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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Kelim - Chapter 21, Kelim - Chapter 22, Kelim - Chapter 23

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Kelim - Chapter 21

1

The strands that emerge from the weave and those at the beginning of the sheet of fabric and at its end are called nimin. Until what measure are they considered as part of the fabric? For a sheet, for a headcovering, a scarf, or a veil, six fingerbreadths. For a cloak that is open across its entire length and which is then closed with loops, the measure of its strands is ten fingerbreadths; a thick blanket, a mantle, a cloak, three fingerbreadths. Even if the garment is impure due the impurity of a zav or because of another form of impurity, if one touches a strand beyond these measures, he remains pure. Needless to say that if impurity touched the additional portion, the garment does not contract impurity.

א

הַחוּטִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מִן הָאָרִיג וְשֶׁבִּתְחִלַּת הַיְרִיעָה וְשֶׁבְּסוֹפָהּ וְהֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין נִימִין כַּמָּה שִׁעוּרָן. שֶׁל סָדִין וְשֶׁל סוּדָרִין וְשֶׁל צָעִיף וְשֶׁל פִּלְיוֹן שֶׁל רֹאשׁ שֵׁשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת. וְשֶׁל חָלוּק שֶׁהוּא קָרוּעַ מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ וְעַד סוֹפוֹ וְאַחַר שֶׁלּוֹבְשִׁין אוֹתוֹ מְקַבְּצִין אוֹתוֹ בְּלוּלָאוֹת שִׁעוּר חוּטָיו עֶשֶׂר אֶצְבָּעוֹת. הַסָּגִיס וְהָרְדִיד וְהַטַּלִּית שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת. וְכָל הַיֶּתֶר עַל הַשִּׁעוּרִין הָאֵלּוּ הַנּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ טָהוֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבֶּגֶד טָמֵא בְּמִדְרָס אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם נָגְעָה טֻמְאָה בַּיֶּתֶר שֶׁהַבֶּגֶד טָהוֹר:

2

There is no minimum measure for the strands that emerge from a headcovering, a mask worn by the Arabs over their faces, a belt made of goats' hair, undergarments worn by a person close to his flesh, a handkerchief, and a curtain placed over entrances like a drape.

ב

נִימֵי הַכִּפָּה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ. וְהַמַּסְוֶה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין הָעַרְבִיִּים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם. וְהַקִּלְקָלִין הַשְּׁזוּרִין מִן הַשֵּׂעָר. וְהַפֻּנְדָּא שֶׁלּוֹבֵשׁ הָאָדָם עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ. וְהַשִּׂמְלָה וְהַפַּרְגּוֹד שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין עַל הַפְּתָחִים כְּמוֹ פָּרֹכֶת. נִימֵיהֶן כָּל שֶׁהֵן:

3

When a plumb line contracts impurity, the twelve handbreadths of its strand are considered as joined to it. Anyone who touches a portion beyond twelve handbreadths is pure. A plumb line of carpenters is eighteen handbreadths; one used by the builders of large structures is 50 cubits. When one touches any portion beyond these measures, even if the owner desires that it be preserved, he is pure.

ג

מִשְׁקלֶת שֶׁנִּטְמֵאת הֲרֵי שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר טֶפַח מִן הַחוּט שֶׁלָּהּ חִבּוּר לָהּ. וְכָל הַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּחוּץ לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר טֶפַח טָהוֹר. וּמִשְׁקלֶת שֶׁל חָרָשִׁים שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר טֶפַח. וְשֶׁל בַּנָּאִין חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה. וְהַיֶּתֶר עַל מִדּוֹת אֵלּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה בְּקִיּוּמוֹ טָהוֹר:

4

Plumb lines used by roofers and artists are impure regardless of their length.

ד

מִשְׁקוֹלוֹת שֶׁל סַיָּדִין וְשֶׁל צַיָּרִין אֲפִלּוּ אֲרֻכִּין כָּל שֶׁהֵן טְמֵאִין:

5

The length of the chain of a scale of goldsmiths, an ordinary balance scale, or a scale used by those who weigh precious purple cloth which is held by the seller, suspending the scale from his hand, is three fingerbreadths. Its horizontal beam and its strings have no specific length.

The length of the chain of the scale of sellers of scrap metal and the like is three handbreadths. Its beam and its strings are twelve handbreadths. The length of the chain of a scale used by merchants and homeowners is a handbreadth. Its beam and its strings are six handbreadths. The length of the chain of a scale used by wool merchants and those who weigh glass is two handbreadths. Its beam and its strings are nine handbreadths. Anything more than these measures is not considered as joined to the scale.

ה

חוּט מֹאזְנַיִם שֶׁל זֶהָבִים. שֶׁל פֶּלֶס. וְשֶׁל שׁוֹקְלֵי אַרְגָּמָן טוֹב שֶׁאוֹחֵז הַשּׁוֹקֵל בּוֹ וְתוֹלֶה הַמֹּאזְנַיִם מִיָּדוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת. קָנֶה שֶׁלָּהּ וְחוּטֶיהָ כָּל שֶׁהֵן. חוּטֵי מֹאזְנַיִם שֶׁל מוֹכְרֵי עֲשָׁשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. קָנֶה שֶׁלָּהּ וְחוּטֶיהָ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר טְפָחִים. חוּט מֹאזְנַיִם שֶׁל חֶנְוָנִים וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים טֶפַח. קְנֵה הַמֹּאזְנַיִם וְחוּטֶיהָ שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים. חוּט מֹאזְנַיִם שֶׁל צַמָּרִים וְשֶׁל שׁוֹקְלֵי זְכוּכִית טְפָחַיִם. קְנֵה מֹאזְנַיִם וְחוּטֶיהָ תִּשְׁעָה טְפָחִים. וְהַיֶּתֶר עַל הַשִּׁעוּרִין אֵלּוּ אֵינָן חִבּוּר:

6

When is the cord used to tie the supports for a bed considered as joined to the bed? When one ties three squares. One who touches the cord from the point where it is tied and further inward is impure. For three fingerbreadths, the length of the cord on the outside of the knot is impure, because that measure is necessary for the knot and is considered as part of the bed. Anything outside of three fingerbreadths is pure, because it is not necessary for the k'li. Even if it is cut off, the knot will not become undone.

