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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Kelim - Chapter 9, Kelim - Chapter 10, Kelim - Chapter 11

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Kelim - Chapter 9

1

All metal keilim that have independent names are susceptible to impurity except a door, a bolt, a lock, a holder for a door hinge a hinge, a beam, and a drainpipe. The latter are not susceptible to impurity, because they serve the earth or wood. This applies even before they are affixed to a building or to wood.

Any metal k'li that has an auxiliary name does not contract impurity independently because it is only part of a k'li. What is implied? The "scorpion" of a muzzle is impure and the iron plates placed on the cheeks of the animal on both sides are pure, because they do not have an independent name. When all these articles are connected to the reins, everything is susceptible to impurity.

א

כָּל כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה חוּץ מִן הַדֶּלֶת וְהַנֶּגֶר וְהַמַּנְעוּל וְהַפּוֹתָת שֶׁתַּחַת הַצִּיר וְהַצִּיר וְהַקּוֹרָה וְהַצִּנּוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵלּוּ עֲשׂוּיִין לְקַרְקַע אוֹ לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת הָעֵץ אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וַאֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּקָּבְעוּ. וְכָל כְּלִי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שֵׁם לְוַוי אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמִקְצָת כְּלִי. כֵּיצַד. עַקְרָב שֶׁל פְּרוּמְבְּיָא טָמֵא וּלְחָיַיִם שֶׁלָּהּ שֶׁעַל לְחָיֵי הַבְּהֵמָה מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן טְהוֹרִין. וְאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן. וּבִשְׁעַת חִבּוּרָן הַכּל מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

2

When metal plates are placed on a person's cheeks for protection at the time of battle, they are not susceptible to impurity, because they do not have an independent name. If, however, they have a receptacle for water, they are susceptible to impurity like all receptacles.

ב

טַסִּין שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין עַל לְחָיֵי הָאָדָם בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן. וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן בֵּית קִבּוּל מַיִם מִתְטַמְּאִין כְּכָל כְּלִי קִבּוּל:

3

When a ring is fashioned like a bowl from below and a lentil from above, and the bowl becomes detached, it is susceptible to impurity in its own right, for it has a receptacle. The lentil is susceptible to impurity, because it has an independent name. The ring's wire, i.e., the portion that enters the ear or the nose, is not susceptible to impurity in its own right.

If a ring is made like a cluster of grapes and it becomes separated, it is pure. The rationale is that it does not have a receptacle, none of the "berries" has an independent name, and while broken up, it is not fit to be used as an ornament.

ג

נֶזֶם הֶעָשׂוּי כִּקְדֵרָה מִלְּמַטָּה וְכַעֲדָשָׁה מִלְּמַעְלָה וְנִפְסַק הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁלּוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לָהּ בֵּית קִבּוּל וְהָעֲדָשָׁה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. וְהַצְּנִירָה שֶׁלָּהּ שֶׁהִיא נִכְנֶסֶת בָּאֹזֶן אוֹ בָּאַף אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. הָיָה הַנֶּזֶם עָשׂוּי כְּמִין אֶשְׁכּוֹל וְנִפְרַק טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ בֵּית קִבּוּל וְאֵין לְכָל גַּרְגִּיר מִמֶּנּוּ שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וַהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְתַכְשִׁיט מִשֶּׁנִּפְרַק:

4

A ring worn by young girls around a leg is referred to as a birit. It is not susceptible to impurity, because it does not have the form of an ornament. Instead, it is like a ring of a k'li or a ring one ties between his shoulders. The set of two rings which young girls put around their legs with a chain connecting one to the other is susceptible to ritual impurity. The rationale is that it is an ornament for young girls. This set is called kevalim.

ד

טַבַּעַת אַחַת שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין הַבָּנוֹת בְּרֶגֶל אַחַת הִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת בִּירִית וְאֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ צוּרַת כְּלִי תַּכְשִׁיט אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ טַבַּעַת הַכֵּלִים אוֹ טַבַּעַת שֶׁקּוֹשֵׁר בָּהּ בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו. אֲבָל שְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת שֶׁמְּשִׂימוֹת הַבָּנוֹת בְּרַגְלֵיהֶן וְשַׁלְשֶׁלֶת מֻטֶּלֶת בֵּינֵיהֶן מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן תַּכְשִׁיטֵי הַבָּנוֹת וְהֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין כְּבָלִים:

5

When there is a necklace with metal links on a string of wool or linen and the string snaps, each of the links is susceptible to impurity, because each is considered as a k'li independently. If the strand was of metal and the links of jewels, pearls, or glass and the links broke, but the chain remained, the chain is susceptible to impurity independently. The remnants of a necklace continue to impart impurity and to be susceptible to impurity as long as they are large enough to go around the neck of a young girl.

ה

קַטְלָא שֶׁל חֻלְיוֹת שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת וְהֵם בְּחוּט שֶׁל צֶמֶר אוֹ שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן וְנִפְסַק הַחוּט. הַחֻלְיוֹת מְקַבְּלוֹת טֻמְאָה שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד כְּלִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. הָיָה הַחוּט שֶׁלָּהּ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת וְהַחֻלְיוֹת שֶׁל אֲבָנִים טוֹבוֹת וְשֶׁל מַרְגָּלִיּוֹת אוֹ שֶׁל זְכוּכִית וְנִשְׁבְּרוּ הַחֻלְיוֹת וְהַחוּט קַיָּם הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְטַמֵּא בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. שְׁיָרֵי קַטְלָא כִּמְלֹא צַוַּאר קְטַנָּה:

6

All of the metal coverings of receptacles are pure. They are not susceptible to impurity, because they do not have an independent name with the exception of the covering of a samovar and the covering of doctor's prescription box. Since bandages are placed in it, it becomes a receptacle.

ו

כָּל הַכִּסּוּיִין שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת טְהוֹרִין וְאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן. חוּץ מִכִּסּוּי הַמֵּחַם וּמִכִּסּוּי טֶנִי שֶׁל רוֹפְאִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ אֶת הָאִסְפְּלָנִית נַעֲשֶׂה כְּלִי קִבּוּל:

7

When one scrapes down and polishes the metal cover of a container, making it into a mirror, it is susceptible to impurity.

ז

כִּסּוּי שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁשָּׁפוֹ וְלִטְּשׁוֹ וְעָשָׂהוּ מַרְאָה הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

8

All metal weights are susceptible to impurity. They are called unkiyot. The wooden crossbeam of a scale is susceptible to impurity, because of the weights hanging from it.

When does the above apply? To the crossbeams of the scales of flax merchants and wool merchants. The crossbeams of the scales of private persons are not susceptible to impurity unless the weights are permanently affixed to it.

ח

כָּל הַמִּשְׁקוֹלוֹת שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת מְקַבְּלוֹת טֻמְאָה וְהֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין אוֹנְקִיאוֹת. קְנֵה מֹאזְנַיִם שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹנְקִיּוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל תְּלוּיוֹת בּוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי הָאוֹנְקִיּוֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בּוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמֹאזְנַיִם שֶׁל מוֹכְרֵי פִּשְׁתָּן וּמוֹכְרֵי צֶמֶר. אֲבָל שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הָאוֹנְקִיּוֹת קְבוּעוֹת בּוֹ:

9

When weights have been broken, even though one brought the pieces together and weighed objects with them, they are not susceptible to impurity. If one designated the broken pieces as half-litra weights, one-third-litra weights, or one-quarter-litra weights, they are susceptible to impurity.

ט

מִשְׁקָלוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּבְּרוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶחְזִירָן וְשׁוֹקֵל בָּהֶן אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. יִחֵד מֵהֶן חֲצָאֵי לִיטְרִין שְׁלִישֵׁי לִיטְרִין רְבִיעֵי לִיטְרִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

10

When a sela was disqualified, if it was adjusted to use as a weight, it is susceptible to impurity.

י

סֶלַע שֶׁנִּפְסְלָה וְהִתְקִינָהּ לִהְיוֹת שׁוֹקֵל בָּהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

11

A porter's hook is pure. Hooks used by perfume salesmen are susceptible to impurity. The hooks of bed-poles are pure. Those of a small platform are susceptible to impurity.

The hooks of the bee-hived-shaped snare used by fishermen to catch fish are pure. Those of a chest are susceptible to impurity. The hooks of wooden lamps are pure. Those of a table are susceptible to impurity.

This is the general principle: Whenever a k'li is susceptible to impurity in and of itself according to Scriptural Law, its metal hook and its chain are susceptible to impurity. Whenever a k'li is not susceptible to impurity, e.g., flat wooden keilim, oversized wooden keilim, and the like, its metal hook and its chain are not susceptible to impurity. When either of them is considered independently, it is pure, because neither a hook or a chain is considered as a k'li in its own right; they are only as parts of a k'li. Even hooks on the wall upon which keilim, clothes, and the like are hung are pure.

יא

אֻנְקְלִי שֶׁל כַּתָּפִים טְהוֹרָה וְשֶׁל רוֹכְלִים מִתְטַמְּאָה. אֻנְקְלִי שֶׁל נַקְלִיטֵי הַמִּטָּה טְהוֹרָה וְשֶׁל דַּרְגִּישׁ מִתְטַמְּאָה. אֻנְקְלִי שֶׁל כַּוֶּרֶת הַצַּיָּדִים שֶׁצָּדִין בָּהֶן הַדָּגִים טָהוֹר וְשֶׁל שִׁדָּה מִתְטַמְּאָה. אֻנְקְלִי שֶׁל מְנוֹרוֹת הָעֵץ טָהוֹר וְשֶׁל שֻׁלְחָן מִתְטַמְּאָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה הֲרֵי הָאֻנְקְלִי שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁלּוֹ וְשַׁלְשֶׁלֶת שֶׁלּוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וּכְלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה כְּגוֹן פְּשׁוּטֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ וּכְלֵי עֵץ הַבָּאִים בְּמִדָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֻנְקְלִי שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת וְהַשַּׁלְשֶׁלֶת שֶׁלּוֹ אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וְכָל אַחַת וְאַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין הָאֻנְקְלִי אוֹ הַשַּׁלְשֶׁלֶת כְּלִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמִקְצָת כְּלִי. וַאֲפִלּוּ אֻנְקְלִי שֶׁבַּכְּתָלִים שֶׁתּוֹלִין בָּהּ הַכֵּלִים וְהַבְּגָדִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן טְהוֹרָה:

12

When a chain has a lock, it is susceptible to impurity. If it is meant to secure an entity, it is pure.

יב

שַׁלְשֶׁלֶת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ בֵּית נְעִילָה מִתְטַמְּאָה וְהָעֲשׂוּיָה לִכְפִיתָה טְהוֹרָה:

13

Chains used by wholesalers are susceptible to impurity, because they are used to lock the stores. Those owned by private persons are pure, because they are meant only as ornaments.

יג

שַׁלְשֶׁלֶת שֶׁל סִיטוֹנוֹת מִתְטַמְּאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ אֶת הַחֲנֻיּוֹת. וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה אֶלָּא לְנוֹי:

14

The chains of the measurers of land and the pegs that they insert into the ground at the time they conduct their measurement are susceptible to impurity. Those used by gatherers of wood are pure, because they serve wood.

יד

שַׁלְשֶׁלֶת שֶׁל מוֹשְׁחֵי קַרְקַע וִיתֵדוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁתּוֹקְעִין בַּקַּרְקַע בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמּוֹשְׁחִין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְשֶׁל מְקוֹשְׁשֵׁי עֵצִים טְהוֹרָה לְפִי שֶׁהִיא מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת אֶת הָעֵץ:

15

The four handbreadths of a chain for a large bucket that are closest to the bucket contract impurity with the bucket for it is necessary for its use. The remainder is pure, because it does not have an independent name. Ten handbreadths of the chain of a small bucket are susceptible to impurity.

טו

שַׁלְשֶׁלֶת דְּלִי גָּדוֹל אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים מִמֶּנָּה סָמוּךְ לַדְּלִי מִתְטַמְּאָה עִם הַדְּלִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא צֹרֶךְ הַדְּלִי וְהַשְּׁאָר טָהוֹר לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וְשַׁלְשֶׁלֶת דְּלִי קָטָן עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים:

16

All of the following: a metal ball, an anvil, an iron shaft of a builder, a carpenter's leveling tool, a smith's "donkey," plumb-weights used by builders, the iron beams used to press olives, a metal dispenser for a mill, the blade with which scribes cut of the tips of the reeds with which they write, a metal pen, a stylus and a ruler with which scribes rule lines are all susceptible to impurity. For each one of these articles has an independent name.

טז

הַכַּדּוּר שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת וְהַסַּדָּן. וְהַקַּנְטָר שֶׁל בַּנַּאי. וְהַדַּקָּר שֶׁל חָרָשׁ. וַחֲמוֹר שֶׁל נַפָּח. וְהַמְטֻלְטֶּלֶת. וְהַמִּשְׁקוֹלוֹת שֶׁל בַּנָּאִים. וְהַכִּירַיִם שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל שֶׁחוֹבְטִין בָּהֶם הַזֵּיתִים. וְהָאֲפַרְכֵּס שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. וְהָאוֹלָר שֶׁכּוֹרְתִין בּוֹ הַסּוֹפְרִים רֹאשׁ הַקֻּלְמוֹס שֶׁל קָנֶה. וְהַקֻּלְמוֹס שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. וְהַכַּן. וְהַכַּנָא שֶׁמְּשַׂרְטְטִין בּוֹ הַסּוֹפְרִים. כָּל אֵלּוּ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן יֵשׁ לוֹ שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ:

Kelim - Chapter 10

1

Pegs that reinforce a ceiling that are made to be pounded into wood are not susceptible to impurity. Similarly, this ruling applies to pegs that are pounded into walls to serve as hangers. If they are made to serve as an independent k'li, they are susceptible to impurity.

What is implied? A hook that was installed to enable one to open and lock a door, to remove a wick, or it was placed in a handmill or a mill powered by a donkey is susceptible to impurity. If it was made to open a barrel, it is pure unless its point is sharpened.

א

מַסְמְרוֹת שֶׁמַּחֲזִיקִין בָּהֶן הַתִּקְרָה הָעֲשׂוּיִין לִתְקֹעַ אוֹתוֹ בְּעֵצִים אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן הַמַּסְמְרוֹת שֶׁתּוֹקְעִין אוֹתָן בַּכְּתָלִים לִתְלוֹת בָּהֶן. וְאִם הִתְקִינוֹ לִהְיוֹת כְּלִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. כֵּיצַד. מַסְמֵר שֶׁהִתְקִינוֹ לִהְיוֹת פּוֹתֵחַ וְנוֹעֵל בָּהּ אוֹ לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַפְּתִילָה אוֹ שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁל יָד אוֹ שֶׁל חֲמוֹר הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. הִתְקִינוֹ לִפְתֹּחַ בּוֹ אֶת הֶחָבִית טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיִּצְרְפֶנּוּ:

2

A peg that is made as a sign to guard an entrance is not susceptible to impurity. Similarly, the peg of a money-changer on which he hangs his scale and his purse is pure. Similarly, pegs for metal brushes are pure even though these pegs have a different form than other pegs used as hangers.

ב

מַסְמֵר הֶעָשׂוּי כְּסִימָן לִשְׁמִירַת הַפֶּתַח אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן מַסְמֵר שֶׁל שֻׁלְחָנִי שֶׁתּוֹלֶה בּוֹ הַמֹּאזְנַיִם וְהַכִּיס טָהוֹר. וְכֵן תְּלוֹיֵי הַמִּגְרָדוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּסְמְרִין אֵלּוּ מְשֻׁנִּין בְּצוּרָתָן מִשְּׁאָר מַסְמְרוֹת הַתְּקִיעָה:

3

A bloodletter's needle, i.e., the utensil with which he draws blood, is susceptible to impurity. The pointer of a sundial is pure.

ג

מַסְמֵר הַגָּרָע וְהוּא הַכְּלִי שֶׁמַּקִּיזִין מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וּמַסְמֵר שֶׁל אֶבֶן הַשָּׁעוֹת טָהוֹר:

4

A weaver's needle, i.e., the long needle that is like a spit which the weaver inserts into a cylinder coming from a reed or wood around which he winds the threads is susceptible to impurity.

ד

מַסְמֵר הַגַּרְדִּי וְהוּא הַמַּסְמֵר הָאָרֹךְ כְּעֵין שִׁפּוּד שֶׁמַּכְנִיס בּוֹ הָאוֹרֵג שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַקָּנֶה אוֹ הָעֵץ וְלוֹפֵף עָלֶיהָ חוּטִים מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

5

These are the metal keilim in a wagon that are susceptible to impurity: the metal shaft, the wooden yoke, the wings into which the straps are inserted, the metal rod below the necks of the animals, the support, the "limper," the containers, the bell, the hook, and the pegs which attach all the different parts of the wagon together.

These are the components of a wagon that are pure: a plated wooden shaft, the wings that are made only as ornamental articles, a reed that makes a sound, a lead plate hanging from the neck of an animal, the metal rimming of a wheel, ornamental plates, and coatings. Similarly, all other pegs it contains are pure.

ה

אֵלּוּ כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת הַמִּתְטַמְּאוֹת בָּעֲגָלָה. הָעל שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. וְהַקַּטְרָב. וְהַכְּנָפַיִם הַמְקַבְּלוֹת אֶת הָרְצוּעוֹת. וּבַרְזֶל שֶׁתַּחַת צַוְּארֵי הַבְּהֵמָה. וְהַסּוֹמֵךְ. וְהַמַּחְגֵּר. וְהַתַּמְחֻיּוֹת. וְהַעִנְבּוֹל. וְהַצְּנִירָה. וּמַסְמֵר הַמְחַבֵּר אֶת כֻּלָּם. וְאֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִים בָּעֲגָלָה. הָעל שֶׁל עֵץ הַמְצֻפֶּה. וּכְנָפַיִם הָעֲשׂוּיִין לְנוֹי. וְהַשְּׁפוֹפָרוֹת הַמַּשְׁמִיעוֹת אֶת הַקּוֹל. וְהָאֲבָר שֶׁבְּצַד צַוְּארֵי בְּהֵמָה. וְהַסּוֹבֵב שֶׁל גַּלְגַּל. וְהַטַּסִּין וְהַצִּפּוּיִין. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמַּסְמְרוֹת שֶׁבָּהּ טְהוֹרִין:

6

The scorpion of the olive press is susceptible to ritual impurity. Even though a chest for ground lentils is pure, if there is a metal carriage below it, it is susceptible to impurity.

ו

עַקְרָב בֵּית הַבַּד מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. אָרוֹן שֶׁל גָּרוֹסוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר אִם הָיְתָה תַּחְתָּיו עֲגָלָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

7

A pepper mill is susceptible to ritual impurity because of each of the three keilim of which it is comprised: one is susceptible to impurity because it is a metal k'li, another, because it is a receptacle, and the third, because it is a sieve.

ז

רֵחַיִם שֶׁל פִּלְפְּלִין מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִשּׁוּם שְׁלֹשָׁה כֵּלִים מִשּׁוּם כְּלִי מַתָּכוֹת וּמִשּׁוּם כְּלִי קִבּוּל וּמִשּׁוּם כְּבָרָה:

8

A metal door in a cabinet of a homeowner is not susceptible to impurity. Such a door in a cabinet of a doctor is susceptible to impurity, because bandages are placed there and scissors are hung from it.

ח

הַדֶּלֶת שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁבְּמִגְדָּל שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְשֶׁל רוֹפְאִים מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים בָּהּ אֶת הָאִסְפְּלָנִית וְתוֹלֶה בָּהּ אֶת הַמִּסְפָּרַיִם:

9

Metal plates on which a hot pot is placed are susceptible to impurity. Those that are affixed to a range are pure.

ט

טַסִּין שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁמְּנַעֲרִין בָּהֶן אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְהַקְּבוּעִין בַּכִּירָה טְהוֹרִין:

10

Tongs with which one squeezes the wick are susceptible to impurity. The metal bars that hold up a mill from its front are not susceptible to impurity, because they are made only in order to reinforce the mill.

י

הַמֶּלְקָחַיִם שֶׁמְּמָעֵךְ בָּהֶן אֶת הַפְּתִילָה מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְהַצִּנּוֹרוֹת שֶׁתּוֹפְסוֹת אֶת הָרֵחַיִם מִלְּמַעְלָה אֵינָן מְקַבְּלוֹת טֻמְאָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיוֹת אֶלָּא לְחַזֵּק:

11

A bolt that locks double-doors: if it is made of metal, it is impure. If it is made of wood coated with metal, it is pure

יא

קְלוֹסְטְרָא שֶׁנּוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ הַדְּלָתוֹת אִם הָיְתָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת מִתְטַמְּאָה. הָיְתָה שֶׁל עֵץ וּמְצֻפָּה מַתֶּכֶת טָהוֹר:

12

The pointed end of a lock and the base of a lock are impure.

יב

הַפִּין וְהַפּוּרְנָא טְמֵאִים:

13

The ball of a weaving needle is pure, because it serves the wood.

יג

פִּיקָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת טְהוֹרָה לְפִי שֶׁהִיא מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת אֶת הָעֵץ:

14

A weaving needle, a spindle, a walking stick, and a symphonia or flute of metal are susceptible to impurity. If they are made of wood and coated with metal, they are pure with the exception of a symphonia which, if it has a receptacle for wings, is impure even if it is coated.

יד

הַכּוּשׁ וְהַפִּימָא וְהַמַּקֵּל וְסִמְפּוֹנְיָא וְחָלִיל שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. הָיוּ שֶׁל עֵץ וּמְצֻפִּין מַתֶּכֶת טָהוֹר. חוּץ מִן הַסִּמְפּוֹנְיָא שֶׁאִם הָיָה בָּהּ בֵּית קִבּוּל כְּנָפַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא מְצֻפָּה טְמֵאָה:

15

With regard to a trumpet that is split up into different pieces: If only a craftsman would know how to put it together, it is susceptible to impurity while the pieces are connected. If anyone can take it apart and reconstruct it, it is not susceptible to impurity.

טו

הַחֲצוֹצֶרֶת שֶׁמְּפֻצֶּלֶת חֻלְיוֹת חֻלְיוֹת. אִם אֵין יוֹדֵעַ לְהַחְזִירָהּ אֶלָּא אֻמָּן הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהִיא מְחֻבֶּרֶת. וְאִם יְכוֹלִין הַכּל לְפָרְקָהּ וּלְהַחֲזִירָהּ אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

16

The end of the round trumpet on which one places his mouth when blowing is susceptible to impurity independently. The wide portion is not susceptible to impurity independently. While they are connected, everything is susceptible to impurity.

A similar ruling: The branches of a candelabrum are not susceptible to impurity, because they have an accompanying name. Its flower and its base are susceptible to impurity. While they are connected, all the components are susceptible to impurity.

טז

הַקָּצֶה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין הַפֶּה עָלָיו בִּשְׁעַת תְּקִיעָה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וְהַקָּצֶה הָאַחֵר הָרָחָב אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וּבִשְׁעַת חִבּוּר הַכּל טָמֵא. כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ קְנֵי מְנוֹרָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן שֵׁם לְוַוי. הַפֶּרַח שֶׁלָּהּ וְהַבָּסִיס מִתְטַמְּאִין בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן וּבִשְׁעַת חִבּוּר הַכּל טָמֵא:

17

A target for arrows that has metal strips is susceptible to impurity. A metal boot placed on prisoners' feet is pure. A metal collar is susceptible to impurity.

A saw whose teeth were inserted into a slit in a lintel and project into the doorway is not susceptible to impurity even though one makes use of it. If he inserted it in the slit of the doorway after it became impure, it remains impure until one affixes it with a nail. If he turned it over, whether from above, from below or from the sides, it is pure.

יז

קוֹרַת הַחִצִּים שֶׁהִיא הַמַּטָּרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ לְשׁוֹנוֹת שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְשֶׁמַּנִּיחִים אוֹתָהּ בְּרַגְלֵי הָאֲסוּרִים טְהוֹרָה. וְהַקּוֹלָר מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. מְגֵרָה שֶׁעָשָׂה שִׁנֶּיהָ לְחוֹר הַדֶּלֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְאִם מִשֶּׁנִּטְמֵאת עֲשָׂאָהּ לְחוֹר הַדֶּלֶת הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּטֻמְאָתָהּ עַד שֶׁיִּקְבָּעֶנָּה בְּמַסְמֵר. הֲפָכָהּ בֵּין מִלְּמַעְלָה בֵּין מִלְּמַטָּה בֵּין מִן הַצְּדָדִים טְהוֹרָה:

Kelim - Chapter 11

1

To what degree must metal keilim be broken so as not to be susceptible to ritual impurity or to be purified from ritual impurity? Everything depends on the nature of the k'li involved.

א

כַּמָּה שִׁעוּר הַשֶּׁבֶר שֶׁיִּשָּׁבֵר כְּלִי מַתֶּכֶת וְלֹא יְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה אוֹ יִטְהַר מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ. הַכּל לְפִי מַה שֶּׁהוּא:

2

As long as the k'li can be used in a way resembling its intended task, it is considered as a k'li and is considered like a complete k'li.

What is implied? A metal bucket that was broken but still can be used to draw water is considered a k'li as it was before. An urn is still susceptible to impurity if it can be used to heat water; a samovar, if it can contain selaim; a large pot, if it can contain metal pitchers; a metal pitcher, if it can contain perutot, wine measures, if they can measure wine; oil measures, if they can measure oil.

When three holes, one next to the other, in the bottom of a strainer for mustard seed, were widened, it is pure, because it is no longer fit for its original task. When the hollow of a builder's shovel is removed, it is pure, even though it appears like a hammer, for it is no longer useful for its original purpose, but instead, as a hammer, and it was not made to pound objects as a hammer does. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ב

כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַכְּלִי יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתּוֹ עֲדַיִן הוּא כְּלִי וְחָשׁוּב כְּלִי שָׁלֵם. כֵּיצַד. כְּלִי שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּר וַהֲרֵי הוּא יָכוֹל לְמַלְּאוֹת בּוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּלִי כְּשֶׁהָיָה. הַקֻּמְקוּם כְּדֵי לָחֹם בּוֹ חַמִּין. הַמֵּחַם כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל סְלָעִים. הַלֶּפֶס כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל קִיתוֹנוֹת שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. הַקִּיתוֹן כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל פְּרוּטוֹת. מִדּוֹת הַיַּיִן כְּדֵי לָמֹד בָּהֶן הַיַּיִן. וְכֵן מִדּוֹת הַשֶּׁמֶן כְּדֵי לָמֹד בָּהֶן הַשֶּׁמֶן. מְסַנֶּנֶת שֶׁל חַרְדָּל שֶׁנִּפְרְצוּ בָּהּ שְׁלֹשָׁה נְקָבִים מִלְּמַטָּה זֶה לְתוֹךְ זֶה טְהוֹרָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּהּ. מַגְרֵפָה שֶׁנִּטְּלָה כַּפָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא כְּקֻרְנָס טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ עוֹשָׂה מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּהּ אֶלָּא מֵעֵין הַקֻּרְנָס. וְהִיא לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית לִתְקֹעַ בָּהּ כְּקֻרְנָס. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

3

When the teeth of a comb for wool have been removed, it is impure as long as three teeth remain in one place. If, however, one of the external teeth was one of the three, it is pure, because it is no longer useful for combing flax, because the exterior tooth is not effective when combing. Hence we follow the principle: Whenever a metal k'li can no longer be used for its intended purpose, it is pure.

If two teeth were taken and made into tweezers, they are impure. If one was removed and it is used for the sake of a lamp or for thread to be wound around it for weaving, it is susceptible to impurity. If it was a thick and large tooth, even though it was not prepared for a particular function, it contracts impurity independently.

ג

מַסְרֵק שֶׁל צֶמֶר שֶׁנִּטְּלוּ שִׁנָּיו אִם נִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד טָמֵא. הָיְתָה הַחִיצוֹנָה אַחַת מִן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה טָהוֹר לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִסְרֹק בּוֹ פִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁהַחִיצוֹנָה אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת לִסְרֹק וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתּוֹ בִּכְלִי מַתֶּכֶת טָהוֹר. נְטָלוֹ מִן הַמַּסְרֵק שְׁתַּיִם וַעֲשָׂאָן לִמְלַקֶּטֶת טְמֵאוֹת. אַחַת וְהִתְקִינָהּ לְנֵר אוֹ לִלְפֹּף עָלֶיהָ הַחוּט לְרִקּוּם מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַשֵּׁן עָבָה וּגְדוֹלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִתְקִינָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ מִתְטַמֵּאת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ:

4

When the teeth of a comb for flax were removed, but two remained, it is impure. If only one remains, it is pure.

ד

מַסְרֵק שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁנִּטְּלוּ שִׁנָּיו וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שְׁתַּיִם טָמֵא. נִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ אַחַת טָהוֹר:

5

When a kedum is broken, but its hooks are intact, they are still impure, because it is possible to use them to remove a bucket from a well as before.

ה

הַכְּרוּמִים שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ וְאֻנְקְלִי שֶׁלָּהֶן קַיֶּמֶת טְמֵאִין שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לְהוֹצִיא בָּהֶן הַדְּלִי מִן הַבְּאֵר כְּשֶׁהָיוּ מִקֹּדֶם:

6

When the teeth of a saw are removed in an alternating pattern, it is pure. If a portion the full length of a sit remained intact in one place, it is impure, because it is possible to saw with the portion that remains.

ו

מְגֵרָה שֶׁנִּטְּלָה שֵׁן אַחַת מִבֵּינְתַיִם טְהוֹרָה. נִשְׁתַּיֵּר בָּהּ מְלוֹא הַסִּיט בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד טְמֵאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לָגוּר בַּנִּשְׁאָר:

7

A hatchet, a blade, a plane, a drill, that have been damaged are still susceptible to impurity. If their steel portion is removed, they are pure. If any of them is divided into two, they are impure with the exception of the drill, because it is no longer possible to make holes with it. A runkey alone is not susceptible to impurity, because it is only part of a k'li.

ז

הַמַּעֲצָד וְהָאִזְמֵל וְהַמַּפְסֶלֶת וְהַמַּקְדֵחַ שֶׁנִּפְגְּמוּ עֲדַיִן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. נִטַּל חִסּוּמָן טְהוֹרִין. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁנֶּחְלְקוּ לִשְׁנַיִם טְמֵאִין חוּץ מִן הַמַּקְדֵּחַ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִנְקֹב בּוֹ. וְהָרוּנְקִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מִקְצָת כְּלִי:

8

When a sword, a knife, a knife that is curved like a sickle, a spear, a hand sickle, a harvesting sickle, a small household scissors, or a larger barber's scissors are divided in two, each of their components is susceptible to impurity, because it is still able to be used for a task resembling its primary function.

ח

הַסַּיִף וְהַסַּכִּין וְהַסַּכִּין הֶעָקֹם כְּמוֹ מַגָּל וְהָרֹמַח וּמַגַּל יָד וּמַגַּל קָצִיר וְזוּג מִסְפָּרַיִם קְטַנִּים שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים וְזוּג מִסְפָּרַיִם גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁל סַפָּרִים שֶׁנֶּחְלְקוּ כָּל חֵלֶק מֵהֶן מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתּוֹ:

9

When a shaver is divided into two, it is pure, because in that state it can only remove hair with difficulty.

ט

מִסְפָּרַיִם שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה לִשְׁנַיִם טְהוֹרָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַעֲבֶרֶת אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר אֶלָּא בְּדֹחַק:

10

When armor is divided along its length, it is pure. When divided along its width, if it still can serve its initial purpose, it is impure. When does it become pure? When it becomes worn out to the extent that it can no longer perform its original task.

The following rules apply if it became worn out, but its major portion remained intact. If the upper portion remains, it is impure. If it covers the lower portion, it is pure. If one cut of part of the armor and made it a link for an ornament, it is susceptible to ritual impurity.

י

שִׁרְיוֹן שֶׁנֶּחְלַק לְאָרְכּוֹ טָהוֹר. לְרָחְבּוֹ אִם מְשַׁמֵּשׁ מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתּוֹ רִאשׁוֹנָה טָמֵא. מֵאֵימָתַי טָהֳרָתוֹ מִשֶּׁיִּבְלֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתּוֹ. בָּלָה וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ רֻבּוֹ אִם מִלְּמַעְלָה טָמֵא וְאִם מִלְּמַטָּה טָהוֹר. קִצֵּץ מִמֶּנּוּ וְעָשָׂה חֻלְיָא לְתַכְשִׁיט הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

11

A bellows used by goldsmiths, glassmakers, blacksmiths, and glaziers that was divided into two lengthwise, is pure. If it is split widthwise, when it can serve its initial purpose, it is impure. If not, it is pure.

יא

שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁל זֶהָבִים וְשֶׁל זוֹגִין וְשֶׁל נַפָּחִים וְשֶׁל עוֹשֵׂי זְכוּכִית שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה לְאָרְכָּהּ טְהוֹרָה. לְרָחְבָּהּ אִם מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּהּ רִאשׁוֹנָה טְמֵאָה וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרָה:

12

When tongs used by barbers, doctors, or glassmakers are divided into two, they are pure. Those used by blacksmiths that are divided are impure. The rationale is that at the outset, they are used to stir coals and in their present state, they can be used to stir coals.

יב

כַּלְבִיָא שֶׁל סַפָּרִים וְשֶׁל רוֹפְאִים וְשֶׁל עוֹשֵׂי זְכוּכִית שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה לִשְׁנַיִם טְהוֹרָה. וְשֶׁל נַפָּחִים טְמֵאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בַּתְּחִלָּה [חוֹתֶה בָּהּ אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים] וְעַכְשָׁו חוֹתֶה בָּהּ אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים:

13

When a metal mirror was broken or became scratched, if it does not reflect the majority of the face, it is pure. If it reflects the majority of the face, it is still considered a k'li as it was previously.

יג

מַרְאָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּטַּשְׁטְשָׁה אִם אֵינָהּ מַרְאָה רֹב הַפָּנִים טְהוֹרָה. הָיְתָה מַרְאָה רֹב הַפָּנִים עֲדַיִן הִיא כְּלִי כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה:

14

When either the eye or the point of a needle was removed, it is pure. If an adjustment was made with it so that thread could be wound around it and it could be used as an embroidery needle, it is impure. In contrast, when the eye of a sackmaker's needle is removed, it is impure, because the other end can still be used as a stylus.

יד

מַחַט שֶׁנִּטַּל קְצָתָהּ הַנָּקוּב אוֹ עֵקְצָהּ טְהוֹרָה. וְאִם הִתְקִינָהּ לִלְפֹּף עָלֶיהָ הַחוּט לִרְקֹם בָּהּ טְמֵאָה. אֲבָל מַחַט שֶׁל שַׂקִּין שֶׁנִּטַּל קְצָתָהּ הַנָּקוּב טְמֵאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רוֹשֵׁם בַּקָּצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי:

15

Different rules apply to a needle around which scarlet thread, gold thread, or the like is wound as is the practice of embroiderers. Whether the eye or the point is removed, it is still impure, because it is not used to sew.

טו

הַמַּחַט שֶׁלּוֹפְפִין עָלֶיהָ הַשָּׁנִי אוֹ הַזָּהָב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין הָרוֹקְמִין בֵּין שֶׁנִּטַּל הַנָּקוּב שֶׁלָּהּ בֵּין שֶׁנִּטַּל עֵקְצָהּ טְמֵאָה שֶׁאֵין מְלַאכְתָּהּ הַתְּפִירָה:

16

When a needle has become rusty, if the rust prevents sewing, it is pure. If not, it is impure.

טז

מַחַט שֶׁהֶעֶלְתָה חֲלוּדָה אִם מְעַכֶּבֶת הַתְּפִירָה טְהוֹרָה וְאִם לָאו טְמֵאָה:

17

When a sword or a knife become rusty, they are pure. If they are then smoothed or sharpened, they return to their initial impurity. Similarly, the hook on top of a flax spindle that was straightened is pure. If it was bent back again, it returns to its initial impurity.

יז

הַסַּיִף וְהַסַּכִּין שֶׁהֶעֱלוּ חֲלוּדָה טְהוֹרִין. שְׁפָאָן וְהִשְׁחִיזָן חָזְרוּ לְטֻמְאָתָן הַיְשָׁנָה. וְכֵן צִינוֹרָא שֶׁפְּשָׁטָהּ טְהוֹרָה. כְּפָפָהּ חָזְרָה לְטֻמְאָתָהּ הַיְשָׁנָה:

18

A key that is curved like a knee which is broken in the middle of its curve is pure. Similarly, a key that is shaped like a gamma which is broken at its vertex is pure. In both instances, they can no longer be used to open locks and thus they are not able to be used for their initial purpose.

If the broken portion has teeth and holes, it is impure, because it still can be used as a key. If its teeth are removed, it is impure because of the holes. If the holes are filled, it is impure because of the teeth. If the teeth were removed and the holes filled or the holes were expanded until they were joined, it is pure.

יח

מַפְתֵּחַ עָקֹם כְּמוֹ אַרְכֻּבָּה שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּר מִתּוֹךְ אַרְכֻּבּוֹתָיו טָהוֹר. וְכֵן מַפְתֵּחַ הֶעָשׂוּי כְּמִין גַּם שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּר מִתּוֹךְ גַּמּוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִפְתֹּחַ בָּהֶן וַהֲרֵי אֵינָן מְשַׁמְּשִׁין מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּן. הָיוּ בָּהּ שִׁנַּיִם וּנְקָבִים טָמֵא שֶׁעֲדַיִן הוּא מַפְתֵּחַ. נִטְּלוּ הַשִּׁנַּיִם טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַנְּקָבִים. נִסְתְּמוּ הַנְּקָבִים טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַשִּׁנַּיִם. נִטְּלוּ הַשִּׁנַּיִם וְנִסְתְּמוּ הַנְּקָבִים אוֹ שֶׁנִּפְרְצוּ הַנְּקָבִים זֶה לְתוֹךְ זֶה טָהוֹר:

19

The following rules apply when a k'li consists of a rod with a cup on one side used to pick up ash and a fork on the other side used to roast meat. If the cup was removed, it is impure because of the fork's teeth. If the fork's teeth are removed, it is impure because of the cup. Similarly, with regard to a utensil used to paint one's eyes, if the cup with which the dye is collected is removed, it is impure because of the applier used to dye the eye. If the applier is removed, it is impure because of the cup.

יט

כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ הָאֶחָד כַּף לֶהָרִים בּוֹ הַדֶּשֶׁן וּבְרֹאשׁוֹ הַשֵּׁנִי מַזְלֵג לִצְלוֹת בּוֹ הַבָּשָׂר נִטְּלָה כַּפּוֹ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שִׁנָּיו נִטְּלוּ שִׁנָּיו טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי כַּפּוֹ. וְכֵן מִכְחוֹל שֶׁנִּטְּלָה כַּפּוֹ שֶׁגּוֹרְפִין בָּהּ הַכְּחוֹל טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַזָּכָר שֶׁכּוֹחֲלִים בּוֹ הָעַיִן נִטַּל הַזָּכָר טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַכַּף:

20

Similar laws apply with regard to a k'li that has an iron net on one end on which food is roasted and teeth to remove meat from a pot or from a fire on the other end. If the net was removed, it is impure because of the teeth. If the teeth are removed, it is impure because of the net.

The same principles apply with regard to a metal pen which has one end that is used to write and another end that is used to erase. If the writing utensil is removed, it is impure, because of the eraser. If the eraser is removed, it is impure because of the writing utensil. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations provided the remaining instrument can still be used for its initial purpose.

What is implied? When the eraser is removed from a pen, but the writing utensil remains, if it is long enough to reach his knuckles, it is impure because it is possible to hold it and write with it. When the writing instrument is removed and the eraser remains, if its length matches the width of one's hand, it is impure, because one can erase with it. If less remains, it is pure. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

כ

כְּלִי שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁוֹ כַּף אֶחָד כִּסְבָכָה לִצְלוֹת עָלָיו וּבַקָּצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי שִׁנַּיִם לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֶן הַבָּשָׂר מִן הַקְּדֵרָה אוֹ מֵעַל הָאֵשׁ נִטְּלָה כַּפּוֹ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שִׁנָּיו נִטְּלוּ שִׁנָּיו טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי כַּפּוֹ. וְכֵן עֵט שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁכּוֹתְבִין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ הָאֶחָד וּבְרֹאשׁוֹ הַשֵּׁנִי מוֹחֲקִין נִטַּל הַכּוֹתֵב טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַמּוֹחֵק נִטַּל הַמּוֹחֵק טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַכּוֹתֵב. וְכֵן כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַנִּשְׁאָר יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּן. כֵּיצַד. עֵט שֶׁנִּטַּל הַמּוֹחֵק שֶׁלּוֹ וְנִשְׁאַר הַכּוֹתֵב אִם נִשְׁאַר מֵאָרְכּוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגַע לְקִשְׁרֵי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיֹּאחַז בּוֹ וְיִכְתֹּב בּוֹ. נִטַּל הַכּוֹתֵב וְנִשְׁאַר הַמּוֹחֵק אִם נִשְׁאַר מֵאָרְכּוֹ מְלוֹא פַּס יָדוֹ טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִמְחֹק בּוֹ. נִשְׁאַר פָּחוֹת מִזֶּה טָהוֹר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

21

When the narrow edge of a hatchet - i.e., the side that a carpenter uses to carve - is removed, it is impure, because of the side used to chop. If the side used to chop is removed, it is impure because of the narrow edge. If the socket into which the handle is inserted is broken, it is pure.

כא

קוֹרְדוֹם שֶׁנִּטַּל עֵשְׁפּוֹ וְהוּא הַצַּד שֶׁהֶחָרָשׁ מְנַגֵּר בּוֹ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי בֵּית בִּקּוּעוֹ. נִטַּל בֵּית בִּקּוּעוֹ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי בֵּית עֻשְׁפּוֹ. נִשְׁבַּר מַקִּיפוֹ טָהוֹר:

22

When a lance is damaged, it is still considered as a k'li until its major portion is removed. If, however, the socket into which the head of the lance is inserted is removed, it is pure.

כב

חַרְחוּר שֶׁנִּפְגַּם עֲדַיִן הוּא כְּלִי עַד שֶׁיִּנָּטֵל רֻבּוֹ. נִשְׁבַּר מַקִּיפוֹ טָהוֹר:

23

A plow is also called a malmad. It is comprised of a long, thick beam with something like a sharp peg implanted in its end from above. This metal peg is called a darvan. On the other end below is a metal projection like a spear. The wood that is inserted into it and this iron piece is called a lance.

כג

הַמַּרְדֵּעַ הוּא הַמַּלְמָד וְהוּא עֵץ אָרֹךְ עָב וּכְמוֹ מַסְמֵר חַד תָּקוּעַ בִּקְצָתוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה וְזֶה הַבַּרְזֶל נִקְרָא דָּרְבָן וּבַקָּצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי מִלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ בַּרְזֶל כְּמוֹ רֹמַח וְהָעֵץ נִכְנַס וְזֶה הַבַּרְזֶל נִקְרָא חַרְחוּר:

24

When a metal pipe which is like a tube becomes impure, if it is affixed to a staff or a door and is thus attached to wood, it becomes pure. If it did not contract impurity and it was affixed to a staff or a door, it is susceptible to impurity in its place. For any metal k'li that was fixed to a beam or a wall is susceptible to impurity until its function is changed. Therefore a metal baker's sheet that was affixed to a wall is impure. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations involving other metal objects that were affixed to wooden objects whether containers or flat keilim. They are susceptible to impurity as they were beforehand.

כד

מְנִיקַת שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁהִיא כְּמוֹ שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁנִּטְמְאָה מִשֶּׁיִּקְבָּעֶנָּה בַּמַּקֵּל אוֹ בַּדֶּלֶת וִיחַבְּרֶנָּה עִם הָעֵץ תִּטְהַר. לֹא נִטְמְאָה וּקְבָעָהּ בַּמַּקֵּל אוֹ בַּדֶּלֶת הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ שֶׁכָּל כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁקְּבָעָם בְּקוֹרָה אוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהָיוּ עַד שֶׁיְּשַׁנֶּה אֶת מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. לְפִיכָךְ דַּף שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִין שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁקְּבָעוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל טָמֵא. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה מִשְּׁאָר כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁנִּקְבְּעוּ בֵּין מְקַבְּלֵיהֶן בֵּין פְּשׁוּטֵיהֶן מְקַבְּלִים טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהָיוּ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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