1

The following law applies when a person gives a loan to a colleague that is supported by a promissory note. After the witnesses signed the promissory note, the guarantor came and made a guarantee for the borrower's debt. Although his commitment was affirmed with a kinyan and thus he become obligated to pay, as explained, when the lender comes to expropriate payment from the property of this guarantor, he may not expropriate property that has already been sold.

Different rules apply if the guarantor was mentioned in the promissory note itself before the signature of the witnesses. If they wrote: "So-and-so is the guarantor," the lender may not expropriate property that has already been sold, because the guarantor's name is not associated together with that of the borrower with regard to the loan. If, however, the promissory note states: "So-and-so borrowed such-and-such an amount from so-and-so and so-and-so guaranteed the loan, the guarantor affirmed his commitment with a kinyan, and then the witnesses signed the promissory note," the lender may expropriate property that has already been sold. The rationale is that the guarantor's name is associated together with that of the borrower in the promissory note.

א

הַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁטָר וְאַחַר שֶׁהֵעִידוּ הָעֵדִים בַּשְּׁטָר בָּא עָרֵב וְעָרַב אֶת הַלּוֶֹה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיָּדוֹ וְנִשְׁתַּעְבֵּד לְשַׁלֵּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא הַמַּלְוֶה לְהִפָּרַע מִנִּכְסֵי הֶעָרֵב הַזֶּה אֵינוֹ טוֹרֵף מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים. הָיָה הֶעָרֵב בְּגוּפוֹ שֶׁל שְׁטָר קֹדֶם חֲתִימַת הָעֵדִים אִם כָּתְבוּ פְּלוֹנִי עָרֵב שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מְעֹרָב עִם הַלּוֶֹה בַּמִּלְוֶה אֵינוֹ גּוֹבֶה מִמֶּנּוּ מִן הַמְשֻׁעְבָּדִים. אֲבָל אִם כָּתוּב בַּשְּׁטָר פְּלוֹנִי לָוָה מִפְּלוֹנִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ וּפְלוֹנִי עָרֵב שֶׁהֲרֵי עֵרְבוֹ לוֶֹה עִם עָרֵב בַּשְּׁטָר וְקָנוּ מִיָּדוֹ שֶׁל עָרֵב וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָתְמוּ עֵדִים בַּשְּׁטָר הֲרֵי זֶה נִפְרָע מִנִּכְסֵי עָרֵב הַמְשֻׁעְבָּדִים:

2

When a lender demands payment from the borrower and discovers that he does not have property, he may not expropriate payment from the guarantor until 30 days after the guarantor became obligated to pay. The legal power of the guarantor should not be less than that of the borrower himself. The halachic authorities ruled in this manner. If, however, the lender made a stipulation with the guarantor about this matter, that stipulation is followed."

ב

מַלְוֶה שֶׁתָּבַע אֶת הַלּוֶֹה וְלֹא מָצָא לוֹ נְכָסִים אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִפָּרַע מִן הֶעָרֵב עַד אַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב הֶעָרֵב לְשַׁלֵּם. לֹא יִהְיֶה כֹּחַ זֶה פָּחוֹת מִן הַלּוֶֹה עַצְמוֹ. וְכָזֶה הוֹרוּ הַמּוֹרִים. וְאִם הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ הַכּל לְפִי הַתְּנַאי:

3

When a lender comes to demand payment from a borrower, the borrower cannot turn away the lender, telling him: "Go to the kablan, because you have the right to demand payment from him first." Instead, the lender may demand payment from anyone he desires first. If, however, the kablan took the money from the lender and gave it to the borrower, the lender has nothing to do with the borrower. If the borrower was in another country and the lender cannot notify him -or the borrower died and left heirs below the age of majority, whose property the court cannot attach - the lender may demand payment from the guarantor first, because the borrower is not at hand.

ג

מַלְוֶה שֶׁבָּא לִתְבֹּעַ אֶת הַלּוֶֹה וְלֹא מָצָא לוֹ נְכָסִים אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִדְחוֹתוֹ וְלוֹמַר לֵךְ אֵצֶל הַקַּבְּלָן הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לְךָ לִתְבֹּעַ אוֹתוֹ תְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא תּוֹבֵעַ כָּל מִי שֶׁרָצָה תְּחִלָּה. וְאִם נָשָׂא הַקַּבְּלָן הַמָּעוֹת מִיַּד הַמַּלְוֶה וּנְתָנוֹ בְּיַד הַלּוֶֹה אֵין לַמַּלְוֶה בְּיַד הַלּוֶֹה כְּלוּם. הָיָה הַלּוֶֹה בִּמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹדִיעוֹ וְלֹא לֵילֵךְ אֵלָיו אוֹ שֶׁמֵּת הַלּוֶֹה וְהִנִּיחַ יְתוֹמִים קְטַנִּים שֶׁאֵין בֵּית דִּין נִזְקָקִין לְנִכְסֵיהֶן הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹבֵעַ אֶת הֶעָרֵב תְּחִלָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַלּוֶֹה מָצוּי:

4

When a lender demands payment from the borrower and discovers that he has become impoverished, he may not demand payment from the guarantor until the borrower takes an oath that he is bankrupt, as ordained by the later sages. The rationale is that we fear that the borrower and the lender might be trying to obtain the guarantor's property through deception.

ד

מַלְוֶה שֶׁתָּבַע אֶת הַלּוֶֹה וּמְצָאוֹ שֶׁהוּא עָנִי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִפָּרַע מִן הֶעָרֵב עַד שֶׁיִּשָּׁבַע הַלּוֶֹה בְּתַקָּנַת אַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כְּלוּם שֶׁמָּא יַעֲשׂוּ קְנוּנְיָא עַל נְכָסָיו שֶׁל עָרֵב:

5

The following law applies when a person has guaranteed a colleague with regard to a loan supported by a verbal commitment alone, the lender comes to demand payment from the guarantor, and the borrower is overseas. The guarantor may tell the lender: "Bring proof that the borrower did not repay you and I will pay you."

ה

מִי שֶׁהָיָה עָרֵב לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּמִלְוֶה עַל פֶּה וּבָא הַמַּלְוֶה לִתְבֹּעַ אֶת הֶעָרֵב וַהֲרֵי הַלּוֶֹה בִּמְדִינַת הַיָּם. אוֹמֵר לוֹ הֶעָרֵב הָבֵא רְאָיָה שֶׁלֹּא פְּרָעֲךָ הַלּוֶֹה וַאֲנִי אֲשַׁלֵּם לְךָ:

6

When a guarantor takes the initiative and pays the debt to the creditor, he may come back and collect from the borrower everything that he paid on his account, even though the loan was supported by a verbal commitment alone or was not observed by witnesses.

When does the above apply? When, at the time the guarantor made his commitment, the borrower told him: "Become my guarantor and pay." When, however, he acted independently and became a guarantor or a kablan, or the borrower told him: "Guarantee the debt for me," but did not give him the authority to pay the debt, if he pays the debt, the borrower is not obligated to pay him anything. Similarly, if a person pays a promissory note of a colleague without that colleague's knowledge, even if it is a debt for which security was taken, the borrower is not obligated to pay him anything. Instead, he may take his security without paying anything; the other person forfeits his money. The rationale is that perhaps the borrower would have been able to appease the lender and have him waive the debt.

The following rules apply when the borrower dies, and the guarantor takes the initiative and pays the debt before he notifies the heirs. If it is known to us that the borrower did not pay the promissory note before he died - e.g., he admitted the debt on his deathbed, he was placed under a band of ostracism for failing to pay, and he died under that ban, or the due date of the loan did not arrive - he may collect from the heirs everything that he paid.

When the lender was a gentile, the heirs are not obligated to pay the guarantor. The rationale is that their parent might have given the guarantor the entire debt for which he was responsible. For a gentile demands payment from the guarantor first; for this reason the guarantor paid the gentile voluntarily before he notified the orphans. If, however, he notifies them that the gentile is demanding payment from him and that he is paying, the heirs are obligated to pay.

ו

עָרֵב שֶׁקָּדַם וְנָתַן לְבַעַל חוֹב אֶת חוֹבוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹזֵר וְגוֹבֶה מִן הַלּוֶֹה כָּל מַה שֶּׁפָּרַע עַל יָדוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיְתָה מִלְוֶה עַל פֶּה אוֹ בְּלֹא עֵדִים כְּלָל. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַלּוֶֹה בְּעֵת שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לוֹ עָרֵב עָרְבֵנִי וְשַׁלֵּם. אֲבָל אִם עָמַד בִּרְשׁוּת עַצְמוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה לוֹ עָרֵב אוֹ קַבְּלָן אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַלּוֶֹה עָרְבֵנִי וְלֹא הִרְשָׁהוּ שֶׁיִּתֵּן וְיִפְרַע הַחוֹב אֵין הַלּוֶֹה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ כְּלוּם. וְכֵן הַפּוֹרֵעַ שְׁטַר חוֹבוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַחוֹב עַל הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן אֵין הַלּוֶֹה חַיָּב כְּלוּם וְנוֹטֵל מַשְׁכּוֹנוֹ בְּחִנָּם וַהֲרֵי אִבֵּד זֶה הַנּוֹתֵן אֶת מְעוֹתָיו שֶׁמָּא הָיָה הַלּוֶֹה מְפַיֵּס אֶת הַמַּלְוֶה וּמוֹחֵל לוֹ. מֵת הַלּוֶֹה וְקָדַם הֶעָרֵב וּפָרַע הַחוֹב קֹדֶם שֶׁיּוֹדִיעַ אֶת הַיּוֹרְשִׁים אִם נוֹדַע לָנוּ שֶׁלֹּא פָּרַע הַלּוֶֹה שְׁטַר חוֹבוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּמוּת כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוֹדָה בּוֹ קֹדֶם אוֹ שֶׁנִּדּוּהוּ וּמֵת בְּנִדּוּיוֹ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַמִּלְוֶה לְהִגָּבוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹזֵר וְגוֹבֶה מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין כָּל מַה שֶּׁפָּרַע. הָיָה הַמַּלְוֶה עַכּוּ''ם אֵין הַיּוֹרְשִׁין חַיָּבִין לְשַׁלֵּם שֶׁמָּא אֲבִיהֶן נָתַן לְיַד הֶעָרֵב כָּל הַחוֹב שֶׁהָיָה עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעַכּוּ''ם תּוֹבֵעַ אֶת הֶעָרֵב תְּחִלָּה וּלְפִיכָךְ פָּרַע זֶה מִדַּעְתּוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיּוֹדִיעַ הַיְתוֹמִים. אֲבָל אִם הוֹדִיעָן שֶׁהָעַכּוּ''ם תּוֹבֵעַ אוֹתוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא נוֹתֵן חַיָּבִין לְשַׁלֵּם:

7

Whenever a guarantor comes to collect what he paid - whether he comes to collect from the borrower's heirs or from the borrower himself - he must bring proof that he paid the debt. The guarantor's possession of the promissory note is not considered proof. For perhaps the promissory note fell from the lender's hand, and the guarantor did not pay him at all.

ז

כָּל עָרֵב שֶׁבָּא לִטּל מַה שֶּׁפָּרַע בֵּין שֶׁבָּא לְהִפָּרַע מִיּוֹרְשֵׁי לוֶֹה בֵּין מִלוֶֹה עַצְמוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁפָּרַע. וְאֵין מְצִיאַת שְׁטַר הַחוֹב שֶׁעָלָיו בְּיַד הֶעָרֵב רְאָיָה שֶׁמָּא נָפַל הַשְּׁטָר מִיַּד הַמַּלְוֶה וְלֹא פָּרַע זֶה כְּלוּם:

8

In all the claims to be mentioned, and in all similar situations, we follow the principle: When a person who seeks to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is upon him:

a) a person tells a colleague, "You agreed to serve as a guarantor for me," and the alleged guarantor denies accepting the obligation ;

b) the guarantor tells the borrower: "You gave me the license to act as a guarantor for you and to pay," and the borrower tells him: "You acted as a guarantor on your own initiative," or "You were not a guarantor at all";

c) the guarantor said: "I paid the debt in your presence," and the borrower said: "You did not"; or he told him: "I have already given you what you paid"; or

d) the lender told the guarantor: "You guaranteed 200," and the guarantor said: "I guaranteed only a maneh."

Alternatively, the defendant should take a sh'vuat hessefi or a Scriptural oath if he agreed to a portion of the claim, as is the law with regard to all financial claims.

ח

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ עָרַבְתָּ לִי וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא עָרַבְתִּי. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֶעָרֵב לַלּוֶֹה אַתָּה הִרְשֵׁיתַנִי לַעֲרֹב אוֹתְךָ וְלִתֵּן וְהוּא אוֹמֵר מִדַּעְתְּךָ עָרַבְתָּ אוֹ לֹא עָרַבְתָּ כְּלָל. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֶעָרֵב פָּרַעְתִּי הַמִּלְוֶה בְּפָנֶיךָ וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר לֹא פָּרַעְתָּ. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ כֵּן פָּרַעְתָּ וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ מַה שֶּׁפָּרַעְתָּ. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הַמַּלְוֶה עָרַבְתָּ לִי מָאתַיִם וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא עָרַבְתִּי אֶלָּא מָנֶה. מִכָּל אֵלּוּ הַטְּעָנוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. אוֹ יִשָּׁבַע הַנִּתְבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת אוֹ שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה אִם הוֹדָה בְּמִקְצָת כִּשְׁאָר כָּל טַעֲנַת הַמָּמוֹן:

9

The following principles apply when a servant or a married woman borrows money or guarantees the debts of others and is obligated to pay: When the servant is freed and the woman is divorced or widowed, they must pay.

ט

עֶבֶד אוֹ אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ שֶׁלָּווּ אוֹ שֶׁעָרְבוּ אֶת אֲחֵרִים וְנִתְחַיְּבוּ לְשַׁלֵּם. כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁתַּחְרֵר הָעֶבֶד וְתִתְגָּרֵשׁ הָאִשָּׁה אוֹ תִּתְאַלְמֵן יְשַׁלְּמוּ:

10

If a minor borrows, he is obligated to pay when he attains majority. We do not, however, write a promissory note against him. Instead, even though it was affirmed with a kinyan, the loan has the status of a loan supported by a verbal commitment alone. The rationale is that a kinyan undertaken by a minor is of no substance.

י

קָטָן שֶׁלָּוָה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם כְּשֶׁיַּגְדִּיל וְאֵין כּוֹתְבִין עָלָיו שְׁטָר אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הִיא מִלְוֶה עַל פֶּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיָּדוֹ שֶׁאֵין קִנְיָן מִיַּד הַקָּטָן כְּלוּם:

11

In a situation where a minor guaranteed others, the Geonim ruled that he is not liable to pay even after he attains majority. The person who lent his money because of a minor's word forfeits it. The rationale is that a minor does not have the intellectual responsibility to obligate himself in a matter in which he is not liable - not through becoming a guarantor, nor through other similar means. This is a ruling of truth and it is fitting to rule in this manner.

יא

קָטָן שֶׁעָרַב אֶת אֲחֵרִים הוֹרוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם כְּלוּם אַף כְּשֶׁיַּגְדִּיל וְזֶה שֶׁנָּתַן אֶת מְעוֹתָיו עַל פִּי הַקָּטָן אִבֵּד אֶת מְעוֹתָיו שֶׁאֵין לְקָטָן דַּעַת כְּדֵי לְשַׁעְבֵּד עַצְמוֹ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בּוֹ וְלֹא בְּעַרְבָנוּת וְלֹא בְּכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְדִין אֱמֶת הוּא וְכֵן רָאוּי לָדוּן:

12

When a woman takes a loan that is supported by a promissory note or undertakes a commitment as a guarantor of a promissory note and then marries, she is obligated to pay even after she marries. If, however, it is a loan supported by a verbal commitment alone, it should not be repaid until she becomes divorced or widowed. The rationale is that her husband's authority is that of a purchaser, as we have explained in several sources. If, however, the money that was given as a loan is in her possession, it should be returned to the borrower.

יב

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁלָּוְתָה בִּשְׁטָר אוֹ עָרְבָה בִּשְׁטָר וְנִשֵּׂאת חַיֶּבֶת לְשַׁלֵּם אַחַר שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת. וְאִם הָיְתָה מִלְוֶה עַל פֶּה אֵינָהּ מְשַׁלֶּמֶת עַד שֶׁתִּתְגָּרֵשׁ אוֹ שֶׁתִּתְאַלְמֵן שֶׁרְשׁוּת בַּעַל כִּרְשׁוּת לוֹקֵחַ הוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת. וְאִם הָיוּ אוֹתָן מְעוֹת הַהַלְוָאָה עַצְמָן קַיָּמִין יַחְזִירוּ אוֹתָן לַמַּלְוֶה: