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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Kelim - Chapter 3, Kelim - Chapter 4, Kelim - Chapter 5

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Kelim - Chapter 3

1

Any wooden k'li that is made with the intent that it remain in one place, even though it is made to contain only a small amount, is not susceptible to ritual impurity, neither according to Scriptural Law, nor according to Rabbinic Law. Conversely, any wooden k'li that is intended to be carried whether full or empty like a sack - even if it holds 100 se'ah and it has a base, since it is not intended to remain in one place - it is susceptible to ritual impurity according to Scriptural Law like other receptacles.

Whenever a k'li's use is undefined, if it has a base to rest upon on the ground so that it is not easily rolled and it could hold 40 se'ah of liquid measure which equals two kor in dry measure, it is not susceptible to impurity at all, neither according to Scriptural Law nor Rabbinic Law, because it can be assumed that it is not intended to be moved.

These principles are part of our received tradition. According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that just as a sack is carried whether full or empty, so too, a wooden implement is not susceptible to impurity unless it would be carried full or empty. This excludes a wooden implement that is intended to remain in one place.

א

כָּל כְּלִי עֵץ הֶעָשׂוּי לְנַחַת אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל אֶלָּא דָּבָר מוּעָט אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה לֹא מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְלֹא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְכָל כְּלִי עֵץ הֶעָשׂוּי לְהִתְטַלְטֵל מָלֵא וְרֵיקָן כְּשַׂק אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה מַחֲזִיק מֵאָה סְאָה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שׁוּלַיִם הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְנַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה דִּין תּוֹרָה כִּשְׁאָר כְּלֵי קִבּוּל. וְכָל כְּלִי עֵץ שֶׁהוּא סְתָם אִם הָיוּ לוֹ שׁוּלַיִם לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם עַל הַקַּרְקַע כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נוֹחַ לְהִתְגַּלְגֵּל וְהָיָה מַחֲזִיק אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה בְּלַח שֶׁהֵן כּוֹרַיִים בְּיָבֵשׁ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה כְּלָל לֹא מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְלֹא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֶזְקָתוֹ שֶׁעָשׂוּי לְנַחַת. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי קַבָּלָה הֵן. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ מָה שַׂק שֶׁהוּא מִתְטַלְטֵל מָלֵא וְרֵיקָן אַף כְּלִי עֵץ לֹא יִטְמָא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה מִטַּלְטֵל מָלֵא וְרֵיקָן לְהוֹצִיא כְּלִי עֵץ הֶעָשׂוּי לְנַחַת:

2

Keilim that are made to remain in one place, e.g., a chest, a counter, a closet, a bee-hive like container made of reeds, a reservoir of drinking water for a large ship, and the like, if they contain 40 se'ah, they are not susceptible to ritual impurity.

The following are wooden keilim that are intended to be moved even when they are full: a large barrel of water that is placed on a wagon, a food trolley of kings, a leather maker's trough, the water reservoir of a small ship that cannot sail on a large sea, and a coffin. Even though all of these five types of wooden keilim contain more than 40 se'ah, they are susceptible to impurity, because initially they were made to be carried while full.

It can be assumed that all other wooden containers that are made to hold 40 se'ah and that have a base are not meant to be carried when full. Therefore they are not susceptible to ritual impurity. Similarly, containers made of bone or leather that hold 40 se'ah of liquid measure are not susceptible to impurity unless they were initially made to be carried when they were full.

ב

הַכֵּלִים שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן שֶׁהֵן עֲשׂוּיִין לְנַחַת כְּגוֹן שִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל וְכַוֶּרֶת הַקַּשׁ וְכַוֶּרֶת הַקָּנִים וּבוֹר סְפִינָה גְּדוֹלָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. אִם הֵן מַחֲזִיקִין אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַכֵּלִים שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁהֵן עֲשׂוּיִין לְהִתְטַלְטֵל בִּמְלוֹאָן. דִּרְדּוּר שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הָעֲגָלָה וְקוֹסְטוֹת הַמְּלָכִים וַעֲרֵבַת הַעֲבְּדָן וּבוֹר סְפִינָה קְטַנָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהַלֵּךְ בְּאֶמְצַע הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל וְהָאָרוֹן. כָּל אֶחָד מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת כְּלֵי עֵץ אֵלּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מְקַבְּלִין יוֹתֵר מֵאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשׂוּ מִתְּחִלָּתָן אֶלָּא לְהִטַּלְטֵל מְלֵאִין. וּשְׁאָר כָּל כְּלֵי עֵץ אִם הָיוּ מְקַבְּלִין אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם שׁוּלַיִם חֶזְקָתָן שֶׁאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין לְהִתְטַלְטֵל בִּמְלוֹאָן וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן כְּלֵי עֶצֶם וּכְלֵי הָעוֹר הַמְקַבְּלִין אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה בְּלַח אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נַעֲשׂוּ מִתְּחִלָּתָן כְּשֶׁהֵן מְלֵאִין:

3

Large chests, counters, and closets of glass are pure. Other glass containers, even if they hold more than 40 se'ah, are susceptible to ritual impurity. This is an added stringency that applies to glass keilim over wooden keilim.

ג

הַשִּׁדָּה וְהַתֵּבָה וְהַמִּגְדָּל שֶׁל זְכוּכִית הַבָּאִים בְּמִדָּה טְהוֹרִין וּשְׁאָר כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקַבְּלִין אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה הֲרֵי הֵן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְזֶה חֹמֶר בִּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית מִבִּכְלֵי עֵץ:

4

Whenever the volume of a container is one cubit by one cubit with a height of three cubits, it will contain 40 se'ah of liquid measure. When the container is measured, it is measured from the outside. If it is one cubit by one cubit with a height of three cubits, it is pure even though its inner space is less than that. For the thickness of the walls does not reduce its size. The breadth of its legs and the breadth of its border, if it has one, is not included in its measure.

ד

כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּשִׁבּוּרוֹ אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה בְּרוּם שָׁלֹשׁ הֲרֵי הוּא מַחֲזִיק אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה בְּלַח. וּכְשֶׁמּוֹדְדִין אֶת הַכְּלִי מוֹדְדִין אוֹתוֹ מִבַּחוּץ אִם הָיָה בּוֹ אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה בְּרוּם שָׁלֹשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין תּוֹכוֹ אֶלָּא פָּחוֹת מִזֶּה הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין עֳבִי הַדְּפָנוֹת מְמַעֵט. אֲבָל עֳבִי הָרַגְלַיִם וָעֳבִי הַזֵּר אִם הָיָה לוֹ זֵר אֵין נִמְדָּדִין עִמּוֹ:

5

If there was a drawer in a small counter, e.g., a drawer in a chest, it is not included in the measure of its volume if it can be removed. It is not considered as attached to it, nor is it protected from impurity by it in a shelter that is impure due to the presence of a human corpse. If it cannot be removed, it is measured with it and they are considered as one utensil.

ה

הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי תֵּבָה קְטַנָּה כְּגוֹן מוּכְנִי שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַשִּׁדָּה בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא נִשְׁמֶטֶת אֵינָהּ נִמְדֶּדֶת עִמָּהּ וְאֵינָהּ חִבּוּר לָהּ וְאֵינָהּ מַצֶּלֶת עִמָּהּ בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת. וְאִם אֵינָהּ נִשְׁמֶטֶת נִמְדֶּדֶת עִמָּהּ וַהֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלִי אֶחָד:

6

When a large container has a domed cover, if it is permanently affixed to it, it is included in its measurement. If it is not permanently affixed, it is not. If it has drawers that open to the inside, they are measured with it. If they open to the outside, they are not measured with it.

ו

הָיָה לַכְּלִי כִּסּוּי קָמוּר בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא קָבוּעַ נִמְדָּד עִמּוֹ. אֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ אֵינוֹ נִמְדָּד עִמּוֹ. הָיוּ בּוֹ מְגוּרוֹת מִבִּפְנִים נִמְדֶּדֶת עִמּוֹ. וְאִם הָיוּ מִבַּחוּץ אֵינָן נִמְדָּדוֹת עִמּוֹ:

7

Even though a wooden container does not hold 40 se'ah when standing upright, if it could hold such an amount when leaned on its side or supported by another entity, since it is ultimately capable of holding more than 40 se'ah, it is pure.

ז

כְּלִי עֵץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה כְּדַרְכּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִטָּהוּ עַל צִדּוֹ אוֹ סְמָכוֹ בְּדָבָר אַחֵר הוֹאִיל וּמְקַבֵּל אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מִכָּל מָקוֹם טָהוֹר:

8

When one of the legs of a chest, a counter, or a closet was removed - even though it was not perforated and thus they can still serve as containers - they are pure. The rationale is that they still have a base and it can be assumed that the intent is still that they will not be moved like they were originally.

ח

הַשִּׁדָּה וְהַתֵּבָה שֶׁנִּטְּלָה אַחַת מֵרַגְלֵיהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִקְּבוּ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵן מְקַבְּלִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין וַעֲדַיִן יֵשׁ לָהֶם שׁוּלַיִם וְחֶזְקָתָן שֶׁהֵן לְנַחַת כְּשֶׁהָיוּ:

Kelim - Chapter 4

1

There are three categories of wooden implements that are not intended to serve as containers:

a) Any wooden implement that is made solely for human use, e.g., a ladder. It is pure. It is not susceptible to impurity at all, nor did our Sages decree that it should be included among the implements susceptible to impurity.

b) Any wooden implement that is made to be used for other implements and by a human, e.g., a table, a counter-top, a bed and the like. They are susceptible to ritual impurity. How is it known that they serve both a person and his accessories? Because one places plates on the table, cups on the counter-top, and spreads on the bed.

c) Any wooden implement that is made solely for the use of implements; thus it serves entities that serve man. If it only serves other implements during the time work is being performed with them, it is entirely pure, e.g., a wooden candelabrum that serves a lamp while it burns.

Similar laws apply to an implement placed under an implement while it is being used and all molds. If, however, it serves implements during the time work is being performed with them and when work is not being performed with them, they are susceptible to ritual impurity. Examples of such implements are: the covering for a box and the like; a sheaf for a sword, a knife, a spear, scissors, a razor, a spoon used for blue eye paint, or a stylus used to write; a well used to store blue eye paint; a case for a writing tablet or a leather placemat, a carrier for arrows, a case for wide arrows, and a case for flutes. All of these and anything like them are susceptible to impurity even though they are only used to serve other implements. The rationale is that they are necessary for the implements both at the time work is being performed with them and also when work is not being performed with them.

There are, by contrast, other somewhat similar implements that are pure, for example: the covering for a wardrobe, the covering for a chest, the covering for a basket, a carpenter's press, a chair placed under a chest or a domed covering for it, the mold over which a leather covering for a Torah scroll is made, a wooden covering for a door bolt, or the covering for a latch or a mezuzah, a case for lyres and harps, a bust on which the makers of turbans wrap that head-covering, a mold on which tefillin are made, a wooden horse used by a singer, rhythm sticks used by mourners, a sun-shield of a poor man, support beams for a bed, the pillars of a bed, and a board used as a support for a bed. All of these and implements like them are pure, because they serve other implements only when they are being used.

א

שָׁלֹשׁ מִדּוֹת בִּכְלֵי עֵץ שֶׁאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין לְקַבָּלָה. כָּל כְּלִי עֵץ הֶעָשׂוּי לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אָדָם בִּלְבַד כְּגוֹן הַסֻּלָּם טָהוֹר וְאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה כְּלָל וְלֹא רִבּוּהוּ חֲכָמִים לְטֻמְאָה. וְכָל כְּלִי עֵץ הֶעָשׂוּי לְתַשְׁמִישׁ הַכֵּלִים וְהָאָדָם כְּגוֹן הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַטַּבְלָא וְהַמִּטָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהֵן לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אָדָם וְתַשְׁמִישׁ מְשַׁמְּשָׁיו שֶׁהֲרֵי מַנִּיחַ הַקְּעָרוֹת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַכּוֹסוֹת עַל הַטַּבְלָא וְהַמַּצָּעוֹת עַל הַמִּטָּה. וְכָל כְּלִי עֵץ הֶעָשׂוּי לְתַשְׁמִישׁ הַכֵּלִים בִּלְבַד שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מְשַׁמֵּשׁ מְשַׁמְּשֵׁי אָדָם אִם לֹא הָיָה מְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת הַכֵּלִים אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם כְּגוֹן מְנוֹרָה שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁמְּשַׁמֶּשֶׁת הַנֵּר בִּשְׁעַת הַדְלָקָה, וְכַן וְהוּא כְּלִי שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין תַּחַת הַכֵּלִים בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה, וְהַדְּפוּסִין כֻּלָּן. וְאִם הָיָה מְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת הַכֵּלִים בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה וְשֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה כְּגוֹן כִּסּוּי הַקַּפָצָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְתִיק הַסַּיִף וְהַסַּכִּין וְהָרֹמַח וְהַמִּסְפָּרִים וְהַתַּעַר וְהַמִּכְחוֹל וְהַמִּכְתָּב וּבֵית הַכּוֹחַל וְתִיק טַבְלָא וּסְקוּרְטִיָא וּבֵית הַחִצִּים וּבֵית הַפַּגוֹזוֹת וְתִיק חֲלָלִים כָּל אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן אֶלָּא מְשַׁמְּשֵׁי כֵּלִים מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הַכְּלִי צָרִיךְ לָהֶן בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה וְשֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה. אֲבָל כִּסּוּי קַמַטְרָא וְכִסּוּי תֵּבָה וְכִסּוּי טֶנִי וְהַמַּכְבֵּשׁ שֶׁל חָרָשׁ וְהַכִּסֵּא שֶׁתַּחַת הַתֵּבָה וְהַקְּמָתִין שֶׁלָּהּ וְהַקֵּלֶב שֶׁבּוֹנִין עָלָיו תִּיק הַסַּפָּר וּבֵית הַנֶּגֶר וְהַמַּנְעוּל וְהַמְּזוּזָה וְתִיק נְבָלִים וְהַכִּנּוֹרוֹת וְהַקֵּלֶב שֶׁל גּוֹדְלֵי מִצְנֶפֶת וּדְפוּס שֶׁל תְּפִלִּין וְסוּס שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁל זֶמֶר שֶׁמְּשַׂחֲקִין בּוֹ וּרְבִיעִית הַמְּקוֹנֶנֶת וּגְנוֹנַת הֶעָנִי וְסָמוֹכוֹת הַמִּטָּה וְנַקְלִיטֵי הַמִּטָּה וַחֲמוֹר שֶׁתַּחַת הַמִּטָּה כָּל אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן טְהוֹרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מְשַׁמְּשֵׁי הַכֵּלִים בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה בִּלְבַד:

2

With regard to the headboard of a bed: if it is capped and has legs that are connected to the bed, it contracts impurity together with the bed, because it is placed at the head of the bed and it is considered as one of its components. If it was placed on two of the bedposts, and thus it is higher than the bed, even though the headboard is tied to the bed with cords, since it does not have feet, it is pure. The rationale is that the headboard only serves other implements at the time work is being performed with them, like the hanging boards of the Levites, upon which they would hang their harps and their instruments, which are pure.

ב

מַלְבֵּן הַמִּטָּה אִם הָיָה מְלֻבָּשׁ בְּפִיקוֹת וְיֵשׁ לוֹ רַגְלַיִם שֶׁמְּחַבְּרָן עִם הַמִּטָּה הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְטַמֵּא עִם הַמִּטָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי נוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ בִּפְנֵי הַמִּטָּה וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֶחָד מֵאֵיבָרֶיהָ. נְתָנוֹ עַל שְׁתֵּי לְשׁוֹנוֹת וַהֲרֵי הוּא גָּבוֹהַּ עַל הַמִּטָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּסֹרָג בַּחֲבָלִים הוֹאִיל וְאֵין לוֹ רַגְלַיִם טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי הַכֵּלִים בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה בִּלְבַד כְּמַלְבְּנֵי בְּנֵי לֵוִי שֶׁתּוֹלִין בָּהֶם כִּנּוֹרוֹתֵיהֶן וּכְלֵי הַשֵּׁיר שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין:

3

A press used by shoemakers over which leather is pulled tightly is pure, because he places the stone in the hollow inside of it and uses it. Thus it is made to serve implements only at the time work is being performed with it. It does not contract impurity because of its receptacle, because the hollow within it is meant to be filled with a stone.

ג

מַכְבֵּשׁ שֶׁל שְׁכַּף שֶׁמּוֹתֵחַ עָלָיו אֶת הָעוֹר טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּנִּיחַ עָלָיו אֶת הָאֶבֶן בַּמָּקוֹם הֶחָקוּק שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ עָלָיו וְנִמְצָא עָשׂוּי לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת הַכֵּלִים בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה וְאֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם קִבּוּל שֶׁהֲרֵי הֶחָקָק שֶׁבּוֹ עָשׂוּי לְהִתְמַלְּאוֹת בְּאֶבֶן:

4

The coating of a bed is pure. Similarly, any ornamental covering - whether it is made from wood, bone, leather, or metal - is pure. This concept is derived from Leviticus 11:32 which states "with which work will be performed with them." This excludes the ornamental covering of implements.

Similarly, a wooden or bone implement that has a receptacle, but which was plated with metal is pure and it is not susceptible to impurity. The rationale is that the plating causes the implement itself to be considered insignificant and the plating itself is pure, as explained.

ד

חִפּוּיֵי הַמִּטָּה טְהוֹרִין וְכֵן כָּל הַחִפּוּיִין בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁל עֵץ אוֹ שֶׁל עֶצֶם אוֹ שֶׁל עוֹר אוֹ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת טְהוֹרִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לב) "אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בָּהֶן" פְּרָט לְחִפּוּיֵי הַכֵּלִים. וְכֵן כְּלֵי עֵץ אוֹ עֶצֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בֵּית קִבּוּל שֶׁצִּפָּם בְּמַתֶּכֶת טְהוֹרִים וְאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מֵאַחַר שֶׁצִּפָּם בִּטְּלָן וְהַצִּפּוּי עַצְמוֹ טָהוֹר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

5

The following rules apply when a person makes a utensil partially of wood and partially of metal. If the wood serves the metal, it is susceptible to impurity. If the metal serves the wood, everything is pure.

What is implied? If a key was made of wood and its teeth - or even one of its teeth - were metal, it is susceptible to impurity. If it was metal and its teeth, wood, everything is pure.

ה

הָעוֹשֶׂה כְּלִי מִקְצָתוֹ מִן הָעֵץ וּמִקְצָתוֹ מִן הַמַּתֶּכֶת אִם הָיָה הָעֵץ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ הַמַּתֶּכֶת מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמַּתֶּכֶת מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת אֶת הָעֵץ הַכּל טָהוֹר. כֵּיצַד. מַפְתֵּחַ שֶׁל עֵץ וְשִׁנָּיו מִמַּתֶּכֶת אֲפִלּוּ שֵׁן אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. הָיְתָה הִיא מִמַּתֶּכֶת וְשִׁנַּיִם שֶׁלּוֹ מֵעֵץ הַכּל טָהוֹר:

6

If a ring is made of metal and its signet is of coral, it is susceptible to impurity. If it was made of coral and its signet was of metal, it is not susceptible to impurity.

ו

טַבַּעַת שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת וְחוֹתָמָהּ שֶׁל אַלְמוֹג טְמֵאָה. הָיְתָה שֶׁל אַלְמוֹג וְחוֹתָמוֹ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת הֲרֵי זוֹ אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

7

When there is a tooth from a key or a signet of metal, it is susceptible to impurity independently if it was not connected to wood. Similarly, if one of the wooden teeth of a pitchfork, a farming prong, a winnow or a comb for a girl's head was removed and replaced by a metal one, the implements are susceptible to ritual impurity.

ז

הַשֵּׁן שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת אוֹ הַחוֹתָם מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אִם לֹא הָיָה מְחֻבָּר לָעֵץ. וְכֵן הַמְעַבֵּד וְהַמַּזְרֶה וְהַמָּגוֹב וְהַמַּסְרֵק שֶׁל רֹאשׁ שֶׁנִּטְּלָה אֶחָד מִשִּׁנֵּיהֶן וַעֲשָׂאָהּ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

8

When a metal projection shaped like a pomegranate was placed on a wooden staff to use as a handle, it is not susceptible to ritual impurity. If the staff was made with a metal cap so that the earth would not destroy the wood, it is susceptible to impurity.

ח

מַקֵּל שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ מַסְמֵר כְּמִין רִמּוֹן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אוֹחֵז בּוֹ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. עֲשָׂאָהוּ שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה הָאָרֶץ אוֹכֶלֶת אֶת הָעֵץ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

9

Similarly, if spikes were affixed to a stick to use as a weapon, it is susceptible to ritual impurity, for the wood is serving the metal. If they were placed there for decorative purposes, it is not susceptible to ritual impurity, for the metal is serving the wood.

ט

וְכֵן מַקֵּל שֶׁקָּבַע בּוֹ מַסְמְרִים כְּדֵי לְהַכּוֹת בּוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה שֶׁנִּמְצָא הָעֵץ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת הַמַּתֶּכֶת. עֲשָׂאָן לְנוֹי אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמַּתֶּכֶת מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת אֶת הָעֵץ:

10

Similarly, if a tube of metal was affixed to a staff or a door for decorative purposes, it is pure. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations involving other implements.

י

וְכֵן מְנַקִּיּוֹת שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁקְּבָעָן בַּמַּקֵּל אוֹ בַּדֶּלֶת לְנוֹי טְהוֹרוֹת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה מִשְּׁאָר הַכֵּלִים:

Kelim - Chapter 5

1

No keilim are susceptible to ritual impurity until the work involved in fashioning them is completed. When do wooden keilim become susceptible to ritual impurity? A bed and a cradle, when they are rubbed with fish skin. If one decided not to rub them, they become susceptible to impurity when they are fashioned.

Wooden baskets are considered as completed when their borders are sealed and the ends of the branches and small pieces of wood that emerge over the rim of the basket are trimmed. If the baskets were made of palm leaves, they are susceptible to impurity even though one did not trim the ends of the leaves on the inside, because they are left like that. A hanging basket is considered as completed when its border is sealed, the ends of the branches are trimmed, and the loop on which it hangs is completed. A basket for cups or for jugs is susceptible to impurity even though the leaves were not cut off on the inside of the basket. Wicker servers and reed bowls become susceptible to impurity when their borders are sealed and the branches that stick out are cut off.

Large wicker serving trays and containers become susceptible to impurity when two circles are wound around their width. A sifter, a sieve, or a weighing pan become susceptible to impurity when one circle is wound around their width. A large basket becomes susceptible to impurity when two circles are wound around their width. A long, narrow basket becomes susceptible to impurity when one circle is wound around its width. Even though the walls of these baskets are not completed, they become susceptible to ritual impurity, because they have already become fit for the purpose for which they were fashioned and they already have taken on the form of that utensil. To what can the matter be compared? To a garment that has been partially woven.

The task of fashioning a mat is completed when the long leaves from which it is made are trimmed. All keilim made from thin shoots of wood do not become susceptible to impurity until their borders are sealed. Unfinished wooden keilim become susceptible to impurity when the keilim are fashioned into their desired shape even though in the future one will paint designs onto them with dye, even them with a compass, improve their appearance with a plane, to perform similar tasks. Although they are still unfinished, since there is no need to make engravings and their shape has been hewn out, they are susceptible to impurity.

All unfinished wooden keilim become susceptible to impurity except those made from boxwood, because a k'li made from such wood is not considered as a k'li until it has been finished. It appears to me that keilim made of bone are like those made of boxwood and unfinished keilim made from bone are not susceptible to ritual impurity.

A wooden object that has not been formed into a k'li is not susceptible to ritual impurity even though it is being used as a k'li. Long wooden trays used by bakers upon which loaves are arranged while they are still dough are susceptible to ritual impurity, because they are considered to have the shape of a k'li. Those used by ordinary private persons are not susceptible to impurity. If, however, they were painted with red dye, saffron, or the like, they are susceptible to impurity, because they have been given the form of a k'li.

A baker's accessory in which water used to daub the dough is placed is impure. Those used by ordinary private persons are pure. If a private person made a rim around its four sides, it is susceptible to impurity. If the rim is broken down on one side, it is pure. The board on which loaves are arranged is susceptible to impurity. The container into which the sifters of flour would sift flour is susceptible to impurity. That used by ordinary private persons is pure.

A winnowing shovel for beans is susceptible to impurity. One used for gathering kernels into a storehouse is pure. One used for gathering wastes from the vat is susceptible to impurity. One used for gathering grain into a grainheap is pure. This is the general principle: A k'li made to serve as a receptacle is susceptible to impurity. If it is made to gather items together, it is pure.

א

כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּן. וּכְלֵי עֵץ מֵאֵימָתַי מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. הַמִּטָּה וְהָעֲרִיסָה מִשֶּׁיְּשׁוּפֵם בְּעוֹר הַדָּג. גָּמַר שֶׁלֹּא לָשׁוּף מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. הַסַּלִּים שֶׁל עֵץ מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן וְיִכְרֹת עֵקְצֵי הַשָּׂרִיגִים וְהָעֵצִים הַקְּטַנִּים הַיּוֹצְאִים עַל גַּבֵּי הַסַּל. הָיוּ הַסַּלִּים שֶׁל תְּמָרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא כָּרַת הַהוּצִין מִבִּפְנִים מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁכָּךְ מְקַיְּמִין אוֹתָן. הַכַּלְכָּלָה מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם פִּיהָ וְיִכְרֹת הַהוּצִים וְיִגְמֹר אֶת הַתְּלוּיוֹת. בֵּית הַכּוֹסוֹת וְהַלָּגִינִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא כָּרַת מִבִּפְנִים מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁכָּךְ מְקַיְּמִין אוֹתָם. הַקְּנוֹנִים הַקְּטַנִּים וְהַקְּלָתוֹת מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן וְיִכְרֹת הַהוּצִין הַיּוֹצְאִים. הַקְּנוֹנִים הַגְּדוֹלִים וְהַסְּיוֹגִים הַגְּדוֹלִים מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁנֵי דּוֹרִים לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהֶן. הַנָּפָה וְהַכְּבָרָה וְכַף מֹאזְנַיִם מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה דּוֹר אֶחָד לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהֶן. הַקֻפָּה מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁתֵּי צְפִירוֹת לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהּ. וְהָעֲרָק מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בּוֹ צְפִירָה אַחַת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא גָּמַר גַּבֵּיהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי נִרְאוּ לְמַה שֶּׁנַּעֲשׂוּ וְצוּרַת הַכְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן. הָא לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְבֶגֶד שֶׁנֶּאֱרַג מִקְצָתוֹ. הַמַּחְצֶלֶת מִשֶּׁיִּכְרֹת הַהוּצִין וְזֶהוּ גְּמַר מְלָאכָה. וְכָל כְּלֵי הַנְּסָרִים אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּתְחַסְּמוּ שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן. גָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִשֶּׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַכְּלִי בְּצוּרָתוֹ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָתִיד לְתָאֲרוֹ בִּשְׂרַד אוֹ לְהַשְׁווֹתוֹ בִּמְחוֹגָה אוֹ לְיַפּוֹתוֹ בַּמַּעֲצָד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּמַעֲשִׂים אֵלּוּ וַעֲדַיִן הוּא גּלֶם הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ מְחֻסַּר חֲקִיקָה וַהֲרֵי הִשְׁלִים חֲפִירָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְכָל גָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה חוּץ מִשֶּׁל אֶשְׁכְּרוֹעַ שֶׁאֵין הַכְּלִי מִמֶּנּוּ חָשׁוּב כְּלִי עַד שֶׁיִּתְיַפֶּה. וְקָרוֹב בְּעֵינַי שֶׁכְּלֵי עֶצֶם כִּכְלֵי אֶשְׁכְּרוֹעַ וְאֵין גָּלְמֵיהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. כְּלִי עֵץ שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. אֲרֻבּוֹת שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִין שֶׁסּוֹדְרִים עֲלֵיהֶן הַחַלּוֹת כְּשֶׁהֵן בָּצֵק מִתְטַמְּאוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי צוּרַת הַכְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן. וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְאִם צְבָעָן בְּסִקְרָא אוֹ בְּכַרְכּוֹם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִתְטַמְּאוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית לָהֶן צוּרַת כְּלִי. סְרוֹד שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִין שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין בּוֹ הַמַּיִם שֶׁמְּקַטְּפִין בּוֹ טָמֵא וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים טָהוֹר. וְאִם גִּפְּפוֹ מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹתָיו מִתְטַמֵּא. נִפְרָץ מֵרוּחַ אַחַת טָהוֹר. וְהַלּוּחַ שֶׁעוֹרְכִין עָלָיו מִתְטַמֵּא. כְּלִי עֵץ שֶׁהַסַּלָּתִים מְרַקְּדִין עָלָיו אֶת הַסּלֶת מִתְטַמֵּא. וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים טָהוֹר. רַחַת הַגָּרוֹסוֹת מִתְטַמְּאָה. שֶׁל אוֹצָרוֹת טְהוֹרָה שֶׁל גִּתּוֹת מִתְטַמְּאָה וְשֶׁל גֳּרָנוֹת טְהוֹרָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל הֶעָשׂוּי לְקַבָּלָה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְכַנֵּס בּוֹ טָהוֹר:

2

All loops are pure with the exception of the loops for a sifter of flour makers, the loop for a sieve used in granaries, the loop for a handheld sickle, and the loop for a staff used by inspectors because they are of assistance when work is being performed. This is the general principle: Anything made to be of assistance at the time work is being performed is susceptible to impurity. If it only serves as a hanger for the k'li, it is pure.

ב

כָּל הַתְּלוֹיִין טְהוֹרִין חוּץ מִתְּלוֹיֵי נָפָה שֶׁל סַלָּתִין וּתְלוֹי כְּבָרָהּ שֶׁל גֳּרָנוֹת וּתְלוֹי מַגַּל יָד וּתְלוֹי מַקֵּל הַבַּלָּשִׁין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מְסַיְּעִין בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל הֶעָשׂוּי לְסַיְּעוֹ בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה מִתְטַמֵּא לִתְלוֹת בּוֹ הַכְּלִי בִּלְבַד טָהוֹר:

3

Lyres of singers are susceptible to ritual impurity, but the lyres of the Levites that were used to play in the Temple were pure. A guitar, a standing harp, and a drum are susceptible to ritual impurity.

ג

נִבְלֵי הַמְשׁוֹרְרִים מִתְטַמְּאִין. נִבְלֵי בְּנֵי לֵוִי שֶׁמְּזַמְּרִין בָּהֶן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ טְהוֹרִין. הַבִּטְנוֹן וְהַנִּקְטְמוֹן וְהָאִירוּס מִתְטַמְּאִין:

4

A trap for moles is susceptible to ritual impurity; one for mice is pure. The rationale is that it does not have a receptacle and it is not made in the form of a k'li.

ד

מְצוּדַת הַחֻלְדָּה מִתְטַמֵּא וְשֶׁל עַכְבָּרִים טְהוֹרָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ בֵּית קִבּוּל וְאֵין עָלֶיהָ צוּרַת כְּלִי:

5

A basket that is woven from branches in which figs are placed and the like are susceptible to ritual impurity. Those which are woven into the form of a large silo where wheat is stored are pure, because they do not have the form of a k'li.

ה

קוֹצִין שֶׁאוֹרְגִין בָּהֶן כְּמוֹ כְּפִיפָה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בָּהּ הַתְּאֵנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִתְטַמְּאִין. וְשֶׁאוֹרְגִין בָּהֶן כְּתַבְנִית מְנוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁאוֹצְרִין בָּהֶן הַחִטִּין טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלֶיהָ:

6

When leaves are woven like a divider around produce, they are pure. If, however, one made a divider from twigs, it is susceptible to impurity.

ו

עָלִין שֶׁמְּסָרְגִין אוֹתָן כְּמִין סְיָג סָבִיב לַפֵּרוֹת טָהוֹר. וְאִם עָשׂוּ סְיָג שֶׁל נְסָרִין מִתְטַמְּאִין:

7

With regard to a pocket made of palm branches into which fresh dates and the like are placed: if one places fruit inside of it and removes it from it, it is susceptible to ritual impurity. If one cannot take the fruit stored in it unless he tears it or undoes it or one intends to eat the fruit inside of it and cast away the pocket, it is pure.

Similarly, a horn that is used and then discarded is not susceptible to impurity. If one thinks of using it as a utensil, it is susceptible to impurity.

ז

חֹתֶל שֶׁל הוּצִין שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ הָרֹטֶב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אִם הוּא נוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ וְנוֹטֵל מִתּוֹכוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטּל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּקְרָעֶנּוּ אוֹ יַתִּירֶנּוּ אוֹ שֶׁחָשַׁב לֶאֱכל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ וּלְזָרְקוֹ טָהוֹר. וְכֵן הַקֶּרֶן שֶׁהוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ וּמַשְׁלִיכָהּ אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְאִם חָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

8

A ram's horn is not susceptible to ritual impurity. If it was cut to be used as a useful k'li, it is susceptible to ritual impurity.

ח

הַשּׁוֹפָר אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. חֲתָכוֹ לִהְיוֹת קֶרֶן תַּשְׁמִישׁ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

9

The following rules apply when a bowl was permanently affixed to a chest, counter, or closet. If it is affixed in a way that it still serves as a container, it is susceptible to ritual impurity. If it was affixed to the wall of the chest - and thus cannot serve as a container unless the chest is turned on its side, it is considered as part of the chest and is pure.

ט

קְעָרָה שֶׁקְּבָעָהּ בְּשִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל אִם הִיא כְּדֶרֶךְ קַבָּלָתָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְאִם קְבָעָהּ בַּדֹּפֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת עַד שֶׁמַּטִּים שִׁדָּה עַל צִדָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ מִכְּלַל הַשִּׁדָּה וּטְהוֹרָה:

10

A fishing trap, a trap for fowl, and a wooden cage are pure.

י

הָאַקּוֹן וְהָרָטוֹב וְהַכְּלוּב שֶׁל עֵץ טְהוֹרִין:

11

A flat trap for fowl, a snare for fowl, and the snare in a dam are susceptible to ritual impurity because they do have the form of a k'li.

יא

הַמַּדָּף וְהַפַּלְצוּר וּמְצוּדַת סְכָרִים מִתְטַמְּאִין שֶׁהֲרֵי צוּרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם:

12

Benches set up in inns and by the teachers of young children are pure even though they have holes into which legs are inserted. If the legs were affixed to them with nails, they are susceptible to impurity.

This is the general principle: Whenever a seat is portable and its legs are not carried with it, it is pure. Any seat that is portable and its legs are carried with it is susceptible to impurity. If both of its legs are made of wood or bone, it is susceptible to impurity. If one of them was made of stone, it is not susceptible to impurity.

יב

הַסַּפְסָלִין שֶׁבַּפֻּנְדְּקָאוֹת וְשֶׁל מְלַמְּדֵי תִּינוֹקוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן נְקוּבִין וּמַכְנִיסִין בָּהֶן אֶת הָרַגְלַיִם טְהוֹרִים. קָבְעוּ בָּהֶן רַגְלַיִם בְּמַסְמֵר מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁנִּטָּל וְאֵין רַגְלָיו נִטָּלוֹת עִמּוֹ טָהוֹר. וְכָל שֶׁנִּטַּל וְרַגְלָיו נִטָּלוֹת עִמּוֹ טָמֵא. וְאִם הָיוּ כֻּלָּן שֶׁל עֵץ אוֹ עֶצֶם מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. הָיְתָה אַחַת מֵרַגְלָיו שֶׁל אֶבֶן אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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