהֶן טְבִילָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם בָּאִין בָּהֶן וְאֵינָן חוֹצְצִין. וְכֵן הַנִּדָּה שֶׁטָּבְלָה בִּבְגָדֶיהָ מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעֲלָהּ:

8

All those who immerse must have the intent to purify themselves through immersion. If one did not have such an intent, the immersion is acceptable with regard to ordinary foods. Even a nidah who immerses without intent, e.g., she fell into water or descended into water to cool off, is permitted to her husband. Nevertheless, with regard to terumah and sacrificial food, she is not considered pure until she immerses with the proper intent.

ח

כָּל הַטּוֹבֵל צָרִיךְ לְהִתְכַּוֵּן לִטְבִילָה וְאִם לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן עָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה לְחֻלִּין. אֲפִלּוּ נִדָּה שֶׁטָּבְלָה בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם אוֹ יָרְדָה לְהָקֵר הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעֲלָהּ. אֲבָל לִתְרוּמָה וּלְקָדָשִׁים אֵינָהּ טְהוֹרָה עַד שֶׁתִּטְבּל בְּכַוָּנָה:

9

When a person ties his hands and feet and is seated in an irrigation canal, if the water covers his body entirely, he is pure.

When a person jumps into a mikveh, it is reprehensible. When one immerses in a mikveh twice, it is reprehensible. When one tells a friend: "Place your hand upon me in the mikveh," it is reprehensible.

ט

הַכּוֹפֵת יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וְיָשַׁב לוֹ בְּאַמַּת הַמַּיִם אִם נִכְנְסוּ מַיִם דֶּרֶךְ כֻּלּוֹ טָהוֹר. הַקּוֹפֵץ לְתוֹךְ הַמִּקְוֶה הֲרֵי זֶה מְגֻנֶּה. וְהַטּוֹבֵל פַּעֲמַיִם בַּמִּקְוֶה הֲרֵי זֶה מְגֻנֶּה. וְהָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ כְּבשׁ יָדְךָ עָלַי בַּמִּקְוֶה הֲרֵי זֶה מְגֻנֶּה:

10

Water from the mikveh need not seep into the non-visible portions or the creases of a person's body, as implied by the verse: "And he did not wash his hands in water." It can be inferred that it is necessary only that visible portions of the body be in contact with the water. Nevertheless, the non-visible portions must be fit for water to reach them without there being any intervening substances upon them. Therefore, our Sages instructed: At home, a person should always teach that a woman should rinse between the folds of her body and then immerse.

A woman should immerse as she stands normally when weaving or when nursing her child.

י

בֵּית הַסְּתָרִים וּבֵית הַקְּמָטִים אֵינָן צְרִיכִין שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ בָּהֶן הַמַּיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו יא) "וְיָדָיו לֹא שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם" אֵיבָרִים הַנִּרְאִים בִּלְבַד. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן צְרִיכִין לִהְיוֹת רְאוּיִין שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ בָּהֶן הַמַּיִם וְלֹא יִהְיֶה דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ לְפִיכָךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים לְעוֹלָם יִלְמֹד אָדָם בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה אִשָּׁה מְדִיחָה בֵּין קְמָטֶיהָ בְּמַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ תִּטְבּל. וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבֶלֶת כְּדֶרֶךְ גְּדִילָתָהּ כְּאוֹרֶגֶת וּכְמֵינִיקָה אֶת בְּנָהּ:

11

A woman should not immerse in a harbor, because she will be embarrassed because of the inhabitants of the city and will not immerse properly. If mats were erected as a screen for the purpose of modesty, she may immerse in a harbor. A woman should not immerse while standing on an earthenware container, on a basket, or the like, because she will be afraid of falling and the immersion will not be acceptable.

יא

אִשָּׁה אֵינָהּ טוֹבֶלֶת בַּנָּמֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּתְבַּיֶּשֶׁת מִבְּנֵי הָעִיר וְאֵינָהּ טוֹבֶלֶת כַּהֹגֶן. וְאִם הִקִּיף לָהּ מַפָּץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַצְנִיעָהּ טוֹבֶלֶת בַּנָּמֵל. וְלֹא תִּטְבּל עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלִי חֶרֶס אוֹ סַל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּפַחֶדֶת וְלֹא תַּעֲלֶה לָהּ טְבִילָה:

12

When either a human or a k'li is immersed, there should not be any intervening substance between them and the water. If there is an any intervening substance between them and the water - for example, there was dough or mud clinging to the flesh of a person or the substance of a k'li - the person or the k'li is impure as it was originally and the immersion is invaild.

According to Scriptural Law, if there is an intervening substance covering the larger portion of the person's body or the larger portion of the k'li, the immersion is invalid, provided he objects to the intervening substance and would like to remove it. If, however, he does not object to it and does not pay attention whether it would be removed or not, it is not considered an intervening substance, even if it covers the major portion of the person or the k'li. Similarly, if it covers less than half a person's body, it is not considered as an intervening substance even if he objects to it. According to Rabbinic decree, any intervening substance that one objects to invalidates an immersion even if it covers only the lesser portion of the person's body. This is a decree, lest such a substance cover the greater portion of the person's body. And any intervening substance that covers the larger portion of the person's body disqualifies the immersion even if he does not object to it. This is a decree, lest a substance that one objects to cover the greater portion of his body.

Thus if even a drop the size of a mustard seed of an intervening substance, e.g., dough, tar, or the like, was on a person's flesh or on the substance of a k'li, and he objects to it, his immersion is disqualified. If he does not object to it, the immersion is acceptable unless the intervening substance covers the major portion of the k'li or the person, as explained.

יב

אֶחָד הָאָדָם אוֹ הַכֵּלִים לֹא יִהְיֶה דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ בֵּינָם וּבֵין הַמַּיִם. וְאִם הָיָה דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ בֵּינָם וּבֵין הַמַּיִם כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה בָּצֵק אוֹ טִיט מֻדְבָּק עַל בְּשַׂר הָאָדָם אוֹ עַל גּוּף הַכְּלִי הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא כְּשֶׁהָיָה וְלֹא עָלְתָה לָהֶן טְבִילָה. דְּבַר תּוֹרָה אִם הָיָה דָּבָר הַחוֹצֵץ חוֹפֶה אֶת רֹב הָאָדָם אוֹ רֹב הַכְּלִי לֹא עָלְתָה לָהֶן טְבִילָה וְהוּא שֶׁיַּקְפִּיד עָלָיו וְרוֹצֶה לְהַעֲבִירוֹ. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו וְלֹא שָׂם אוֹתוֹ עַל לֵב בֵּין עָבַר בֵּין לֹא עָבַר אֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחוֹפֶה אֶת רֻבּוֹ. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה חוֹפֶה מִעוּטוֹ אֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו. מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר הַחוֹצֵץ אִם הָיָה מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עַל מִעוּטוֹ גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם רֻבּוֹ. וְכָל דָּבָר הַחוֹצֵץ אִם הָיָה חוֹפֶה אֶת רֻבּוֹ לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם רֻבּוֹ הַמַּקְפִּיד עָלָיו. נִמְצֵאתָ אוֹמֵר שֶׁאִם הָיָה עַל בְּשַׂר הָאָדָם אוֹ עַל גּוּף הַכְּלִי דָּבָר מִדְּבָרִים הַחוֹצְצִין כְּגוֹן בָּצֵק וְזֶפֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֲפִלּוּ טִפָּה כְּחַרְדָּל וְהוּא מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו עָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חוֹפֶה רֹב הַכְּלִי אוֹ רֹב הָאָדָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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