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Naarah Betulah - Chapter One

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Naarah Betulah - Chapter One

Introduction to Hilchos Naarah Betulah

They include five mitzvot: three positive commandments and two negative commandments. They are:

1) That a seducer [of a virgin maiden] be fined;
2) That a man who rapes [a virgin maiden] should marry her;
3) That the rapist should not divorce the woman he marries;
4) That the wife of a man who issued a slanderous report about her should remain married to him forever;
5) That a man who issues a slanderous report about his wife should not divorce her.

These mitzvot are explained in the chapters that follow.

הלכות נערה בתולה - הקדמה יש בכללן חמש מצות. שלש מצות עשה. ושתי מצות לא תעשה. וזהו פרטן: א) לקנוס המפתה.
ב) שישא האונס אנוסתו.
ג) שלא יגרש האונס.
ד) שתשב אשת מוציא שם רע תחת בעלה לעולם.
ה) שלא יגרש מוציא שם רע את אשתו: וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

When a man seduces a virgin,1 he is fined 50 sela'im of pure silver.2 This is called a k'nas ("fine"). The same law applies if he rapes her.

Payment of this fine is one of the Torah's positive commandments,3, as [Deuteronomy 22:29] states: "The man who raped her must give the maiden's father 50 silver pieces."

א

מִי שֶׁפִּתָּה בְּתוּלָה קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ מִשְׁקַל חֲמִשִּׁים סְלָעִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף מְזֻקָּק וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא קְנָס. וְכֵן אִם אָנַס אוֹתָהּ. וּקְנָס זֶה מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשּׁוֹכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה חֲמִשִּׁים כֶּסֶף":

2

What is meant by a seducer, and what is meant by a rapist? A seducer is one who enters into relations with a girl with her consent; a rapist is one who takes her by force.

Whenever a man entered into relations with a woman in a field, we operate under the presumption that he raped her, and apply those laws4 unless witnesses testify that she entered into relations with him willingly.5 Whenever a man enters into relations with a woman in a city, we operate under the presumption that she consented, because she did not cry out, unless witnesses testify that she was raped - e.g., he pulled out a sword and told her, "If you cry out, I will kill you."

ב

וְאֵי זֶה הוּא מְפַתֶּה וְאֵי זֶה הוּא אוֹנֵס. מְפַתֶּה לִרְצוֹנָהּ. אוֹנֵס שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ בְּעַל כָּרְחָהּ. כָּל הַנִּבְעֶלֶת בַּשָּׂדֶה הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת אֲנוּסָה וְדָנִין אוֹתָהּ בְּדִין אֲנוּסָה עַד שֶׁיָּעִידוּ הָעֵדִים שֶׁבִּרְצוֹנָהּ נִבְעֲלָה. וְכָל הַנִּבְעֶלֶת בָּעִיר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת מְפֻתָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא זָעֲקָה עַד שֶׁיָּעִידוּ הָעֵדִים שֶׁהִיא אֲנוּסָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁלַף לָהּ חֶרֶב וְאָמַר לָהּ אִם תִּזְעֲקִי אֶהֱרֹג אוֹתָךְ:

3

When a girl who was seduced does not want to marry the seducer, or her father does not want to give her in marriage to him,6 or if [the seducer] does not want to marry her, he may pay the fine and depart. We do not force him to marry her.7

If they do desire [to wed], and he marries her, he does not pay a fine.8 Instead, he writes her a ketubah, as is written for other maidens.9

When, however, a woman who is raped or her father do not desire that she marry the rapist, they have that prerogative. [In such an instance,] he must pay the fine and depart. If she and her father desire [that the marriage take place], but he does not desire, we force him to marry her, aside from paying the fine, as [Deuteronomy 22:29] states: "He must take [the maiden] as his wife"; this is a positive commandment.10

Even if the girl is lame, blind, or afflicted with leprosy,11 he is forced to marry her and he may never take the initiative in divorcing her,12 as [the above verse continues]: "He may not send her away as long as he lives." This is a negative commandment.13

ג

הַמְפֻתָּה שֶׁלֹּא רָצְתָה לְהִנָּשֵׂא לַמְפַתֶּה. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה אָבִיהָ לִתְּנָהּ לוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה הוּא לִכְנֹס. הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן קְנָס וְהוֹלֵךְ וְאֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִכְנֹס. וְאִם רָצוּ וּכְנָסָהּ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס אֶלָּא כּוֹתֵב לָהּ כְּתֻבָּה כִּשְׁאָר הַבְּתוּלוֹת. אֲבָל הָאֲנוּסָה שֶׁלֹּא רָצְתָה הִיא אוֹ אָבִיהָ לְהִנָּשֵׂא לְאוֹנֵס הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדָם וְנוֹתֵן קְנָס וְהוֹלֵךְ. רָצְתָה הִיא וְאָבִיהָ וְלֹא רָצָה הוּא כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ וְכוֹנֵס וְנוֹתֵן קְנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה" הֲרֵי זוֹ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. אֲפִלּוּ הִיא חִגֶּרֶת אוֹ סוּמָא אוֹ מְצֹרַעַת כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִכְנֹס וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא לִרְצוֹנוֹ לְעוֹלָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יט) "לֹא יוּכַל לְשַׁלְּחָהּ כָּל יָמָיו" הֲרֵי זוֹ מִצְוַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה:

4

[This girl] is not granted a ketubah. For our Sages instituted the requirement of a ketubah so that [a husband] will not consider divorce a frivolous matter. [In this instance this is unnecessary, because] the man cannot divorce [his wife].

ד

וְאֵין לָהּ כְּתֻבָּה שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים כְּתֻבָּה לְאִשָּׁה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה קַלָּה בְּעֵינָיו לְהוֹצִיאָהּ וְזֶה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאָהּ:

5

If the girl he raped was forbidden to him,14 even if the prohibition stems from a positive commandment, or she was a sh'niyah [or forbidden by other Rabbinic prohibitions],15 he should not marry her. Similarly, if he discovers adulterous behavior16 on her part after he marries her, he should divorce her. [These concepts are implied by the phrase: "He must take [the girl] as his wife" [which our Sages interpreted to mean]: "She must be fit to be his wife."

ה

הָיְתָה אֲנוּסָה זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנִיָּה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשָּׂאֶנָּה. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצָא בָּהּ דְּבַר זִמָּה אַחַר שֶׁכָּנַס הֲרֵי זֶה יְגָרְשֶׁנָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה". אִשָּׁה הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ:

6

When a High Priest rapes or seduces a virgin maiden, he should not marry her, because he is commanded to marry a virgin,17and at the time he marries this girl she is not a virgin.18 If he marries [this girl], he must divorce her.

ו

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאָנַס בְּתוּלָה אוֹ שֶׁפִּתָּה אוֹתָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִכְנֹס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְצֻוֶּה לִקַּח אֶת הַבְּתוּלָה וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּשָּׂא זוֹ אֵינָהּ בְּתוּלָה. וְאִם כָּנַס יוֹצִיא בְּגֵט:

7

Although it is said with regard to a rapist: "He may not send her away as long as he lives," since [this prohibition] is preceded by a positive commandment, as it is said, "He must take [the girl] as his wife," the Torah made the prohibition [rectifiable] by the observance of the positive commandment. Thus, this is a negative commandment [whose violation] can be rectified by [the observance of] a positive commandment. Lashes are not given [as punishment for the violation of such a commandment] unless one does not fulfill the positive commandment, as will be explained in Hilchot Sanhedrin.19

Therefore, when a rapist violates [this prohibition] and divorces [his wife], he is compelled to remarry her and is not punished by lashes. If, however, his divorcee dies or is consecrated by another man20 before he remarries her, or if he is a priest, who is forbidden to marry a divorcee, he should be punished by lashes. For he transgressed the negative commandment, and is unable to fulfill the positive commandment associated with it.21

ז

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּאוֹנֵס (דברים כב יט) "לֹא יוּכַל לְשַׁלְּחָהּ" כֵּיוָן שֶׁקְּדָמוֹ עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה" הֲרֵי זֶה נִתְּקוֹ לַעֲשֵׂה וְנִמְצֵאת זוֹ מִצְוַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנִּתְּקָהּ לַעֲשֵׂה שֶׁאֵין לוֹקִין עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא אִם לֹא קִיֵּם עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת סַנְהֶדְרִין. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹנֵס שֶׁעָבַר וְגֵרֵשׁ כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְהַחֲזִיר וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. מֵתָה גְּרוּשָׁתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּחְזִירֶנָּה אוֹ נִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְאַחֵר אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה כֹּהֵן שֶׁאָסוּר בִּגְרוּשָׁה הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי עָבַר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהּ:

8

Neither a rapist nor a seducer is liable to pay the fine unless he engages in relations in the ordinary fashion,22 and the relations are observed by witnesses.23 A warning is not necessary.24

At what age is a girl fit to be paid a fine? From the age of three25 until she reaches the age of bagrut.26 If a man engages in relations with a girl less than three years old, the relations are not significant.27 If he engages in relations with her after she reaches the age of bagrut, he is not fined. For [Deuteronomy 22:28] states: "A virgin maiden," thus excluding a girl who has reached maturity.

ח

אֵין הָאוֹנֵס אוֹ הַמְפַתֶּה חַיָּב בִּקְנָס עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא עָלֶיהָ [כְּדַרְכָּהּ] וּבְעֵדִים וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַתְרָאָה. וּמֵאֵימָתַי יִהְיֶה לַבַּת קְנָס. מֵאַחַר שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים גְּמוּרוֹת עַד שֶׁתִּבְגֹּר. נִבְעֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אֵין בִּיאָתָהּ בִּיאָה. בָּא עָלֶיהָ מִשֶּׁבָּגְרָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כח) "נַעֲרָה בְתוּלָה" לֹא הַבּוֹגֶרֶת:

9

Whether or not [a girl's] father is alive, a fine must be paid.28

A fine need not be paid [because of relations] with the following women: a bogeret, a girl who has dissolved a marriage through mi'un,29 an aylonit,30 a mentally incompetent girl, a deaf mute,31 a girl who was reputed to have conducted herself immodestly while young, concerning whom two witnesses testify that she sought sexual relations with them,32 a girl who was married and divorced, but is still a virgin maiden.33

When, by contrast, [a girl] is divorced after merely being consecrated,34 a fine must be paid - and she is entitled to it35 - if she is raped. If she is seduced, she is not entitled to a fine.36

ט

וְאַחַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ אָב וְאַחַת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ אָב יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן קְנָס. הַבּוֹגֶרֶת וְהַמְמָאֶנֶת וְהָאַיְלוֹנִית וְהַשּׁוֹטָה וְהַחֵרֶשֶׁת. וּמִי שֶׁיָּצָא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע בְּיַלְדוּתָהּ וּבָאוּ שְׁנַיִם וְהֵעִידוּ שֶׁתָּבְעָה אוֹתָן לִזְנוֹת עִמָּהּ. וְהַמְגֹרֶשֶׁת מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין וַעֲדַיִן הִיא נַעֲרָה בְּתוּלָה. אֲבָל הַמְגֹרֶשֶׁת מִן הָאֵרוּסִין אִם נֶאֶנְסָה יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס וּקְנָסָהּ לְעַצְמָהּ. וְאִם נִתְפַּתְּתָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס:

10

[The following rules apply with regard to] a convert, a girl who was taken captive, and a [Canaanite] maidservant who was freed:37 If she was converted, redeemed or freed before she reached the age of three, she is entitled to a fine.38

If she was three years old [or older] when she was converted, redeemed or freed, she is not entitled to a fine. Since relations that she engages in at this time are significant, she is placed into the category of non-virgins.

י

הַגִּיֹּרֶת וְהַשְּׁבוּיָה וְהַמְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת אִם נִתְגַּיְּרָה וְנִפְדֵית וְנִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה וְהִיא בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ פָּחוֹת יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס. וְאִם הָיְתָה בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד כְּשֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה אוֹ כְּשֶׁנִּפְדֵּית אוֹ כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁתַּחְרְרָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס הוֹאִיל וּבִיאָתָן בִּיאָה הֲרֵי הֵן כִּבְעוּלוֹת:

11

[The following rules apply when] the virgin [who was raped or seduced] was forbidden to the rapist or the seducer. If the prohibition was punishable by karet - e.g., she was his sister, his aunt, in the niddah state or the like - or she was forbidden by virtue of a negative commandment [that does not involve either karet or execution], he is not liable for a fine if he was given a warning.39 [Instead,] he should be lashed. [The rationale is that] a person is never punished [for the same transgression] by both lashes and a monetary assessment.

If he was not warned, since he is not to be given lashes, he should pay the fine.

יא

הָיְתָה בְּתוּלָה זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עַל הָאוֹנֵס אוֹ הַמְפַתֶּה אִם הָיְתָה אַחַת מֵחַיָּבֵי כְּרֵתוֹת כְּגוֹן אֲחוֹתוֹ אוֹ דּוֹדָתוֹ וְהַנִּדָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין אִם הִתְרוּ בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס שֶׁאֵין אָדָם לוֹקֶה וּמְשַׁלֵּם. וְאִם לֹא הָיְתָה שָׁם הַתְרָאָה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב מַלְקוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס:

12

[When the girl raped] was forbidden because of a positive commandment, or she was a sh'niyah or forbidden because of another Rabbinic commandment, [the rapist] is obligated to pay the fine whether he was warned against the transgression or not, because he is not punished by lashes.

יב

הָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה אוֹ שְׁנִיָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁאֲסוּרָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. בֵּין הִתְרוּ בּוֹ בֵּין לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ חַיָּב בִּקְנָס שֶׁאֵין כָּאן מַלְקוֹת:

13

[When the girl raped] was forbidden because of a prohibition punishable by execution by the court - e.g., she was his daughter, daughter-in-law,40 or the like - he is not liable for the fine, regardless of whether or not he received a warning.

[This is derived from Exodus 21:22, which] states: "If there will not be a [fatal] accident, he should be punished."41 Implied is that if there is a [fatal] accident, no punishment should be levied.42 [This applies] although the woman was killed unintentionally, [i.e.,] the man did not intend to strike her,43 as it is written [Ibid.]: "If men strive and a woman receives a blow...." This teaches that with regard to a [fatal] accident, Scripture did not differentiate between an intentional and unintentional act to free him from monetary obligation.

And [Leviticus 24:18-21] says: "A person who [fatally] strikes an animal shall reimburse [its owner] for it, and one who [fatally] strikes a man must die." Just as Scripture did not distinguish between intentional and unintentional action for killing an animal to make him liable for payment, so too, it did not distinguish between intentional and unintentional action for killing a person to free him from financial obligation.

יג

הָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין כְּגוֹן בִּתּוֹ וְאֵשֶׁת בְּנוֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בֵּין הִתְרוּ בּוֹ בֵּין לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ פָּטוּר מִן הַקְּנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא כב) "וְלֹא יִהְיֶה אָסוֹן עָנוֹשׁ יֵעָנֵשׁ" הָא אִם הָיָה שָׁם אָסוֹן אֵין שָׁם עֹנֶשׁ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֲרִיגַת הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁגָגָה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְכַּוְּנוּ לָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא כב) "כִּי יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְנָגְפוּ אִשָּׁה" הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁלֹּא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בְּאָסוֹן בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְפָטְרוֹ מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין. וַהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא כד יח) "מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ בְּהֵמָה יְשַׁלְּמֶנָּה" (ויקרא כד כא) "וּמַכֵּה אָדָם יוּמָת" מָה מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ בְּהֵמָה לֹא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְחַיְּבוֹ בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין אַף מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם לֹא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְפָטְרוֹ מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין:

14

This law applies with regard to every transgression that is punishable by execution by the court. There is no financial obligation.44

יד

וְכֵן הַדִּין לְכָל עֲבֵרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ תַּשְׁלוּמִין:

15

If [a girl] dies after she [was seduced or raped], [the seducer or the rapist] is not liable for the fine, [as implied by Deuteronomy 22:29]: "the man who raped her must give the maiden's father...." [The verse states] "the father of the maiden," and not "the father of the dead maiden." [This applies] when she dies before the case came to court.45

טו

בָּא עָלֶיהָ וּמֵתָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַקְּנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה" לֹא לַאֲבִי הַמֵּתָה. וְהוּא שֶׁתָּמוּת קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד בַּדִּין:

Footnotes
1.

Between the ages of three and twelve and a half, as evident from Halachah 8. See Ramah (Even HaEzer 177:1).

2.

See Hilchot Eruvin 1:12 and Hilchot Shekalim 1:2, where the Rambam describes the weight of this coin. According to the figures he gives in his Commentary on the Mishnah (Bechorot 8:8), in contemporary measure a sela is 19.2 grams. According to the Piskei Siddur of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, it is 20.4 grams.

3.

See Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandment 220), which describes this mitzvah as "the commandment we have been given with regard to a man who seduces [a virgin]." (See also Sefer HaChinuch, Mitzvah 61.)

Both in the Mishneh Torah and in Sefer HaMitzvot, the payment of the fine by a seducer, a rapist and one who issues a slanderous report appears to be included in the same mitzvah (Nachalat Efrayim).

Hilchot Sanhedrin 5:8 states that the cases involving laws governing a seducer and a rapist are to be tried by judges with semichah, a qualification that is not possessed by Rabbinical judges in the post-Talmudic period. The Shulchan Aruch (Even HaEzer 177:2) states that in the present age, a seducer and a rapist should be compelled to satisfy the girl's father for the damage they have caused.

4.

As mentioned in the following halachah, a rapist must marry the woman he raped, while a seducer need not. And, as mentioned in Chapter 2, Halachah 1, a rapist must also reimburse the woman for the pain and embarrassment he caused her.

5.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, explaining that unless there are witnesses to the relations, the woman has no way of proving her claim against the man. The Migdal Oz explains that this refers to an instance where witnesses saw the man and the woman engage in relations from afar and were not able to determine whether she was seduced or raped.

The assumptions mentioned by the Rambam are based on the passage (stated with regard to a consecrated maiden, Deuteronomy 23:24-27): "This is the law when a virgin maiden was consecrated to one man and another man meets her in the city and has relations with her. Both of them should be executed, [i.e., we assume the girl consented]... because she did not cry out in the city.... If the man encountered the maiden who was consecrated in the field..., the girl has not committed a sin... for the man attacked her in the field..., where there was no one to come to her aid."

6.

Exodus 22:16 states: "If her father refuses to allow him to marry her...," and Ketubot 39b explains that the girl is also given the option of rejecting the man.

7.

The simple meaning of the passage from Exodus implies that the seducer should marry the girl, but Ketubot 40a explains that this is not a binding obligation.

8.

He does, however, pay damages, as stated in Chapter 2, Halachah 7.

9.

I.e., she is given a ketubah of 200 zuzim, as is given to other virgin maidens (Hilchot Ishut 11:4), despite the fact that she was not a virgin at the time of the marriage (Ma'aseh Rokeach). Mishneh LaMelech explains that this concept is derived from Exodus 22:16, which states: "he must pay the usual dowry money for virgins."

Tosafot (Yevamot 60a) and the Nimukei Yosef differ and maintain that the girl is given a ketubah of only 100 zuzim as is given to non-virgins.

10.

See Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandment 218). See also Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvah 557).

11.

In this halachah, the Rambam uses the Biblical term tzara'at, although generally he uses the Rabbinic term mukeh sh'chin. See Chapter 3, Halachah 4, and the conclusion of Hilchot Ishut.

12.

If, however, the woman wants to be divorced, the rapist may divorce her [Shulchan Aruch (Even HaEzer 177:3)].

13.

See Sefer HaMitzvot (Negative Commandment 358). See also Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvah 558).

14.

The Torah does not require him to marry a woman with whom there is any prohibition whatsoever.

15.

For all Rabbinic prohibitions have the source in the Torah's commandment to observe the rulings of our Sages.

16.

For a husband is forbidden to engage in marital relations with an adulterous wife, as stated in Hilchot Ishut 24:17. See the Beit Shmuel 177:4, who emphasizes that the intent is that witnesses observed the actual commission of adultery, not merely immodest behavior that suggests adultery.

See also Chapter 3, Halachah 5.

17.

See Leviticus 21:13; Hilchot Ishut 1:8.

18.

Although her lack of virginity is a result of his deed, she is still forbidden to him. See Hilchot Issurei Bi'ah 17:16.

19.

Chapter 18, Halachah 2.

20.

At which point her husband is forbidden to remarry her, as stated in Hilchot Gerushin 11:12.

21.

Although he did not personally prevent the positive commandment from being observed, since he is no longer able to observe it, he must bear the consequences of his violation of the prohibition.

22.

I.e., vaginal and not anal intercourse. The Rambam's ruling is not accepted by the Ra'avad and Rabbenu Asher, who cite Kiddushin 9b-10a in support of their conception.

The Kiryat Sefer supports the Rambam's ruling, based on Sanhedrin 73b, which states that the man is not liable until he inserts the entire penis into the vagina, explaining that it is only then that the woman will lose her virginity. Since she will never lose her virginity through anal intercourse, the man is not held liable.

23.

For a person who admits his culpability in matters punishable by a fine is not liable. See Chapter 2, Halachah 12 and notes.

24.

For a warning is necessary only before infliction of the punishments of execution or lashing.

25.

Although there are times when the Hebrew term na'arah, translated as "maiden," has a more specific meaning (see Hilchot Ishut 2:1), Ketubot 40b explains that in this instance the intent is also a girl below the age of twelve.

Although most Rishonim agree with the Rambam, there are, however, significant authorities who rule that a fine need not be paid until the girl reaches the age of na'arut.

26.

Generally, this refers to a girl of the age of twelve and a half who has manifested signs of physical maturity. If a girl does not manifest signs of physical maturity, she is not considered a bogeret until the age of 20 or 35. See Hilchot Ishut 2:1-4.

27.

For her hymen will grow back, as implied by Hilchot Ishut 3:11.

28.

Since the Torah states that the fine should be paid to the father, it is necessary to clarify that the fine must be paid even if the father is not alive.

29.

As mentioned in Hilchot Gerushin 11;1, when a girl below the age of majority marries without being consecrated by her father, she can nullify the marriage without a formal divorce. This is called mi'un. When she takes this option, even if we know that she is still a virgin, she is not entitled to receive the fine because she has been married previously.

30.

A woman who does not manifest female sexual characteristics, as explained in Hilchot Ishut 2:5. Since an aylonit never becomes a na'arah, she is not entitled to a fine (Kessef Mishneh). The Ra'avad maintains that an aylonit should receive a fine until she reaches the age of twenty.

31.

Since they are not mentally competent, we fear that they were raped previously without their knowing about it. Compare to Hilchot Ishut 11:4,8. Note the Ra'avad, who states that a person who rapes or seduces a deaf mute is liable for a fine.

32.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 17.

33.

Even if we are certain that she and her husband never engaged in sexual relations, she is not paid a fine. Compare to Hilchot Ishut 11:1.

34.

We do not assume that she entered into relations with her husband before the stage of nisu'in.

35.

Although Deuteronomy 22:28 speaks of the fine being paid to the girl's father, from the fact that the verse mentions "a maiden who was not consecrated," Ketubot 38a derives that when a maiden has been consecrated, the fine should be paid to the woman who was raped.

36.

Since she consented to relations, she waives the payment of the fine. See Chapter 2, Halachot 10-11.

Note Rav David Arameah, who states that this applies only when she is a na'arah. If she is still a minor, her father receives the fine, and she does not have the potential to waive it through her consent.

37.

As the Rambam states in Hilchot Ishut 11:2, we operate under the presumption that these women have engaged in relations previously: a convert and a Canaanite maidservant because non-Jews' morals are considered to be weak, and a woman held captive because she is at the mercy of her captors.

38.

Even if she engaged in relations before the age of three, her hymen will grow back, as stated in the notes on Halachah 8.

39.

As stated in Hilchot Sanhedrin 12:2 and 16:4, a person receives corporal punishment for the commission of a transgression only when he has been warned previously.

40.

This refers to a girl who was divorced after consecration. If she was divorced after nisu'in, the second stage of the marriage, she is not entitled to a fine as stated in Halachah 9.

41.

The verse speaks of the woman's miscarrying. If she herself does not die, the man who caused her to miscarry must pay her damages.

42.

I.e., if the woman dies, her heirs need not be reimbursed. Since the man is liable for a sin of a more severe nature, he is not held liable for damages (Hilchot Sanhedrin 16:5).

43.

Although the general principle stated in this halachah is accepted without dispute, the particular case of the pregnant woman is a matter of question. The Rambam himself states (Hilchot Chovel UMazik 4:5-6) that if the man did not intend to strike the woman, he is liable to pay damages to her heirs.

In that source, he explains that the leniency granted by the verse applies when the man intended to strike the woman, but did not intend to kill her.

44.

In contrast, with regard to a transgression punishable by lashes: if it is performed unintentionally, one is still held liable for the financial repercussions.

45.

Once, however, the case is heard before the court, the rapist is held liable if proven guilty, even if the maiden dies. The fine is given to the girl's heirs (Kessef Mishneh).

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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