ב"ה

# Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

### Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 7, Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 8, Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 9

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## Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 7

1

A column of liquid being poured is not considered as joined, neither to an impure entity nor to one that is pure.

What is implied? If one was pouring pure liquids into an impure container or even on the carcass of a crawling animal itself, the column of liquid being poured is pure. If one would collect some of the liquids that are being poured while they are in the air, what he collects is pure. Needless to say, that the liquids in the container from which one is pouring are pure.

א

הַנִּצוֹק אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר לֹא לְטֻמְאָה וְלֹא לְטָהֳרָה. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה מְעָרֶה מַשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי טָמֵא וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי הַשֶּׁרֶץ הֲרֵי הָעַמּוּד הַנִּצּוֹק טָהוֹר. וְאִם קָלַט מִן הַמַּשְׁקִין הַנִּגָּרִין מִן הָאֲוִיר הֲרֵי זֶה שֶׁקָּלַט טָהוֹר. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁמְּעָרֶה מֵהֶן טְהוֹרִין:

2

When does the above apply? When one is pouring cold liquids to cold liquids, hot liquids to hot liquids, or hot liquids to cold ones. If, however, one pours pure cold liquids into impure hot liquids, the column of liquids being poured is considered as joined. The liquids are considered as a primary derivative of impurity. They impart impurity to the container in which they are held.

Why did the Sages say that when one who pours cold liquids into hot liquids, the liquids are considered as joined? Because the vapors of the hot liquids ascend like a pillar of smoke. It becomes intermingled with the column of liquid being poured and the liquid in the upper container, causing it to become impure. For the vapor ascending from the hot liquid is also considered as liquid.

ב

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁעֵרָה מִצּוֹנֵן לְצוֹנֵן אוֹ מֵחַם לְחַם אוֹ מֵחַם לְצוֹנֵן. אֲבָל הַמְעָרֶה מַשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין צוֹנֵן לְתוֹךְ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין חַמִּין הֲרֵי הַנִּצּוֹק חִבּוּר וְנִטְמְאוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין הַצּוֹנֵן כֻּלָּן שֶׁהוּא מְעָרֶה מֵהֶן וְנִטְמָא הַכְּלִי שֶׁמְּעָרֶה מִמֶּנּוּ מֵחֲמַת הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי נִטְמְאוּ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אָמְרוּ הַמְעָרֶה מַשְׁקִין צוֹנֵן לְחַמִּין חִבּוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֶשֶׁן הַחַמִּין עוֹלֶה כְּתִמְרוֹת עָשָׁן וּמִתְעָרֵב בַּנִּצּוֹק וּבַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי הָעֶלְיוֹן וּמְטַמֵּא הַכְּלִי שֶׁהֶעָשָׁן הָעוֹלֶה מִן הַחַמִּין מַשְׁקִין הוּא חָשׁוּב:

3

For this reason, when a woman whose hands were pure was stirring a hot pot that was impure and liquid collected on her hand because of the vapor of the pot, her hands contract impurity. It is as if they touched the liquids in the pot. Similarly, if her hands were impure, she stirred a hot pot, and liquid collected on her hand because of the vapor of the pot, all of the contents of the pot contract impurity, as if she touched the liquids in the pot.

ג

לְפִיכָךְ הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהָיוּ יָדֶיהָ טְהוֹרוֹת וֶהֱגִיסָהּ בִּקְדֵרָה טְמֵאָה וְהִזִּיעוּ יָדֶיהָ מֵהֶבֶל הַקְּדֵרָה נִטְמְאוּ יָדֶיהָ כְּאִלּוּ נָגְעָה בַּמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ יָדֶיהָ טְמֵאוֹת וֶהֱגִיסָהּ בִּקְדֵרָה וְהִזִּיעוּ יָדֶיהָ נִטְמָא כָּל מַה שֶּׁבַּקְּדֵרָה כְּאִלּוּ נָגְעָה בַּמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה:

4

When honey from Zif and Tzapachat is poured, the column of honey is considered as joined even if one is pouring from a cold container to a cold container. The rationale is that the honey remains attached to them and they are extended like glue. Therefore the column of all other foods which are poured are not considered as joined even if they are very thick, e.g., cooked groats, melted fat, or the like, because they do not remain attached. Similarly, with regard to other liquids, a column of poured liquid is not considered as joined unless one is pouring from cold to hot, as we explained.

ד

נְחִיל דְּבַשׁ הַזִּיפִים וּדְבַשׁ הַצַּפַּחַת הַנִּצּוֹק שֶׁלָּהֶן חִבּוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה מְעָרֶה מִצּוֹנֵן לְצוֹנֵן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן רִיר וַהֲרֵי הֵן נִמְשָׁכִין כְּדֶבֶק. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל הָאֳכָלִין אֵין הַנִּצּוֹק שֶׁלָּהֶן חִבּוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ עָבִים הַרְבֵּה כְּגוֹן הַגְּרִיסִין וְהַחֵלֶב הַמֻּתָּךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן רִיר. וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין אֵין הַנִּצּוֹק שֶׁלָּהֶן חִבּוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עֵרָה מִצּוֹנֵן לְחַם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

5

Similarly, a column of liquid is not considered as joined to a pure entity.

What is implied? If one poured impure water from a stone container or the like into a mikveh, we do not say that when the edge of the column being poured reaches the water, it is purified. Instead, it is considered as impure until it is all connected to the mikveh from one side, as we explained.

Similarly, when there is an incline that has tangible moisture upon it, the moisture is not considered as joined to other liquids on that incline, neither to render them impure or pure. Liquids that are collected on the ground, by contrast, are all considered as joined, whether this renders them impure or pure.

ה

הַנִּצּוֹק אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר לְטָהֲרָה. כֵּיצַד. שֶׁאִם עֵרָה מַיִם טְמֵאִים מִכְּלִי אֶבֶן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן לְתוֹךְ הַמִּקְוֶה אֵין אוֹמְרִים מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ קְצָת הַנִּצּוֹק לַמִּקְוֶה טִהֲרוּ הַמַּיִם אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵן בְּטֻמְאָתָן עַד שֶׁיַּשִּׁיק הַמִּקְוֶה לְכֻלָּן מִצַּד אֶחָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵן הַקְּטַפְרֵס שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ אֵינוֹ מְחַבְּרָן לִשְׁאָר הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבַּמִּדְרוֹן לֹא לְטֻמְאָה וְלֹא לְטָהֳרָה. אֲבָל הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבַּאֶשְׁבּוֹרֶן כֻּלָּן חִבּוּר לְטֻמְאָה וּלְטָהֳרָה:

6

When a kneading trough is on an incline, there is tangible moisture on it, and there are three impure pieces of food, together an egg-sized portion in size, positioned on it, one below the other, they are not combined. If there are two, they are combined. If there was standing liquid beneath the food, even if the pieces are all the size of mustard seeds, the liquid combines them all.

ו

עֲרֵבָה שֶׁהִיא קְטַפְרֵס וְעָלֶיהָ מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ וְשָׁלֹשׁ חֲתִיכוֹת אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִים בִּכְבֵיצָה מֻנָּחִין עָלֶיהָ זוֹ לְמַטָּה מִזּוֹ אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפוֹת. הָיוּ שְׁתַּיִם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת. וְאִם הָיָה תַּחְתֵּיהֶם מַשְׁקֶה עוֹמֵד אֲפִלּוּ כְּעֵין הַחַרְדָּל הֲרֵי זֶה מְצָרֵף אֶת כֻּלָּן:

7

We have already explained that a person who immersed to purify himself on the same day does not impart impurity to ordinary foods at all. Instead, he disqualifies foods that are terumah and liquids that are terumah, making them all tertiary derivatives. Similarly, if he touches sacrificial foods or sacrificial liquids, he disqualifies them and causes them to be considered as fourth degree derivatives.

ז

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁטְּבוּל יוֹם אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא חֻלִּין כְּלָל אֶלָּא פּוֹסֵל אָכְלֵי תְּרוּמָה וּמַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה וְעוֹשֶׂה הַכּל שְׁלִישִׁי. וְכֵן אִם נָגַע בְּאָכְלֵי קֹדֶשׁ אוֹ מַשְׁקֵה קֹדֶשׁ פְּסָלָן וַעֲשָׂאָן רְבִיעִי:

8

There are certain situations where articles are not considered as joined when one of them is touched by a person who immersed that day even though they are considered as joined with regard to all forms of impurity. Instead, if a person who immersed that day touched them, he disqualifies only the article he touched. If, instead of such a person, those articles had been touched by another impure person, he would have disqualified all of them. Even if the person who touched them merely partook of impure foods or drank impure liquids and thus his impurity is light, he disqualifies everything. In contrast, a person who immersed that day does not disqualify it. Needless, to say, if a person is a primary source of impurity or a primary derivative of impurity, he imparts impurity to everything.

Why was leniency granted to a person who immersed that day? Because he already purified himself and he is lacking only nightfall to attain purity.

A further leniency was granted with regard to a person who immersed that day. There are foods that are designated for human consumption and hence susceptible to all types of impurity, but they are pure if touched by a person who immersed that day. They are barley and spelt when they are not shelled. If, however, they are shelled, and, similarly, wheat, even if it is not shelled, black cumin, and sesame seeds are disqualified when touched by a person who immersed that day. Needless to say, they contract all forms of impurity.

ח

יֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם חִבּוּר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן חִבּוּר בְּכָל הַטֻּמְאוֹת. אֶלָּא אִם נָגַע בָּהֶן טְבוּל יוֹם לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא זֶה שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ. וְאִלּוּ הָיָה הַנּוֹגֵעַ בִּמְקוֹם טְבוּל יוֹם אָדָם אַחֵר הָיָה פּוֹסֵל הַכּל. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַנּוֹגֵעַ אָדָם שֶׁאָכַל אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִין אוֹ שָׁתָה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין שֶׁהִיא טֻמְאָה קַלָּה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסַל הַכּל שֶׁלֹּא פְּסָלוֹ טְבוּל יוֹם. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם הָיָה הַנּוֹגֵעַ אַב טֻמְאָה אוֹ רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא הַכּל. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הֵקֵלּוּ בִּטְבוּל יוֹם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּבָר טָהַר וְאֵינוֹ מְחֻסָּר אֶלָּא הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ. וְעוֹד הֵקֵלוּ בִּטְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֳכָלִין שֶׁהֵן מְיֻחָדִין לְאָדָם וּמִתְטַמְּאִין בְּכָל הַטֻּמְאוֹת וְהֵן טְהוֹרוֹת בִּטְבוּל יוֹם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. הַשְּׂעוֹרָה וְהַכֻּסֶּמֶת בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָן קְלוּפִין. אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן קְלוּפִין וְהַחִטָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ קְלוּפָה. וְהַקֶּצַח וְהַשּׁוּמְשׁוּם. נִפְסָלִין בִּטְבוּל יוֹם וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁהֵן מִתְטַמְּאִין בְּכָל הַטֻּמְאוֹת:

9

All of the "handles" of food that are considered as joined to the food with regard to a primary source of impurity are also considered as joined with regard to a person who immersed that day. Similarly, whenever food has been sliced, but is still somewhat connected and thus is considered joined with regard to a primary source of impurity, it is also considered as joined with regard to a person who immersed that day. Whenever leniency is granted and objects are not considered as joined with regard to a person who immersed that day, they are considered as joined with regard to the impurity of hands. This is also a stringency that applies with regard to the impurity of hands that does not apply with regard to a person who immersed that day.

ט

כָּל יַד הָאֳכָלִין שֶׁהֵן חִבּוּר בְּאַב הַטֻּמְאָה הֲרֵי הֵן חִבּוּר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם. וְכֵן כָּל הָאֹכֶל שֶׁנִּפְרָס וּמְעֹרֶה בְּמִקְצָת שֶׁהוּא חִבּוּר בְּאַב הַטֻּמְאָה כָּךְ הוּא חִבּוּר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ חִבּוּר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם הֲרֵי הוּא חִבּוּר בְּיָדַיִם וְגַם זֶה חֹמֶר בְּטֻמְאַת יָדַיִם מִטְּבוּל יוֹם:

## Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 8

1

The following rule applies when loaves or breads were inserted into an oven and were attached to each other - although one had the intent to separate them - or one baked one loaf over another in an oven and its surface did not yet harden. If a person who immersed that day touched one of them, he only disqualifies the loaf that he touched.

Similarly, in the following instances, water was boiled and made large bubbles, groats were boiled for the first time, fresh wine began to ferment, or rice was boiled, if a person who immersed that day touched the bubbles, he disqualifies only the bubbles. With regard to other impurity, by contrast, whether lenient or stringent, everything is considered as joined.

If, however, loaves were attached to each other and the person did not intend to separate them; he baked one loaf over another and they became attached after the surfaces hardened in the oven; water bubbled and the bubbles were not empty as large bubbles are; groats boiled for a second time; aged wine fermented and produced bubbles; oil - whether fresh or aged - bubbled; lentils bubbled - all these situations are considered as joined even when touched by a person who immersed that day. Needless to say, this applies with regard to other impurities.

א

חַלוֹת אוֹ כִּכָּרִים שֶׁכְּנָסָן וְהָיוּ נוֹשְׁכוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ וְדַעְתּוֹ לְהַפְרִישָׁן אוֹ שֶׁאָפָה חַלָּה עַל גַּבֵּי חַלָּה בַּתַּנּוּר וַעֲדַיִן לֹא קָרְמוּ פָּנֶיהָ וְנָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא הַחַלָּה שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהּ. וְכֵן הַמַּיִם שֶׁהִרְתִּיחוּ וְנַעֲשׂוּ כְּקוּבָּה. וְהַגְּרִיסִין שֶׁהִרְתִּיחוּ רְתִיחָה רִאשׁוֹנָה. וְיַיִן חָדָשׁ וְאֹרֶז שֶׁהִרְתִּיחוּ. וְנָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בָּרְתִיחָה אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר וְלֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא הָרְתִיחָה בִּלְבַד. וּבִשְׁאָר כָּל הַטֻּמְאוֹת בֵּין קַלּוֹת בֵּין חֲמוּרוֹת הַכּל חִבּוּר. אֲבָל חַלּוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹשְׁכוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְהַפְרִישׁ. אוֹ שֶׁאָפָה חַלָּה עַל גַּבֵּי חַלָּה וְנָשְׁכוּ וְקָרְמוּ בַּתַּנּוּר. וּרְתִיחַת הַמַּיִם שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְחֻלְחֶלֶת כְּקוּבָּה. וּרְתִיחַת הַגְּרִיסִין שְׁנִיָּה. וּרְתִיחַת יַיִן יָשָׁן. וּרְתִיחַת הַשֶּׁמֶן בֵּין יָשָׁן בֵּין חָדָשׁ. וּרְתִיחַת עֲדָשִׁים. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חִבּוּר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּכָל הַטֻּמְאוֹת:

2

The following rules apply if dough is taken out at the time of baking and left to harden, so there is a projection like a nail in the midst of a loaf or the end of the dough is extended and becomes burnt while the loaf is baking; it is called a chirchor. If they were smaller than a fingerbreadth in size and a person who immersed that day touched them, he disqualified the entire loaf. Similarly, if such a person touched a small granule of salt in the loaf, he disqualified the entire loaf. Needless to say, these laws apply with regard to other impurities.

If, however, there is a pebble in a loaf, a vetch bean, a large granule of salt, a chichor that is larger than a fingerbreadth, even if a primary source of impurity touches them, the loaf is pure. Needless to say, this applies with regard to a person who immersed that day.

ב

בָּצֵק שֶׁיָּצָא בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּה וְנִמְצָא בְּאֶמְצַע הַכִּכָּר כְּמוֹ מַסְמֵר יוֹצֵא. וְכֵן קְצָת הַבָּצֵק שֶׁנִּמְשַׁךְ וְנֶחְרַךְ בְּעֵת אֲפִיָּה וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא חַרְחוּר. אִם הָיוּ פְּחוּתִים מִכְּאֶצְבַּע וְנָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בָּהֶן פָּסַל כָּל הַכִּכָּר. וְכֵן אִם נָגַע בְּגַרְגֵר מֶלַח קָטָן שֶׁבַּכִּכָּר נִפְסַל כָּל הַכִּכָּר. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּכָל הַטֻּמְאוֹת. אֲבָל צְרוֹר שֶׁבַּכִּכָּר אוֹ תּוּרְמוּס וְגַרְגֵּר מֶלַח גָּדוֹל וְחַרְחוּר יֶתֶר מִכְּאֶצְבַּע שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהֶן אֲפִלּוּ אַב הַטֻּמְאָה הַכִּכָּר טָהוֹר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם:

3

When half of a roll is burnt and half remains edible, the two are not considered as joined. If the center of a roll became burnt, but the sides remain edible, they are not considered as joined to each other. This applies even with regard to a primary source of impurity. Needless to say, this applies with regard to a person who immersed that day.

If the sauce in which sacrificial meat was being cooked congealed around it and a person who immersed that day touched this gel, the meat is permitted. If he touched a piece of the meat, that piece and anything that ascends with it are considered joined. Similar laws apply if cooked legumes congeal on pieces of bread.

When oil is floating on wine and a person who immersed that day touches the oil, he disqualifies only the oil.

ג

רָקִיק שֶׁנֶּחְרַךְ חֶצְיָהּ וְחֶצְיָהּ קַיָּם הֲרֵי זוֹ אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר. נֶחְרַךְ הָאֶמְצַע וְהַצְּדָדִין קַיָּמִין אֵינָן חִבּוּר זֶה לָזֶה אֲפִלּוּ בְּאַב הַטֻּמְאָה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם. בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁקָּרַם עָלָיו הַמָּרָק וְנָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בַּקִיפָה הַחֲתִיכוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת. נָגַע בַּחֲתִיכָה הַחֲתִיכָה וְכָל הָעוֹלִין עִמָּהּ חִבּוּר. וְכֵן בְּתַבְשִׁיל קִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁקָּרַם עַל גַּבֵּי פְּרוּסוֹת. שֶׁמֶן שֶׁצָּף עַל גַּבֵּי יַיִן וְנָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בַּשֶּׁמֶן לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא הַשֶּׁמֶן:

4

When there is an egg that is stirred placed on a vegetable that is terumah and a person who immersed that day touches the egg, he disqualifies only the stalk of the vegetable below the place he touched. If the egg bubbled like a helmet, it is not considered as joined to the vegetable.

ד

יָרָק תְּרוּמָה וּבֵיצָה טְרוּפָה נְתוּנָה עַל גַּבָּיו וְנָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בַּבֵּיצָה לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא קֶלַח שֶׁכְּנֶגְדוֹ. וְאִם הָיְתָה כְּמִין כּוֹבַע אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר:

5

The following laws apply when a strand from an egg congealed on the wall of a frying pan and a person who immersed that day touched it. If he touched a portion of the egg that was on the rim or further inward, it is considered as joined to the food. If the portion he touched was beyond the rim and to the outside, the egg is not considered as joined. The same laws apply with regard to cooked legumes whose broth congeals on the rim of a pot.

ה

חוּט שֶׁל בֵּיצָה שֶׁקָּרַם עַל דָּפְנָהּ שֶׁל אִלְפָּס וְנָגַע בּוֹ טְבוּל יוֹם. מִן הַשָּׂפָה וּלְפָנִים חִבּוּר מִן הַשָּׂפָה וְלַחוּץ אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר. וְכֵן בְּקִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁקָּרְמוּ עַל שְׂפַת הַקְּדֵרָה:

6

If there was a barrel that was perforated, whether from its base or from its side, and a person who immersed that day closed the hole with his hand, the contents of the entire barrel are disqualified.

ו

חָבִית שֶׁנִּקְּבָה בֵּין מִשּׁוּלֶיהָ בֵּין מִצִּדֶּיהָ וְסָתַם טְבוּל יוֹם הַנֶּקֶב בְּיָדָיו נִפְסְלָה כֻּלָּהּ:

7

When a person was pouring liquids from one container to another and a person who immersed that day touched the column of liquids, we estimate whether the liquids that he touched were less than a 101th portion of the entire amount. The rationale is that impure terumah that is mixed with 101 times its volume is considered insignificant because of its minimal size, as we explained in Hilchot Terumot.

ז

הַמְעָרֶה מִכְּלִי לִכְלִי וְנָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בַּקִּלּוּחַ מְשַׁעֲרִין זֶה שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה. שֶׁתְּרוּמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה בָּטְלָה בְּמִעוּטָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת תְּרוּמוֹת:

8

The following laws apply when a person who had immersed that day was separating terumah from a cistern of wine. An open jug of wine that was terumah fell from his hand and became submerged in the cistern of wine. He sought to retrieve the jug and touched the jug of wine in the cistern. If his hand touched only from the rim of the jug and outward, the wine he touched is not considered as joined to the wine in the jug. If his hand extended beyond the rim of the jug inward, it is considered as joined.

If the cistern was a giant container, even an immense tank that holds 100 kor, all of the wine is considered as joined. If a person who immersed that day touched some of the wine, he disqualifies even the terumah in a jug in the bottom of the large container.

ח

טְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁהָיָה תּוֹרֵם אֶת הַבּוֹר וְנָפְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ חָבִית שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְשָׁקְעָה בְּבוֹר שֶׁל יַיִן וְנָגַע בַּיַּיִן שֶׁבַּבּוֹר. מִן הַשָּׂפָה וְלַחוּץ אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר מִן הַשָּׂפָה וּלְפָנִים חִבּוּר. וְאִם הָיָה הַבּוֹר פִּיטַס אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כְּלִי גָּדוֹל שֶׁמַּחְזִיק מֵאָה כּוֹר כֻּלּוֹ חִבּוּר וְאִם נָגַע בְּמִקְצָת הַיַּיִן פָּסַל הַתְּרוּמָה שֶּׁבֶּחָבִית שֶׁבְּקַרְקַע הַכְּלִי:

9

When a person who immersed that day touches some of the flour for the meal offerings, frankincense, the incense offering, or coals, he disqualifies the entire amount that are held together in a container.

To what does the above apply? To the coals that one collects in the firepan used on Yom Kippur, for the coals in that firepan are taken into the Sanctuary. It does not apply to the coals that are taken every day, for they do not posses holiness. This is evidenced by the fact that if some of the coals are scattered when he pours from the silver firepan to the golden firepan, they do not possess holiness and are swept into the drainage canal.

ט

הַסּלֶת שֶׁל מְנָחוֹת וְהַלְּבוֹנָה וְהַקְּטֹרֶת וְהַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁנָּגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בְּמִקְצָתָן פָּסַל אֶת כֻּלָּן. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּגֶחָלִים שֶׁחוֹתֶה בְּמַחְתָּה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. שֶׁהַמַּחְתָּה שֶׁחוֹתֶה בָּהּ נִכְנָס לַהֵיכָל. אֲבָל גֶּחָלִים שֶׁחוֹתֶה בְּכָל יוֹם כְּשֶׁהוּא מְעָרֶה בְּמַחְתָּה שֶׁל כֶּסֶף לְשֶׁל זָהָב אִם נִתְפַּזְּרוּ מִן הַגֶּחָלִים אֵין בָּהֶן קְדֻשָּׁה אֶלָּא מְכַבְּדָן לָאַמָּה:

10

When oil that is terumah is resting upon a thick stew or an unbaked cake of ordinary food and a person who immersed that day touched the oil, he disqualifies only the oil. If he mixed the oil with the stew or the dough, any place the oil reached is disqualified.

י

מִקְפָּה שֶׁל חֻלִּין אוֹ רָקִיק שֶׁל חֻלִּין וְשֶׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה צָף עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן וְנָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בַּשֶּׁמֶן לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא הַשֶּׁמֶן בִּלְבַד. וְאִם חִבֵּץ כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁהָלַךְ בּוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶן פָּסַל:

11

If one cooked a vegetable that was ordinary food with terumah oil and a person who immersed that day touched it, he disqualifies only the place he touches.

יא

יָרָק שֶׁל חֻלִּין שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְנָגַע בּוֹ טְבוּל יוֹם לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ:

12

When there is a thick stew that is terumah and garlic and oil that are ordinary food and a person who immersed that day touched part of the stew, the oil, or the garlic, he disqualifies everything.

יב

הַמִּקְפָּה שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְהַשּׁוּם וְהַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁל חֻלִּין שֶׁנָּגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בְּמִקְצָתָן פָּסַל אֶת כֻּלָּן:

13

If the stew was ordinary food and the garlic and oil were terumah and a person who immersed that day touched a portion, he disqualifies only the place he touched. If there was a majority of garlic, the ruling depends on the majority.

When does the above apply? When the garlic is a mass in a bowl. If, however, it was spread out in a pestle and one touched a portion of it, he disqualifies only the portion that he touched. It is not considered as joined, because he desires that it be dispersed.

With regard to other condiments that are crushed into liquids like garlic is crushed into oil, if they were crushed without liquids and collected, even though they are like a single entity in a bowl, he disqualifies only the place where he touches. For the condiments are considered like a roll of dried figs, in which instance, the ruling is that if a portion of it contracted impurity, the entire roll does not contract impurity.

יג

הַמִּקְפָּה שֶׁל חֻלִּין וְהַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בְּמִקְצָתָן לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ. אִם הָיָה הַשּׁוּם מְרֻבֶּה הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הָרֹב. אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא גּוּשׁ בִּקְעָרָה אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מְפֻזָּר בִּמְדוֹכָה וְנָגַע בְּמִקְצָתוֹ לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה בְּפִזּוּרוֹ. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַנִּדּוֹכִין שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְדוּכָן בְּמַשְׁקִין כְּגוֹן הַשּׁוּם בְּשֶׁמֶן אִם דָּכָן שֶׁלֹּא בְּמַשְׁקִין וְקִבְּצָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן גּוּשׁ בִּקְעָרָה וְנָגַע בָּהֶן לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ. שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם כְּעִגּוּל שֶׁל דְּבֵלָה שֶׁאִם נִטְמָא מִקְצָתוֹ לֹא נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ:

14

When a portion in the northern or southern part of a dough is designated as challah and similarly, when a portion in the northern or southern part of a zucchini was designated as terumah, the terumah or the challah are considered as joined to the entire dough or zucchini. Thus if a person who immersed that day touched part of the dough, the challah is disqualified. If the challah was removed from the remainder of the dough and then returned to it, it is not considered as joined.

יד

עִסָּה שֶׁקָּרָא שֵׁם חַלָּתָהּ בִּצְפוֹנָהּ אוֹ בִּדְרוֹמָהּ. וְכֵן הַקִּשּׁוּת שֶׁקָּרָא שֵׁם תְּרוּמָה בִּצְפוֹנָהּ אוֹ בִּדְרוֹמָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה חִבּוּר. וְאִם נָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בְּמִקְצָת הָעִסָּה נִפְסְלָה הַחַלָּה. נִטְּלָה חַלָּתָהּ מִתּוֹכָהּ וְחָזְרָה לְתוֹכָהּ אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר:

15

When a dough that was ordinary food became mixed with terumah or became leavened with yeast that is terumah, it is not disqualified when touched by a person who immersed that day.

טו

עִסָּה שֶׁנִּדְמְעָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה בִּשְׂאוֹר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אֵינָהּ נִפְסֶלֶת בִּטְבוּל יוֹם:

16

If the grains from which the flour used to make a dough had been exposed to liquids and thus made susceptible to ritual impurity and then the flour was kneaded with fruit juice, should a person who immersed that day touch the dough, he disqualifies only the place he touches.

טז

עִסָּה שֶׁהֻכְשְׁרָה בְּמַשְׁקִין וְנִלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת וְנָגַע בָּהּ טְבוּל יוֹם לֹא פָּסַל אֶלָּא מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ בִּלְבַד:

17

When food that is the first tithe was exposed to liquids and thus made susceptible to ritual impurity and a person who immersed that day or one with impure hands touched that food, terumat ma'aser should be separated from it in a state of purity. The rationale is that the first tithe is considered as ordinary food and neither a person who immersed that day nor one whose hands are impure disqualifies ordinary food, for ordinary food that is a tertiary derivative of impurity is pure, as we explained.

Similarly, a woman who immersed that day may knead dough, cut off a portion as challah, set it aside, place it in a container, put it together with the other dough in one container so that they are considered as one entity, so that it can be separated while the two are one entity. Afterwards, she designates it as challah, saying "This is challah." Once she designates it, she should not touch it, lest she disqualify it. She should follow a similar pattern if she was kneading in a kneading trough that had been immersed that day.

יז

מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהֻכְשַׁר וְנָגַע בּוֹ טְבוּל יוֹם אוֹ יָדַיִם מְסֹאָבוֹת מַפְרִישִׁין מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר בְּטָהֳרָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן כְּחֻלִּין וּטְבוּל יוֹם וְיָדַיִם מְסֹאָבוֹת אֵינָם פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַחֻלִּין שֶׁהַשְּׁלִישִׁי בְּחֻלִּין טָהוֹר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא טְבוּלַת יוֹם לָשָׁה אֶת הָעִסָּה וְקוֹצָה לָהּ חַלָּה וּמַפְרִישָׁתָהּ וּמַנִּיחָתָהּ בְּכֵלִים וְנוֹתַנְתּוֹ עִם שְׁאָר הָעִסָּה כְּאַחַת. וּמַקֶּפֶת עַל הַכּל כְּדֵי לִתְרֹם מִן הַמֻּקָּף וְאַחַר כָּךְ קוֹרְאָה לָהּ שֵׁם וְאוֹמֶרֶת הֲרֵי זוֹ חַלָּה. וּמִשֶּׁתִּקְרָא לָהּ שֵׁם לֹא תִּגַּע בָּהּ שֶׁלֹּא תִּפְסְלֶנָּהּ. וְכָךְ הִיא עוֹשָׂה אִם לָשָׁה בַּעֲרֵבָה שֶׁהִיא טְבוּלַת יוֹם:

18

When a person fills bottles that were immersed that day from a jug of wine that is from the tithes from which terumat ma'aser had not been separated and says: "May this be terumat ma'aser for the wine in the jug at nightfall," it is pure terumah. The rationale is that the separated wine does not become terumat ma'aser until nightfall, as he stipulated. And at night, the day in which they were in an intermediate state will have ended for the bottles and they will become pure.

If the jug from which the wine was taken breaks before nightfall, the wine in the bottles is considered as tevel. If the bottles break, the wine in the jug is considered as tevel.

יח

לָגִין שֶׁהוּא טְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁמִּלְּאָהוּ מֵחָבִית מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר עַל מַה שֶּׁבֶּחָבִית אַחַר שֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ הֲרֵי זוֹ תְּרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ נַעֲשֵׂית תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר עַד שֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ כְּפִי תְּנָאוֹ וְאַחַר שֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ יַעֲרִיב שִׁמְשׁוֹ שֶׁל לָגִין וְיִטְהַר. נִשְׁבְּרָה הֶחָבִית קֹדֶם שֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ הַלָּגִין בְּטִבְלוֹ. נִשְׁבַּר הַלָּגִין הֶחָבִית בְּטִבְלָהּ:

19

A person who immersed after purifying himself from the impurity associated with a human corpse or the impurity that results from relations with a nidah may work in an olive press.

Similarly, other impure people who immersed themselves to regain purity may work with ordinary food that is pure with the exception of a zav and a zavah on their seventh day. Even though these individuals immersed themselves, they should not work in an olive press or become involved with pure foods lest they experience a discharge. In such an instance, they are considered impure retroactively, for the discharge disqualifies all the seven pure days, as we explained.

יט

טְבוּל יוֹם מִטֻּמְאַת מֵת וּמִבְּעִילַת נִדָּה עוֹשֶׂה בְּבֵית הַבַּד. וְכֵן שְׁאָר הַטְּמֵאִים שֶׁטָּבְלוּ עוֹשִׂין בְּטָהֳרוֹת. חוּץ מִזָּב וְזָבָה בַּשְּׁבִיעִי שֶׁלָּהֶן שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּבְלוּ לֹא יַעֲשׂוּ בְּבֵית הַבַּד וְלֹא יִתְעַסְּקוּ בְּטָהֳרוֹת שֶׁמָּא יִרְאוּ וְנִמְצְאוּ טְמֵאִים לְמַפְרֵעַ שֶׁהֲרֵי סוֹתְרִין הַכּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

## Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 9

1

When oil or honey contract impurity, coagulate and become solid, and then return to a liquid state, they are considered as first degree derivatives of impurity forever, because they are liquids. This applies even if they solidify after contracting impurity.

א

הַשֶׁמֶן אוֹ הַדְּבַשׁ שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ קָרְשׁוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמּוֹחוּ הֲרֵי הֵן רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה לְעוֹלָם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּמַשְׁקִין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּפְאוּ אַחַר שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ:

2

When sauce, groats, or milk solidify, they are considered as foods and intent is required for them to become susceptible to ritual impurity. If food that was a primary derivative of impurity or an impure liquid touches them, they are considered as secondary derivatives. If there was moist liquid on them, they are considered as liquids and they are deemed primary derivatives.

If they contracted impurity while they were liquids and then froze and solidified, they are considered as secondary derivatives, like food that contracted impurity from impure liquids. Different laws apply if they contracted impurity when they were solid and then melted and became liquid. If they were exactly the size of an egg or less, the liquids are pure. If they are larger than an egg, the liquids are impure. The rationale is that when the first drop melted, it contracted impurity from the egg-sized portion of frozen liquid from which it melted. That drop will then impart impurity to all of the liquids that will melt afterwards.

Similar laws apply if a person who was impure due to contact with a human corpse squeezed a mass of olives or grapes that were made susceptible to ritual impurity. If the fruits were only the size of an egg, the liquids produced are pure, provided the person does not touch that place from which the liquids are dripping. The rationale for the leniency is that the liquids are set aside in the food; it is as if the food was a separate entity.

If the grapes or olives were larger than the size of an egg, the liquids that emerge from them are impure. For once the first drop emerged from them, it became impure due to contact with an egg-sized portion of impure food and it imparts impurity to all the liquids.

If the person squeezing the grapes was a zav, a zavah, or the like even if they squeezed only one grape which had not been made susceptible to ritual impurity, and they did not touch the liquid, the liquid is impure. The rationale is that when the first drop emerged, it became impure because it was carried by a zav. For a zav who carries food or liquids imparts impurity to them, as we explained. Similarly, when a zav milks a goat, the milk is impure. For when the first drop emerged, it became impure because it was carried by a zav.

ב

הָרֹטֶב וְהַגְּרִיסִין וְהֶחָלָב שֶׁקָּרְשׁוּ הֲרֵי הֵן כָּאֳכָלִין וּצְרִיכִין מַחֲשָׁבָה. וְאִם נָגַע בָּהֶן אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ מַשְׁקֶה נַעֲשׂוּ שְׁנִיִּים. הָיָה בָּהֶן מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמַשְׁקִין וְהֵן תְּחִלָּה לְטֻמְאָה. נִטְמְאוּ כְּשֶׁהֵן מַשְׁקִין וְקָפְאוּ אַחַר כֵּן וְקָרְשׁוּ הֲרֵי הֵן שְׁנִיִּים כְּמוֹ אֹכֶל שֶׁנִּטְמָא מִמַּשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין. נִטְמְאוּ כְּשֶׁהֵן קְפוּיִים וְנִמּוֹחוּ וְנַעֲשׂוּ מַשְׁקִין אִם הָיוּ כְּבֵיצָה מְכֻוָּן הֲרֵי הַמַּשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין. הָיוּ יוֹתֵר מִכְּבֵיצָה הַמַּשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין שֶׁכְּשֶׁנִּמּוֹחָה טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִטְמֵאת בִּכְבֵיצָה אֹכֶל טָמֵא שֶׁנִּמּוֹחָה מִמֶּנּוּ וְאוֹתָהּ הַטִּפָּה תְּטַמֵּא כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁנִּמּוֹחוּ אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְכֵן טְמֵא מֵת שֶׁסָּחַט זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים שֶׁהֻכְשְׁרוּ אִם הָיוּ כְּבֵיצָה הֲרֵי הַמַּשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן טְהוֹרִין. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בִּמְקוֹם הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקֶה כְּמֻפְקָד בָּאֹכֶל וּכְאִלּוּ הִיא גּוּף אַחֵר. הָיוּ אוֹתָן זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים יֶתֶר מִכְּבֵיצָה הֲרֵי הַמַּשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן טְמֵאִין שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָאת טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִטְמֵאת בִּכְבֵיצָה וְטִמְּאָה כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין. וְאִם הָיָה הַסּוֹחֵט זָב וְזָבָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֲפִלּוּ סָחַט גַּרְגֵּר אֶחָד יְחִידִי שֶׁלֹּא הֻכְשַׁר וְלֹא נָגַע בַּמַּשְׁקֶה הַמַּשְׁקֶה טָמֵא שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָאת טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִטְמֵאת בְּמַשָּׂא הַזָּב שֶׁהַזָּב שֶׁנָּשָׂא אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵן זָב שֶׁחָלַב אֶת הָעֵז הֶחָלָב טָמֵא שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָאת טִפָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה נִטְמֵאת בְּמַשָּׂא הַזָּב:

3

The following laws apply when there was a pot filled with vegetables left to pickle, their leaves extended outside the pot, and a primary source or a primary derivative of impurity touched the leaf that was outside the pot in a dry place. Even though the leaf was the size of an egg, it is impure, but everything else is pure. If it is returned to the pot, it imparts impurity to all the liquids in it. As a result, the pot and all the vegetables contract impurity. More stringent rules apply if the impure person touched a leaf that was outside the pot that had liquid on it. If the leaf is the size of an egg, everything is impure. The rationale is that the leaf imparts impurity to the liquid on it. That liquid imparts impurity to all the liquids in the pot and they impart impurity to the pot.

A pot that was filled with pickled vegetables that were terumah was shaken by a person who immersed that day. He discovered liquids on his hand and was in doubt whether they were sprayed from the pot or whether a stalk from a moist vegetable in the pot touched his hand. The ruling is that the vegetables are disqualified, but the pot is pure.

ג

קְדֵרָה שֶׁמְּלֵאָה כְּבָשִׁין שֶׁל חֻלִּין וְיָצְאוּ עֲלֵיהֶם חוּץ לַקְּדֵרָה וְנָגַע אַב הַטֻּמְאָה אוֹ רִאשׁוֹן בֶּעָלֶה שֶׁחוּץ לַקְּדֵרָה בִּמְקוֹם הַנָּגוּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֶּעָלֶה כְּבֵיצָה הוּא טָמֵא וְהַכּל טָהוֹר. חָזַר לַקְּדֵרָה טִמֵּא אֶת הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבָּהּ וְנִטְמֵאת הַקְּדֵרָה וְכָל הַכְּבָשִׁין. נָגַע בֶּעָלֶה שֶׁחוּץ לַקְּדֵרָה וְהָיָה בּוֹ מַשְׁקֶה אִם יֵשׁ בֶּעָלֶה כְּבֵיצָה הַכּל טָמֵא שֶׁהֶעָלֶה מְטַמֵּא מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁעָלָיו וְהַמַּשְׁקֶה מְטַמֵּא כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה וּמְטַמֵּא אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה. הָיְתָה הַקְּדֵרָה מְלֵאָה כְּבָשִׁים שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְנִעֵר אוֹתָהּ טְבוּל יוֹם וְרָאָה מַשְׁקִין עַל יָדוֹ סָפֵק מִן הַקְּדֵרָה נִתְּזוּ סָפֵק שֶׁהַקֶּלַח נָגַע בְּיָדוֹ הַיָּרָק פָּסוּל וְהַקְּדֵרָה טְהוֹרָה:

4

The following laws apply when an impure person was partaking of grapes that had been made susceptible to ritual impurity and one grape fell into a wine press. If the grape was complete and its stem had not been removed from it, the grapes in the wine press are pure. If its stem was removed and the grapes from which he took the grape that fell were stored in a storage pit and prepared to be crushed - indicating that he desires the liquid that emerges from them - the grapes in the wine press contract impurity from the drop of liquid that emerges from the place of the stem.

Should grapes fall from the hands of the impure person and he crushed them in an open place, the liquids that emerge from them are pure if the grapes were exactly the size of an egg or less, as we explained. If there is more than an egg-sized portion, the liquid that emerges is impure. Once one drop emerges, it contracts impurity from an egg-sized portion of impure foods and then it imparts impurity to all the liquids that emerge afterwards.

ד

טָמֵא שֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל עֲנָבִים מֻכְשָׁרִים וְנָפַל מִמֶּנּוּ גַּרְגֵּר יְחִידִי לַגַּת אִם הָיָה שָׁלֵם וְלֹא נִשְׁמַט מִמֶּנּוּ עֵקְצוֹ הַגַּת טָהוֹר. וְאִם נִטַּל עֵקְצוֹ וְהָיוּ עֲנָבִים מוּכָנִים בַּעֲבִיט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ לְדָרְכָן שֶׁהֲרֵי רוֹצֶה בַּמַּשְׁקֶה הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶן נִטְמָא הַגַּת בְּטִפַּת מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הַגַּרְגֵּר בִּמְקוֹם הָעֹקֶץ. נָפְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עֲנָבִים וּדְרָכָן בְּמָקוֹם מוּפְנֶה אִם הָיוּ כְּבֵיצָה מְכֻוָּן הֲרֵי הַמַּשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן טְהוֹרִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הָיוּ יֶתֶר מִכְּבֵיצָה הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶן טָמֵא שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָאת טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִטְמֵאת בִּכְבֵיצָה וּמְטַמֵּאת אֶת כָּל הַמַּשְׁקֶה הַיּוֹצֵא אַחֲרֶיהָ:

5

The following laws apply when there was a mound of impure olives that were collected and pressed together until they were considered as joined which was thrown into an oven that was then kindled. If the olives were exactly the size of an egg or less, the oven is pure. The rationale is that impure food does not impart impurity to keilim and the oil that emerges from them is pure, as we explained. If the mound was larger than an egg, the oven contracts impurity. For when one drop emerges, it contracts impurity from an egg-sized portion of impure foods and then it imparts impurity to the oven. Therefore if the impure olives are separate and not in a mound, even if there are 100 of them, the oven is pure.

ה

גּוּשׁ שֶׁל זֵיתִים טְמֵאִין שֶׁהָיָה מְקֻבָּץ וּמְחֻבָּר וְהִשְׁלִיכוֹ לְתוֹךְ תַּנּוּר וְהֻסַּק אִם הָיָה כְּבֵיצָה מְכֻוָּן הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין הָאֳכָלִין מְטַמְּאִין כֵּלִים וְהַמַּשְׁקֶה הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶן טָהוֹר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הָיָה הַגּוּשׁ יֶתֶר מִכְּבֵיצָה נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁכְּשֶׁיָּצְאָה טִפָּה אַחַת נִטְמֵאת בִּכְבֵיצָה וְטִמְּאָה אֶת הַתַּנּוּר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הַזֵּיתִים הַטְּמֵאִין פֵּרוּרִין וְאֵינָן גּוּשׁ אֲפִלּוּ הֵן מֵאָה הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר:

6

When wood that absorbed impure liquids was kindled as fuel for an oven, the oven is pure, because the liquids are considered insignificant while absorbed in the wood. Even if the person took the wood out so that rain would fall on it and thus it is considered as desirable for him that the rain fell on it, the oven is pure. The rain- water that is on the wood does not contract impurity from the liquids that are absorbed in it.

One should not kindle the oven with this wood unless one's hands are pure. This is a decree lest an impure person kindle the oven with such wood and thus the liquids on it would make the oven impure.

ו

עֵצִים שֶׁנִּבְלְעוּ בָּהֶם מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין וְהִסִּיקָן הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּטְלוּ בָּעֵצִים. וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹצִיא הָעֵצִים שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן גְּשָׁמִים וְנָפְלוּ לִרְצוֹנוֹ וְהִסִּיקָן הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר וְאֵין הַמַּיִם שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן מִתְטַמְּאִין מִן הַמַּשְׁקִין הַבְּלוּעִין בָּהֶם. וְלֹא יַסִּיקֵם אֶלָּא בְּיָדַיִם טְהוֹרוֹת גְּזֵרָה שֶׁלֹּא יַסִּיקֵם הַטָּמֵא וְנִמְצְאוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶם מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַתַּנּוּר:

7

When the carcass of a creeping animal is found in an olive mill, only the portion which it touches contracts impurity. If there is liquid flowing, everything is impure, for once a little of the liquid becomes impure, the entire amount becomes impure and then, the oil will impart impurity to the olives.

If the carcass is found on the leaves above the olives, the workers should be questioned. If they say that they did not touch the carcass, their word is accepted. If the carcass was found on a compressed mass of olives, the entire mass becomes impure, as we explained.

If the carcass is found on separate olives, but it is touching a compressed mass the size of an egg, everything is impure. For food the size of an olive will impart impurity to liquid mixed with it. The liquid will then impart impurity to the other olives. If there were separate olives piled on other separate olives and the oil was below them, even if the carcass was touching a mass the size of an egg, only the place it touches contracts impurity.

ז

שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁל זֵיתִים אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ. אִם הָיָה מַשְׁקֶה מְהַלֵּךְ הַכּל טָמֵא. שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּטְמָא מִקְצָת הַמַּשְׁקֶה נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ וְהַשֶּׁמֶן מְטַמֵּא אֶת כָּל הַזֵּיתִים. נִמְצָא עַל גַּבֵּי הֶעָלִין לְמַעְלָה מִן הַזֵּיתִים יִשְׁאֲלוּ מִן הַבַּדָּדִין אִם אָמְרוּ לֹא נָגַעְנוּ נֶאֱמָנִין. נִמְצָא עַל אוֹם שֶׁל זֵיתִים נִטְמָא כָּל הַגּוּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. נִמְצָא עַל גַּבֵּי זֵיתִים פֵּרוּרִין וְהוּא נוֹגֵעַ בִּכְבֵיצָה הַכּל טָמֵא שֶׁהָאוֹכֵל שֶׁהוּא כְּבֵיצָה מְטַמֵּא הַמַּשְׁקֶה הַמְעֹרָב בָּהֶן וְהַמַּשְׁקֶה מְטַמֵּא שְׁאָר הַזֵּיתִים. הָיוּ פֵּרוּרִין עַל גַּבֵּי פֵּרוּרִין וְהַמַּשְׁקֶה מִלְּמַטָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּגַע בִּכְבֵיצָה אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ:

8

When an unlearned person extended his hand to a winepress and touched the clusters of grapes, the clusters he touched and those around them are impure, but the clusters in the winepress as a whole are pure. For the clusters that are around the clusters that he touched separate it and the remainder of those in the winepress.

ח

עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁהוֹשִׁיט יָדָיו לַגַּת וְנָגַע בְּאֶשְׁכּוֹלוֹת אֶשְׁכּוֹל וְכָל סְבִיבוֹתָיו טְמֵאִין וְהַגַּת כֻּלָּהּ טְהוֹרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּפְסִיקִין הָאֶשְׁכּוֹלוֹת שֶׁסְּבִיבוֹת זֶה הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין שְׁאָר הַגַּת:

9

When impure people tread over the waste products of olives or grapes from which oil or wine was produced in a state of purity and afterwards, liquid emerged from them, this liquid is pure. The rationale is that originally, the oil or the wine was produced in a state of purity. If originally, the oil or the wine was produced in a state of impurity and afterwards, through the actions of these people, liquid emerged, it is impure.

ט

הַגֶּפֶת וְהַזַּגִּים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בְּטָהֳרָה וְהָלְכוּ עֲלֵיהֶן טְמֵאִין וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָצְאוּ מֵהֶן מַשְׁקִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין שֶׁמִּתְחִלָּה נַעֲשׂוּ בְּטָהֳרָה. וְאִם נַעֲשׂוּ מִתְּחִלָּה בְּטֻמְאָה וְיָצְאוּ מֵהֶן מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין:

10

The following laws apply when workers at an olive press would enter and depart and there was impure liquid on the floor of the olive press. If there is sufficient space between the liquids and the olives so that they could dry their feet on the ground, the olives are pure, because a person who touches impure liquids with limbs other than his hands is pure, even with regard to consecrated foods.

Stringency is required in the following instance. There were loaves that were consecrated. They had hollows and there were consecrated liquids in the hollows. The carcass of a creeping animal touched one of them and then the first loaf touched a second, the second, a third - even if this continues to 100, the loaves are considered as primary derivatives of impurity, because of the liquid in the hollows. Due to the cherished nature of consecrated food, they are all considered as liquids from which secondary and tertiary derivatives are not counted.

If, however, the loaves were terumah, only the third loaf is disqualified. From the third onward, the loaves are pure. If there was liquid that could be felt on all the loaves, even were the loaves terumah, they would all be impure. They are all secondary derivatives except for the first that was touched by the carcass of the creeping animal. It is a primary derivative.

י

הַבַּדָּדִין שֶׁנִּכְנָסִין וְיוֹצְאִין וּמַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית הַבַּד אִם יֵשׁ בֵּין מַשְׁקִין לַזֵּיתִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּנַגְּבוּ אֶת רַגְלֵיהֶן בָּאָרֶץ הֲרֵי הַזֵּיתִים טְהוֹרִין שֶׁהַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּמַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִים שֶׁלֹּא בְּיָדָיו טָהוֹר וַאֲפִלּוּ לְקֹדֶשׁ. כִּכְּרוֹת הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁהָיוּ בָּהֶן גּוּמוֹת וּבְתוֹךְ הַגּוּמוֹת הָיוּ מַשְׁקִין שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ וְנָגַע הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וְנָגְעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה בַּשְּׁנִיָּה וּשְׁנִיָּה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה כֻּלָּן רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה. מִפְּנֵי הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁבַּגֻּמּוֹת וְחִבַּת הַקֹּדֶשׁ הֲרֵי הֵן כֻּלָּן כְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵין מוֹנִין בָּהֶן. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כִּכְּרוֹת תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הַכִּכָּר הַשְּׁלִישִׁית בִּלְבַד פְּסוּלָה וּמִשְּׁלִישִׁית וָהָלְאָה טָהוֹר. וְאִם הָיָה מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ עַל כָּל הַכִּכָּרוֹת אַף בִּתְרוּמָה הַכּל טְמֵאוֹת וְכֻלָּן שְׁנִיּוֹת חוּץ מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהּ הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁהִיא רִאשׁוֹן:

11

The following laws apply when there is a bubble in the side of a jug and it is like another container at its side. When the bubble was perforated to the inner space of the jug and perforated on the other side outward with the two holes on the same level or the inner hole was lower than the outer hole, if both the bubble and the jug contained liquids and a primary source of impurity touched the liquids in the bubble, all of the liquids in the jug contract impurity. Also, when the jug has a sealed covering and it is located in a building where a corpse is located, it contracts impurity because of the hole in the bubble, since it reaches into its inner space.

Similarly, if the inner hole was higher than the outer hole, the jug is not protected from impurity by its sealed covering. If, however, a primary source of impurity touched the bubble, the liquids in the jug do not contract impurity and they are considered as separate from the liquids in the bubble.

יא

אֲבַעְבּוּעַ הַנַּעֲשֶׂה בָּעֳבִי הֶחָבִית וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ כְּלִי אַחֵר בְּצִדָּהּ אִם נִקַּב הָאֲבַעְבּוּעַ לַאֲוִיר הֶחָבִית וְנִקַּב נֶקֶב אַחֵר לַחוּץ זֶה כְּנֶגֶד זֶה. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַנֶּקֶב הַפְּנִימִי מִלְּמַטָּה וְהַחִיצוֹן מִלְּמַעְלָה וְהָיָה הָאֲבַעְבּוּעַ וְהֶחָבִית מְלֵאִים מַשְׁקִין. אִם נָגַע אַב הַטֻּמְאָה בַּמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁבָּאֲבַעְבּוּעוֹת נִטְמְאוּ כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבֶּחָבִית. הָיְתָה הֶחָבִית מֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּנְתוּנָה בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת נִטְמֵאת מִפְּנֵי הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁבָּאֲבַעְבּוּעַ זֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מְפֻלָּשׁ לַאֲוִירָהּ. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁבָּאֲבַעְבּוּעַ שֶׁבִּפְנִים מִלְּמַעְלָה וְהַחִיצוֹן מִלְּמַטָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ אֵינָהּ נִצֶּלֶת בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל. אֲבָל אִם נָגַע אַב הַטֻּמְאָה בָּאֲבַעְבּוּעַ לֹא נִטְמְאוּ מַשְׁקִין שֶׁבֶּחָבִית וְהִנָּם כְּמֻבְדָּלִין מֵהֶן: