Enter your email address to get our weekly email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life.

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 7, Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 8, Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 9

Video & Audio Classes
Show content in:

Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 7

1

A zav imparts impurity to articles on which one lies, sits, or rides in five ways: by standing above them, sitting above them, lying above them, hanging from them, or leaning on them.

What is implied? When there is an article on which one lies, sits, or rides - even if it is under a stone - if one of the persons who imparts impurity to articles on which one lies stands, sits, lies on the stone, hangs from it, or leans on it, since he was in someway supported by the article, it becomes a primary source of impurity. Any of these five acts is included in the term midras whenever it is used.

א

הַזָּב מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּב וְהַמּוֹשָׁב וְהַמֶּרְכָּב בַּחֲמִשָּׁה דְּרָכִים. עוֹמֵד. יוֹשֵׁב. שׁוֹכֵב. נִתְלֶה. וְנִשְׁעָן. כֵּיצַד. כְּלִי הֶעָשׂוּי לְמִשְׁכָּב אוֹ לְמוֹשָׁב אוֹ לְמֶרְכָּב אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה תַּחַת הָאֶבֶן אִם עָמַד אֶחָד מִמְּטַמְּאֵי מִשְׁכָּב עַל הָאֶבֶן אוֹ יָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ אוֹ שָׁכַב אוֹ נִשְׁעַן עָלֶיהָ אוֹ נִתְלָה בָּהּ הוֹאִיל וְנִתְנַשֵּׂא עַל הַכְּלִי הַזֶּה מִכָּל מָקוֹם נִטְמָא וְנַעֲשָׂה אַב טֻמְאָה. וְכָל אֶחָד מֵחֲמִשָּׁה דְּרָכִים אֵלּוּ הוּא הַנִּקְרָא מִדְרָס בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

2

Similarly, an object on which one lies and rides imparts impurity to a person in seven ways, in the five listed in the previous halachah, by touching and by carrying.

What is implied? When a zav was supported by an article on which one lies or rides and thus imparted impurity to it, if a person touches or carries that article, he contracts impurity. Similarly, one contracts impurity if one sits on it, stands on it, lies on it, hangs from it, or leans on it, even if there is a stone separating between the person who was pure and the impure support, as Leviticus 15:6 states: "One who sits on the article on which the zav had sat." According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that the place on which a zav sits and imparts impurity causes a person who is pure who sits there to contract impurity. Now just as a zav imparts impurity to an object on which one rides or sits that is beneath a stone, so too, a pure person can contract impurity from an object on which one rides or sits that is beneath a stone, even though the zav is not on the object on which one sits. A person who contracts impurity who is above the midras imparts impurity to his garments as long as he does not separate from the article that imparted impurity to him, as we explained.

ב

וְכֵן הַמִּשְׁכָּב וְהַמֶּרְכָּב מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הָאָדָם בְּשִׁבְעָה דְּרָכִים. בַּחֲמִשָּׁה דְּרָכִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁמָּנִינוּ. וּבְמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא. כֵּיצַד. מִשְׁכָּב אוֹ מֶרְכָּב שֶׁדָּרַס עָלָיו הַזָּב וְנִטְמָא בְּמִדְרָסוֹ. הַנּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ אוֹ הַנּוֹשְׂאוֹ טָמֵא. וְכֵן הַיּוֹשֵׁב עָלָיו אוֹ הָעוֹמֵד אוֹ הַשּׁוֹכֵב אוֹ הַנִּתְלֶה אוֹ הַנִּשְׁעָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיְתָה אֶבֶן מַבְדֶּלֶת בֵּין הַטָּהוֹר וּבֵין הַמִּדְרָס הֲרֵי זֶה נִטְמָא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו ו) "וְהַיּשֵׁב עַל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו הַזָּב" מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁמָּקוֹם שֶׁהַזָּב יוֹשֵׁב וּמְטַמֵּא אִם יָשַׁב שָׁם הַטָּהוֹר נִטְמָא. מָה הַזָּב מְטַמֵּא מֶרְכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב שֶׁתַּחַת הָאֶבֶן אַף הַטָּהוֹר מִתְטַמֵּא מִן הַמִּשְׁכָּב אוֹ הַמֶּרְכָּב שֶׁהוּא מִתַּחַת הָאֶבֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַזָּב שָׁם עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּב וְאָדָם זֶה שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמִּדְרָס מְטַמֵּא בְּגָדִים כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרַשׁ מִמְּטַמְּאָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

A zav does not impart impurity to an object upon which one lies until the majority of his body is supported by the object upon which one lies, sits, or rides. Similarly, when a pure person is supported by a midras made impure by a zav, he does not contract impurity because of the midras until the majority of his body is supported by it. If, however, only the lesser portion of his body is supported by it, since he did not touch it, he remains pure.

What is implied? If the lesser portion of an impure person's body is on a surface on which one lies and the lesser portion of the pure person's body is on that same surface, the surface is pure and the pure person whose body was supported in part by it is pure. When the majority of the impure person's body was supported by the lesser portion of the surface on which one lies or rides, that surface becomes impure in its entirety. Similarly, if the majority of a pure person's body was supported by the lesser portion of an impure midras, he becomes impure even though he was supported only by the lesser portion of the object on which one sits.

ג

אֵין הַזָּב מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּב עַד שֶׁיִּנָּשֵׂא רֻבּוֹ עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּב אוֹ עַל הַמּוֹשָׁב אוֹ עַל הַמֶּרְכָּב. וְכֵן הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁדָּרַס עַל מִדְרַס הַזָּב אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא מֵחֲמַת הַמִּדְרָס עַד שֶׁיִּנָּשֵׂא רֻבּוֹ עָלָיו. אֲבָל אִם נִשָּׂא מִעוּטוֹ הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נָגַע הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. כֵּיצַד. מִקְצָת טָמֵא עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּב וּמִקְצָת הַטָּהוֹר עַל אוֹתוֹ מִשְׁכָּב הַמִּשְׁכָּב טָהוֹר וְהַטָּהוֹר שֶׁנָּשָׂא מִקְצָתוֹ עָלָיו טְהוֹרִין. הַטָּמֵא שֶׁנִּשָּׂא רֻבּוֹ עַל מִקְצָת הַמִּשְׁכָּב אוֹ הַמֶּרְכָּב נִטְמָא הַמִּשְׁכָּב כֻּלּוֹ אוֹ הַמֶּרְכָּב כֻּלּוֹ. וְכֵן הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁנִּשָּׂא רֻבּוֹ עַל מִקְצָת הַמִּדְרָס נִטְמָא וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָשָׂא אֶלָּא עַל מִקְצָת הַמּוֹשָׁב:

4

When a zav was sprawled over five benches that are positioned lengthwise, they are all impure, because each one of them supported the majority of his body. If they were positioned widthwise, they are pure, because the majority of his body was not supported by any of them. If he slept upon the benches, they are all impure, because maybe he turned over and each one supported the majority of his body at a given time.

If he was sprawled over six supports, each of his two hands on one, each of his two feet on one, his head on one and his trunk on one, the only one which is impure as a surface on which one lies is the one under his trunk, because the majority of his body is supported by it.

If he is standing on two supports, one foot on one and the other on the second, they are both impure.

ד

זָב שֶׁהָיָה מֻטָּל עַל חֲמִשָּׁה סַפְסָלִין שֶׁהֵן מֻנָּחִין לְאָרְכָּן טְמֵאִים שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשָּׂא רֻבּוֹ עַל כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן. הָיוּ מֻנָּחִין לְרָחְבָּן טְהוֹרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִשָּׂא רֻבּוֹ עַל כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן. וְאִם יָשַׁן עֲלֵיהֶם בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ טְמֵאִים שֶׁמָּא נִתְהַפֵּךְ עֲלֵיהֶם וְנִמְצָא רֻבּוֹ עַל כָּל אֶחָד. הָיָה מֻטָּל עַל שִׁשָּׁה כֵּלִים הָעֲשׂוּיִים לְמִשְׁכָּב. שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל שְׁנַיִם. וּשְׁנֵי רַגְלָיו עַל שְׁנַיִם. וְרֹאשׁוֹ עַל אֶחָד. וְגוּפוֹ עַל אֶחָד. אֵין טָמֵא מִשּׁוּם מִשְׁכָּב אֶלָּא זֶה שֶׁתַּחַת גּוּפוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשָּׂא רֻבּוֹ עָלָיו. עָמַד עַל שְׁנֵי מִשְׁכָּבוֹת רַגְלוֹ אַחַת עַל אֶחָד וְרַגְלוֹ שְׁנִיָּה עַל הַשֵּׁנִי שְׁנֵיהֶן טְמֵאִין:

5

If a person was sitting on a bed and there were four surfaces, each one under one of the four legs of the bed, they are all impure. The rationale is that the bed cannot stand merely on three.

ה

הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּטָּה וְאַרְבָּעָה מִשְׁכָּבוֹת תַּחַת אַרְבַּע רַגְלֵי הַמִּטָּה כֻּלָּן טְמֵאוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד עַל שָׁלֹשׁ:

6

If a zav was riding on an animal and there were four surfaces, one under each of the animal's four feet, they are all pure. The rationale is that the animal can stand on three feet. Thus the fourth is merely an assist and an assist is not significant. Thus each of the legs is fit to be considered as merely an assist. Since we do not know which forefoot or hindfoot the animal was not using for support, none of them are considered as impure. Hence they all remain pure.

Therefore if one support was under the two forefeet of the animal, its two hindfeet, or a forefoot and a hindfoot, the support is impure, for this support definitely served as a base for the zav, for an animal cannot stand on only two feet.

ו

הָיָה רוֹכֵב עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה וְאַרְבָּעָה מִשְׁכָּבוֹת תַּחַת אַרְבַּע רַגְלֶיהָ כֻּלָּן טְהוֹרוֹת. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד עַל שָׁלֹשׁ וְנִמְצֵאת הָרְבִיעִית מְסַיֵּעַ וּמְסַיֵּעַ אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ. וְהוֹאִיל וְכָל אַחַת רְאוּיָה לִהְיוֹת מְסַיֵּעַ וְאֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים אֵי זוֹ יָד וְאֵי זוֹ רֶגֶל הִיא שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה נִשְׁעֶנֶת עָלֶיהָ הֲרֵי לֹא הֻחְזְקָה טֻמְאָה בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וּלְפִיכָךְ כֻּלָּן טְהוֹרוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה מִשְׁכָּב אֶחָד תַּחַת שְׁתֵּי יְדֵי הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ תַּחַת שְׁתֵּי רַגְלֶיהָ אוֹ תַּחַת יָדָהּ וְרַגְלָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי וַדַּאי נִשָּׂא הַזָּב עַל מִשְׁכָּב זֶה. שֶׁאֵין הַבְּהֵמָה יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד עַל שְׁתַּיִם:

7

When an impure person sat on the beam in an olive press, all of the keilim in the net are impure, for they are pressed directly under the beam. When, by contrast, a person sits on a launderer's press, the garments under the board in the press are pure. The press rests on its own feet and not on the garments that are under it. Thus if a person would desire to insert a knife or the like between the garments that are under the press and the press, he would be able to, even though the press is tied close.

ז

יָשַׁב הַטָּמֵא עַל קוֹרַת בֵּית הַבַּד כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבָּעֵקֶל טְמֵאִים. שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם רְצוּצִים תַּחַת הַקּוֹרָה. אֲבָל אִם יָשַׁב עַל מַכְבֵּשׁ שֶׁל כּוֹבֵס הֲרֵי הַכֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחַת לוּחַ הַמַּכְבֵּשׁ טְהוֹרִים. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רָפוּי וְנִמְצֵאת מִשְׁעֶנֶת הַמַּכְבֵּשׁ עַל רַגְלָיו לֹא עַל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו. שֶׁאִם יִרְצֶה אָדָם לְהַכְנִיס סַכִּין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ בֵּין הַכֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחַת הַמַּכְבֵּשׁ וּבֵין הַמַּכְבֵּשׁ מַכְנִיס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא קָשׁוּר:

8

When a zav used for support an implement that was not made for one to lie, sit, or ride on, since he did not touch it, it is pure even though it could have been used to lie on. The rationale is that we tell him: "Stand up and let us perform our work with this article."

What is implied? If one turned over a measuring container for grain or a kneading trough and sat on it, or sat on a curtain or the sail of a ship, they are pure, as implied by Leviticus 15:4 which states "that he sits upon," indicating an article set aside for sitting and not one concerning which would be said: "Stand up and let us perform our work," for this article was not made for sitting.

If the article was used to be sat upon together with the purpose it was made, it can contract impurity as a midras, for example, a veil, a cloak, an outer garment, a drinking pouch, and a carrying bag. Even though none of these entities were made to lie upon, if such an article could be used to lie upon together with the purpose for which it was made. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. In Hilchot Keilim, I will explain which keilim can contract impurity through midras and which do not, which keilim are fit for sitting, which are fit for lying, and which are fit for riding.

ח

זָב שֶׁדָּרַס עַל כְּלִי שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה לְמִשְׁכָּב אוֹ לְמוֹשָׁב אוֹ לְמֶרְכָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לְמִשְׁכָּב הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נָגַע בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹמְרִים לוֹ עֲמֹד וְנַעֲשֶׂה מְלַאכְתֵּנוּ בִּכְלִי זֶה. כֵּיצַד. כָּפָה סְאָה וְיָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ כָּפָה עֲרֵבָה וְיָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ אוֹ שֶׁיָּשַׁב עַל פָּרֹכֶת אוֹ עַל קֶלַע שֶׁל סְפִינָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִים. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו ד) "אֲשֶׁר יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו" הַמְיֻחָד לִישִׁיבָה לֹא שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לוֹ עֲמֹד וְנַעֲשֶׂה מְלַאכְתֵּנוּ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּלִי זֶה לֹא נַעֲשָׂה לִישִׁיבָה. הָיָה הַכְּלִי מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לִישִׁיבָה עִם מְלַאכְתּוֹ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה לָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס. כְּגוֹן הָרְדִיד. וְהֶחָלוּק. וְהַטַּלִּית. וְהַתּוּרְמָל. וְהַחֵמֶת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לֹא נַעֲשָׂה מִתְּחִלָּה לְמִשְׁכָּב הֲרֵי הוּא מְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּב עִם מְלַאכְתּוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. וּבְהִלְכוֹת כֵּלִים אֲבָאֵר כָּל הַכֵּלִים הַמִּטַּמְּאִין בְּמִדְרָס וְכֵלִים שֶׁאֵין מִטַּמְּאִין בְּמִדְרָס. וְאֵי זֶה כְּלִי רָאוּי לִישִׁיבָה. וְאֵי זֶה רָאוּי לִשְׁכִיבָה. וְאֵי זֶה רָאוּי לִרְכִיבָה:

Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 8

1

At the beginning of this text, we explained that with regard to other types of impurity, if a person moves a source of impurity which imparts impurity when carried, he contracts impurity. If, however, the source of impurity caused a person to move, he does not contract impurity.

א

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בִּתְחִלַּת סֵפֶר זֶה שֶׁאִם הֵסִיט הָאָדָם אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁהִיא מְטַמְּאָה בְּמַשָּׂא נִטְמָא מִשּׁוּם נוֹשֵׂא אֲבָל אִם הֵסִיטָה הַטֻּמְאָה אֶת הָאָדָם לֹא נִטְמָא:

2

None of the sources of impurity imparts impurity when moving a pure person or a pure k'li except a zav and the like. This is the extra dimension of impurity - that if a zav moves something that is pure, that entity contracts impurity - that exists with regard to a zav that has no comparison in the entire Torah.

What is implied? A beam was positioned on top of a fence and a pure person or pure keilim, even earthenware containers, were on one side and a zav moved the other side. Since the person or the keilim were moved by the zav, it is as if he touched them. They become impure and are considered as a primary derivative of impurity according to Scriptural Law. Needless to say, the person or the keilim become impure if the zav lifted them up. All the laws that apply to a zav also apply to a zavah, a nidah, and a woman after childbirth.

Thus it can be concluded that when a pure person moves a zav, he is impure because it is as if he carried a zav. And when a zav moves a pure entity, whether a person or a k'li, even an earthenware container, that entity is impure, because having the zav move other entities is equivalent to him touching them.

ב

אֵין בְּכָל אֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאוֹת כֻּלָּן טֻמְאָה שֶׁאִם תָּסִיט אֶת הָאָדָם הַטָּהוֹר אוֹ אֶת הַכְּלִי הַטָּהוֹר תְּטַמֵּא אוֹתָן אֶלָּא הַזָּב אוֹ חֲבֵרָיו בִּלְבַד. וְזוֹ הִיא הַטֻּמְאָה הַיְתֵרָה בְּזָב שