ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 2

Classes on 1 Chapter Rambam

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 2

1

The white hair that is a sign of impurity for tzara'at is not less than two hairs. How long must they be? Long enough to be pulled out by tweezers. If one was long and the other was shorter than this measure or one was black and one white, or one was whole below but split in two above and so it appeared as two, or its base was black, but its top was white, the person is pure. If its base was white and its top dark, even though only the slightest amount was white, he is impure.

א

שֵׂעָר לָבָן שֶׁהוּא סִימַן טֻמְאָה בְּצָרַעַת אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה אָרְכָּן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִטָּלוֹת בְּזוּג. הָיְתָה אַחַת אֲרֻכָּה וְאַחַת קְצָרָה מִשִּׁעוּר זֶה. אוֹ אַחַת שְׁחוֹרָה וְאַחַת לְבָנָה. אוֹ אַחַת מִלְּמַטָּה וְנֶחְלְקָה מִלְּמַעְלָה וְנִרְאֵית כִּשְׁתַּיִם. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה עִקָּרָן מַשְׁחִיר וְרֹאשָׁן מַלְבִּין. הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. הָיָה עִקָּרָן מַלְבִּין וְרֹאשָׁן מַשְׁחִיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַלָּבָן כָּל שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא:

2

When there are two white hairs in a blemish, even though there is black hair between them and they are scattered, one in this portion and one in another portion, they serve as a sign of impurity. Even if the blemish was exactly the size of a gris, the space of the black hair does not reduce its size.

Whether the two hairs are in the midst of the baheret and it surrounds them or they are at its edge, the person is impure. If, however, they are at its side, outside of it, he is pure. The skin from which the two white hairs grow must be white in order to impart impurity.

If the two hairs originate in the midst of the blemish, but lie out of it, he is impure. If they originate outside of it, but lie within it, they are not a sign of impurity.

ב

שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לְבָנוֹת שֶׁהֵן בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שֵׂעָר שָׁחוֹר בֵּינֵיהֶן וְהֵן מְפֻזָּרוֹת אַחַת כָּאן וְאַחַת כָּאן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַנֶּגַע כִּגְרִיס מְצֻמְצָם אֵין מְקוֹם שֵׂעָר הַשָּׁחוֹר מְמַעֲטוֹ. וּבֵין שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּהֶרֶת וְהִיא מַקַּפְתָּן וּבֵין שֶׁהָיוּ בְּסוֹפָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ בְּצִדָּהּ מִבַּחוּץ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָעוֹר שֶׁצּוֹמְחוֹת שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הַלְּבָנוֹת לָבָן. הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע וְשׁוֹכְבוֹת חוּצָה לוֹ טָמֵא. הָיוּ חוּצָה לוֹ וְשׁוֹכְבוֹת בְּתוֹכוֹ אֵינָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה:

3

Any shade of whiteness in the hair causes the person to be deemed impure, whether they were white as snow or a very weak shade of whiteness. Since they appear white, he is impure.

ג

לֹבֶן הַשְּׂעָרוֹת מְטַמֵּא בְּכָל מַרְאֶה בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ לְבָנוֹת כַּשֶּׁלֶג בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ לְבָנוֹת לֹבֶן דָּהֶה בְּיוֹתֵר הוֹאִיל וּמַרְאֵיהֶן לָבָן טָמֵא:

4

White hair is not a sign of impurity unless it is inside the baheret itself.

What is implied? If there is a baheret and in its midst there is a boil, burnt skin, a bohak, a boil that has healed, a burn that has healed and there were two white hairs in the boil, the burnt flesh, or the bohak that is in the midst of the blemish, they are not signs of impurity. It is like a baheret that does not have white hair, in which instance, the person should be isolated. This ruling is rendered even though the baheret surrounds the boil, the burnt flesh, the healed boil or burnt flesh or the bohak in which the two hairs were located.

Similarly, if the boil, the burnt flesh, the healed boil or burnt flesh or the bohak surround the two hairs, they are not a sign of impurity. The baheret is like a baheret that does not have white hair and the person should be isolated.

ד

אֵין שֵׂעָר לָבָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּגוּף הַבַּהֶרֶת. כֵּיצַד. בַּהֶרֶת וּבְתוֹכָהּ שְׁחִין אוֹ מִכְוָה אוֹ בֹּהַק אוֹ מִחְיַת הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ מִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה וּשְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לְבָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ הַמִּכְוָה אוֹ הַבֹּהַק שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע אֵינָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה וַהֲרֵי זוֹ כְּבַהֶרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וְיַסְגִּיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבַּהֶרֶת מַקֶּפֶת אֶת הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ אֶת הַמִּכְוָה אוֹ אֶת מִחְיָתָן אוֹ אֶת הַבֹּהַק שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה שְׁחִין אוֹ מִכְוָה אוֹ מִחְיָתָן אוֹ בֹּהַק מַקִּיף אֶת שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֵינָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה וַהֲרֵי הַבַּהֶרֶת כְּבַהֶרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וְיַסְגִּיר:

5

If the boil, the bohak, or the burnt flesh that surround, are next to, or divide the white hairs disappear and thus the two hairs are found in the baheret itself at the end of the first week or the end of the second week of the isolation period, the person is declared as definitively impure. If these abnormal skin features do not disappear, he should be released from the process of inspection.

ה

הָלְכוּ לָהֶן הַשְּׁחִין וְהַבֹּהַק וְהַמִּכְוָה שֶׁהִקִּיפוּ אֶת הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הַלְּבָנוֹת אוֹ נִסְמָכִין לָהֶן אוֹ חוֹלְקִין אוֹתָן. וְנִמְצְאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּהֶרֶת בְּגוּפָהּ בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ הָרִאשׁוֹן אוֹ בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ הַשֵּׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה מֻחְלָט. וְאִם לֹא הָלְכוּ לָהֶן יִפְטְרֶנּוּ:

6

White hair is not a sign of impurity unless the baheret precedes the white hair. This can be inferred from Leviticus 13:10: "And it turned hair to white." Implied is that the baheret caused it to turn white. If, however, the white hair existed before the baheret, it is like a baheret that does not have a sign and the person should be isolated.

ו

אֵין שֵׂעָר לָבָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתַּקְדִּים הַבַּהֶרֶת אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר הַלָּבָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג י) "וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן" שֶׁתַּהֲפֹךְ אוֹתוֹ הַבַּהֶרֶת. אֲבָל אִם קָדַם שֵׂעָר לָבָן אֶת הַבַּהֶרֶת הֲרֵי הִיא כְּבַהֶרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה וְיַסְגִּיר:

7

The following rule applies when a person had a baheret which contained white hair which caused him to be deemed definitively impure, and afterwards, the baheret disappeared and left the white hair in its place. He was then deemed pure. Afterwards, another baheret returned to the place of the first baheret and thus there was white hair in its midst. This hair is called "entrusted hair." It is not a sign of impurity. The phrase "And it turned hair to white" implies that the baheret in question must cause the color of the hair to change and not another baheret.

ז

הָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וְהֻחְלַט בּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָלְכָה הַבַּהֶרֶת וְהִנִּיחָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְטִהֵר וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזְרָה בַּהֶרֶת אַחֶרֶת בִּמְקוֹם הַבַּהֶרֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וַהֲרֵי הַשֵּׂעָר לָבָן בְּתוֹכָהּ זֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא שְׂעַר פְּקֻדָּה. אֵינוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג י) "וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן" שֶׁהֲפָכַתּוּ הִיא לֹא שֶׁהֲפָכַתּוּ חֲבֵרְתָהּ:

8

The following rules apply if a person had a baheret the size of a gris, it contained two white hairs, and therefore he was deemed definitively impure. A portion half the size of a gris disappeared and he was deemed pure. The two hairs were located in the portion half the size of a gris that remained. Afterwards, half a gris returned to the place where the half that disappeared was. Thus there were two white hairs in a baheret the size of a gris. This is not considered a sign of impurity, for one entire baheret must cause the color of the two hairs to change.

ח

הָיָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּבָהּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת וְהֻחְלַט וְהָלַךְ מִמֶּנָּה כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וְטִהֵר וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת בַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס הַנִּשְׁאָר וְחָזַר כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס בִּמְקוֹם זֶה שֶׁהָלַךְ וַהֲרֵי שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לְבָנוֹת בַּבַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס אֵינָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיַּהֲפֹךְ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת בַּהֶרֶת אַחַת:

9

When a person had a baheret that was half the size of a gris without any white hair inside of it and then another baheret that was half the size of a gris which contained one white hair erupted at its side, the person should be isolated. If a person had a baheret that was half the size of a gris with one white hair inside of it and then another baheret that was half the size of a gris which contained one white hair erupted at its side, the person should be isolated. When a person had a baheret that was half the size of a gris which contained two white hairs and then another baheret that was half the size of a gris which contained one white hair erupted at its side, this person should be isolated. When a person had a baheret that was half the size of a gris without any white hair inside of it and then another baheret that was half the size of a gris which contained two white hairs erupted at its side, the person should be deemed definitively impure. The rationale is that a baheret preceded the two white hairs.

When there is a doubt whether the white hair came first or the baheret came first, the person is deemed impure. It appears to me that this impurity is of a questionable nature.

ט

בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וְאֵין בָּהּ כְּלוּם וְנוֹלְדָה בְּצִדָּהּ בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר אַחַת הֲרֵי זוֹ לְהַסְגִּיר. בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר אַחַת וְנוֹלְדָה לָהּ בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר אַחַת הֲרֵי זוֹ לְהַסְגִּיר. בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת וְנוֹלְדָה לָהּ בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שַׂעֲרָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זוֹ לְהַסְגִּיר. בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וְאֵין בָּהּ כְּלוּם וְנוֹלְדָה לָהּ בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ לְהַחְלִיט שֶׁהֲרֵי קָדְמָה בַּהֶרֶת לִשְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הַלְּבָנוֹת. סָפֵק שֵׂעָר לָבָן קָדַם סְפֵק הַבַּהֶרֶת קָדְמָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טָמֵא. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁטֻּמְאָתוֹ בְּסָפֵק: