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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Kelim - Chapter 6, Kelim - Chapter 7, Kelim - Chapter 8

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Kelim - Chapter 6

1

Whenever a k'li contracted impurity and, after it contracted impurity, it was broken to the point that its form was ruined and it could no longer serve the purpose for which it was made, it regains purity by being broken. Similarly, when keilim that were pure are broken, their broken pieces are not susceptible to ritual impurity.

א

כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְנִשְׁבַּר אַחַר שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְנִפְסְדָה צוּרָתוֹ וְתַשְׁמִישׁוֹ טָהוֹר בִּשְׁבִירָתוֹ. וְכֵן כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ כְּשֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין שִׁבְרֵיהֶן אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

2

To what extent must a wooden or bone k'li be broken before it regains ritual purity? All keilim belonging to ordinary, private persons are pure when they are broken to the extent that they cannot contain a pomegranate.

What is implied? If a container was perforated to the extent that a pomegranate would fall through, it is pure. The pomegranate about which we are speaking is one of intermediate size, one that an onlooker would neither consider large or small and we are speaking about an instance where there are three pomegranates in a container, one touching the other.

If a k'li that had contracted impurity became perforated to the extent that an olive would fall from it, the owner patched it, it then was perforated again in a different place to the extent that an olive would fall from it, the owner patched it, and this pattern continued until the hole is large enough that a pomegranate would fall from it, even though it is patched entirely, it is pure, because it is a new entity.

ב

כַּמָּה שִׁעוּר הַשֶּׁבֶר שֶׁיִּשָּׁבֵר בִּכְלִי עֵץ אוֹ כְּלִי עֶצֶם וְיִהְיֶה טָהוֹר. כָּל כְּלֵי בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים שִׁעוּרָן בְּרִמּוֹנִים. כֵּיצַד. מִשֶּׁיִּנָּקֵב הַכְּלִי בְּמוֹצִיא רִמּוֹן טָהוֹר. וְהָרִמּוֹן שֶׁאָמְרוּ בֵּינוֹנִי לֹא גָּדוֹל וְלֹא קָטָן, לְפִי דַּעַת הָרוֹאֶה. וְיִהְיוּ בַּכְּלִי שְׁלֹשָׁה רִמּוֹנִים אֲחוּזִים זֶה בָּזֶה. נִקַּב הַכְּלִי בְּמוֹצִיא זַיִת וּסְתָמוֹ וְחָזַר וְנִקַּב בְּמוֹצִיא זַיִת וּסְתָמוֹ [עַד שֶׁהִשְׁלִימוֹ לְמוֹצִיא] רִמּוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא סָתוּם טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשׂוּ לוֹ פָּנִים חֲדָשׁוֹת:

3

When keilim were originally made in a manner that pomegranates would fall from them, e.g., a basket and a rope-net carrier borne by camels and trellises, for vines are susceptible to ritual impurity unless their greater portion is torn.

ג

כֵּלִים שֶׁעֲשָׂאָן מִתְּחִלָּה נְקוּבִין בְּמוֹצִיא רִמּוֹן כְּגוֹן הַסַּל וְהַפֻּחְלָץ שֶׁל גְמַלִּים וְהָאַפִּיפְיָרוֹת מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּקָּרַע רֻבָּן:

4

Even though rods were attached to trellises above them and below them to reinforce them, the trellises are pure. If a frame of any size was made for them, even if the entire trellis has holes large enough for pomegranates to fall through, it is susceptible to ritual impurity.

ד

אֲפִּיפְיָרוֹת שֶׁעָשָׂה לָהֶן קָנִים לְמַעְלָה וּלְמַטָּה לְחַזֵּק טְהוֹרוֹת. עָשָׂה לָהֶן גַּפַּיִם כָּל שֶׁהֵן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ נְקוּבָה כְּמוֹצִיא רִמּוֹן מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

5

The size of a hole that renders as pure all vessels that cannot contain pomegranates, e.g., a container of a fourth of a kab, half a fourth of a kab, and wicker servers, is one sufficient for olives to fall through. Although their borders have been ruined, if there remains enough of the vessel to contain even the slightest amount, it is impure.

ה

כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְקַבֵּל רִמּוֹנִים כְּגוֹן הָרֹבַע וַחֲצִי רֹבַע וְהַקְּנוֹנִים הַקְּטַנִּים שִׁעוּרָן בְּמוֹצִיא זַיִת. נִגְמְמוּ שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן אִם נִשְׁאַר בָּהֶן כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל כָּל שֶׁהוּא טְמֵאִין:

6

Breadbaskets are rendered as pure if they possess a hole large enough for a loaf of bread to fall through.

ו

הַסַּלִּין שֶׁל פַּת שִׁעוּרָן כְּכִכָּרוֹת שֶׁל פַּת:

7

Gardeners' bushels are rendered as pure if they possess a hole large enough for a bundle of vegetables to fall through. Bushels of homeowners are rendered as pure when they possess a hole large enough for a bundle of straw to fall through. Those used by bathhouse attendants are rendered as pure when they possess a hole large enough for stubble to fall through.

ז

קֻפַּת הַגַּנָּנִים מִשֶּׁתּוֹצִיא אֲגֻדּוֹת שֶׁל יָרָק טְהוֹרָה. וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים בְּמוֹצִיא תֶּבֶן. שֶׁל בַּלָּנִין בִּגְבָבָא:

8

A chest for bowls that cannot hold bowls is nevertheless susceptible to ritual impurity, because it can hold pots. Similarly, even if a chamber pot cannot contain liquids, since it can contain feces, it is susceptible to impurity.

ח

בֵּית קְעָרוֹת שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל קְעָרוֹת הוֹאִיל וּמְקַבֵּל הַתַּמְחוּיִין הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן בֵּית הָרְעִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל מַשְׁקִין הוֹאִיל וּמְקַבֵּל אֶת הָרְעִי הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

9

Any wooden container that is divided in two is pure even though its walls could serve as a container, as a frying pan does, with the exception of wooden utensils that half or a portion of them is considered as an independent utensil from its fashioning at the outset. Examples of the latter include a double table that at the outset was made in two parts and it is folded over and extended, a pot with compartments for different types of food which includes many bowls, each of its compartments having complete bowls, a double bench, and the like.

Similarly, when one of the holders in a wooden case for bottles or cups was ruined, the one that is ruined is pure and is not considered as joined to the other holders. If a second one is ruined, it is pure and is not considered as joined to the case. If all three are ruined, they are pure. Similar laws apply in situations involving comparable types of keilim.

ט

כָּל כְּלִי עֵץ שֶׁנֶּחְלַק לִשְׁנַיִם טָהוֹר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקַבְּלִין עַל דָּפְנוֹתֵיהֶן בְּאִלְפָּסִין. חוּץ מִכֵּלִים שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁחֶצְיָן אוֹ מִקְצָתָן כְּלִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ מִתְּחִלַּת עֲשִׂיָּתָן כְּגוֹן הַשֻּׁלְחָן הַכָּפוּל שֶׁמִּתְחִלָּה נַעֲשָׂה שְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים וַהֲרֵי הוּא נִכְפָּל וְנִפְשָׁט. וּכְגוֹן הַתַּמְחוּי הַמִּזְנוֹן שֶׁהוּא קְעָרוֹת קְעָרוֹת וַהֲרֵי בְּכָל חֵלֶק מֵחֲלָקָיו קְעָרוֹת שְׁלֵמוֹת. וּכְגוֹן הַכִּסֵּא הַכָּפוּל וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. וְכֵן בֵּית לָגִינִין וּבֵית הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁנִּפְחַת אֶחָד מֵהֶן זֶה שֶׁנִּפְחַת טָהוֹר וְאֵינוֹ חִבּוּר לִשְׁאָר הַבָּתִּים. נִפְחַת הַשֵּׁנִי טָהוֹר וְאֵינוֹ חִבּוּר לוֹ. נִפְחֲתוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּן כֻּלָּן טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּכֵלִים כָּאֵלּוּ:

10

When the center of a wicker crate used to spread fertilizer is upraised and its sides are lower, it is still susceptible to impurity if one side is ruined, because it can still contain fertilizer from the other side. If the other side is also ruined, it is pure.

When part of a table or a counter for drinks is ruined, it is still susceptible to impurity until it was divided and separated into its component parts entirely. If one of its legs was removed, it is pure. This ruling also applies if the second was removed. If the third was also removed and one had the intent to eat on this table or counter like one eats on a serving board, it is susceptible to impurity. If not, it is pure.

י

מַשְׁפֶּלֶת שֶׁאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ גְּבוֹהָה וְזָוִיּוֹתֶיהָ יוֹרְדוֹת וְנִפְחֲתָה מִצַּד אֶחָד טְמֵאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מְקַבֶּלֶת מִצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי. נִפְחֲתָה מִצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי טְהוֹרָה. הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַדֻּלְפְּקִי שֶׁנִּפְחֲתוּ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיֵּחָלְקוּ וְיִבָּדֵל כָּל חֵלֶק מֵחֲבֵרוֹ. נִטְּלָה אַחַת מֵרַגְלֵיהֶן טְהוֹרָה. וְכֵן אִם נִטְּלָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה. נִטְּלָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁית אִם חִשֵּׁב עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיֹּאכַל עַל שֻׁלְחָן זֶה אוֹ עַל דֻּלְפְּקִי זוֹ כְּמוֹ אוֹכֵל בְּטַבְלָא מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרִין:

11

Wicker utensils whose borders have fallen off are pure. If even the slightest bit of the seal around their border remains, they are susceptible to impurity.

יא

כְּלֵי נְסָרִים שֶׁנָּפְלוּ שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם נִשְׁאַר מַחְסוֹם שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן כָּל שֶׁהוּא מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

12

When a serving board was filled with pieces of wood that were attached to it, it is pure. If it is covered with boards, it is susceptible to impurity.

יב

טַבְלָא שֶׁמִּלְּאָהּ עֵצִים וּתְקָעָהּ טְהוֹרָה. חִפָּהּ בִּנְסָרִים מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

13

When a bench falls apart, it is pure. If one tied it together with straps or ropes, it is susceptible to impurity.

יג

סַפְסָל שֶׁנִּתְפָּרֵק טָהוֹר. סִרְגְּלוֹ בִּמְשִׁיחוֹת אוֹ בַּחֲבָלִים מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

14

A camel's saddle-baskets that were released are pure. If the driver returned and tied them, they are susceptible to impurity. Thus they can become susceptible to impurity and then released from impurity even ten times a day.

יד

הַסַּלִּים שֶׁל גְּמַלִּים הִתִּירָן טְהוֹרִין חָזַר וּקְשָׁרָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. נִמְצְאוּ מִתְטַמְּאִין וּמִתְטַהֲרִין אֲפִלּוּ עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים בְּיוֹם:

15

When a table or a counter for drinks were covered with marble, but the place where cups are placed was left uncovered, it is susceptible to ritual impurity. If one covered the entire surface, it is pure. This ruling applies whether the coating is permanently affixed or not, whether it covers its frame or not, whether the table was made from valuable wood like boxwood or the like or from other wood, since it was covered, it is pure, as we explained.

טו

הַשֻּׁלְחָן אוֹ הַדֻּלְפְּקִי שֶׁחִפָּן בְּשַׁיִשׁ וְשִׁיֵּר בָּהֶם מְקוֹם הַנָּחַת הַכּוֹסוֹת מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וְאִם חִפָּה הַכּל טָהוֹר. בֵּין בְּצִפּוּי עוֹמֵד בֵּין בְּצִפּוּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד בֵּין שֶׁחִפָּה אֶת לְבַזְבְּזָיו בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא חִפָּן בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁל עֵצִים חֲשׁוּבִים כְּגוֹן אֶשְׁכְּרוֹעַ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁל שְׁאָר עֵצִים הוֹאִיל וְחִפָּן כֻּלָּן טְהוֹרִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Kelim - Chapter 7

1

At which point does a leather k'li become susceptible to ritual impurity?

A shepherd's satchel - From the time its edges are folded over and sealed close to make a border, one trims the tiny pieces that project beyond the leather, and makes straps with which it could be closed.

A leather mat - When its borders are trimmed and its ornament is made.

A leather bedsheet - When its borders are sealed and trimmed.

A leather pillow or cushion - When its borders are sealed and the strands that emerge are trimmed. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

Tefillin - When one finishes the cube. Even though one will later add the strap, it is susceptible to impurity at this stage.

A leather base for a cradle for which loops will be made - When those loops are made.

A sandal - When its leather will be bent over.

A shoe - When it is placed on its mold. If, in the future, one will color it yellow and make designs, it is not susceptible to impurity until one colors it and makes designs.

א

כְּלֵי עוֹר מֵאֵימָתַי מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. הַתּוּרְמָל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם שִׂפְתוֹתָיו וְיִכְרֹת הַקּוֹפִין הַקְּטַנִּים הַיּוֹצְאִין עַל גַּבֵּי הָעוֹר וְיַעֲשֶׂה קִיחוֹתָיו. סְקוּרְטִיָה מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם וְיִכְרֹת וְיַעֲשֶׂה צִיצָתָהּ. קַטַבוּלְיָה מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם וְיִכְרֹת. הַכַּר וְהַכֶּסֶת שֶׁל עוֹר מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן וְיִכְרֹת הַקּוֹפִין הַיּוֹצְאִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. הַתְּפִלִּין מִשֶּׁיִּגְמֹר הַקְּצִיצָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לָתֵת בָּהּ אֶת הָרְצוּעָה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. עוֹר הָעֲרִיסָה שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ טַבּוּר עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂנּוּ לוֹ. הַסַּנְדָּל מִשֶּׁיַּקְמִיעַ. הַמִּנְעָל מִשֶׁיִּגּוֹב [עַל] הָאִמּוּם. וְאִם עָתִיד לְכָרְכָם וּלְשַׂרְטֵט עַד שֶׁיִּכְרְכֵם וִישַׂרְטֵט:

2

When a hide does not have the shape of a k'li, it is not susceptible to impurity. Therefore a leather hand-covering which people who gather thorns tie around their hands so that they will not be wounded by a thorn is not susceptible to impurity, for it is a simple hide and it does not have the form of a k'li. Similarly, a hide used to collect cow turds, a hide used to muzzle the mouth of an animal, a hide used to chase away bees when gathering honey, and a hide used as a fan because of the heat are pure and are not susceptible to impurity.

ב

עוֹר שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. לְפִיכָךְ כַּף שֶׁל עוֹר שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין לוֹקְטֵי קוֹצִים עַל כַּפּוֹתֵיהֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכֵּם קוֹץ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹר פָּשׁוּט וְאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי. וְכֵן הָעוֹר שֶׁמְּלַקְּטִין בּוֹ גְּלָלֵי הַבָּקָר וְעוֹר שֶׁחוֹסְמִין בּוֹ פִּי הַבְּהֵמָה וְעוֹר שֶׁמּוֹשִׁיבִין בּוֹ הַדְּבוֹרִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁלּוֹקְחִין הַדְּבַשׁ וְעוֹר שֶׁמְּנִיפִין בּוֹ אֶת הָרוּחַ מִפְּנֵי הַחֹם טְהוֹרִין וְאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

3

All finger-coverings of leather are pure except those of fruit reapers. They are impure, because they are used to collect sumach berries. If they are torn and cannot hold the major portion of a sumach berry, they are pure.

ג

כָּל בֵּית הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת שֶׁל עוֹר טְהוֹרוֹת חוּץ מִשֶּׁל קַיָיצִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מְקַבֶּלֶת אֶת הָאוֹג טְמֵאָה. נִקְרְעָה אִם אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת אֶת רֹב הָאוֹג טְהוֹרָה:

4

Leather belts and the pieces of leather amputees place on their stumps so they can walk on them on the ground are susceptible to impurity, because they have the form of a k'li. Similarly, leather rings which craftsmen place on their arms to hold up their garments to prevent them from interfering with them during their work are susceptible to impurity like other simple leather keilim.

ד

הָאַבְנֵט שֶׁל עוֹרוֹת וְעוֹרוֹת שֶׁתּוֹפְרִין הַקִּטְּעִים עַל אַרְכֻּבּוֹתֵיהֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְגַּלְגְּלוּ בָּהֶן עַל הַקַּרְקַע מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי צוּרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן. וְכֵן הָעוֹרוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת כְּעֵין טַבָּעוֹת שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן הָאֻמָּנִין בִּזְרוֹעוֹתֵיהֶן כְּדֵי לְהַגְבִּיהַּ בִּגְדֵיהֶן מֵעֲלֵיהֶן בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה מִתְטַמְּאִין כִּשְׁאָר כְּלֵי עוֹר הַפְּשׁוּטִים:

5

When a piece of leather is sewn to cover the hands and the arms of those who winnow grainheaps, travelers, or those who make flax, it is susceptible to ritual impurity. If it is used by painters or blacksmiths, it is not susceptible to impurity.

This is the general principle: Anything that is made as a receptacle, to protect one from thorns, or so that one will have a good grip is susceptible to impurity. Anything that is made as protection against sweat, i.e., so that the article with which one is working not be ruined because of the sweat of one's hands is not susceptible to impurity.

ה

עוֹר שֶׁתּוֹפְרִין מִמֶּנּוּ כִּסּוּי לְיָד וְלִזְרוֹעַ שֶׁל זוֹרְעֵי גִּנּוֹת וְשֶׁל הוֹלְכֵי דְּרָכִים וְשֶׁל עוֹשֵׂי פִּשְׁתָּן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְאִם הָיָה שֶׁל צַבָּעִים וְשֶׁל נַפָּחִים אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל הֶעָשׂוּי לְקַבָּלָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכֵּהוּ קוֹץ וּכְדֵי שֶׁיֹּאחַז יָפֶה יָפֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְהֶעָשׂוּי מִפְּנֵי הַזֵּעָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפָּסֵד הַדָּבָר שֶׁמִּתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ בְּזֵעַת יָדוֹ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

6

How large must a hole in a leather k'li be for it to be pure? A carrying case for food - when its hole is large enough for a ball of the warp thread to fall through. If it cannot contain the warp, but it does contain the woof, it is susceptible to impurity unless the hole comprises the majority of the container.

ו

כַּמָּה שִׁעוּר הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁיִּנָּקֵב כְּלִי הָעוֹר וְיִטְהַר. הַחֵמֶת מִשֶּׁתִּנָּקֵב כְּמוֹצִיא פְּקָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל שְׁתִי. וְאִם אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְקַבֵּל שֶׁל שְׁתִי הוֹאִיל וּמְקַבֶּלֶת שֶׁל עֵרֶב מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּנָּקֵב רֻבָּהּ:

7

A leather sathchel whose inner pocket was ripped is still susceptible to impurity. It is not considered as attached to the pocket.

ז

הַתֻּרְמִיל שֶׁנִּפְחַת הַכִּיס שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ עֲדַיִן הַתֻּרְמִיל מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה וְאֵינוֹ חִבּוּר לוֹ:

8

The following laws apply when a drinking pouch was made from the hide of an animal, the scrotum was often left and was used as part of the container. If it was opened, it is pure, because it cannot contain liquids in the ordinary manner.

ח

הַחֵמֶת שֶׁהַבֵּצִים שֶׁלָּהּ מְקַבְּלוֹת עִמָּהּ וְנִפְחֲתוּ טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן מְקַבְּלוֹת כְּדַרְכָּן:

9

When leather keilim have loops and straps - e.g., sandals worn on flat land or a pouch tied close with a strand - even though when they are untied, they do not have the shape of a k'li, they are still susceptible to impurity in that state. The rationale is that even an ordinary person can insert the strands in the loops and return the k'li to its previous shape. Similarly, if they contracted impurity and the straps were removed from them and their shape was undone, they are pure even though it is possible to restore them without a craftsman's activity.

ט

כְּלִי עוֹר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לוּלָאוֹת וּשְׁנָצוֹת כְּגוֹן סַנְדָּל עִמְקִי וְכִיס שֶׁל שְׁנָצוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהֵן מֻתָּרִין אֵין עֲלֵיהֶן צוּרַת כְּלִי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהֵן מֻתָּרִין הוֹאִיל וְהַהֶדְיוֹט יָכוֹל בִּמְהֵרָה לְהַכְנִיס הַשְּׁנָצוֹת בַּלּוּלָאוֹת וְיַחְזֹר כְּלִי קִבּוּל כְּשֶׁהָיָה. וְכֵן אִם נִטְמְאוּ וְהֵסִיר הַשְּׁנָצוֹת מֵהֶן וְנִפְסְדָה צוּרָתָן הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַחְזִירָן שֶׁלֹּא בְּאֻמָּן:

10

Although the strands from a pouch closed by strands have been removed, it is still susceptible to impurity, because it can still serve as a container. If it was straightened out and returned to the form of a simple piece of leather, it is pure. If one attached a hook from which it could be hung from below, it is susceptible to impurity even when it is straightened out, because it has the form of a k'li.

י

כִּיס שֶׁל שְׁנָצוֹת שֶׁנִּטְּלוּ שְׁנָצָיו עֲדַיִן הוּא מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מְקַבֵּל. נִפְשַׁט וְחָזַר עוֹר פָּשׁוּט טָהוֹר. טָלָה עָלָיו אֶת הַמַּטְלֵת מִלְּמַטָּה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא פָּשׁוּט שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי:

11

A piece of leather used to wrap an amulet is susceptible to impurity. If one straightens it out, it is pure. If one uses it again to wrap an amulet, it is susceptible to impurity. It can become impure and pure, even ten times during a day.

The parchment on which one writes an amulet is pure. If one cut of a piece and made a ring to use it as an ornament, it is susceptible to impurity.

יא

עוֹר שֶׁכָּרַךְ בּוֹ אֶת הַקָּמֵעַ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. פְּשָׁטוֹ טָהוֹר. חָזַר וְכָרַךְ בּוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. מִתְטַמֵּא וּמִתְטַהֵר אֲפִלּוּ עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים בְּיוֹם. וְעוֹר שֶׁכָּתַב עָלָיו אֶת הַקָּמֵעַ טָהוֹר. וְאִם כָּרַת מִמֶּנּוּ וְעָשָׂה חֻלְיָא לְתַכְשִׁיט מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

12

The head tefillin is considered as four separate containers. Should it contract impurity from a human corpse and one remove the first compartment and then restore it, it is still a primary source of impurity as it was. This ruling also applies if one removes the second compartment and restores it. If one removed the third and restored it and removed also the fourth and restored it, the entire tefillin is considered a primary derivative of impurity. For he removed each one of them and then restored them all, thus it is as if this "second" tefillin touched the original tefillin.

If he then removed the first compartment a second time and then restored it, the tefillin remains a primary derivative as before. This ruling also applies if one also removed the second and the third compartments. If one removed also the fourth compartment and then restored the tefillin, it is entirely pure. For a primary derivative of impurity does not impart impurity to articles, because it is a derivative itself, as we explained.

Similarly, when a sandal was impure because of contact with a zav or the like and one of its pegs was detached and it was repaired, it is still impure as before. If the other one also became detached and he repaired it, the sandal is purified from the impurity, because it has new pegs. It is, however, impure due to contact with an article that is impure because of contact with a zav. If he did not repair the first until the second was detached, the heel or the toe of the sandal was removed, or it was divided in two, it is pure.

יב

הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ אַרְבָּעָה כֵּלִים הִיא. הֲרֵי שֶׁנִּטְמֵאת בְּמֵת וְהִתִּיר קְצִיצָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְתִקְּנָהּ הֲרֵי הִיא אַב טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה. וְכֵן אִם הִתִּיר הַשְּׁנִיָּה וְתִקְּנָהּ. וְאִם הִתִּיר אַף הַשְּׁלִישִׁית וְתִקְּנָהּ וְהִתִּיר אַף הָרְבִיעִית וְתִקְּנָהּ נַעֲשֵׂית כֻּלָּהּ רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי הִתִּיר כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת וְחָזַר וְתִקְּנָם כֻּלָּם וּכְאִלּוּ זוֹ תְּפִלִּין אַחֲרוֹנוֹת שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בָּרִאשׁוֹנוֹת. חָזַר וְהִתִּיר אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה וְתִקְּנָהּ הֲרֵי הִיא רִאשׁוֹן כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה. וְכֵן אִם הִתִּיר אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה וְאֶת הַשְּׁלִישִׁית. חָזַר וְהִתִּיר אַף הָרְבִיעִית וְתִקְּנָהּ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּהּ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין הָרִאשׁוֹן מְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא וָלָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵן סַנְדָּל שֶׁהוּא טְמֵא מִדְרָס וְנִפְסְקָה אַחַת מֵאָזְנָיו וְתִקְּנָהּ טָמֵא מִדְרָס. נִפְסְקָה שְׁנִיָּה וְתִקְּנָהּ הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר מִן הַמִּדְרָס שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשׂוּ לוֹ אָזְנַיִם חֲדָשׁוֹת אֲבָל טְמֵא מַגַּע מִדְרָס. לֹא הִסְפִּיק לְתַקֵּן אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עַד שֶׁנִּפְסְקָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה אוֹ שֶׁנִּפְסַק עֲקֵבוֹ אוֹ נִטַּל חָטְמוֹ אוֹ נֶחְלַק לִשְׁנַיִם טָהוֹר:

13

When a shoe was damaged, if it does not cover the majority of the foot, it is pure.

יג

מִנְעָל שֶׁנִּפְחַת אִם אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל רֹב הָרֶגֶל טָהוֹר:

14

When do tefillin that have contracted impurity become pure again? The arm tefillin - when it is released from the base on three sides. The head tefillin - when it is released from the base on three sides and each of the compartments are separated from each other.

יד

תְּפִלָּה שֶׁנִּטְמֵאת מֵאֵימָתַי טָהֳרָתָהּ. שֶׁל יָד מִשֶּׁיַּתִּיר אוֹתָהּ מִשָּׁלֹשׁ רוּחוֹת. וְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ מִשֶּׁיַּתִּיר מִשָּׁלֹשׁ רוּחוֹת וּבֵין קְצִיצָה לַחֲבֵרְתָהּ:

15

When a ball, a mold, an amulet, or tefillin were torn after they contracted impurity from a human corpse, one who touches them is impure. If he touches their contents, he is pure.

When a saddle that is impure is torn, one who touches its insides is impure, because the sewing attaches it to the saddle itself and it is considered as a single entity.

טו

הַכַּדּוּר וְהָאִמּוּם וְהַקָּמֵע וְהַתְּפִלִּין שֶׁנִּקְרְעוּ אַחַר שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן טָמֵא וּבְמַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָן טָהוֹר. הָאִכּוּף שֶׁנִּקְרַע הַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּמַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַתֶּפֶר מְחַבְּרוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה כֻּלּוֹ כְּגוּף אֶחָד:

Kelim - Chapter 8

1

All metal keilim are not susceptible to ritual impurity until the tasks involved in fashioning them are totally completed and they are no further tasks to be performed with them at all. Unfinished metal keilim, by contrast, are not susceptible to impurity at all.

א

כָּל כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּן כֻּלָּהּ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה הַכְּלִי מְחֻסַּר מַעֲשֶׂה כְּלָל. אֲבָל גָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

2

The following are unfinished metal utensils: anything that will be smoothed with a file, have its surfaced leveled, have its uneven points scraped away, be polished, be pounded with a hammer, or is lacking a handle or a rim. Such a utensil is not susceptible to impurity until it was finished and beautified to the extent that no work is required for it at all.

What is implied? A sword does not contract impurity until it has been smoothed, nor a knife until it has been sharpened. Similar concepts apply with regard to other comparable acts. Accordingly, when one makes utensils from a block of iron ore, a bar of metal, or the iron surface of a wheel, from plates, from the coverings of utensils, from the base of utensils, from the rims of utensils, from the handles of utensils, from metal scrap removed from utensils or pieces cut away from utensils, they are pure. For all of these are considered as unfinished metal utensils.

If, however, one fashions a utensil from broken metal utensils or from utensils that have worn out over the course of time, or from nails that were made from utensils, these are susceptible to impurity, because they are not in an unfinished state. If, however, it is not known whether nails were made from utensils or from blocks of iron ore, they are pure. Even if they were formed into a k'li, they are not susceptible to impurity.

ב

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן גָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת כָּל שֶׁעָתִיד לָשׁוּף אוֹתוֹ אוֹ לְשַׁבֵּץ אוֹ לִגְרֹר אוֹ לְכַרְכֵּב אוֹ לְהַקִּישׁ בְּקֻרְנָס. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְחֻסַּר אֹזֶן אוֹ אֹגֶן. הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיְּתַקְּנֶנּוּ וִייַפֵּהוּ וְלֹא תִּשָּׁאֵר בּוֹ מְלָאכָה כְּלָל. כֵּיצַד. הַסַּיִף אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ. וְהַסַּכִּין עַד שֶׁיַּשְׁחִיזֶנָּה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּמַעֲשִׂים אֵלּוּ. לְפִיכָךְ הָעוֹשֶׂה כֵּלִים מִן הָעֶשֶׁת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל אוֹ מִן הַחֲרָרָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת וּמִן הַסּוֹבֵב שֶׁל גַּלְגַּל וּמִן הַטַּסִּין וּמִן הַצִּפּוּיִין וּמִכַּנֵּי הַכֵּלִים וּמֵאֹגְנֵי הַכֵּלִים וּמֵאָזְנֵי הַכֵּלִים וּמִן הַשְּׁחוּלָה וּמִן הַגְּרוֹדֶת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ גָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת הֵן. אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה כְּלִי מִשִּׁבְרֵי כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת וּמִן הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲקוּ מֵרֹב הַזְּמַן וּמִן הַמַּסְמְרוֹת שֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ מִן הַכֵּלִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָם גּוֹלָמִים. אֲבָל מַסְמְרוֹת שֶׁאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם נַעֲשׂוּ מִן הַכֵּלִים אוֹ מִן הָעֶשֶׁת הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין אֲפִלּוּ הִתְקִין אוֹתָם לִכְלִי אֵינָם מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

3

When a metal k'li is only lacking a cover, it is susceptible to ritual impurity. For the cover is not considered as part of the k'li itself.

ג

כְּלִי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻסָּר אֶלָּא כִּסּוּי מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה שֶׁאֵין הַכִּסּוּי חָשׁוּב מִגּוּף הַכְּלִי:

4

When a needle was made without a hole, but instead was smoothed and prepared for use in such a state at the outset, it is susceptible to impurity, because it can be used to remove a splinter. If, ultimately, however, one intends to make a hole in it, it is like other unfinished metal utensils and is not susceptible to impurity.

ד

מַחַט שֶׁלֹּא נִקְּבָהּ אֶלָּא שָׁפָהּ וְתִקְּנָהּ לְכָךְ מִתְּחִלָּתָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמּוֹצִיאִין בָּהּ אֶת הַקּוֹץ. אֲבָל אִם עָתִיד לְנַקְּבָהּ הֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׁאָר גָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת וְאֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

5

We have explained that, according to Scriptural Law, unfinished metal keilim are pure and unfinished wooden keilim are impure and conversely, flat metal keilim are impure and flat wooden keilim are pure. Thus keilim that are impure when made from wood are pure when made from metal. And keilim that are impure when made from metal are pure when made from wood.

ה

מֵאַחַר שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁגָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת טְהוֹרִים וְגָלְמֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ טְמֵאִים. וּפְשׁוּטֵי כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת טְמֵאִים וּפְשׁוּטֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ טְהוֹרִים דִּין תּוֹרָה. נִמְצָא הַטָּמֵא בִּכְלֵי עֵץ טָהוֹר בִּכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת טָמֵא בִּכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת טָהוֹר בִּכְלֵי עֵץ:

6

All articles of war, e.g., a sword, a spear, a helmet, armor, soldiers' boots, and the like are susceptible to ritual impurity. All ornaments for humans, e.g., a necklace, earrings, rings - whether with a seal or without a seal - or the like, are susceptible to ritual impurity. Even if a dinar was disqualified for use and it was adapted to be hung from the neck of a girl, it is susceptible to impurity. Similarly, a metal amulet is susceptible to impurity like other jewelry for humans.

ו

כָּל כְּלֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה כְּגוֹן הַסַּיִף וְהָרֹמַח וְהַכּוֹבַע וְהַשִּׁרְיוֹן וְהַמַּגָּפַיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְכָל תַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאָדָם כְּגוֹן הַקַּטָלָה וְהַנְּזָמִים וְהַטַּבָּעוֹת בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן חוֹתָם בֵּין שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם חוֹתָם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. אֲפִלּוּ דִּינָר שֶׁנִּפְסַל וְהִתְקִינוֹ לִתְלוֹתוֹ בְּצַוַּאר קְטַנָּה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן קָמֵעַ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת מִתְטַמֵּא כְּכָל תַּכְשִׁיט אָדָם:

7

All ornaments used for animals and keilim, by contrast - e.g., the rings made for the neck of an animal and for the handles of keilim are pure and are not susceptible to impurity independently with the exception of the bell of an animal or a k'li that creates a sound desired by humans.

What is implied? When one makes bells for a spice mill, a cradle, book-covers, and children's diapers, they are pure. If one made clappers for them, they are susceptible to impurity. Since they were made to create a sound for a person, they are considered as ornaments for humans. Even if the clapper was removed afterwards, they are still susceptible to impurity, because it is still fit to generate a sound by banging it on a shard.

ז

כָּל תַּכְשִׁיטֵי הַבְּהֵמָה וְהַכֵּלִים כְּגוֹן הַטַּבָּעוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לְצַוַּאר הַבְּהֵמָה וּלְאָזְנֵי הַכֵּלִים טְהוֹרִין וְאֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן. חוּץ מִזּוֹג שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה וְכֵלִים הַמַּשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל לָאָדָם. כֵּיצַד. הָעוֹשֶׂה זוֹגִין לְמַכְתֶּשֶׁת וְלַעֲרִיסָה לְמִטְפְּחוֹת סְפָרִים וְתִינוֹקוֹת טְהוֹרִים. עָשָׂה לָהֶן עִנְבּוֹלִין מְקַבְּלִים טֻמְאָה הוֹאִיל וְנַעֲשׂוּ לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל לָאָדָם הֲרֵי הֵן כְּתַכְשִׁיטֵי אָדָם. וַאֲפִלּוּ נִטְּלוּ עִנְבּוֹלֵיהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא רָאוּי לְהַקִּישׁוֹ עַל הַחֶרֶס:

8

The following rules apply when a bell was made for a person. If it was made for a minor, it is not susceptible to impurity unless it has its clapper, because it was meant to produce a sound. If it was made for an adult, it is considered as an ornament and is susceptible to impurity even though it does not have a clapper.

ח

זוֹג הֶעָשׂוּי לְאָדָם. אִם נַעֲשָׂה לְקָטָן אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה אֶלָּא בַּעִנְבּוֹל שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי לְקוֹל נַעֲשָׂה. נַעֲשָׂה לְגָדוֹל הֲרֵי זֶה תַּכְשִׁיט וּמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ עִנְבּוֹל:

9

All masks are susceptible to impurity. All seals are pure with the exception of a metal seal that is used to imprint a seal. All rings are pure except the rings worn on a finger. In contrast, the ring used to gird one's loins or one that is tied between one's shoulders is pure. A ring used as an animal collar is susceptible to impurity, because a person uses it to pull the animal. Similarly, a staff made of metal used to control an animal is susceptible to impurity.

ט

כָּל הַפַּרְצוּפוֹת מְקַבְּלוֹת טֻמְאָה. וְכָל הַחוֹתָמוֹת טְהוֹרִין. חוּץ מֵחוֹתָם שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁבּוֹ חוֹתְמִין בִּלְבַד. וְכָל הַטַּבָּעוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת חוּץ מִטַּבַּעַת אֶצְבַּע. אֲבָל טַבַּעַת שֶׁחוֹגֵר בּוֹ אֶת מָתְנָיו שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרָהּ בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו טְהוֹרָה. טַבַּעַת הַשֵּׁיר שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה הוֹאִיל וְהָאָדָם מוֹשֵׁךְ בָּהּ אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן מַקֵּל שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת הוֹאִיל וְאָדָם רוֹדֶה אוֹתָהּ בּוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

10

All keilim can become susceptible to impurity through thought, but do not lose that susceptibility unless a deed is performed to change their function. A deed negates the influence of a previous deed or thought, but thought does not negate the influence of a previous thought or deed.

What is implied? A ring used for an animal or a k'li that one thought to use as a ring for a person. That thought itself causes a change in the ring's status and makes it subject to ritual impurity, as if originally it was made with the intent of being used for a human. If, afterwards, one reconsidered and thought to leave it as a ring for an animal as it was, it remains susceptible to impurity, even though a person never used it as an ornament. For one thought does not negate the effect of another thought unless one performs a deed in the actual physical substance of the entity, for example, to polish it or to adjust it as is done for an animal.

If there was a ring used for humans and one thought to use it for an animal, it is still susceptible to impurity as it was originally, for a k'li's susceptibility to impurity cannot be nullified by thought. If one performed a deed, changing it into an animal's ring, it is not susceptible to impurity, for deed can negate the influence of a previous deed.

י

כָּל הַכֵּלִים יוֹרְדִים לְטֻמְאָה בְּמַחְשָׁבָה וְאֵין עוֹלִין מִידֵי טֻמְאָה אֶלָּא בְּשִׁנּוּי מַעֲשֶׂה. וְהַמַּעֲשֶׂה מְבַטֵּל מִיַּד הַמַּעֲשֶׂה וּמִיַּד הַמַּחְשָׁבָה. וְהַמַּחְשָׁבָה אֵינָהּ מְבַטֶּלֶת לֹא מִיַּד הַמַּעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא מִיַּד הַמַּחְשָׁבָה. כֵּיצַד. טַבַּעַת בְּהֵמָה אוֹ כֵּלִים שֶׁחָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ לְהַחְזִירָהּ טַבַּעַת אָדָם הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה בְּמַחְשָׁבָה זוֹ וּכְאִלּוּ נַעֲשֵׂית לְאָדָם מִתְּחִלַּת עֲשִׂיָּתָהּ. חָזַר וְחִשֵּׁב עָלֶיהָ לְהַנִּיחָהּ טַבַּעַת בְּהֵמָה כְּשֶׁהָיָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְקַשֵּׁט בָּהּ הָאָדָם הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה שֶׁאֵין הַמַּחְשָׁבָה מְבַטֶּלֶת מִיַּד הַמַּחְשָׁבָה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה בַּגּוּף כְּגוֹן שֶׁיָּשׁוּף אוֹתָהּ אוֹ יִתְקָעָהּ בְּמַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה. הָיְתָה הַטַּבַּעַת לָאָדָם וְחִשֵּׁב עָלֶיהָ לִבְהֵמָה עֲדַיִן הִיא מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁאֵין הַכֵּלִים עוֹלִין מִידֵי טֻמְאָתָן בְּמַחְשָׁבָה. עָשָׂה בָּהּ מַעֲשֶׂה וְשִׁנָּה לִבְהֵמָה אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה שֶׁהַמַּעֲשֶׂה מְבַטֵּל מִיַּד הַמַּעֲשֶׂה:

11

The deeds of a deafmute, a mentally or emotionally compromised individual, or a minor are significant. Their thoughts are not significant, as explained above with regard to making foods susceptible to impurity.

יא

חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן יֵשׁ לָהֶן מַעֲשֶׂה וְאֵין לָהֶן מַחֲשָׁבָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ לְמַעְלָה בְּעִנְיַן הֶכְשֵׁר אֳכָלִין:

12

When one thought of using a bell used for a door for an animal, it is susceptible to impurity. When one made the bell of an animal suitable for a door, even if he attached it to the ground and even when he attached it with a nail, it remains susceptible to impurity until one performs a deed affecting the substance of the bell itself.

יב

זוֹג שֶׁל דֶּלֶת שֶׁחִשֵּׁב עָלֶיהָ לִבְהֵמָה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְשֶׁל בְּהֵמָה שֶׁעֲשָׂאוּהוּ לַדֶּלֶת אֲפִלּוּ חִבְּרוֹ בַּקַּרְקַע וַאֲפִלּוּ קְבָעוֹ בְּמַסְמֵר מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהָיָה עַד שֶׁיְּשַׁנֶּה בּוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה בְּגוּפוֹ:

13

The following laws apply when a craftsman makes - and carries a stock - of bells for both animals and doors. If the majority of his stock is made for entities that cause them to be susceptible to impurity, the entire stock is considered as susceptible to ritual impurity unless he sets aside a portion specifically for entities that do not cause them to be susceptible to impurity. If the majority is made for entities that do not cause them to be susceptible to impurity, the entire stock is not considered as susceptible to ritual impurity unless he sets aside a portion of the stock specifically for entities that cause them to be susceptible to impurity.

יג

אֻמָּן שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה וּמַנִּיחַ זוֹגִין לִבְהֵמָה וְלִדְלָתוֹת אִם רֹב הֶעָשׂוּי לְדָבָר שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה הֲרֵי הַכּל מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ מִקְצָתָן לְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְאִם רֹב הֶעָשׂוּי לְדָבָר שֶׁאֵין מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה הֲרֵי הַכּל טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ מִקְצָתָן לְדָבָר הַמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

14

Wherever bells are found, they are susceptible to impurity, except in large cities, for there the majority are made for doors.

יד

זוֹגִין הַנִּמְצָאִין בְּכָל מָקוֹם מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה חוּץ מֵהַנִּמְצָאִים בַּכְּרַכִּים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרֻבָּן לִדְלָתוֹת:

15

If a person tells a craftsman: "Make me two bells, one for a door and one for an animal," "...two mats, one to lie on and one to use in constructing a tent," "...two sheets, one for designs and one for a curtain for a tent," they both are susceptible to impurity unless he explicitly states: "This is for this purpose and this is for the other.

"

טו

אָמַר לְאֻמָּן עֲשֵׂה לִי שְׁנֵי זוֹגִים אֶחָד לְדֶלֶת וְאֶחָד לִבְהֵמָה. עֲשֵׂה לִי שְׁתֵּי מַחְצְלָאוֹת אַחַת לִשְׁכִיבָה וְאַחַת לְאֹהָלִים. עֲשֵׂה לִי שְׁנֵי סְדִינִים אֶחָד לְצוּרוֹת וְאֶחָד לְאֹהָלִים. שְׁנֵיהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיְּפָרֵשׁ וְיֹאמַר זֶה לְכָךְ וְזֶה לְכָךְ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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