ו

הַחֶבֶל שֶׁמְּסָרְגִין הַמִּטּוֹת מֵאֵימָתַי הוּא חִבּוּר לַטֻּמְאָה מִשֶּׁיְּסָרֵג בּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָּתִּים. וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בַּחֶבֶל מִן הַקֶּשֶׁר וּלְפָנִים טָמֵא מִן הַקֶּשֶׁר וְלַחוּץ עַד שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן צְרָכָיו שֶׁל קֶשֶׁר הֲרֵי הֵן מִכְּלַל הַמִּטָּה. וְחוּץ לְשָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ פְּסָקוֹ אֵין הַקֶּשֶׁר נִתָּר:

7

When a person touches a cord extending out from a bed that is impure, until the end of four handbreadths, he is pure. The rationale is that this measure is not considered as necessary for the bed, since it is not fit for any purpose. From the beginning of the fifth handbreadth until the end of the tenth handbreadth, he is impure, because the cord is used to tie the beds when they are hung from the walls. From ten handbreadths and more, he is pure, because it is more than what is necessary for the bed.

ז

חֶבֶל הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַמִּטָּה שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה עַד סוֹף אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים הַנּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִצָּרְכֵי הַמִּטָּה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִכְלוּם. מִתְּחִלַּת חֲמִשָּׁה וְעַד סוֹף עֲשָׂרָה טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁתּוֹלִין בּוֹ אֶת הַמִּטּוֹת. מֵעֲשָׂרָה וְלַחוּץ טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא יֶתֶר עַל צֹרֶךְ הַמִּטָּה:

8

The woven band tied around a bed to reinforce the connection between its components is called a mizran. The following rules apply with regard to the portion that extends outside the bed. For ten handbreadths, it is considered as necessary for the bed. Anything more than that is not necessary for the bed.

When a mizran has worn out, if seven handbreadths of it - enough to make a girdle for a donkey - remain, it is susceptible to impurity.

ח

אַבְנֵט שֶׁל אָרִיג שֶׁמַּקִּיפִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הַמִּטָּה כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּץ אֵיבָרֶיהָ וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא מִזְרָן שֶׁמִּקְצָתוֹ יוֹצְאָה מִן הַמִּטָּה עַד עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי הוּא מִצָּרְכֵי הַמִּטָּה. יֶתֶר עַל כֵּן אֵינוֹ מִצָּרְכֵי הַמִּטָּה. וּמִזְרָן שֶׁבָּלָה אִם נִשְׁאַר מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁבְעָה טְפָחִים כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ חֶבֶק לַחֲמוֹר הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

9

When a bed was impure because it served as a support for a zav and a portion of its mizran protrudes from it, for ten handbreadths, it is a primary source of impurity like the bed itself. Everything is considered as a support to which a zav imparted impurity. Beyond ten handbreadths, the extra portion of the mizran is impure like an object that was touched by a support to which a zav imparted impurity.

When a zav steps on the extension of a mizran, if he steps on the first ten handbreadths, the entire bed is considered as a support to which a zav imparted impurity. If he steps on the portion, outside of ten handbreadths, the bed is pure.

With regard to what does the above apply? With regard to impurity stemming from serving as support for a zav. With regard to other types of impurity, even 100 cubits is considered as attached to the bed.

What is implied? When a mizran is wound around a bed and one brought its end into a structure in which a human corpse was found, the carcass of a crawling animal touched its end, or impure liquids fell on its end, the bed contracts impurity even if the end of the mizran that contracted impurity is 100 cubits away from the bed itself.

ט

מִטָּה שֶׁהָיְתָה טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס וּמִזְרָן יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנָּה עַד עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי הוּא אַב טֻמְאָה כַּמִּטָּה עַצְמָהּ וְהַכּל מִדְרָס. מֵעֲשָׂרָה וְלַחוּץ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמַגַּע מִדְרָס. דָּרַס הַזָּב עַל הַמִּזְרָן הַיּוֹצֵא מֵעֲשָׂרָה וּלְפָנִים הֲרֵי הַמִּטָּה כֻּלָּהּ מִדְרָס. מֵעֲשָׂרָה וְלַחוּץ טְהוֹרָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים לְמִדְרָס. אֲבָל לִשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה אַמָּה כֻּלּוֹ חִבּוּר. כֵּיצַד. מִזְרָן שֶׁהוּא כָּרוּךְ עַל הַמִּטָּה וְהִכְנִיס קְצָתוֹ לְאֹהֶל הַמֵּת אוֹ שֶׁנָּגַע שֶׁרֶץ בִּקְצָתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין עַל מִקְצָתוֹ נִטְמֵאת הַמִּטָּה וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַקָּצֶה שֶׁנִּטְמָא יוֹצֵא מִן הַמִּטָּה מֵאָה אַמָּה:

10

When a bed was impure because it was used as a support for a zav and one wound a mizran around it, everything contracts that impurity. If one separated them afterwards, the bed retains its original status, but the mizran is considered merely as an object that touched a support for a zav.

If the bed had contracted impurity that lasts seven days and one wound a mizran around it, everything contracts that impurity. If one separated them afterwards, the bed retains its original status, but the mizran is impure merely until nightfall. If the bed was impure until nightfall and one wound a mizran around it, everything contracts that impurity. If one separated them afterwards, the bed retains its original status, but the mizran is pure.

י

מִטָּה הַטְּמֵאָה מִדְרָס וְכָרַךְ לָהּ מִזְרָן הַכּל טָמֵא מִדְרָס. הִפְרִישׁוֹ הַמִּטָּה מִדְרָס כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה וְהַמִּזְרָן מַגַּע מִדְרָס. הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה וְכָרַךְ לָהּ מִזְרָן כֻּלָּהּ טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. הִפְרִישׁוֹ הִיא טְמֵאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה וְהַמִּזְרָן טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב. הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב וְכָרַךְ לָהּ מִזְרָן הַכּל טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב. הִפְרִישׁוֹ הִיא טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב וְהַמִּזְרָן טָהוֹר:

11

If there was a mizran wound around a bed and a human corpse touched them, everything contracts impurity that lasts seven days. If they are separated, they both remain impure for that time. If the carcass of a crawling animal or the like touches them, they contract impurity that lasts until nightfall. If they are separated, they both remain impure for that time.

יא

מִטָּה שֶׁכָּרַךְ עָלֶיהָ מִזְרָן וְנָגַע בָּהֶן הַמֵּת הַכּל טָמֵא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. פֵּרְשׁוּ טָמֵא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. נָגַע בָּהּ שֶׁרֶץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן טְמֵאִין טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב. פֵּרְשׁוּ טְמֵאִין טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב:

12

When a bedpost that was deemed impure as a support for a zav was connected to a bed that had been pure, the entire bed is considered as such a support. If they were separated afterwards, the bedpost retains its original status and the bed is impure because of contact with such a support. Similarly, if a bedpost that had contracted impurity that lasts seven days was connected to a bed, the entire bed is impure for seven days as if a corpse had touched its bedpost. If one sprinkled the ashes of the red heifer on the bed, it is purified and the bedpost is purified together with it. If the bedpost was separated from the bed before the ashes of the red heifer were sprinkled, the bedpost retains its original status and the bed is impure until the evening.

If a bedpost that was impure until the evening was connected to a bed, everything is impure until the evening. If the bedpost was separated from the bed, the bedpost retains its original status and the bed is pure, for an article that it is impure until the evening as a derivative of impurity stemming from a corpse does not impart impurity, neither to a person or ana k'li, because it is merely a derivative, as we explained. Similar laws apply with regard to a tooth of a plow that contracted impurity from a corpse and was then joined to the plow.

יב

כֶּרַע שֶׁהָיְתָה טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס וְחִבְּרָהּ לְמִטָּה הַמִּטָּה כֻּלָּהּ מִדְרָס. פֵּרְשָׁה הַכֶּרַע טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה וְהַמִּטָּה מַגַּע מִדְרָס. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה הַכֶּרַע טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה וְחִבְּרָהּ לְמִטָּה הַמִּטָּה כֻּלָּהּ טְמֵאָה שִׁבְעָה כְּאִלּוּ נָגַע הַמֵּת בְּכֶרַע שֶׁלָּהּ. וְאִם הִזָּה עַל הַמִּטָּה טִהֲרָה וְהַכֶּרַע בִּכְלָלָהּ. וְאִם פֵּרְשָׁה קֹדֶם הַזָּיָה הַכֶּרַע טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה וְהַמִּטָּה טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב. הָיָה הַכֶּרַע טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב וְחִבְּרָהּ לַמִּטָּה הַכּל טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב. פֵּרְשָׁה הִיא טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב וְהַמִּטָּה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין הַטָּמֵא טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב מִן הַמֵּת מְטַמֵּא לֹא אָדָם וְלֹא כֵּלִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא וָלָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּשֵׁן שֶׁל מַעְדֵּר שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּמֵת וְאַחַר כָּךְ חִבְּרוֹ לַמַּעְדֵּר:

Kelim - Chapter 22

1

What is the minimum measure for a cloth to contract impurity? Three handbreadths by three handbreadths to contract the impurity of a support for a zav, precisely three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths together with the loose hanging strands to contract the impurity stemming from a human corpse or other types of impurity.

With regard to what does the above apply? To clothes of wool or flax. If, however, clothes were made from other fabrics, they do not contract any type of impurity unless they are three handbreadths by three handbreadths. This is derived from Leviticus 11:32 which states: "or a garment." According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that "or" serves as an inclusion, teaching that a garment three handbreadths by three handbreadths from other fabrics is susceptible to impurity.

When does the above apply? With regard to torn pieces from a garment. When, however, one weaves a garment independently, it is susceptible to any impurity no matter how small it is, with the exception of the impurity of a support for a zav to which only those articles fit to serve as a support are susceptible.

א

כַּמָּה שִׁעוּר הַבֶּגֶד לְהִתְטַמֵּא שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים לְמִדְרָס. וְשָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת מְכֻוָּנוֹת עִם הַמֶּלֶל לְטֻמְאַת הַמֵּת אוֹ לִשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּבִגְדֵי צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים. אֲבָל בְּגָדִים שֶׁל שְׁאָר מִינִין אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִכָּל הַטֻּמְאוֹת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בָּהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים אוֹ יֶתֶר. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לב) "אוֹ בֶגֶד" מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁבָּא הַכָּתוּב לְרַבּוֹת שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים כִּשְׁאָר בְּגָדִים לַטֻּמְאָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּקְרָעִים מִן הַבְּגָדִים. אֲבָל הָאוֹרֵג בֶּגֶד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל שְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת חוּץ מִטֻּמְאַת מִדְרָס שֶׁאֵין מְקַבֵּל אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא הָרָאוּי לְמִדְרָס:

2

Very thick cloths, e.g., felt or firm, thick blankets, or very thin clothes, e.g., the linen garments of the Egyptians through which the flesh can be seen, are not susceptible to impurity unless the torn fabric is three handbreadths by three handbreadths. This applies both with regard to the impurity of a support for a zav or other types of impurity.

ב

הַבְּגָדִים הֶעָבִים בְּיוֹתֵר כְּגוֹן הַלְּבָדִין וְהַנִּמְטִין הַקָּשִׁין. אוֹ הַבְּגָדִים הָרַכִּין בְּיוֹתֵר כְּגוֹן בִּגְדֵי פִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר נִרְאֶה מִתַּחְתָּן. אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּקֶּרַע שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים בֵּין לְמִדְרָס בֵּין לִשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת:

3

All woven nets are susceptible to impurity like clothes are. This applies equally to one who weaves strands together and makes them into a thick cord or who weaves them together to make a belt, with the exception of a net made by wool merchants to hold wool which is pure.

When the portion of a slingshot where a stone rests is woven or made of leather, it is susceptible to impurity. If the place where one places his finger is slit, it is pure. If the handle of the slingshot is slit, it is still susceptible to impurity.

Different types of fishing nets are susceptible to impurity. A fishing net with a closely-woven pocket is susceptible to impurity because of that pocket. Since its holes are so small, it is considered like a garment. When one makes a garment from such a net, it is pure. When one makes a garment from the pocket, it is susceptible to impurity.

ג

כָּל הַקְּלִיעוֹת מְקַבְּלוֹת טֻמְאָה בִּבְגָדִים. אֶחָד הַקּוֹלֵעַ חוּטִים וַעֲשָׂאָן פִּיף אוֹ הָאוֹרְגָן וַעֲשָׂאָן אַבְנֵט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. חוּץ מִקְּלִיעָה שֶׁעוֹשִׂין הַצַּמָּרִים לִקְשֹׁר בָּהּ הַצֶּמֶר שֶׁהִיא טְהוֹרָה. הַקֶּלַע שֶׁבֵּית קִבּוּל אֶבֶן שֶׁבָּהּ אָרוּג אוֹ עוֹר מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. נִפְסַק בֵּית אֶצְבַּע שֶׁלָּהּ טְהוֹרָה. נִפְסַק [בֵּית] הַפָּקִיעַ שֶׁלָּהּ בִּלְבַד עֲדַיִן הִיא בְּטֻמְאָתָהּ. הַמִּכְמוֹרוֹת וְהָרְשָׁתוֹת מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְהַחֵרֶם מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי זוּטוֹ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֵינֵי אוֹתָהּ הַשְּׂבָכָה דַּקִּין בְּיוֹתֵר וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּבֶגֶד. הָעוֹשֶׂה בֶּגֶד מִן הַחֵרֶם טָהוֹר. מִן זוּטוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא:

4

When one made a cloak from a cloth used as a filter of liquids, if it is three handbreadths by three handbreadths, it is susceptible to impurity.

ד

עָשָׂה חָלוּק מִן הַמְּשַׁמֶּרֶת אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

5

When a cloth used as a filter for wine becomes worn out, if it is still useful for its initial purpose, it is susceptible to impurity. If not, it is pure.

ה

מְשַׁמֶּרֶת שֶׁל יַיִן שֶׁבָּלְתָה אִם מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה טְמֵאָה. וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרָה:

6

Cloth covers for scrolls on which designs were made are not susceptible to impurity, because they do not serve humans. The designs indicate that they were made for the scrolls. If there were no designs on them, they are susceptible to types of impurity other than that contracted by the support of a zav, because were one to sit on such a cover, he would be told: "Stand up and let us perform our work," as we explained concerning Hilchot Metamei Mishkav UMoshav.

ו

מִטְפְּחוֹת סְפָרִים הַמְצֻיָּרוֹת אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן מְשַׁמְּשִׁין אָדָם שֶׁהֲרֵי צִיּוּרָן מֵעִיד עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל סֵפֶר נַעֲשׂוּ. וְשֶׁאֵינָן מְצֻיָּרוֹת מִתְטַמְּאוֹת בִּשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת חוּץ מִטֻּמְאַת מִדְרָס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאוֹמְרִין לוֹ עֲמֹד וְנַעֲשָׂה מְלַאכְתֵּנוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּעִנְיַן מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב:

7

A cushion that porters place on their shoulders because of the yoke they carry is susceptible to the impurity contracted by the support of a zav. A cloth used as a filter for wine is not susceptible to that type of impurity.

ז

כֶּסֶת הַסַּבָּלִים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין עַל כִּתְפֵיהֶן מִפְּנֵי הַמּוֹט מִתְטַמְּאָה בְּמִדְרָס וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת שֶׁל יַיִן אֵינָהּ מִתְטַמְּאָה בְּמִדְרָס:

8

When one originally had in mind using a cloth for designs, it is not susceptible to impurity. If the person nullified his original intent, it is susceptible to impurity. When a homeowner made covers to hang over walls or pillars, they are not susceptible to impurity.

ח

בֶּגֶד שֶׁחִשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְצוּרוֹת אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. בִּטֵּל מַחְשַׁבְתּוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁעָשָׂה מִטְפָּחוֹת לְחַפּוֹת בָּהֶן כְּתָלִים אוֹ עַמּוּדִים אֵינָם מְקַבְּלוֹת טֻמְאָה:

9

A cloak that is made like a veil in order to entertain drinkers is not susceptible to impurity.

ט

חָלוּק הֶעָשׂוּי כִּסְבָכָה כְּדֵי לְשַׂחֵק בּוֹ שׁוֹתֵי שֵׁכָר אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

10

A woman's head kerchief that was used to cover a scroll is not susceptible to the impurity contracted by the support of a zav. It is, however, susceptible to the impurity associated with a human corpse and other types of impurity.

י

כִּפָּה שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ עַל הַסֵּפֶר טָהוֹר מִלְּקַבֵּל טֻמְאַת מִדְרָס. אֲבָל מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמֵת וּבִשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת:

11

When one makes a bandage, whether from leather or from cloth, even though the bandage is of the minimum measure to contract impurity, it is pure. If one applies a compress to cloth, it is not susceptible to impurity, because it becomes soiled and is not fit to be sat upon. If it is applied to leather, it is susceptible to impurity, because it is cleaned easily and is then fit to lie upon.

יא

הָעוֹשֶׂה אִסְפְּלָנִית בֵּין עַל הָעוֹר בֵּין עַל הַבֶּגֶד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן שִׁעוּר טְהוֹרִין. עָשָׂה עֲלֵיהֶן מְלוּגְמָא עַל הַבֶּגֶד אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְלַכְלֵךְ וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי. וְעַל הָעוֹר מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְקַנֵּחַ וְרָאוּי לְמִשְׁכָּב:

12

At what point does a cloth become susceptible to ritual impurity? When a portion three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths will be woven. All garments that are woven with needles, e.g., pockets and leggings, are not susceptible to impurity until the work to complete them has been finished.

יב

מֵאֵימָתַי יְקַבֵּל הַבֶּגֶד טֻמְאָה מִשֶּׁיֶּאֱרֹג בּוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת. וְכָל הַכֵּלִים הַנֶּאֱרָגִין בְּמַחַט כְּגוֹן הַכִּיס וְאַנְפְּלִיָא אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּן:

13

All keilim that are made with needlework, e.g., a trap, become susceptible to impurity when the receptacle that enables the intended task to be performed with them is completed.

יג

כָּל הַכֵּלִים הַנַּעֲשִׂין עַל גַּבֵּי מַחַט כְּגוֹן מְצוּדָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָּהֶן בֵּית קִבּוּל מְלַאכְתָּן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

14

With regard to the headcovering worn by young women: If one began making it from its opening, it does not become susceptible to impurity until one completes its base. If one began from the base, it does not become susceptible to impurity until one completes the opening.

An ornament for a headcovering is susceptible to impurity independently. The strands that attach the head-covering to the woman's hair are considered as joined to the head-covering, both to impart impurity and to contract impurity.

יד

סְבָכָה שֶׁמַּנִּיחוֹת הַבָּנוֹת בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶן אִם הִתְחִילוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָהּ מִפִּיהָ אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּגָּמֵר קַרְקָעִיתָהּ. וְאִם הִתְחִילָה מִקַּרְקָעִיתָהּ אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר אֶת פִּיהָ. וּשְׁבִיסָה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. וְחוּטֶיהָ חִבּוּר לָהּ לְטַמֵּא וּלְהִתְטַמֵּא:

15

When a head covering is torn, if it no longer can cover the greater portion of the hair on the woman's head, it is pure.

טו

סְבָכָה שֶׁנִּקְרְעָה אִם אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת רֹב שְׂעַר הָרֹאשׁ טְהוֹרָה:

16

When is the fashioning of a cloak made from fabric, felt, or paper completed? When one makes the opening for the head. This depends on the person for whom the cloak is made. For someone who is large, the opening is made for his size; for someone who is small, the opening is made for his size.

When does such a cloak regain purity? When it is worn out to the extent that it can no longer serve its original purpose. If its upper portion comprises the larger part of the cloak and it remains intact, the cloak still retains its impure status. If the bottom portion comprises the larger part of the cloak and it remains intact, the cloak is pure. If the border around its opening is torn, it is pure.

טז

חָלוּק שֶׁל בֶּגֶד אוֹ שֶׁל לֶבֶד אוֹ שֶׁל נְיָר מֵאֵימָתַי הוּא גְּמַר מְלַאכְתּוֹ מִשֶּׁיִּפְתַּח אֶת פִּיו. הַגָּדוֹל לְפִי גָּדְלוֹ וְהַקָּטֹן לְפִי קָטְנוֹ. וְאִם נִטְמָא הֶחָלוּק מֵאֵימָתַי הוּא טָהֳרָתוֹ מִשֶּׁיִּבְלֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתּוֹ רִאשׁוֹנָה. נִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ רֻבּוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה עֲדַיִן הוּא בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ רֻבּוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה טָהוֹר. וְאִם נִקְרָע מִבֵּית פִּיו טָהוֹר:

17

If one makes a belt from the collar of a garment or the side of a sheet, it is not susceptible to ritual impurity until one makes a border at its edge. If one makes it from the middle of garment or the sheet, it is not susceptible to impurity until one makes a border at the other side as well.

יז

הָעוֹשֶׂה חֲגוֹר מִצַּוָּאר שֶׁל בֶּגֶד וּמִצִּדּוֹ שֶׁל סָדִין אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּמְלל שִׂפְתוֹתָיו. עֲשָׂאָהוּ מֵאֶמְצַע הַבֶּגֶד וּמֵאֶמְצַע הַסָּדִין אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּמְלל מִצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי:

18

When both edges of a belt have worn out, but its middle portion is intact, it remains impure.

יח

חֲגוֹר שֶׁבָּלוּ צְדָדָיו וְאֶמְצָעִיתוֹ קַיֶּמֶת טָמֵא:

19

When a border was separated from a garment and was adapted to use for girding one's loins, it is susceptible to impurity, because it is like a belt.

יט

שָׂפָה שֶׁפֵּרְשָׁה מִן הַבֶּגֶד וְהִתְקִינָהּ לַחֲגֹר בָּהּ אֶת מָתְנָיו מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כְּאַבְנֵט:

20

The following laws apply to a garment of a poor person that has become worn out: If the greater portion of its edges are intact, even if it does not have a portion three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths that is intact, it is susceptible to impurity. If its edges are not intact, but it has a portion three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths that is strong and intact, it is susceptible to impurity. If not, it is not susceptible to impurity. Similar concepts apply to other clothes of poor people.

כ

טַלִּית שֶׁל עָנִי שֶׁבָּלְתָה אִם הָיוּ רֹב שִׂפְתוֹתֶיהָ קַיָּמוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ בָּרִיא הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. אֵין שִׂפְתוֹתֶיהָ קַיָּמוֹת אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ חָזָק וּבָרִיא מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה וְאִם לָאו אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן שְׁאָר בִּגְדֵי עֲנִיִּים:

21

Patches that are smaller than three handbreadths by three handbreadths are not susceptible to impurity. If one had in mind to use them for a given purpose and prepared them with that intent, they are susceptible to impurity unless they are less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths. For anything less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths is not susceptible to impurity at all, even though it was prepared to be used.

כא

מַטְלִיּוֹת שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינָן מְקַבְּלוֹת טֻמְאָה. וְאִם חִשֵּׁב עֲלֵיהֶן וְהֵכִינָן מְקַבְּלוֹת טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ. שֶׁכָּל פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה כְּלָל וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֱכִינוֹ:

22

When a cloth that is smaller than three handbreadths by three handbreadths which had been prepared to be used to plug a bathhouse, as a hand guard when turning over a pot, to clean a mill, or the like was cast on a dung heap, it is no longer susceptible to impurity.

If it was hung on a hook or placed behind the door, it is as if one placed it among his clothes. It is still significant for him and it is susceptible to impurities other than that of a support of a zav. It is not susceptible to that impurity, because it is less than three handbreadths by three handbreadths.

כב

פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁהִתְקִינוֹ לִפְקֹק בּוֹ אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ וּלְנַעֵר בּוֹ אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה וּלְקַנֵּחַ בּוֹ אֶת הָרֵיחַיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. אִם הִשְׁלִיכוֹ בָּאַשְׁפָּה אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. תְּלָאוֹ בְּמָגוֹד אוֹ הִנִּיחוֹ אֲחוֹרֵי הַדֶּלֶת הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ בְּתוֹךְ בְּגָדָיו וַעֲדַיִן הוּא חָשׁוּב אֶצְלוֹ וּמְקַבֵּל שְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת חוּץ מִטֻּמְאַת מִדְרָס. שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים:

23

When a cloth three handbreadths by three handbreadths was cast in the dung heap, if it was whole and durable so that it could be used to hold a fourth of a kab of coarse salt without tearing, it is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav. If not, it is not susceptible to impurity. If, however, it was in the house and it was durable, even if it could not be used to hold salt or if it was used to hold salt even if it was not durable, it is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav.

כג

שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁהָיָה מֻשְׁלָךְ בָּאַשְׁפָּה אִם הָיָה בָּרִיא כְּדֵי לִצְרוֹר בּוֹ רֹבַע הַקַּב מֶלַח גַּס וְלֹא יִקָּרַע הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס וְאִם לָאו אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בַּבַּיִת אִם הָיָה בָּרִיא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִצְרֹר בּוֹ מֶלַח אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה צוֹרֵר בּוֹ מֶלַח וְלֹא הָיָה בָּרִיא הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא מִדְרָס:

24

The following laws apply when a cloth three handbreadths by three handbreadths was torn, but the pieces were not separated from each other. If it was placed on a chair and when one sat on it, his flesh would touch the chair itself, it is pure. If not, it is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav.

כד

שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁנִּקְרַע וְלֹא הֻבְדְּלוּ הַקְּרָעִים אִם נוֹתְנוֹ עַל הַכִּסֵּא וּכְשֶׁיֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִגַּע בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּכִּסֵּא הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס:

25

If a cloth three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths had even one thread that was very worn out, there was a knot in it, or two strands ran together with each other, it is pure.

כה

שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ שֶׁנִּמְחָה מִמֶּנּוּ אֲפִלּוּ חוּט אֶחָד אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּהּ קֶשֶׁר אוֹ שְׁנֵי חוּטִין מַתְאִימִין הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה:

26

If a cloth three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths was thrown into the dung heap, it is pure. If he took it back, it is susceptible to impurity. In a continuous cycle, casting it away purifies it, taking it back makes it susceptible to impurity. The only exceptions are remnants of purple fabric and fine red silk. Even if they were cast in the dungheap, they are susceptible to impurity, because they are valuable.

כו

שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ שֶׁהִשְׁלִיכָהּ בָּאַשְׁפָּה טְהוֹרָה. הֶחֱזִירָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. לְעוֹלָם הַשְׁלָכָתָהּ מְטַהַרְתָּהּ וְהַחְזָרָתָהּ מְטַמֵּאתָהּ חוּץ מִשֶּׁל אַרְגָּמָן וְשֶׁל זְהוֹרִית טוֹבָה שֶׁאֲפִילוּ הָיְתָה עַל הָאַשְׁפָּה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה:

27

When a cloth three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths was placed in a ball of fabric or it was made into a ball of fabric itself, it is pure. If, however, a cloth three handbreadths by three handbreadths was placed in a ball, its status is the same as it was previously and it is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav. If such a cloth was made into a ball itself, it is not susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav, because the sewing necessary to make it into a ball reduces it from the size of three handbreadths by three handbreadths.

כז

שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ שֶׁנְּתָנָהּ בְּכַדּוּר אוֹ שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ כַּדּוּר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ טְהוֹרָה. אֲבָל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ בְּכַדּוּר הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה וּמִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס. עָשָׂהוּ כַּדּוּר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס שֶׁהֲרֵי הַתֶּפֶר מְמַעֲטוֹ מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה:

Kelim - Chapter 23

1

A mapatz is a mat made by interweaving cords, reeds, grasses, or the like. A mapatz is not one of the keiliim mentioned by the Torah. Nevertheless, it is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav according to Scriptural Law. The rationale is that Leviticus 15:4 states "All surfaces on which one lies," expanding the category of articles susceptible to impurity. A mat is thus included, because it is fit to lie on and is indeed made for that purpose. Similarly, it contracts impurity from contact with a human corpse and other sources of impurity according to Rabbinic Law, like all other flat wooden keiliim, as we explained. This is a great general principle: Any entity that is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav is susceptible to other types of impurity.

א

הַמַּפָּץ הוּא הַמַּחְצֶלֶת שֶׁאוֹרְגִין אוֹתָהּ מִן הַחֲבָלִים וּמִן הַסּוּף וּמִן הַגֹּמֶא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְאֵין הַמַּפָּץ בִּכְלַל כֵּלִים הָאֲמוּרִין בַּתּוֹרָה וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מִתְטַמֵּא הוּא בְּמִדְרָס דִּין תּוֹרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי רִבָּה הַכָּתוּב (ויקרא טו ד) "כָּל הַמִּשְׁכָּב" וְזֶה רָאוּי לְמִשְׁכָּב וְעָשׂוּי לוֹ. וְכֵן מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמֵת וּבִשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן כְּכָל פְּשׁוּטֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְזֶה כְּלָל גָּדוֹל שֶׁכָּל הַמִּתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס מִתְטַמֵּא בִּשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת:

2

We already explained that a piece of cloth three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths is susceptible to other types of impurity and one three handbreadths by three handbreadths is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav.

ב

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהַבֶּגֶד מִתְטַמֵּא בְּשָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת. וּבִשְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים לְמִדְרָס:

3

The measure for a cloth of goats' hair to be susceptible to impurity is four handbreadths by four handbreadths; for leather, five handbreadths by five handbreadths, for a mat, six handbreadths by six handbreadths, both with regard to the impurity associated with the support of a zav and with regard to other types of impurity. Anything smaller than these measures is pure on all accounts.

In which instance does the above apply? When a piece of fabric was torn from such a cloth unintentionally. If, however, one intentionally cuts a piece off, even if it is merely one handbreadth by one handbreadth for a seat or three handbreadths by three handbreadths for a surface on which one lies, it is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav. This applies whether the piece one handbreadth by one handbreadth or three handbreadths by three handbreadths was a cloth, from goats' hair, leather, or a mat. Similarly, if one sets aside a fragment of such fabrics to hold, i.e., to hold in one's hand as the harvesters of figs do so that their fingers will not be damaged, the fragment is impure whatever its size, provided it is not less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths. For any fragment less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths is pure under all conditions.

ג

הַשַּׂק שִׁעוּרוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים עַל אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים. הָעוֹר חֲמִשָּׁה עַל חֲמִשָּׁה. הַמַּפָּץ שִׁשָּׁה עַל שִׁשָּׁה בֵּין לְמִדְרָס בֵּין לִשְׁאָר הַטֻּמְאוֹת. וּפָחוֹת מִן הַשִּׁעוּרִין הָאֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין מִכְּלוּם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּקֶרַע אֶחָד מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּקְרַע בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה. אֲבָל הַקּוֹצֵץ בְּכַוָּנָה וְקִצֵּץ אֲפִלּוּ טֶפַח עַל טֶפַח לְמוֹשָׁב אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים לְמִשְׁכָּב הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס. בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה הַטֶּפַח עַל טֶפַח שֶׁקִּצֵּץ אוֹ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה בֶּגֶד אוֹ שַׂק אוֹ עוֹר אוֹ מַפָּץ. וְכֵן הַמְקַצֵּעַ מֵאֶחָד מֵהֶן לַאֲחִיזָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֹּאחַז בּוֹ בְּיָדוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין קוֹצְצֵי תְּאֵנִים שֶׁלֹּא יִזּוֹקוּ אֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיהֶן הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ שֶׁכָּל פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם:

4

If one joins two handbreadths from a cloth to one handbreadth from a cloth of goats' hair, three handbreadths from a cloth of goats' hair to one handbreadth from leather, four handbreadths from leather and one from a mat, the article is pure. If, by contrast, one joined five handbreadths from a mat and one from leather, four handbreadths from leather and one from goats' hair, three handbreadths from goats' hair and one from cloth, the article is susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav.

This is the general principle: Whenever one completes the minimum measure with a substance governed by a more stringent law, it is susceptible to impurity. If it is completed] with a substance governed by a less stringent law, it is pure.

ד

הַמְחַבֵּר שְׁנֵי טְפָחִים מִן הַבֶּגֶד וּמִן הַשַּׂק טֶפַח שְׁלֹשָׁה מִן הַשַּׂק וְאֶחָד מִן הָעוֹר אַרְבָּעָה מִן הָעוֹר וְאֶחָד מִן הַמַּפָּץ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר מִן הַמִּדְרָס. אֲבָל אִם חִבֵּר חֲמִשָּׁה טְפָחִים מִן הַמַּפָּץ וְאֶחָד מִן הָעוֹר אַרְבָּעָה מִן הָעוֹר וְאֶחָד מִן הַשַּׂק שְׁלֹשָׁה מִן הַשַּׂק וְאֶחָד מִן הַבֶּגֶד הֲרֵי זֶה טְמֵא מִדְרָס זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁהִשְׁלִים שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּחָמוּר מִמֶּנּוּ טָמֵא מִן הַקַּל טָהוֹר:

5

When a sifter or a sieve that became worn out was adjusted to be used as a seat, it is pure. They are not susceptible to impurity until the edges are cut and straightened. Afterwards, it is considered as a mat.

ה

בְּלוֹיֵי נָפָה וּכְבָרָה שֶׁהִתְקִינָן לִישִׁיבָה טְהוֹרִין וְאֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיְּקַצְּצֵם וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִהְיוּ כְּמַפָּץ:

6

A cloak of a child is not susceptible to impurity unless it comprises the minimum measure: three handbreadths by three handbreadths. Both of its sides are measured as one, for that is the way it is made.

These are the garments whose sides are measured as one: garments that are worn over the feet, the shins, and the head, pants, undergarments with pockets. When a patch was sewn over the edge of a garment, if it was extended to its full length, it is measured as its full length. If it was folded over, it is measured as it is folded over.

ו

חָלוּק שֶׁל קָטָן אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בּוֹ כְּשִׁעוּר שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים וְנִמְדָּד כָּפוּל כִּבְרִיָּתוֹ. וְאֵלּוּ נִמְדָּדִין כְּפוּלִין בְּגָדִים שֶׁמַּלְבִּישִׁין אוֹתָן עַל הָרַגְלַיִם וְעַל הַשּׁוֹקַיִם וְאֶת הָרֹאשׁ וְהַמִּכְנָסַיִם וְהַכּוֹבַע וְהַכִּיס שֶׁל פֻּנְדָּא וּמַטְלִית שֶׁתְּלָאָהּ עַל הַשָּׂפָה אִם פְּשׁוּטָה נִמְדֶּדֶת פְּשׁוּטָה וְאִם כְּפוּלָה נִמְדֶּדֶת כְּפוּלָה:

7

When exactly three handbreadths by three handbreadths of a garment were woven and it contracted the impurity associated with the support of a zav and afterwards, the entire garment was completed, the entirety of the garment is impure on that level of impurity. If one removed one strand from the beginning of the original garment, it is no longer considered in that category of impurity. It is, however, impure like an article that came in contact with a support that contracted the impurity of a zav. It is a primary derivative, like a k'li that touched such a support. If one removed one strand from the beginning of the original garment and then completed the entire garment, the entire garment is impure like an article that came in contact with a support that contracted the impurity of a zav.

Similarly, when three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths of a cloth were woven, it contracted the impurity associated with a human corpse, and then one completed the entire garment, the entire garment is impure with the impurity associated with a human corpse. If one removed one strand from the beginning of the original garment, it is no longer considered in that category of impurity. It is, however, impure like an article that came in contact with such impurity. If one removed one strand from the beginning of the original garment and then completed the entire garment, the entire garment is pure.

Why is the entire garment pure? Because it was said that when the size of a cloth three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths was reduced, it is pure entirely. By contrast, although a cloth three handbreadths by three handbreadths whose size was reduced is no longer susceptible to the impurity associated with the support of a zav, it is susceptible to other types of impurity.

ז

הַבֶּגֶד שֶׁאָרַג שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה נִטְמָא בְּמִדְרָס וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִשְׁלִים אֶת כָּל הַבֶּגֶד כֻּלּוֹ מִדְרָס. נָטַל חוּט אֶחָד מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ טָהַר מִן הַמִּדְרָס אֲבָל טָמֵא מַגַּע מִדְרָס וַהֲרֵי הוּא רִאשׁוֹן כִּכְלִי שֶׁנָּגַע בְּמִדְרָס. נָטַל חוּט אֶחָד מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִשְׁלִים אֶת כָּל הַבֶּגֶד כָּל הַבֶּגֶד טָמֵא מַגַּע מִדְרָס. וְכֵן בֶּגֶד שֶׁנֶּאֱרַג בּוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת וְנִטְמָא בְּמֵת וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִשְׁלִים עָלָיו אֶת כָּל הַבֶּגֶד הַבֶּגֶד כֻּלּוֹ טְמֵא מֵת. נָטַל חוּט אֶחָד מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ טָהַר מִטְּמֵא מֵת. אֲבָל טְמֵא מַגָּע טְמֵא מֵת. נָטַל חוּט אֶחָד מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִשְׁלִים אֶת כָּל הַבֶּגֶד הַכּל טָהוֹר. וְלָמָּה יִהְיֶה הַכּל טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמְרוּ שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲטָה טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם אֲבָל שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲטָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּהֲרָה מִן הַמִּדְרָס הֲרֵי הִיא טְמֵאָה בְּכָל הַטֻּמְאוֹת:

8

When a patch that had contracted the impurity associated with a support of a zav was attached to a basket or a hide, the entire entity is considered as a primary derivative of impurity. If, afterwards, one separated the patch from it, the basket or the hide remain a primary derivative, because they came in contact with a support. The patch, however, is pure, since it was attached and detached, its identity was subsumed to that of the basket or hide.

If he attached the patch to a cloth of linen or wool or of goats' hair, the entire cloth is considered as a primary source of the impurity associated with a zav. If, afterwards, the patch was separated, the cloth or the goats' hair is considered as a primary derivative and the patch is a primary source of impurity, as it was originally. For it is not subsumed to the weave.

When he attached the impure patch to the garment, if he sewed it on one side or even on two sides, but like a gamma, it is not considered as joined together, nor is the entire garment considered as a primary source of impurity. Instead, it is only considered to have come in contact with a support of a zav. If it was sewn on two sides, one opposite the other, it is considered as joined to the garment, and the entire garment is considered as a primary source of impurity.

ח

מַטְלִית שֶׁהִיא מִדְרָס וּטְלָאָהּ עַל הַקֻּפָּה אוֹ עַל הָעוֹר נַעֲשָׂה הַכּל רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה. הִפְרִישׁ אֶת הַמַּטְלִית הֲרֵי הַקֻּפָּה אוֹ הָעוֹר רִאשׁוֹן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בַּמִּדְרָס וְהַמַּטְלִית טְהוֹרָה שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁטְּלָאָהּ וְהִפְרִישָׁהּ בָּטְלָה. טְלָאָהּ עַל הַבֶּגֶד אוֹ עַל הַשַּׂק נַעֲשָׂה הַכּל מִדְרָס וַהֲרֵי הַכּל אַב טֻמְאָה. הִפְרִישָׁהּ הֲרֵי הַבֶּגֶד אוֹ הַשַּׂק רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי נָגַע בַּמִּדְרָס וְהַמַּטְלִית אַב טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּטֵלָה עַל הָאָרִיג. תָּפַר הַמַּטְלִית עַל הַבֶּגֶד כְּשֶׁטְּלָאָהּ מֵרוּחַ אַחַת אוֹ מִשְּׁתֵי רוּחוֹת כְּמִין גַּאם אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה הַכּל אָב אֶלָּא מַגַּע מִדְרָס בִּלְבַד. תְּפָרָהּ מִשְּׁתֵי רוּחוֹת זוֹ בְּצַד זוֹ הֲרֵי הִיא חִבּוּר וְנַעֲשָׂה הַכּל אָב:

9

When a cloth three handbreadths by three handbreadths that had contracted the impurity associated with a support of a zav was afterwards divided, it is purified and the remnants are not impure at all. Their status is like that of the broken pieces of a k'li that had contracted impurity. When, by contrast, one cut a piece three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths from a large cloth that had contracted the impurity associated with a support of a zav, that piece has been purified from that level of impurity. It, nevertheless, is impure, as an object that touched such a support, because at the time it was separated from the larger cloth, it contracted that level of impurity through contact with the impure cloth.

ט

שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּמִדְרָס וְאַחַר כָּךְ נֶחְלַק טָהַר מִן הַמִּדְרָס וְאֵין בִּקְרָעִים אֵלּוּ טֻמְאָה כְּלָל וְהִנָּם כְּשִׁבְרֵי כְּלִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא. אֲבָל בֶּגֶד שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּמִדְרָס וְקָרַע מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת אוֹתוֹ הַקֶּרַע טָהַר מִן הַמִּדְרָס אֲבָל טְמֵא מַגַּע מִדְרָס שֶׁבְּעֵת פְּרִישָׁתוֹ מִן הַבֶּגֶד הַגָּדוֹל נִטְמָא בְּמַגָּע:

10

When a cloak that had contracted the impurity associated with a support of a zav was afterwards made into a curtain, it is purified from that impurity.

When is it purified from that impurity? When one attaches to it loops from which it will be hung like other curtains.

י

סָדִין שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּמִדְרָס וְאַחַר כָּךְ עֲשָׂאָהוּ פָּרֹכֶת טָהַר מִן הַמִּדְרָס. וּמֵאֵימָתַי הוּא טָהֳרָתוֹ מִן הַמִּדְרָס מִשֶּׁיִּקְשֹׁר בּוֹ הַלּוּלָאוֹת שֶׁהוּא נִתְלֶה בָּהֶן כִּשְׁאָר הַפָּרוֹכוֹת:

11

When a garment that had contracted the impurity associated with a support of a zav was immersed in a mikveh, but before nightfall that day, one began tearing fragments from it, once the majority of it was torn, it is no longer considered as joined together and the entire garment is pure even though there still remained a portion large enough for a scarf that was not torn. The rationale is he has the intent to continue to tear it.

With regard to what does the above apply? With regard to an article that was immersed that day. Since he did not care for it enough not to refrain from immersing it, it can be assumed that he will also not care for it enough not to refrain from tearing it in its entirety. Therefore, the entire garment is pure.

יא

טַלִּית שֶׁהִיא מִדְרָס וְהִטְבִּילָהּ וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲרִיב שִׁמְשָׁהּ הִתְחִיל לִקְרֹעַ מִמֶּנָּה קֶרַע כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּקְרַע בָּהּ רֻבָּהּ שׁוּב אֵינָהּ חִבּוּר וְטָהֲרָה כֻּלָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן נִשְׁתַּיֵּר בָּהּ כְּדֵי מַעֲפֹרֶת שֶׁלֹּא נִקְרַע שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא קוֹרֵעַ וְהוֹלֵךְ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּטְבוּלַת יוֹם שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא חָס עָלֶיהָ לְהַטְבִּילָהּ כָּךְ לֹא יָחוּס לִקְרֹעַ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ וּלְפִיכָךְ טָהֲרָה כֻּלָּהּ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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