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ב"ה

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Kelim - Chapter 12, Kelim - Chapter 13, Kelim - Chapter 14

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Kelim - Chapter 12

1

When wood keilim, leather keilim, or bone keilim are broken, they are purified of their ritual impurity. If one then made a k'li from the broken pieces or one collected the broken pieces and made other keilim from them, these are considered like other pure keilim that had never contracted impurity previously and are susceptible to impurity from the time they were fashioned onward.

All metal keilim that are broken after they contracted impurity regain purity. If one melted them down and made other keilim from them, they return to their previous impurity. A metalk'li cannot become utterly pure unless it was immersed in a mikveh while intact or it remains broken.

א

כְּלֵי עֵץ וּכְלֵי עוֹר וּכְלֵי עֶצֶם שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ טִהֲרוּ מִטֻּמְאָתָן. חָזַר וְעָשָׂה כְּלִי מִשִּׁבְרֵיהֶם אוֹ שֶׁקִּבֵּץ אֶת שִׁבְרֵיהֶן וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִּשְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים הַטְּהוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא נִטְמְאוּ מִקֹּדֶם שֶׁהֵן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִכָּאן וּלְהַבָּא. וְכֵן כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ אַחַר שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ טִהֲרוּ. הִתִּיכָן וְחָזַר וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים חָזְרוּ לַטֻּמְאָה הַיְשָׁנָה. וְאֵין לִכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת טָהֳרָה גְּמוּרָה עַד שֶׁיַּטְבִּילֵם בְּמִקְוֶה כְּשֶׁהֵם שְׁלֵמִים אוֹ יִשָּׁאֲרוּ שְׁבוּרִים:

2

The return of metal keilim to ritual impurity is a Rabbinic decree. Why did the Sages decree that metal keilim should return to their former impurity? This is a decree, enacted as a safeguard lest a person'sk'li contract impurity and he melt it down and make it into a newk'li on that day. If it is considered as pure as is its status according to Scriptural Law, one might come to say: Breaking a k'li purifies it and immersing it purifies it. Just as when it is broken, melted down and fashioned into a newk'li, it is pure on that day, so too, if it is immersed, even though it is intact, one may mistakenly think that it is pure on that day and he will say that it is not necessary to wait until nightfall for keilim to regain purity. Due to this concern, the Sages decreed that they are impure.

ב

וַחֲזָרַת כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת לְטֻמְאָתָן הַיְשָׁנָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וּמִפְּנֵי מָה גָּזְרוּ עַל כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ לְטֻמְאָתָן הַיְשָׁנָה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְטַמֵּא לוֹ כְּלִי וְיַתִּיכֶנּוּ וְיַעֲשֶׂה מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלִי אַחֵר בּוֹ בְּיוֹם אִם יֹאמַר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר כְּדִין תּוֹרָה יָבוֹא לוֹמַר הַשְּׁבִירָה מְטַהֶרֶת וְהַטְּבִילָה מְטַהֶרֶת כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאִם נִשְׁבַּר וְהִתִּיכוֹ וְעָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלִי כְּשֶׁהָיָה הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם כָּךְ אִם הִטְבִּילוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא כְּשֶׁהָיָה הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם וְיָבוֹאוּ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין הַכֵּלִים צְרִיכִין הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי זֶה הַחֲשָׁשׁ גָּזְרוּ טֻמְאָה עֲלֵיהֶם:

3

Whether a k'li contracted impurity from a corpse or another type of impurity and was then melted down, it returns to its former impurity until the ashes of the red heifer are sprinkled upon it and/or it is immersed in a mikveh.

If a k'li contracted impurity from a corpse and the ashes of the red heifer were sprinkled upon it on the third day and afterwards, it was melted down, anotherk'li was made from it and then ashes were sprinkled on it on the seventh day and it was immersed, it is still considered impure. The sprinkling before it was melted down is not linked to the sprinkling after it was melted down. It cannot regain purity unless ashes were sprinkled on it on the third and seventh days and it was immersed while it was a k'li before it was melted down or ashes would be sprinkled on it on the third and seventh days and it was immersed once it was made into a new k'li after it was melted down.

ג

אֶחָד כְּלִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּמֵת אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר הַטֻּמְאוֹת אִם הִתִּיכוֹ חָזַר לְטֻמְאָתוֹ הַיְשָׁנָה עַד שֶׁיַּטְבִּיל. נִטְמָא בְּמֵת וְהִזָּה עָלָיו בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִתִּיכוֹ וַעֲשָׂאָהוּ כְּלִי אַחֵר וְהִזָּה עָלָיו בַּשְּׁבִיעִי וְהִטְבִּילוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא וְאֵין הַזָּיָה שֶׁקֹּדֶם הִתּוּךְ מִצְטָרֶפֶת לְהַזָּאָה שֶׁאַחַר הִתּוּךְ וְאֵין לוֹ טָהֳרָה עַד שֶׁיַּזֶּה עָלָיו שְׁלִישִׁי וּשְׁבִיעִי וְיַטְבִּיל כְּשֶׁהוּא כְּלִי קֹדֶם שְׁבִירָה אוֹ יַזֶּה עָלָיו שְׁלִישִׁי וּשְׁבִיעִי וְיַטְבִּיל אַחַר שֶׁיַּתִּיכֶנּוּ:

4

The following laws apply when impure iron was mixed with pure iron. If the majority was from the impure metal, it is considered as impure. If the majority was from the pure metal, it is pure. If there were equal amounts, it is impure. Similarly, when mud is mixed with turds and the mixture was fired in a kiln and made into a k'li, if the majority was from the mud, it is susceptible to impurity, because it is an earthenwarek'li. If the majority was from the turds, it is not susceptible to impurity.

ד

בַּרְזֶל טָמֵא שֶׁבְּלָלוֹ עִם בַּרְזֶל טָהוֹר אִם רֹב מִן הַטָּמֵא טָמֵא וְאִם רֹב מִן הַטָּהוֹר טָהוֹר. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה טָמֵא. וְכֵן טִיט שֶׁבְּלָלוֹ בִּגְלָלִים וְשָׂרַף הַכּל בְּכִבְשָׁן וַעֲשָׂאָהוּ כְּלִי אִם רֹב מִן הַטִּיט הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי חֶרֶס וְאִם רֹב מִן הַגְּלָלִים אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

5

When pure metal keilim were coated with an impure coating, they are impure. If, however, one fashions keilim from an impure coating, they are pure.

ה

כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת הַטְּהוֹרִין שֶׁאֲנָכָן בַּאֲנָךְ טָמֵא טְמֵאִים. אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה כֵּלִים מִן הָאֲנָךְ הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין:

6

When the thick side of a hatchet was made from pure iron and its blade from impure metal, it is impure. If the blade was made from pure metal and the thick side from impure metal, it is pure. The status of the entire tool is determined by that of the portion with which work is performed.

ו

קוֹרְדוֹם שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהוּ מִן הַבַּרְזֶל הַטָּהוֹר וְעָשָׂה עֻשְׁפּוֹ מִן הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. עָשָׂה עֻשְׁפּוֹ מִן הַטָּהוֹר וְהַקּוֹרְדוֹם מִן הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. שֶׁהַכּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר עוֹשֵׂה הַמְּלָאכָה:

7

A pure hatchet that was coated with impure iron is pure.

ז

קוֹרְדוֹם טָהוֹר שֶׁחֲסָמוֹ בְּבַרְזֶל טָמֵא טָהוֹר:

8

When the mouth of a pitcher was made from impure metal and its base from pure metal, it is pure. When it was made of pure metal and its base from impure metal, it is impure, because the status of the entire implement is determined by that of the container, for it is the portion with which the task is performed.

ח

קִיתוֹן שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהוּ מִן הַטָּמֵא וְשׁוּלָיו מִן הַטָּהוֹר טָהוֹר. עֲשָׂאָהוּ מִן הַטָּהוֹר וְשׁוּלָיו מִן הַטָּמֵא טָמֵא. שֶׁהַכּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַמְקַבֵּל הָעוֹשֵׂה מְלָאכָה:

9

When a metalk'li contracted impurity of Rabbinic origin, e.g., it contracted impurity from a false divinity or the like, then it was broken, melted down, and fashioned into a differentk'li, there is an unresolved doubt whether it returns to its former impurity or not.

ט

כְּלִי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּטֻמְאָה שֶׁהִיא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּטְמָא בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ וְנִשְׁבַּר וְהִתִּיכוֹ וְחָזַר וְעָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלִי אַחֵר הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם חָזַר לְטֻמְאָתוֹ הַיְשָׁנָה אוֹ לֹא חָזַר:

10

When glass keilim became impure and then broke, they are pure like all other keilim. Even if they were melted down and new keilim were made from them, they do not return to their former impurity. The rationale is that, as we explained, their impurity is primarily of Rabbinic origin. Hence, it was not decreed that they return to their former impurity.

Similarly, if glass utensils were broken, even though the broken pieces are themselves keilim and fit to be used, since they are components of broken utensils, they are not susceptible to impurity, because they do not resemble earthenware keilim.

What is implied? When a glass bowl is broken and one made its base fit to be used as a k'li, the base is not susceptible to impurity, even though it is like a bowl. If one leveled the broken portion and filed it down, it is susceptible to impurity.

י

כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ וְנִשְׁבְּרוּ טָהֲרוּ כְּכָל הַכֵּלִים וַאֲפִלּוּ הִתִּיכָן וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים אֵינָם חוֹזְרִים לַטֻּמְאָה הַיְשָׁנָה לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר טֻמְאָתָהּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ לֹא גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן בְּטֻמְאָה יְשָׁנָה. וְכֵן כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשִּׁבְרֵיהֶן כֵּלִים וּרְאוּיִין לְתַשְׁמִישׁ הוֹאִיל וְהֵם שִׁבְרֵי כֵּלִים אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן דּוֹמִין לִכְלֵי חֶרֶס. כֵּיצַד. קְעָרָה שֶׁל זְכוּכִית שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה וְהִתְקִין שׁוּלַיִם לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אֵין הַשּׁוּלַיִם מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן בַּקְּעָרָה. וְאִם קִרְסֵם אֶת מְקוֹם הַשֶּׁבֶר וְשָׁפוֹ בְּשׁוּפִין הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

11

When the mouth of a small bottle that can be carried with one hand is removed, it is still susceptible to impurity, because one does not use it by inserting one's hand in it, but by pouring from it. By contrast, when the mouth of a large bottle that is held with both hands is removed, it is pure, because it will injure one's hand when it is inserted within it. Similarly, even though a flask of perfume is small, if its mouth is removed, it is pure, because it would injure one's finger when one removes the perfume from it.

יא

צְלוֹחִית קְטַנָּה הַנִּטֶּלֶת בְּיָד אַחַת שֶׁנִּטַּל פִּיהָ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מַכְנִיסִין הַיָּד לְתוֹכָהּ אֶלָּא יוֹצֵק מִמֶּנָּה. אֲבָל גְּדוֹלָה הַנִּטֶּלֶת בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם שֶׁנִּטַּל פִּיהָ טְהוֹרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא חוֹבֶלֶת בַּיָּד בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּכְנִיס יָדוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ. וְכֵן צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פַּלְיָטוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה אִם נִטֶּלֶת פִּיהָ טְהוֹרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחוֹבֶלֶת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמּוֹצִיא הַבּשֶֹׁם מִתּוֹכָהּ:

12

Large pitchers whose mouths were removed are still considered keilim because they are used for pickling.

יב

לָגִינִים הַגְּדוֹלִין שֶׁנִּטַּל פִּיהֶן עֲדַיִן הֵן כֵּלִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּתְקִינָם הוּא לְכִבְשָׁנִים:

13

When the major portion of a glass cup is damaged, it is pure. If a third of the circumference over the major portion of its height is damaged, it is pure. If a hole was made in it and he plugged it with tin or tar, it is pure. When a hole was made in a cup or a bottle, whether in its upper portion or its lower portion, it is pure.

יג

כּוֹס שֶׁנִּפְגַּם רֻבּוֹ טָהוֹר. נִפְגַּם בּוֹ שְׁלִישׁ הֶקֵּפוֹ בְּרֹב גָּבְהוֹ טָהוֹר. נִקַּב וּסְתָמוֹ בֵּין בְּבַעַץ בֵּין בְּזֶפֶת טָהוֹר. וְהַכּוֹס וְהַצְּלוֹחִית שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ בֵּין מִלְּמַעְלָה בֵּין מִלְּמַטָּה טְהוֹרִין:

14

When a hole was made in the upper portion of a large pot or a bowl, it is impure. If it is in its lower portion, it is pure. If such utensils are cracked, but can still contain hot liquids just as cold liquids, they are impure. If not, they are pure.

יד

הַתַּמְחוּי וְהַקְּעָרָה שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ מִלְּמַעְלָה טְמֵאִין מִלְּמַטָּה טְהוֹרִין. נִסְדְּקוּ אִם יְכוֹלִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַחַמִּין כְּצוֹנְנִין טְמֵאִין וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרִין:

15

Cups that have been chinked, even though their rims scratch a person’s mouth, nevertheless, remain susceptible to ritual impurity.

טו

הַכּוֹסוֹת הַחֲתוּכִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשִּׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶם סוֹרְכִין אֶת הַפֶּה מְקַבְּלִים טֻמְאָה:

16

A glass dispenser is pure, because it is like a distributor, for it is not a container.

טז

הָאֲפַרְכֵּס שֶׁל זְכוּכִית טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ מַחַץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל:

17

When a glass item is used as a pane, it is pure, even if it can contain liquids, because it was not made to serve as a container. A glass ladle is considered as a container even though when it is placed on a table, it will turn to its side and not serve as a container; it is still susceptible to impurity.

יז

זְכוּכִית שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתָהּ לְמַרְאָה טְהוֹרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא מְקַבֶּלֶת לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית לְקַבָּלָה. הַתַּרְוָד שֶׁל זְכוּכִית שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּנִּיחוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן נֶהְפָּךְ עַל צִדּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

18

When a glass pot is made into a pane, it remains susceptible to impurity. If it was made intentionally for the purpose of sight, i.e., that the objects placed inside of it could be seen from its other side, it is pure. All glass utensils are not susceptible to ritual impurity until the tasks to fashion them are completed, as is true with regard to other utensils.

יח

תַּמְחוּי שֶׁל זְכוּכִית שֶׁעֲשָׂאוֹ מַרְאָה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְאִם מִתְּחִלָּה עֲשָׂאוּהוּ לְמַרְאָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ נִרְאִין מֵאֲחוֹרָיו הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. וְכָל כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּן כְּכָל הַכֵּלִים:

Kelim - Chapter 13

1

In several places, we have already explained that an earthenware container contracts impurity only from its inner space or when moved by a zav. In contrast, all other keilim contract impurity when touched by impurity, but if impurity enters their inner space without touching them, they remain pure.

Thus what makes an earthenware container impure leaves other keilim pure. And what makes other keilim impure, leaves an earthenware container pure, for an earthenware container contracts impurity only from its inner space, as Leviticus 11:33 states: "Any earthenware container into whose inner space one of these will fall." It contracts impurity from its inner space and not from its outer side.

א

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִתְטַמֵּא אֶלָּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ אוֹ בְּהֶסֵּט הַזָּב. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנָּגְעָה בָּהֶן הַטֻּמְאָה נִטְמְאוּ וְאִם נִכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה לַאֲוִירוֹ וְלֹא נָגְעָה בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הֵם טְהוֹרִין. נִמְצָא הַטָּמֵא בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס טָהוֹר בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים וְהַטָּמֵא בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים טָהוֹר בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִתְטַמֵּא אֶלָּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "וּכְלִי חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר יִפּל מֵהֶם אֶל תּוֹכוֹ" וְגוֹ' מִתּוֹכוֹ הוּא מִתְטַמֵּא לֹא מֵאֲחוֹרָיו:

2

Just as it contracts impurity from its inner space, so too, it imparts impurity to food and liquids from its inner space. What is implied?

When food and/or liquids enter the inner space of an earthenware container that contracted impurity, they contract impurity even though they never touched, as ibid. states: "Everything inside it shall contract impurity." Other impure keilim do not impart impurity to an impure k'li unless they touch it.

ב

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמִּתְטַמֵּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ כָּךְ מְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין מֵאֲוִירוֹ. כֵּיצַד. כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְנִכְנְסוּ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין לַאֲוִירוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָגְעוּ בּוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "כּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא". אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים הַטְּמֵאִין אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין עַד שֶׁיִּגְּעוּ בָּהֶן:

3

An earthenware container does not impart impurity to keilim - whether earthenware keilim or other keilim - through their entry into its inner space.

What is implied? When there is a large earthenware container with other containers in it and impurity enters its inner space, it contracts impurity, but all the containers inside of it remain pure. If there also were liquids inside of them, the liquids contract impurity because of their presence within the inner space of the large container and they then impart impurity to the smaller containers. It is as the smaller containers say: "The one that imparted impurity to you did not impart impurity to me, but you imparted impurity to me."

ג

אֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים מֵאֲוִירוֹ בֵּין כְּלֵי חֶרֶס בֵּין שְׁאָר כֵּלִים. כֵּיצַד. כְּלִי חֶרֶס גָּדוֹל שֶׁהָיוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ כֵּלִים וְנִכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה בַּאֲוִירוֹ הוּא טָמֵא וְכָל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טְהוֹרִין. הָיוּ מַשְׁקִין בַּכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ נִטְמְאוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין מֵאֲוִירוֹ וְחוֹזְרִין וּמְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים. וַהֲרֵי זֶה אוֹמֵר מְטַמְּאֶיךָ לֹא טִמְּאוּנִי וְאַתָּה טִמֵּאתַנִי:

4

When impure liquids touch only the outer surface of an earthenware container, its outer surface contracts impurity like other keilim.

When does the above apply? When it is a container that has inner space. If, however, it is an implement that does not have inner space and impure liquids touch it, it is pure. For the outer surface of any earthenware k'li that does not have inner space does not contract impurity from liquids.

If foods or liquids touch the outer surface of an impure earthenware container, they are impure. Earthenware containers and other keilim are governed by the same laws in this context. For when foods or liquids touch any impure utensil whether on its inner surface or its outer surface, they contract impurity.

ד

כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנָּגְעוּ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בַּאֲחוֹרָיו בִּלְבַד נִטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרָיו כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהָיָה לוֹ תּוֹךְ. אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ תּוֹךְ וְנָגְעוּ בּוֹ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ תּוֹךְ בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס אֵין אֲחוֹרָיו מִתְטַמְּאִין בְּמַשְׁקִין. נָגְעוּ אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין בַּאֲחוֹרֵי כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין. וְאֶחָד כְּלִי חֶרֶס וְאֶחָד שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים בְּדָבָר זֶה שֶׁכָּל הַכֵּלִים הַטְּמֵאִין שֶׁנָּגְעוּ אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין בָּהֶן בֵּין מִתּוֹכָן בֵּין מֵאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן נִטְמְאוּ:

5

The same laws that apply when impurity enters the inner space of an earthenware container apply when one turns it over, covering impurity that is lying on the ground and serving as a tent over it, for the impurity is within its inner space. According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that the phrase, ibid., "into whose inner space" also includes containers that serve as tents.

ה

אֶחָד כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה לַאֲוִירוֹ אוֹ שֶׁכָּפָהוּ עַל הַטֻּמְאָה הַמֻּנַּחַת עַל הָאָרֶץ וְנַעֲשָׂה אֹהֶל עָלֶיהָ שֶׁהֲרֵי הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "אֶל תּוֹכוֹ" לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הָאֹהָלִים:

6

When there is a pit with the carcass of a crawling animal inside of it and an earthenware container is turned over the pit, it does not contract impurity. For the phrase "Within its inner space" implies that the impurity itself must enter its inner space.

For this reason, if the carcass of a crawling animal is found beneath the earth below an oven, the oven is pure, for we assume that it was alive when it fell into the pit and it died while in that pit. Similarly, if a needle or a ring is found beneath the earth below an oven, the oven is pure even though any keilim that are found are considered impure, as we explained. For we assume that the keilim were there before the oven was placed there and the oven was built over them without them having fallen inside of it. If these keilim were found in the ash removed from the oven, the oven is impure, because there is nothing on which the person can base a supposition for leniency.

The following laws apply if these keilim were found in the earth below an oven; they were visible, but did not enter the inner space of the oven. If when one bakes dough, they will touch it, the oven is impure as if they were within its inner space. If not, the oven is pure as if they were beneath the earth below it. Concerning what type of dough was this said? An ordinary dough that was neither overly soft, nor overly firm.

ו

גּוּמָא שֶׁהָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ מֻנָּח בְּתוֹכָהּ וְכָפָה כְּלִי חֶרֶס עַל הַגּוּמָא לֹא נִטְמָא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "אֶל תּוֹכוֹ" עַד שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס עַצְמָהּ שֶׁל טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר שֶׁהִיא קַרְקָעִית הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר חַי נָפַל וְעַכְשָׁו מֵת בְּתוֹךְ גּוּמָא זוֹ. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצֵאת מַחַט אוֹ טַבַּעַת לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַכֵּלִים הַנִּמְצָאִים טְמֵאִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֲרֵי הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר שָׁם הָיוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָּא הַתַּנּוּר וְהַתַּנּוּר נִבְנָה עֲלֵיהֶן וְלֹא נָפְלוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ. נִמְצְאוּ בַּדֶּשֶׁן הֲרֵי הַתַּנּוּר טָמֵא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בְּמָה יִתְלֶה. נִמְצְאוּ בִּנְחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר נִרְאִין אֲבָל אֵינָן יוֹצְאִין לַאֲוִירוֹ. אִם אוֹפֶה אֶת הַבָּצֵק וְהוּא נוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר כְּאִלּוּ הָיוּ בְּתוֹךְ אֲוִירוֹ. וְאִם לָאו הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר כְּאִלּוּ הָיוּ לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ. בְּאֵי זֶה בָּצֵק אָמְרוּ בְּבָצֵק הַבֵּינוֹנִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַךְ בְּיוֹתֵר וְלֹא קָשֶׁה:

7

The following laws apply if the carcass of a crawling animal was found in the eye of an oven, the eye of a range for two pots, or the eye of a range for one pot. If the crawling animal was within the inner edge of the hole or further toward the outside, the oven or range is pure, because it did not enter the inner space of the oven or the range. Instead, it is suspended below the thickness of its walls. The oven or the range is pure even if an olive-sized portion of a human corpse is found in that place unless the opening of the eye is a handbreadth. In the latter instance, the oven would be impure because a hole of that size brings impurity to the inner space of the oven, as explained with regard to the impurity of a human corpse.

ז

הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בְּעַיִן שֶׁל תַּנּוּר בְּעַיִן שֶׁל כִּירָה בְּעַיִן שֶׁל כֻּפַּח אִם נִמְצָא מִן הַשָּׂפָה הַפְּנִימִית וְלַחוּץ טָהוֹר. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצָא בַּאֲוִיר הָעַיִן טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִכְנַס לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר אוֹ הַכִּירָה אוֹ הַכֻּפַּח אֶלָּא תַּחַת עֳבִי דָּפְנוֹתֵיהֶן הוּא תָּלוּי. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה שָׁם כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת טְהוֹרִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בָּעֳבִי הָעַיִן פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח שֶׁהֲרֵי מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּעִנְיַן טֻמְאַת מֵת:

8

When the carcass of a crawling animal is found in the place where wood is placed, if it is found from the inner edge of the range and further outward, the range is pure. If it is found in the place where the bath attendant sits or the dyer sits, or the place where those who cook olives sit, everything is pure.

ח

נִמְצָא הַשֶּׁרֶץ בִּמְקוֹם הַנָּחַת הָעֵצִים מִן הַשָּׂפָה הַפְּנִימִית וְלַחוּץ טָהוֹר. נִמְצָא בִּמְקוֹם יְשִׁיבַת הַבַּלָּן בִּמְקוֹם יְשִׁיבַת הַצַּבָּע בִּמְקוֹם יְשִׁיבַת שׁוֹלְקֵי הַזֵּיתִים הַכּל טָהוֹר:

9

Neither an oven, a range, nor other places of cooking contract impurity unless the impurity is found from the sealing and inward.

ט

אֵין הַתַּנּוּר וְלֹא הַכִּירָה וְלֹא שְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת הַיְקוֹד מִתְטַמְּאִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִמְצֵאת הַטֻּמְאָה מִן הַסְּתִימָה וּלְפָנִים:

10

There are earthenware containers from which homeowners drink water that have an earthenware screen in their center and projections like a comb above that screen. It is called a tzirtzur. If impurity entered the space enclosed by the comb above the screen, the entire k'li is impure, for this is "the inner space" of this container.

י

כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁשּׁוֹתִין בּוֹ בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּאֶמְצָעוֹ כְּמוֹ רֶשֶׁת שֶׁל חֶרֶס וּשְׂפָתוֹ שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִן הָרֶשֶׁת כְּמוֹ מַסְרֵק וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא צַרְצוּר אִם נִכְנְסָה הַטֻּמְאָה לַאֲוִיר הַמַּסְרֵק לְמַעְלָה מִן הָרֶשֶׁת נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁזֶּהוּ תּוֹכוֹ שֶׁל כְּלִי זֶה:

11

The following laws apply when there is an earthenware container that has three walls, one further inside than the other. If the interior wall was the highest and impurity entered its inner space, all foods and liquids that are in the space between the inner wall and middle wall or the outer wall are pure. If the middle wall was the highest and its inner space became impure, the area from this wall inward is impure. The area outside of it is pure. If the exterior wall was the highest and its inner space became impure, everything is impure. If the walls are of the same height, any enclosure whose inner space contracts impurity is impure and the remainder are pure.

יא

כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שְׂפָיוֹת זוֹ לְפָנִים מִזּוֹ הָיְתָה הַפְּנִימִית עוֹדֶפֶת וְנִכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה לַאֲוִיר הַפְּנִימִית כָּל הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבָּאֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּין הַשָּׂפָה הַפְּנִימִית וּבֵין הָאֶמְצָעִית וְהַחִיצוֹנָה טְהוֹרִין. הָיְתָה הָאֶמְצָעִית עוֹדֶפֶת וְנִטְמָא אֲוִירָהּ מִמֶּנָּה וְלִפְנִים טָמֵא מִמֶּנָּה וְלַחוּץ טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה הַחִיצוֹנָה עוֹדֶפֶת וְנִטְמָא אֲוִירָהּ הַכּל טָמֵא. הָיוּ שָׁווֹת כָּל שֶׁנִּטְמָא אֲוִירָהּ טְמֵאָה וְהַשְּׁאָר טָהוֹר:

12

If several frying pans are placed one inside the other and their rims are of the same height, should the carcass of a crawling animal be found in the uppermost frying pan or the lowest one, the frying pan containing the carcass is impure and the other frying pans and the food inside of them are pure.

If all of the frying pans had a hole that would allow liquid to seep in and the carcass was in the uppermost one, all of the foods and liquids in all the frying pans are impure, because the impurity is considered in the inner space of all of them, as will be explained. If the impurity was in the bottom one, it is impure and all the others are pure, because the carcass of the crawling animal did not enter the inner space of the uppermost one and the rim of the lowest one is not higher than it, so that it would impart impurity to all the food and liquids contained in it.

If the carcass was located in the uppermost one and the rim of the lower one was higher, the uppermost one is impure, because the carcass is located within it. Similarly, the bottom one is impure, because its rim is higher and thus the carcass is in its inner space. The remainder of the frying pans that are located in the bottom one are pure, because an earthenware container does not impart impurity to other keilim inside of it. If there was liquid that could be felt between the frying pans, any pan that has liquid on it contracts impurity. For the liquid contracts impurity because of its presence in the inner space of the bottom pan whose edges extend above the higher pan. It then imparts impurity to the pan that it touches.

יב

אִלְפָּסִים זוֹ בְּתוֹךְ זוֹ וְשִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן שָׁווֹת וְהַשֶּׁרֶץ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה אוֹ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנָה זוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ הַשֶּׁרֶץ טְמֵאָה וּשְׁאָר הָאִלְפָּסִין טְהוֹרִין הֵן וְכָל הָאֳכָלִין שֶׁבָּהֶן. הָיָה כָּל אִלְפָּס מֵהֶן נְקוּבָה בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה וְהַשֶּׁרֶץ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה כָּל הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּכָל הָאִלְפָּסִים טְמֵאִים שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה בַּאֲוִיר כֻּלָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנָה הִיא טְמֵאָה וְכֻלָּן טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִכְנַס שֶׁרֶץ לַאֲוִיר הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וְאֵין שְׂפַת הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה עוֹדֶפֶת כְּדֵי לְטַמֵּא כָּל הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ. הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה וְהָיְתָה שְׂפַת הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה עוֹדֶפֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁהַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּתוֹכָהּ וְכֵן הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשְּׂפָתָהּ עוֹדֶפֶת הֲרֵי הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּאֲוִירָהּ וּשְׁאָר הָאִלְפָּסִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה טְהוֹרִין שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה בֵּינֵיהֶן מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ טְמֵאָה שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקֶה מִתְטַמֵּא מֵאֲוִיר הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה הָעוֹדֶפֶת וְחוֹזֵר וּמְטַמֵּא אֶת הָאִלְפָּס:

13

When an earthenware tabletop had bowls attached to it from the time that it was initially made, although it is all a single k'li, if one bowl contracts impurity, they all do not contract impurity. If the table top has an upraised border, all of the bowls are considered in its inner space. Thus if one contracts impurity, they all become impure. Similar laws apply to an earthenware spice box and a split inkwell that are made in analogous manner.

יג

טַבְלָא שֶׁל חֶרֶס שֶׁהָיוּ קְעָרוֹת דְּבוּקוֹת בָּהּ בִּתְחִלַּת מַעֲשֶׂיהָ וַהֲרֵי הַכּל כְּלִי אֶחָד וְנִטְמֵאת אַחַת מֵהֶן לֹא נִטְמְאוּ כֻּלָּן. וְאִם הָיָה לַטַּבְלָא דֹּפֶן עוֹדֵף שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ כָּל הַקְּעָרוֹת בְּתוֹכוֹ וְנִטְמֵאת אַחַת מֵהֶן נִטְמְאוּ כֻּלָּן. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּבֵית הַתַּבְלִין שֶׁל חֶרֶס וְקַלְמִירִין הַמַּתְאִימוֹת כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ:

14

When one of the compartments of a wooden spice box contracts impurity from liquids, the remainder of its compartments do not contract impurity. If it has an upraised border and thus all of the compartments are considered within its inner space and one of them contracts impurity from liquids, they all contract impurity, for it is considered as a single container and when the inner space of a container contracts impurity from liquids, the entire container becomes impure.

If the compartments were attached to it by nails, they are considered as joined both with regard to contracting impurity and with regard to sprinkling the ashes of the red heifer. If they are merely wedged together, they are considered as joined with regard to contracting impurity, but not with regard to sprinkling the ashes of the red heifer. If the compartments could be easily removed and returned, they are not considered as joined, neither with regard to contracting impurity, nor with regard to sprinkling the ashes of the red heifer.

יד

בֵּית הַתַּבְלִין שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁנִּטְמָא אֶחָד מִבָּתָּיו בְּמַשְׁקִין לֹא נִטְמְאוּ שְׁאָר הַבָּתִּים. וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ דֹּפֶן עוֹדֵף שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ כָּל הַבָּתִּים בְּתוֹכוֹ וְנִטְמָא אֶחָד מִבָּתָּיו בְּמַשְׁקִין נִטְמְאוּ כֻּלָּן שֶׁהַכּל כִּכְלִי אֶחָד וּכְלִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא תּוֹכוֹ בְּמַשְׁקִין נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ. הָיוּ בָּתָּיו קְבוּעִין בְּמַסְמֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חִבּוּר זֶה לָזֶה לְטֻמְאָה וּלְהַזָּיָה. הָיוּ תְּקוּעִין בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חִבּוּר לְטֻמְאָה וְלֹא לְהַזָּיָה. וְאִם הָיוּ בָּתָּיו נִטָּלִין וְנִתָּנִין אֵינָן חִבּוּר לֹא לְטֻמְאָה וְלֹא לְהַזָּיָה:

Kelim - Chapter 14

1

Any entity that protects from ritual impurity as a sealed covering in a structure that is impure because of a human corpse, protects from ritual impurity as a sealed covering in the inner space of an earthenware container. If it can prevent an entity from contracting ritual impurity from a severe form of impurity, i.e., a structure that is impure because of a human corpse, it can be assumed that it will also prevent impurity in the more lenient instance of an earthenware container. Any entity that does not protect from ritual impurity in a structure that is impure because of a human corpse, does not protect from ritual impurity in the inner space of an earthenware container.

א

כָּל הַמַּצִּיל בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת מַצִּיל בְּצָמִיד פּתִיל בּאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס. אִם הִצִּיל בְּמֵת הֶחָמוּר דִּין הוּא שֶׁיַּצִּיל בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס הַקַּל. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַצִּיל בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל בַּאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס:

2

Just as a sealed covering does not prevent impurity from escaping in a structure that is impure because of] a human corpse, so too, it does not prevent impurity from escaping into the inner space of an earthenware container.

What is implied? If a pot was filled with food and liquids and sealed closed and placed in an impure oven, the pot and its contents are pure. When the pot contained the carcass of a crawling animal or impure liquids, even though it is sealed closed, if it is placed in the inner space of an oven, the oven contracts impurity. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ב

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין צָמִיד פָּתִיל לְטֻמְאָה בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת כָּךְ אֵין צָמִיד פָּתִיל לְטֻמְאָה בַּאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס. כֵּיצַד. קְדֵרָה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין וּמֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּנְתוּנָה בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי הַקְּדֵרָה וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ טְהוֹרִין. הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ אוֹ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בְּתוֹכָהּ וּמֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּנְתוּנָה בַּאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר [וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה]:

3

When an impure ring was enclosed within a brick or an impure needle was enclosed within a block of wood that fell into the inner space of an earthenware container, it contracts impurity. Even though a loaf of bread that is terumah that would touch this wood or brick would be pure, these articles impart impurity to an earthenware container by virtue of their presence in its inner space.

ג

טַבַּעַת טְמֵאָה שֶׁמֻּבְלַעַת בְּתוֹךְ הַלְּבֵנָה אוֹ מַחַט טְמֵאָה שֶׁמֻּבְלַעַת בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵץ וְנָפְלוּ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס נִטְמָא. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם נָגַע כִּכַּר תְּרוּמָה בְּעֵץ זֶה אוֹ בִּלְבֵנָה זוֹ טָהוֹר הֲרֵי הֵן מְטַמְּאִין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מֵאֲוִירוֹ:

4

When a rooster swallows the carcass of a crawling animal or flesh from a human corpse and falls into the inner space of an oven, the oven is pure. If the rooster dies there, the oven contracts impurity. The rationale is that the fact that these entities were swallowed by a living being generates protection from the impurity in an earthenware container, just as it generates protection from impurity in a structure that is impure because of a human corpse.

ד

תַּרְנְגוֹל שֶׁבָּלַע שֶׁרֶץ אוֹ בְּשַׂר מֵת וְנָפַל לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. וְאִם מֵת שָׁם הַתַּרְנְגוֹל נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר. שֶׁהַבְּלוּעִין בְּחַי מַצִּילִין מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמַּצִּילִין בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת:

5

Entities in a person's mouth or in the folds of his body are not considered as swallowed.

What is implied? A person had impure liquids in his mouth. If he closes his mouth and inserts his head into the inner space of an earthenware container, he imparts impurity to it. Similarly, if a pure person who had food and liquids in his mouth inserted his head into the inner space of an impure oven, the food and the liquids in his mouth contract impurity. If he had a lentil-sized portion of the carcass of a crawling animal and inserted it in the inner space of an oven, the oven contracts impurity even though the source of impurity is found in the folds of the person's body.

ה

דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּה אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּמָטִין אֵינָן כִּבְלוּעִין. כֵּיצַד. אָדָם שֶׁהָיוּ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בְּתוֹךְ פִּיו וְקָפַץ פִּיו וְהִכְנִיס רֹאשׁוֹ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס טִמְּאָהוּ. וְכֵן טָהוֹר שֶׁהָיוּ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין לְתוֹךְ פִּיו וְהִכְנִיס רֹאשׁוֹ לַאֲוִיר תַּנּוּר טָמֵא נִטְמְאוּ אֳכָלִים שֶׁבְּפִיו. הָיָה לוֹ בְּתוֹךְ קֻמְטוֹ כַּעֲדָשָׁה מִן הַשֶּׁרֶץ וְהִכְנִיסוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹךְ הַקֶּמֶט:

6

When a sponge absorbed impure liquids, even though its surface is dry, if it fell into the inner space of an earthenware container, it imparts impurity to the container, because ultimately, the impurity will emerge. Similar laws apply to a piece of turnip or a reed.

When shards that were used for impure liquids became dry and fell into the inner space of an earthenware container, they do not impart impurity to it. If they fell into an oven and it was heated, they impart impurity to it, because ultimately, the liquids will emerge.

When does the above apply? With regard to impure liquids of a lesser severity. When, however, the impurity of the liquids is severe, e.g., the blood of a woman in the nidah state or her urine, if it is possible that they will emerge and the person is concerned that they emerge, they impart impurity to the oven even if was not heated. If he is not concerned that they emerge, they do not impart impurity until the oven is heated and the liquid emerges.

Similarly, when new olive dregs that come from impure liquids are used as kindling fuel for an oven, it contracts impurity, for, ultimately, the liquids will emerge. If, however, the olive dregs are old, the oven is pure. When are dregs considered old? After twelve months. When, however, it is known that liquids will emerge from the dregs when the oven will be heated, the oven contracts impurity when heated even if the dregs are three years old.

ו

סְפוֹג שֶׁבָּלַע מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נָגוּב מִבַּחוּץ אִם נָפַל לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס טִמְּאָהוּ שֶׁסּוֹף מַשְׁקֶה לָצֵאת. וְכֵן חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל לֶפֶת וְשֶׁל גֶּמִי. חֲרָסִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהֶן מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין וְנִגְּבוּ וְנָפְלוּ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס לֹא טִמְּאוּהוּ. נָפְלוּ לְתַנּוּר וְהֻסַּק נִטְמָא שֶׁסּוֹף מַשְׁקֶה לָצֵאת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמַשְׁקִין קַלִּין. אֲבָל בַּחֲמוּרִין כְּגוֹן דַּם הַנִּדָּה וּמֵימֵי רַגְלֶיהָ אִם הָיוּ יְכוֹלִין לָצֵאת וְהִקְפִּיד עָלָיו שֶׁיֵּצֵא הֲרֵי זֶה מְטַמֵּא הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֻסַּק וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא עַד שֶׁיֻּסַּק וְיֵצֵא הַמַּשְׁקֶה. וְכֵן בְּגֶפֶת חֲדָשָׁה הַבָּאָה מִמַּשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין שֶׁהֻסַּק בָּהּ הַתַּנּוּר נִטְמָא שֶׁסּוֹף מַשְׁקֶה לָצֵאת אֲבָל בִּישָׁנָה טָהוֹר. אֵיזוֹ הִיא יְשָׁנָה לְאַחַר שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. וְאִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנָּה מַשְׁקֶה בִּשְׁעַת הֶסֵּק אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר כְּשֶׁיֻּסַּק:

7

Even though an earthenware container was divided with a partition extending from its rim until its bottom, if impurity enters the inner space of one of the portions, the entire container contracts impurity. The rationale is that it is not common practice for people to divide earthenware containers as they divide structures. Therefore, if an oven is divided with boards or curtains and the carcass of a crawling animal is found in one place, the entire oven is impure.

ז

כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁחִלְּקוֹ בִּמְחִצָּה מִשְּׂפָתוֹ עַד קַרְקָעִיתוֹ וְנִכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה בַּאֲוִיר אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי הַחֲלָקִים נִטְמָא הַכְּלִי כֻּלּוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לְחַלֵּק כְּלֵי חֶרֶס כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁחוֹלְקִין הָאֹהָלִים. לְפִיכָךְ תַּנּוּר שֶׁחֲצָצוֹ בִּנְסָרִים אוֹ בִּירִיעוֹת וְנִמְצָא הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד הַכּל טָמֵא:

8

When a container in which impurity was located was inserted into the inner space of an earthenware container, if the edge of the impure container extends outside the earthenware container, the earthenware container is ritually pure even though the impurity is positioned inside of it, for Leviticus 11:33 states: "Into whose inner space one of these will fall." Implied is that the presence of impurity in the inner space of a container conveys impurity but not its presence in the inner space of a container in the inner space of a second container.

ח

כְּלִי שֶׁהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ וְהִכְנִיס הַכְּלִי לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס וּשְׂפַת הַכְּלִי הַטָּמֵא חוּץ לִכְלִי חֶרֶס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה מְכֻוֶּנֶת בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "אֶל תּוֹכוֹ" לֹא אֶל תּוֹךְ תּוֹכוֹ:

9

A similar concept applies if there was an impure earthenware container and another container holding food or liquids was inserted into its inner space. If the edges of the other container extend beyond the impure earthenware container, the food and the liquids remain pure. This is derived from the continuation of the above verse: "Everything in its inner space shall contract impurity," i.e., "in its inner space," and not in the inner space of a container in its inner space.

What is implied? When a bee-hive shaped container, a basket, a pot, a flask, or the like contained the carcass of a crawling animal and then one lowered the basket or the like into the inner space of a barrel or into the inner space of an oven, even though the carcass of the crawling animal is positioned inside the inner space of the barrel or the oven since the edge of the basket or the flask extends above the edge of the barrel or the edge of the oven, the barrel or the oven is pure. In such a situation, if there were pure food or liquids in a flask, in a pot, or the like and one lowered them into the inner space of an impure oven or barrel, the food and liquids are pure.

If, however, the bee-hive shaped container, the basket, the flask, or the like had a hole, they do not save entities from ritual impurity. Instead, if they contained the carcass of a crawling animal and they were lowered into the inner space of a pure earthenware container, it contracts impurity. If there were pure food or liquids and one lowered them into the inner space of an impure earthenware container, the food and the liquids contract impurity.

How large must the hole be for these laws to apply? In keilim that can be purified by immersion: large enough for an olive to fall out. If it was an earthenware container made to hold foods, the measure of the hole is: enough for olives to fall out. If it was intended to hold liquids, the measure is: enough for liquids to seep in when the container is placed in them. If it was made for both these purposes, it is judged stringently and when this earthenware container has a hole large enough for liquids to seep in, it does not save entities from impurity when inserted in the inner space of an earthenware container.

ט

וְכֵן אִם הָיָה כְּלִי חֶרֶס טָמֵא וְהִכְנִיס לַאֲוִירוֹ כְּלִי אַחֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין וּשְׂפַת הַכְּלִי הָאַחֵר חוּץ לִכְלִי חֶרֶס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין מְכֻוָּנִין בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "כּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא" וְלֹא שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ תּוֹכוֹ. כֵּיצַד. כַּוֶּרֶת אוֹ קֻפָּה אוֹ קְדֵרָה אוֹ חֵמֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁהָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּתוֹכָהּ וְשִׁלְשֵׁל הַקֻּפָּה לַאֲוִיר הֶחָבִית אוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשֶּׁרֶץ מְכֻוָּן בְּתוֹךְ אֲוִיר הֶחָבִית הוֹאִיל וּשְׂפַת הַקֻּפָּה אוֹ הַחֵמֶת לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׂפַת הֶחָבִית אוֹ מִשְּׂפַת הַתַּנּוּר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הַחֵמֶת אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין וְשִׁלְשְׁלָן לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר אוֹ לַאֲוִיר הֶחָבִית הַטְּמֵאִין הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין. הָיְתָה הַכַּוֶּרֶת אוֹ הַקֻּפָּה אוֹ הַחֵמֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן נְקוּבִין אֵינָן מַצִּילִין אֶלָּא אִם הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ לְתוֹכָן וְשִׁלְשְׁלָן לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּהוֹר נִטְמָא. וְאִם הָיוּ אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין לְתוֹכָן וְשִׁלְשְׁלָן לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא נִטְמְאוּ. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה בַּנֶּקֶב אִם הָיָה בִּכְלִי שֶׁטֶף בְּמוֹצִיא זֵיתִים וְאִם הָיָה בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס הֶעָשׂוּי לָאֳכָלִין שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּזֵיתִים וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְמַשְׁקִין שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה. וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְכָךְ וְכָךְ מְטִילִין אוֹתוֹ לְחֻמְרוֹ וּכְשֶׁיִּנָּקֵב כְּלִי חֶרֶס זֶה בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס:

10

The following rules apply if one sealed a hole in an earthenware container with tar. If the carcass of a crawling animal was in such a container and it was lowered into the inner space of a pure oven, the oven contracts impurity. For a sealed covering does not protect entities from contracting impurity, as we explained.

If, however, this container held pure food or liquids and it was lowered into the inner space of an impure oven, the food and the liquids are pure, because the hole has been sealed. When holes in all other types of containers were sealed close with tar and the like, they do not protect their contents from contracting ritual impurity from an earthenware container.

י

סָתַם נֶקֶב כְּלִי חֶרֶס בְּזֶפֶת אִם הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בִּכְלִי זֶה וְשִׁלְשְׁלוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר הַטָּהוֹר נִטְמָא שֶׁאֵין הַצָּמִיד מַצִּיל עַל הַטֻּמְאָה מִלְּטַמֵּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בִּכְלִי זֶה אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין וְשִׁלְשְׁלוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי הַנֶּקֶב סָתוּם. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁסְּתָמָן בְּזֶפֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס:

11

When a bee-hive shaped container has an opening, even though the opening was closed with straw, it no longer protects its contents from contracting impurity from an earthenware container, because it is not a container.

יא

כַּוֶּרֶת פְּחוּתָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסָּתַם הַפְּחָת בְּקַשׁ אֵינָהּ מַצֶּלֶת מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ כְּלִי:

12

Although a flask or stone container was opened to the extent that a pomegranate would fall from them - and thus they were no longer considered in the category of keilim - they still save entities from contracting impurity due to their presence in the inner space of an earthenware container, provided the opening is above the outer edge of the earthenware container and the receptacle is lowered within the inner space of the earthenware container.

יב

הַחֵמֶת וְהַכְּפִישָׁה שֶׁנִּפְחֲתוּ בְּמוֹצִיא רִמּוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּטְּלוֹ מִתּוֹרַת כְּלִי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַצִּילִין מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַפְּחָת לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׂפַת כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִבַּחוּץ וְיִהְיֶה בֵּית קִבּוּל שֶׁלָּהֶן מְשֻׁלְשָׁל לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס:

13

When a simple hide or the like is hanging into the inner space of an earthenware container or into the inner space of an oven and there is a carcass of a crawling animal on the hide, the oven contracts impurity. If the carcass was inside the oven, any food or liquids on the hide are impure. The rationale is that the only type of entity that can prevent impurity from spreading due to the inner space of an earthenware container is a container that has a receptacle, e.g., a basket, a bin, or a flask.

יג

עוֹר פָּשׁוּט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁהָיָה שָׁקוּעַ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס אוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר וְהַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּתוֹךְ הָעוֹר הֲרֵי הַתַּנּוּר טָמֵא. וְאִם הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּתַּנּוּר אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הָעוֹר טְמֵאִין שֶׁאֵין מַצִּיל מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס אֶלָּא כֵּלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן תּוֹךְ כְּגוֹן הַסַּל וְהַקֻּפָּה וְהַחֵמֶת:

14

When there is impurity in the inner space of an earthenware container and there was another pure earthenware container turned upside and resting on the impure container, even though their inner space is combined, the impure one is impure and the pure one is pure. This same ruling applies if the impurity was attached to the wall of one container and it was overturned and resting on a pure container. The rationale is that the impurity itself has not entered the inner space of the pure earthenware container.

Therefore, if a barrel that was filled with pure liquids was found below an oven and the carcass of a crawling animal fell into the oven, the barrel and the liquids are pure, even though the inner space of the oven is combined with the inner space of the barrel. Similarly, if the barrel is turned facing the opening of the oven and its mouth opens to the inner space of the oven, even the liquid at the base of the barrel is pure.

יד

כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ וְהָיָה כְּלִי חֶרֶס טָהוֹר כָּפוּי עַל פִּי הַכְּלִי הַטָּמֵא אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַכְּלִי שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה דְּבוּקָה בְּתוֹכוֹ כָּפוּי עַל פִּי הַכְּלִי הַטָּהוֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲוִיר שְׁנֵיהֶן מְעֹרָב הַטָּמֵא בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ וְהַטָּהוֹר בְּטָהֳרָתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִכְנְסָה הַטֻּמְאָה עַצְמָהּ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּהוֹר. לְפִיכָךְ חָבִית שֶׁהָיְתָה מְלֵאָה מַשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין וּנְתוּנָה לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר וְנָפַל שֶׁרֶץ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר הֲרֵי הֶחָבִית וְהַמַּשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר מְעֹרָב עִם אֲוִיר הֶחָבִית. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה הֶחָבִית כְּפוּיָה עַל פִּי הַתַּנּוּר וּפִיהָ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר אֲפִלּוּ הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁבְּשׁוּלֵי הֶחָבִית טָהוֹר:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah