Get the best of Chabad.org content every week!
Find answers to fascinating Jewish questions, enjoy holiday tips and guides, read real-life stories and more!
ב"ה

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

She'ar Avot haTum'ah - Chapter 9, She'ar Avot haTum'ah - Chapter 10, She'ar Avot haTum'ah - Chapter 11

Show content in:

She'ar Avot haTum'ah - Chapter 9

1

When a person immerses his head and the majority of his body in drawn water or three lugim of drawn water fall on his head and the majority of his body, he is a secondary derivative of impurity until he immerses himself in a mikveh. If he touches foods, he causes them to be considered as a tertiary derivative. If he touches liquids, he imparts impurity to them, causing them to be considered as a primary derivative and they impart impurity to other foods and liquids. They do not, however, impart impurity to keilim.

Why did the Sages decree that such a person should be impure? Because people would immerse in caves where the water was foul and then they would wash with fresh drawn water for the sake of cleanliness. This became such a widespread practice that the majority of people got the impression that the drawn water in which the people would ultimately wash was the agent that conveyed ritual purity and not the immersion in the waters of the mikveh. Therefore, they would immerse themselves carelessly, without attention to details. Accordingly, our Sages decreed that when a person immerses his head and the majority of his body in drawn water or three lugim of drawn water fall on his head and the majority of his body, he becomes a secondary derivative of impurity. Even when three lugim of drawn water falls on the head and the majority of the body of a person who was pure or he immerses his head and the majority of his body in drawn water, he becomes a secondary derivative of impurity until he immerses himself.

After a person who contracted impurity in such a manner immerses himself, he need not wait until nightfall to regain purity, for the impurity contracted by this person is fundamentally a Rabbinic decree. Similarly, a person who contracted impurity because he ate impure foods or drank impure liquids and then immersed himself need not wait until nightfall to regain purity. Similarly, when keilim become impure due to contact with impure liquids, once they were immersed, they become pure. There is no need to wait until nightfall, because these impurities are fundamentally Rabbinic decrees.

א

הַבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל רֻבּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. וְאִם נָגַע בָּאֳכָלִין עֲשָׂאָן שְׁלִישִׁי. וְאִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִים עֲשָׂאָן תְּחִלָּה לְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין אֲחֵרִים אֲבָל לֹא לְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה גָּזְרוּ טֻמְאָה עַל אָדָם זֶה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיוּ טְבוּלֵי יוֹם טוֹבְלִין בִּמְעָרוֹת שֶׁמֵּימֵיהֶן רָעִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָיוּ רוֹחֲצִין בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִים יָפִים דֶּרֶךְ נְקִיּוּת וּפָשַׁט הַמִּנְהָג כָּךְ עַד שֶׁהָיוּ רֹב הָעָם מְדַמִּים שֶׁמַּיִם שְׁאוּבִים שֶׁרוֹחֲצִין בָּהֶן בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה הֵן שֶׁמְּטַהֲרִין לֹא הַטְּבִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵי מִקְוֶה וְהָיוּ טוֹבְלִין בְּזִלְזוּל בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה. וּלְפִיכָךְ גָּזְרוּ שֶׁכָּל שֶׁבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִים אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ נִטְמָא וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה. אֲפִלּוּ טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ טְבוּל יוֹם אִם נָפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין אוֹ שֶׁבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין הֲרֵי זֶה כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. טָבַל אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעִקַּר טֻמְאָה זוֹ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן. וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִים וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין וְטָבַל אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ. וְכֵן כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְּמַשְׁקִין כֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּטְבִּילָן טִהֲרוּ וְאֵין צְרִיכִין הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטֻּמְאוֹת אֵלּוּ עִקָּרָן מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן:

2

The following laws apply when three lugim of drawn water fall on a person from two or three different containers. If water began to flow from the second before it concluded flowing from the first, they can be combined to reach the sum of three lugim. If water falls from four containers, it is not combined. Even if one began to flow before the other ceased flowing, the person is pure.

If the water fell on his head, but not on the majority of his body or fell on the majority of his body, but not on his head, or fell on his head from above and on the majority of his body from the side or from below, he is pure. To impart impurity, the water must fall on his head and the majority of his body that is close to his head in an ordinary manner. Similarly, if his head entered drawn water, but not his body or his body entered, but not his head, or his head was inserted in drawn water and then other drawn water engulfed his body from the side or from below, he is pure. To contract impurity, his head and the majority of his body close to his head must enter the water in an ordinary manner.

ב

מִי שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין מִשְּׁנֵי כֵּלִים אוֹ מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה אִם הִתְחִיל הַשֵּׁנִי עַד שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק הָרִאשׁוֹן מִצְטָרְפִין וְאִם לָאו אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין. נָפְלוּ מֵאַרְבָּעָה כֵּלִים אֵין מִצְטָרְפִים וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְחִיל זֶה עַד שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. נָפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ אֲבָל לֹא עַל רֻבּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֻבּוֹ וְלֹא עַל רֹאשׁוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ בִּלְבַד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְעַל רֻבּוֹ נָפְלוּ מִן הַצַּד אוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל רֻבּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְרֹאשׁוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ. וְכֵן אִם בָּא רֹאשׁוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין וְלֹא בָּא רֻבּוֹ אוֹ בָּא רֻבּוֹ וְלֹא בָּא רֹאשׁוֹ אוֹ שֶׁבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ בִּלְבַד וּבָא מִשְּׁאָר גּוּפוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין מִלְּמַטָּה אוֹ מִן הַצַּד הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְרֹאשׁוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ:

3

When a portion of a person's head and half the majority of his body were inserted in drawn water and drawn water falls on the other half of his head and the majority of his body, since water fell on half and half was inserted in water, he is pure.

ג

הַבָּא מֵרֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ הַחֵצִי בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין וְנָפְלוּ עַל הַחֵצִי הָאַחֵר מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין הוֹאִיל וְחֶצְיוֹ בִּנְפִילָה וְחֶצְיוֹ בְּבִיאָה טָהוֹר:

4

When the three lugim of water which fell upon a person or into which he inserted his head and body were a combination of drawn water and natural water or they were mixed with wine, honey, or milk, he is pure. The three lugim must be entirely drawn water.

The status of these three lugim of water which fell on a pure person or in which he inserted his head and body and from which he contracted impurity also changes. Since the person became a secondary derivative of impurity, the water is also impure for it touched a secondary derivative. It is as if the water tells the pure person: "I made you impure and you made me impure."

ד

הָיוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת הַלּוֹגִין שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו אוֹ שֶׁבָּא בָּהֶן מִקְצָתָן שְׁאוּבִין וּמִקְצָתָן אֵינָן שְׁאוּבִין אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהֶן יַיִן דְּבַשׁ וְחָלָב הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה כֻּלָּן מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין. שְׁלֹשֶׁת לוֹגִין אֵלּוּ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל הַטָּהוֹר אוֹ שֶׁבָּא בָּהֶן וְטִמְּאוּהוּ כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם הָאֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין שֶׁהֲרֵי נָגְעוּ בְּשֵׁנִי וַהֲרֵי אֵלּוּ הַמַּיִם אוֹמְרִין לָזֶה הַטָּהוֹר טִמֵּאנוּ אוֹתוֹ וְטִמְּאָנוּ:

5

Initially, they would place loaves of terumah next to sacred scrolls, saying: "These are holy and these are holy." Mice would come and tear the sacred scrolls. Therefore, the Sages decreed that any terumah that touches the Holy Scriptures would become impure. It is considered as a tertiary derivate of impurity, as if it touched a secondary derivative. Thus all the Holy Scriptures disqualify terumah like a secondary derivative.

Moreover, when anyone whose hands were pure touched one of the Holy Scriptures, his hands become secondary derivatives of impurity and impart impurity to terumah and to liquids. Although generally, hands only contract impurity from a primary derivative of impurity, as we explained, they contract impurity from a scroll.

ה

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה בְּצַד הַסְּפָרִים וְאוֹמְרִים זֶה קֹדֶשׁ וְזֶה קֹדֶשׁ וּבָאִין הָעַכְבָּרִים וְקוֹרְעִין אֶת הַסְּפָרִים לְפִיכָךְ גָּזְרוּ שֶׁכָּל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁתִּגַּע בְּאֶחָד מִכִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ נִטְמֵאת וַהֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׁלִישִׁי לְטֻמְאָה כְּאִלּוּ נָגְעוּ בְּשֵׁנִי וְנִמְצְאוּ כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה כְּשֵׁנִי. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא מִי שֶׁהָיוּ יָדָיו טְהוֹרוֹת וְנָגַע בְּאֶחָד מִכִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ נַעֲשׂוּ יָדָיו שְׁנִיּוֹת וּמְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה וְאֶת הַמַּשְׁקִין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַיָּדַיִם מִתְטַמְּאוֹת אֶלָּא מֵרִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֵן מִתְטַמְּאוֹת מִן הַסֵּפֶר:

6

Tefillin straps when connected to the tefillin, the blank parchment of the margins above or below the scroll and at its beginning or end when connected to the scroll, a scroll that was erased, but at least 85 letters remained, and a scroll on which at least 85 letters from the Torah are written, as in the passage Numbers 10:35-36: "And when the ark set forth...," all impart impurity to hands. Not only the words of the Torah, but the words of all the Holy Scriptures, including the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes which are words of wisdom, impart impurity to hands.

ו

רְצוּעוֹת תְּפִלִּין עִם הַתְּפִלִּין וְגִלָּיוֹן שֶׁבַּסֵּפֶר שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה וְשֶׁלְּמַטָּה שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה וְשֶׁבַּסּוֹף כְּשֶׁהֵן מְחֻבָּרִין לְסֵפֶר. וְסֵפֶר שֶׁנִּמְחַק וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת. וּמְגִלָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת כְּפָרָשַׁת (במדבר י לה) "וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן". הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. וְלֹא דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה בִּלְבַד אֶלָּא כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת שֶׁהֵן דִּבְרֵי חָכְמָה מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

7

The Aramaic portions in the Books of Ezra and Daniel are considered as part of the Holy Scriptures. If, by contrast, one translated an Aramaic portion into Hebrew or a Hebrew portion into Aramaic, or wrote the Holy Scriptures in the Hebrew script, they do not impart impurity to hands. That applies only when Scripture is written in the Ashuri script, on parchment, with ink.

ז

תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁבְּעֶזְרָא וְשֶׁבְּדָנִיֵּאל הֲרֵי הוּא מִכְּלַל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ. אֲבָל תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעִבְרִית שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ תַּרְגּוּם אוֹ שֶׁכָּתַב כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּכְתָב עִבְרִי אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כְּתוּבִים אַשּׁוּרִית עַל הָעוֹר וּבִדְיוֹ:

8

Although it is forbidden to do so, if one writes Hallel or the Shema for a child to study, they impart impurity to hands.

ח

הַכּוֹתֵב הַלֵּל וּשְׁמַע לְתִינוֹק לְהִתְלַמֵּד בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

9

Although it is forbidden to maintain them, as long as the strings and the straps sewed within a Torah scroll are attached to the scroll, they impart impurity to hands.

ט

הַמְּשִׁיחוֹת וְהָרְצוּעוֹת שֶׁתְּפָרָן לְסֵפֶר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְקַיְּמָן כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן מְחֻבָּרִין לַסֵּפֶר מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

10

When the case of a scroll, an ark, or the mantle of a scroll are sewn to the scroll itself, they impart impurity to hands. By contrast, although passages of blessings, contain the letters of God's name and many Torah concepts, they do not impart impurity to hands.

י

תִּיק שֶׁל סֵפֶר וּמִטְפָּחוֹת סְפָרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן תְּפוּרוֹת מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אֲבָל הַבְּרָכוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מֵאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁל שֵׁם וּמֵעִנְיָנִים הַרְבֵּה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

11

Scrolls written by heretics do not impart impurity to hands. Since the passage of a sotah is intended to be blotted out, it does not impart impurity to hands.

יא

סִפְרֵי הַמִּינִים אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. פָּרָשַׁת סוֹטָה הוֹאִיל וְלִמְחִיקָה עוֹמֶדֶת אֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

She'ar Avot haTum'ah - Chapter 10

1

As we explained, every entity, whether a person or a k'li, that contracts impurity from a primary source of impurity is considered as a primary derivative of impurity until immersion in a mikveh. After immersion, he or it is considered like a secondary derivative of impurity until nightfall, as implied by Leviticus 11:32: "It shall be inserted into water and it will be impure until evening, when it will become pure." Thus Scripture refers to an entity immersed that day as impure.

א

כָּל הַמִּתְטַמֵּא בְּאָב מֵאֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאוֹת בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים הֲרֵי הוּא רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. טָבַל הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲרִיב שִׁמְשׁוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לב) "בַּמַּיִם יוּבָא וְטָמֵא עַד הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר" הַכָּתוּב קָרָא לִטְבוּל יוֹם טָמֵא:

2

The same status applies both to one who immersed to purify himself from severe impurity, e.g., that of a zav, that connected with a human corpse, or tzara'at, and one who immersed to purify himself from the impurity stemming from the carcass of a teeming animal and the like. Any entity, whether a person or a k'li, that must wait until nightfall to regain purity, regardless of whether the impurity stems from Scriptural Law or the words of the Rabbis, is considered as a secondary derivative until nightfall.

ב

אֶחָד טְבוּל יוֹם מִטֻּמְאָה חֲמוּרָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁטָּבַל מִזִּיבוּת מִטֻּמְאַת מֵת וְצָרַעַת וְאֶחָד טְבוּל יוֹם מִטֻּמְאַת שֶׁרֶץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ כָּל הַטָּעוּן הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים בֵּין מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה בֵּין מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲרִיב שִׁמְשׁוֹ:

3

Contact with a person who immersed himself that day disqualifies foods that are terumah, liquids that are terumah, sacrificial foods, and consecrated liquids. It disqualifies everything.

What is implied? If a person who immersed that day touches food that is terumah, he causes it to be considered a tertiary derivative of impurity, for he is a secondary derivative. Similarly, if he touches liquids that are terumah, he imparts impurity to them and they are considered tertiary derivatives of impurity. In the same vein, if such a person touches consecrated liquids, he imparts impurity to them and they are a fourth degree derivative of impurity. Similarly, if he touches consecrated food, he causes them to be considered a fourth degree derivative of impurity. If, however, he touches ordinary foods or ordinary liquids, they remain pure. The laws that apply to those who are lacking atonement and one who immersed himself are the same with regard to touching consecrated food.

From this entire discussion, one has learnt that liquids are never considered a secondary derivative. They are always considered as primary derivatives with the exception of liquids touched by a person who immersed himself that day which are considered as tertiary derivatives if they were terumah or a fourth degree derivative if they are consecrated foods.

ג

טְבוּל יוֹם פּוֹסֵל אָכֳלֵי תְּרוּמָה וּמַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה וְאָכֳלֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּמַשְׁקֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ פּוֹסֵל הַכּל. כֵּיצַד. טְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁנָּגַע בָּאֳכָלִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה עֲשָׂאָן שְׁלִישִׁי לְטֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שֵׁנִי וְכֵן אִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה טְמֵאִין וַהֲרֵי הֵן שְׁלִישִׁי לְטֻמְאָה. נָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ טִמְּאָן וַהֲרֵי הֵן רְבִיעִי לְטֻמְאָה וְכֵן אִם נָגַע בְּאָכְלֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ עֲשָׂאָן רְבִיעִי. אֲבָל אִם נָגַע בָּאֳכָלִין חֻלִּין וּמַשְׁקֵה חֻלִּין הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין. וְדִין מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים וּטְבוּל יוֹם בִּנְגִיעַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֶחָד הוּא. הֲרֵי נִתְבָּאֵר לְךָ מִכָּל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין שֵׁם מַשְׁקִין שְׁנִיּוֹת לְעוֹלָם אֶלָּא הַמַּשְׁקִין תְּחִלָּה לְעוֹלָם חוּץ מִמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהֶן טְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁהֵן שְׁלִישִׁי אִם הָיוּ תְּרוּמָה אוֹ רְבִיעִי אִם הָיוּ קֹדֶשׁ:

4

Fluids, e.g., saliva or urine, produced by any of those who impart impurity - whether severe or light - are governed by the same laws as the liquids that they touch. They are all primary derivatives of impurity, as we explained, with the exception of those produced or touched by a zav and those like him. The fluids such individuals produce are primary sources of impurity, while the liquids they touch are primary derivatives of impurity. Even when a person contracts impurity by eating impure foods or drinking impure liquids, the fluids he produces are governed by the same laws as the liquids he touches, i.e., they are primary derivatives.

Similarly, the fluids produced by a person who immersed and is waiting for nightfall are governed by the same laws as the liquids he touches; they do not impart impurity to other entities at all. Instead, if such fluids touch ordinary liquids, they are pure. If they touch liquids that are terumah, they become tertiary derivatives of impurity. And if they touch consecrated liquids, they become fourth degree derivatives.

ד

כָּל הַמְטַמְּאִין בֵּין חֲמוּרִין בֵּין קַלִּין מַשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן כְּגוֹן רֻקָּן וּמֵימֵי רַגְלֵיהֶן הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בָּהֶן אֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ חוּץ מִזָּב וַחֲבֵרָיו שֶׁמַּשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן אַב טֻמְאָה וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁהַזָּב וַחֲבֵרָיו נוֹגְעִין בָּהֶן תְּחִלָּה. אֲפִלּוּ אוֹכֵל אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִין אוֹ שׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין הַמַּשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מִמֶּנּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְבּל כְּמוֹ הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהֶן שֶׁהֵן תְּחִלָּה. וְכֵן טְבוּל יוֹם מַשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מִמֶּנּוּ כְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁהוּא נוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן שֶׁאֵין מְטַמְּאִין אֲחֵרִים כְּלָל אֶלָּא אִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה חֻלִּין הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין וְאִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הֵן שְׁלִישִׁי וְאִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה קֹדֶשׁ הֲרֵי הֵן רְבִיעִי:

5

From the above, it should be clear that a tertiary derivative that is terumah or a fourth degree derivative that is consecrated does not impart impurity to other liquids or other foods. Needless to say, it does not impart impurity to keilim.

Therefore, the following rules apply when there was a pot full of liquids and a person who had immersed that day touches it. If they were ordinary liquids, everything is pure. If the liquids were terumah, the liquids are disqualified, but the pot is pure. If only the person's hands were impure, the liquids are impure, whether they are terumah or ordinary liquids. This is a stringency observed with regard to impure hands that does not apply to a person who immersed that day.

There is a stringency observed with regard to a person who immersed that day that does not apply to impure hands: If there is a question regarding the status of a person who immersed that day, he disqualifies foods and liquids he touches because of that question. If, by contrast, the status of a person's hands is in doubt, the entities he touches are pure, as will be explained.

ה

וְעַתָּה יִתְבָּאֵר לְךָ שֶׁאֵין שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבִּתְרוּמָה וְלֹא רְבִיעִי שֶׁבְּקֹדֶשׁ מְטַמֵּא מַשְׁקֶה אַחֵר אוֹ אֹכֶל אַחֵר. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין מְטַמְּאִין כֵּלִים. לְפִיכָךְ קְדֵרָה שֶׁמִּלְאָהּ מַשְׁקִין וְנָגַע בָּהּ טְבוּל יוֹם אִם הָיָה מַשְׁקֵה חֻלִּין הַכּל טָהוֹר. וְאִם הָיָה מַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה הַמַּשְׁקִין פְּסוּלִין וְהַקְּדֵרָה טְהוֹרָה. וְאִם הָיוּ יָדָיו טְמֵאוֹת הַמַּשְׁקֶה טָמֵא בֵּין מַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה בֵּין מַשְׁקֵה חֻלִּין. וְזֶה חֹמֶר בְּיָדַיִם מִבִּטְבוּל יוֹם. וְחֹמֶר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם מִבְּיָדַיִם טְמֵאוֹת שֶׁסָּפֵק טְבוּל יוֹם פּוֹסֵל מִסָּפֵק וְסָפֵק הַיָּדַיִם טָהוֹר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

6

Both a person who was pure, but his hands contracted impurity and a person who immersed that day whose hands contracted impurity, impart impurity to ordinary liquids to cause them to be considered as primary derivatives of impurity that impart impurity to foods and liquids, as we explained.

Since the fluids discharged by a person who immersed that day are governed by the same laws as the liquids he touches, if the saliva or the urine of a person who immersed that day falls on a loaf of bread that is terumah, it is pure, because the fluids are like the liquids that he touches.

ו

אֶחָד טָהוֹר שֶׁהָיוּ יָדָיו טְמֵאוֹת אוֹ טְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁיָּדָיו טְמֵאוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה מְטַמֵּא מַשְׁקֵה חֻלִּין וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן תְּחִלָּה לְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁיָּצָא מִטְּבוּל יוֹם כְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהֶן טְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁנָּפַל מֵרֻקּוֹ אוֹ מֵימֵי רַגְלָיו עַל כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהֶן:

7

From all the concepts that we have stated previously, it is possible to comprehend that a person may become a source of impurity and he may be a primary derivative of impurity according to Scriptural Law. A person will be considered as a secondary derivative only according to Rabbinic Law. This refers to one who partakes of impure foods or drinks impure beverages or one who inserts his head and the majority of his body into drawn water. In all of these instances, the person is a secondary derivative of impurity according to Rabbinic Law.

Similarly, all types of keilim with the exception of earthenware containers can become primary sources of impurity or primary derivatives of impurity according to Scriptural Law. A k'li will be considered as a secondary derivative only according to Rabbinic Law; i.e., if it contracted impurity from impure liquids, it will be a secondary derivative according to Rabbinic Law, as we explained.

ז

מִכָּל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁהִקְדַּמְנוּ לְבָאֲרָם אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁהָאָדָם יִהְיֶה אָב לְטֻמְאָה וְיִהְיֶה רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה. וּלְעוֹלָם לֹא יִהְיֶה הָאָדָם שֵׁנִי אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וְהוּא הָאוֹכֵל אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִים אוֹ הַשּׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין אוֹ הַבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים חוּץ מִכְּלֵי חֶרֶס יִהְיוּ אַב טֻמְאָה וְיִהְיוּ רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה. וְלֹא יִהְיֶה הַכְּלִי לְעוֹלָם שֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁאִם יִטְמָא בְּמַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִים יִהְיֶה שֵׁנִי מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

8

We already explained, that an earthenware container will never become a primary source of impurity, neither according to Scriptural Law, nor according to Rabbinic Law. It may become a primary derivative of impurity according to Scriptural Law and a secondary derivative according to Rabbinic Law if it contracted impurity from liquids, like other keilim. Neither persons, nor keilim ever become a third degree or a fourth degree derivative of impurity, neither according to Scriptural Law, nor according to Rabbinic Law.

ח

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכְּלִי חֶרֶס לֹא יִהְיֶה אַב טֻמְאָה לְעוֹלָם לֹא מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה וְלֹא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְיִהְיֶה רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה וְשֵׁנִי מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן אִם נִטְמָא בְּמַשְׁקִין כִּשְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים. וְלֹא יִהְיֶה הָאָדָם וְלֹא הַכֵּלִים שְׁלִישִׁי וְלֹא רְבִיעִי לְעוֹלָם לֹא מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה וְלֹא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

9

Foods will never become a primary source of impurity, neither according to Scriptural Law, nor according to Rabbinic Law. They may become primary and secondary derivatives of impurity according to Scriptural Law. For if a person or k'li that is a primary derivative of impurity touches food, it causes it to be considered a secondary derivative.

According to the Sages alone, foods may become third degree derivatives or fourth degree derivatives.

ט

הָאֳכָלִים לֹא יִהְיוּ אַב טֻמְאָה לְעוֹלָם לֹא מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה וְלֹא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. וְיִהְיוּ רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁהָאָדָם אוֹ הַכְּלִי שֶׁהוּא רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה אִם נָגַע בְּאֹכֶל עֲשָׂאוּהוּ שֵׁנִי וְהָאֳכָלִין יִהְיוּ שְׁלִישִׁי וּרְבִיעִי לְטֻמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן בִּלְבַד:

10

Liquids, e.g., the water on which the ashes of the red heifer have been sprinkled or the saliva or urine of a zav, may become primary sources of impurity according to Scriptural Law. And they may become primary derivatives of impurity according to Scriptural Law, e.g., if they touched a primary source of impurity. Similarly, if liquids touched a derivative of impurity - whether a person or a k'li - they contract impurity according to Scriptural Law and are considered as primary derivatives to impart impurity to other entities according to Rabbinic decree. Similarly, if liquids touched a secondary derivative of impurity - whether a person, a k'li, or foods, they are considered as primary derivatives to impart impurity to other entities according to Rabbinic decree, as we explained.

Similarly, liquids can become third degree derivatives or fourth degree derivatives according to Rabbinic decree. What is implied? If a person who immersed that day touches a liquid that is terumah, he causes it to be considered a third degree derivative. If he touches a consecrated liquid, he causes it to be considered a fourth degree derivative. There is no concept of a liquid being considered as a secondary derivative or indeed, anything other than a primary derivative except liquids touched by or fluids discharged by a person who immersed that day or one who is lacking atonement with regard to consecrated liquids, in which instance, he disqualifies them, but does not make them impure, as we explained.

י

הַמַּשְׁקִין יִהְיוּ אַב טֻמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה. כְּגוֹן מֵי חַטָּאת וְרֹק הַזָּב וּמֵימֵי רַגְלָיו. וְיִהְיוּ רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בְּאָב מֵאֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאוֹת. וְכֵן אִם נָגְעוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין בִּוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים נִטְמְאוּ מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה וַהֲרֵי הֵן כָּרִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה לְטַמֵּא אֲחֵרִים מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן. וְכֵן אִם נָגְעוּ בְּשֵׁנִי בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים בֵּין בָּאֳכָלִין נַעֲשׂוּ רִאשׁוֹן לְטַמֵּא אֲחֵרִים מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְיִהְיוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין שְׁלִישִׁי וּרְבִיעִי מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. כֵּיצַד. אִם נָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם בְּמַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה עֲשָׂאָהוּ שְׁלִישִׁי וְאִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה קֹדֶשׁ עֲשָׂאָהוּ רְבִיעִי. וְאֵין אַתָּה מוֹצֵא מַשְׁקִין שְׁנִיּוֹת לְעוֹלָם וְלֹא מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ תְּחִלָּה חוּץ מִמַּשְׁקֵה טְבוּל יוֹם אוֹ מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים בְּקֹדֶשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהוּא פּוֹסֵל מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא:

She'ar Avot haTum'ah - Chapter 11

1

Whenever the term "disqualified" is used with regard to foods, the intent is that the food itself is considered as impure, but it does not impart impurity to other similar foods. Instead, if it touches another food, it is pure.

א

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּאֳכָלִין פָּסוּל הוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָאֹכֶל עַצְמוֹ טָמֵא וְלֹא יְטַמֵּא אֹכֶל אַחֵר. אֶלָּא אִם נָגַע בְּאֹכֶל אַחֵר הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר:

2

With regard to ordinary foods, a primary derivative of impurity contracts impurity and imparts impurity to others. A secondary derivative is disqualified, but does not impart impurity, for a secondary derivative does not create a tertiary derivative with regard to ordinary food.

What is the source that teaches that ordinary food which is a secondary derivative is disqualified? Leviticus 11:33 states: "Whenever one of them falls into its inner space, everything in its inner space contracts impurity." Now, a carcass of a crawling animal is a primary source of impurity. The earthenware container into whose inner space it falls is a primary derivative of impurity. Thus the food in the container is a secondary derivative and yet Scripture calls it impure.

Similarly, if the carcass of a crawling animal falls into an oven, bread in the oven is a secondary derivative, for the oven is a primary derivative.

ב

הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁבְּחֻלִּין טָמֵא וּמְטַמֵּא. הַשֵּׁנִי פָּסוּל וְלֹא מְטַמֵּא וְאֵין שֵׁנִי עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִישִׁי בְּחֻלִּין. וּמִנַּיִן לְאֹכֶל שֵׁנִי שֶׁהוּא פָּסוּל בְּחֻלִּין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "וּכְלִי חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר יִפּל מֵהֶן אֶל תּוֹכוֹ כּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא". נִמְצָא הַשֶּׁרֶץ אָב וּכְלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנָּפַל הַשֶּׁרֶץ לַאֲוִירוֹ רִאשׁוֹן וְהָאֹכֶל שֶׁבַּכְּלִי שֵׁנִי וַהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר יִטְמָא. וְכֵן שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁנָּפַל לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר הַפַּת שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁהַתַּנּוּר רִאשׁוֹן:

3

With regard to terumah, primary and secondary derivatives of impurity contract impurity and impart impurity. A tertiary derivative is disqualified, but does not impart impurity, for a tertiary derivative does not create a derivative of the fourth degree with regard to terumah.

What is the source that teaches that food that is terumah which is a tertiary derivative is disqualified? Leviticus 22:7 states: "And the sun will set and he will become pure. Afterwards, he shall partake of consecrated food." Thus a person who immersed that day is forbidden to partake of terumah until nightfall. If he touches it, he disqualifies it. A person who immerses is like a secondary derivative. Thus one can conclude a secondary derivative makes a tertiary derivative with regard to terumah.

ג

הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבַּתְּרוּמָה טְמֵאִים וּמְטַמְּאִים. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פָּסוּל וְלֹא מְטַמֵּא וְאֵין שְׁלִישִׁי עוֹשֶׂה רְבִיעִי בִּתְרוּמָה. מִנַּיִן לְאוֹכֵל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁהוּא פּוֹסֵל בִּתְרוּמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב ז) "וּבָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יֹאכַל מִן הַקֳדָשִׁים" נִמְצָא טְבוּל יוֹם אָסוּר בִּתְרוּמָה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲרִיב שִׁמְשׁוֹ וְאִם נָגַע בָּהּ פְּסָלָהּ וּטְבוּל יוֹם כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה הוּא. הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁהַשֵּׁנִי עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִישִׁי בִּתְרוּמָה:

4

With regard to consecrated food, primary, secondary, and tertiary derivatives contract impurity and impart impurity. A derivative to the fourth degree is disqualified, but does not impart impurity, for a derivative to the fourth degree does not ever create a derivative to the fifth degree.

What is the source that teaches that a tertiary derivative is impure with regard to consecrated foods? Leviticus 7:19 states: "Meat that touches anything that is impure shall not be eaten." And Scripture has already referred to a secondary derivative of impurity as "impure," as stated: "Everything in its inner space contracts impurity." Thus one can conclude that consecrated meat that touches a secondary derivative contracts impurity and must be burnt.

What is the source that teaches that a fourth degree derivative disqualifies consecrated foods? It is derived through an inference from a more lenient matter to a more stringent one: A person who is lacking atonement is permitted to partake of terumah, but is forbidden to partake of sacrificial food until he brings the offerings that secure atonement for him. If so, should not a tertiary derivative of impurity which disqualifies terumah cause a derivative to the fourth degree to become impure? Nevertheless, a fifth degree derivative is pure.

ד

הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהַשֵּׁנִי וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ טְמֵאִין וּמְטַמְּאִין. הָרְבִיעִי פָּסוּל וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא וְאֵין רְבִיעִי עוֹשֶׂה חֲמִישִׁי לְעוֹלָם. וּמִנַּיִן לַשְּׁלִישִׁי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז יט) "וְהַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּכָל טָמֵא לֹא יֵאָכֵל" וּכְבָר קָרָא הַכָּתוּב לַשֵּׁנִי טָמֵא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "כּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא" הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁבְּשַׂר הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁנָּגַע בְּשֵׁנִי נִטְמָא וְיִשָּׂרֵף. וּמִנַּיִן לָרְבִיעִי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא פָּסוּל מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר. וּמַה מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר בִּתְרוּמָה אָסוּר בְּקֹדֶשׁ עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא כַּפָּרָתוֹ. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁהוּא פָּסוּל בִּתְרוּמָה אֵינוֹ דִּין שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה רְבִיעִי בְּקֹדֶשׁ. אֲבָל הַחֲמִישִׁי טָהוֹר:

5

Even though ordinary meat is pure, our Sages decreed that it should be considered as a tertiary derivative of impurity and convey impurity to sacrificial food. It does not impart impurity to terumah. It appears to me that the Sages enforced their decree against it solely so that ordinary meat not become mixed with sacrificial meat. Were that to happen, an error could be made and inadvertently, one might think that the meat is ordinary and eat it while he is impure, although in truth it is consecrated.

ה

בְּשַׂר תַּאֲוָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כִּשְׁלִישִׁי לְטֻמְאָה מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֵינוֹ פּוֹסֵל אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְעָרְבוּהוּ עִם בְּשַׂר הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְיָבוֹאוּ לִטְעוֹת וְלִשְׁגֹּג בּוֹ וִידַמּוּ שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר זֶה הוּא חֹל וְהוּא קֹדֶשׁ וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּטֻמְאָה:

6

When foods are joined together by liquid, they are considered as joined with regard to contracting the impurity associated with foods. There is an unresolved question if they are considered as a single entity from which to count primary, secondary, and tertiary derivatives or the food that was touched by the impurity is a primary derivative and the food that is joined to it as a secondary derivative.

ו

חִבּוּרֵי אֳכָלִין עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקִין הֲרֵי הֵן חִבּוּר לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין וְהַדָּבָר סָפֵק אִם חֲשׁוּבִים כְּגוּף אֶחָד לִמְנוֹת בָּהֶן רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי וּשְׁלִישִׁי. אוֹ חוֹשְׁבִים זֶה הָאֹכֶל שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ הַטֻּמְאָה רִאשׁוֹן וְהָאֹכֶל הַמְחֻבָּר לוֹ שֵׁנִי:

7

Impure food that is a secondary derivative disqualifies food that is terumah and causes it to be considered as a tertiary derivative. If it touches ordinary liquids, it imparts impurity to them. Needless to say, if it touches liquids that are terumah or consecrated, it imparts impurity to the entire quantity.

ז

הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבְּחֻלִּין פּוֹסֵל אָכֳלֵי תְּרוּמָה וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן שְׁלִישִׁי. וְאִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה חֻלִּין טִמְּאָן וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה אוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֵה קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַכּל:

8

Terumah that is a tertiary derivative of impurity that touched consecrated food disqualifies it and causes it to be considered as a fourth degree derivative. If it touches consecrated liquids, it imparts impurity to them and causes them to be considered as primary derivatives. If, however, terumah that is a tertiary derivative touches a liquid that is terumah, it is pure. Similarly, if consecrated food that is a fourth degree derivative touches a consecrated liquid, it is pure.

ח

הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבַּתְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּגַע בְּאָכֳלֵי קֹדֶשׁ פְּסָלָן וְנַעֲשׂוּ רְבִיעִי. וְאִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה הַקֹּדֶשׁ טִמְּאָן וְנַעֲשׂוּ תְּחִלָּה. אֲבָל אִם נָגַע שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבִּתְרוּמָה בְּמַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר. וְכֵן רְבִיעִי שֶׁבַּקֹּדֶשׁ אִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה קֹדֶשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר:

9

When ordinary food is prepared with the stringencies of terumah, if it becomes a tertiary derivative, it is disqualified, as is true with regard to terumah. Nevertheless, if such food touches consecrated food, it does not cause it to be considered as a fourth degree derivative. It does not even disqualify consecrated liquids. When ordinary food is prepared with the stringencies of consecrated food, a tertiary derivative is pure like ordinary food.

ט

חֻלִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל טָהֳרַת תְּרוּמָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבָּהֶן פָּסוּל כִּתְרוּמָה. וְאִם נָגַע בַּקֹּדֶשׁ אֵינוֹ עוֹשֵׂהוּ רְבִיעִי וַאֲפִלּוּ מַשְׁקֵה קֹדֶשׁ אֵינוֹ פּוֹסֵל. וְחֻלִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל טָהֳרַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבָּהֶן טָהוֹר כְּחֻלִּין:

10

A person who partakes of consecrated food that is a fourth degree derivative of impurity is forbidden to partake of other consecrated foods. He is permitted to touch consecrated foods and does not disqualify them. Even when there is cooked food in which consecrated food was mixed, but there is less than an olive-sized portion of consecrated food in a mixture the size of half a loaf of bread, a person who partook of consecrated food that was a fourth degree derivative of impurity should not partake of this mixture. It may be eaten only by one who partook of consecrated food that was removed from impurity by the fifth degree. For he is pure, as we explained.

י

הָאוֹכֵל רְבִיעִי שֶׁבַּקֹּדֶשׁ אָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּמֻתָּר לִגַּע בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֵינוֹ פּוֹסְלוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בּוֹ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יֵאָכֵל בִּרְבִיעִי שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ אֶלָּא בַּחֲמִישִׁי שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

11

When a person partakes of terumah or ordinary food prepared with the stringencies of terumah that was a tertiary derivative of impurity, he is forbidden to partake of terumah until he immerses himself in a mikveh. He is permitted to touch terumah, and if he does, it is ritually pure. The Sages imposed a stringency with regard to eating, not with regard to touching.

When does the above apply? To terumah itself. If, however, terumah was mixed into cooked food and there is less than an olive-sized portion of terumah in a mixture the size of half a loaf of bread, such a person is permitted to partake of the mixture, just as he is permitted to touch terumah.

יא

הָאוֹכֵל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבַּתְּרוּמָה עַצְמָהּ אוֹ שֶׁל חֻלִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל טָהֳרַת תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לֶאֱכל אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. וּמֻתָּר לִגַּע בִּתְרוּמָה וַהֲרֵי הִיא טְהוֹרָה. בַּאֲכִילָה עָשׂוּ מַעֲלָה בִּנְגִיעָה לֹא עָשׂוּ מַעֲלָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּתְרוּמָה עַצְמָהּ. אֲבָל תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בּוֹ תְּרוּמָה אִם אֵין שָׁם כְּזַיִת בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לֶאֱכל מֵאוֹתוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִגַּע בִּתְרוּמָה:

12

Although a person who partakes of terumah or ordinary food prepared with the stringencies of terumah that was a tertiary derivative of impurity is considered as pure with regard to touching terumah, he is considered as a secondary derivative with regard to consecrated foods. For something that is pure with regard to terumah is impure with regard to consecrated food.

When, by contrast, one partakes of ordinary food prepared with the stringencies of consecrated food that was a tertiary derivative of impurity, he is pure. There is nothing that creates a fourth degree derivative of impurity with regard to consecrated foods except consecrated food itself.

יב

הָאוֹכֵל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבִּתְרוּמָה אוֹ שֶׁל חֻלִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל טָהֳרַת הַתְּרוּמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר לִנְגִיעַת תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֵׁנִי לְעִנְיַן קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁטָּהֳרַת תְּרוּמָה טֻמְאָה הִיא אֵצֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ. אֲבָל הָאוֹכֵל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּחֻלִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל טָהֳרַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה רְבִיעִי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ אֶלָּא קֹדֶשׁ מִקֹּדֶשׁ בִּלְבַד:

13

The term "consecrated food" employed with regard to the impurity of foods and liquids refers to sacrificial foods, e.g., meat from sacrifices of the highest order of sanctity, meat from sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity, bread from a thanksgiving offering and cakes of a nazirite's offering for which their sacrifice was slaughtered, flour offerings that were sanctified in a consecrated vessel, the two loaves offered on Shavuot and the showbreads when their surface became hardened in the oven. By contrast, the loaves of the thanksgiving offerings and the cakes of nazirite's offering for which their sacrifice was not slaughtered and flour offerings that were not sanctified in a consecrated vessel are not considered as consecrated food, nor as ordinary food. Instead, their status is the same as terumah.

יג

כָּל קֹדֶשׁ הָאָמוּר בְּעִנְיַן טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין הוּא קָדְשֵׁי מִקְדָּשׁ הַמְקֻדָּשִׁין כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים. וּבְשַׂר קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים. וְחַלּוֹת תּוֹדָה וּרְקִיקֵי נָזִיר שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט עֲלֵיהֶן הַזֶּבַח. וְהַמְּנָחוֹת שֶׁקָּדְשׁוּ בִּכְלִי. וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים מִשֶּׁקָּרְמוּ בַּתַּנּוּר. אֲבָל חַלּוֹת תּוֹדָה וּרְקִיקֵי נָזִיר שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁחַט עֲלֵיהֶן הַזֶּבַח. וְהַמְּנָחוֹת שֶׁלֹּא קָדְשׁוּ בִּכְלִי. אֵינָן לֹא כְּקֹדֶשׁ וְלֹא כְּחֻלִּין אֶלָּא כִּתְרוּמָה:

14

Challah, the first-fruits, restitution made for terumah and the additional fifth are considered as terumah.

יד

הַחַלָּה וְהַבִּכּוּרִים וְתַשְׁלוּמֵי תְּרוּמָה [וְחֻמְשָׁהּ] הֲרֵי הֵן כִּתְרוּמָה:

15

Tevel, a mixture of ordinary produce and terumah, produce that grew from terumah that was planted, the second and first tithes, and a dough from which challah had not yet been separated are considered like ordinary produce. A primary derivative is impure. A secondary derivative is disqualified and there is no concept of a tertiary derivative.

טו

הַטֶּבֶל. וְהַמְדֻמָּע. וְגִדּוּלֵי תְּרוּמָה. וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְרִאשׁוֹן. וְעִסָּה הַטְּבוּלָה לְחַלָּה. הֲרֵי הֵן כְּחֻלִּין וְהָרִאשׁוֹן טָמֵא בָּהֶן וְהַשֵּׁנִי פָּסוּל וְאֵין בָּהֶן שְׁלִישִׁי:

16

Our Sages decreed that whenever an entity would impart impurity to ordinary food according to Scriptural Law if one was certain that they came into contact, when one is in doubt whether it came into contact with dough from which challah, that dough should be prepared in a state of ritual purity. Challah is separated from it, but its status is held in abeyance. It is neither eaten, nor burnt.

טז

כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁוַּדָּאוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַחֻלִּין מִן הַתּוֹרָה גָּזְרוּ עַל סְפֵקוֹ בְּחֻלִּין הַטְּבוּלִין לְחַלָּה שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ הָעִסָּה בְּטָהֳרָה. וּמַפְרִישִׁים מִמֶּנָּה חַלָּה וְחַלָּתָהּ תְּלוּיָה לֹא נֶאֱכֶלֶת וְלֹא נִשְׂרֶפֶת:

Published and copyright by Moznaim Publications, all rights reserved.
To purchase this book or the entire series, please click here.
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Vowelized Hebrew text courtesy Torat Emet under CC 2.5 license.
The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah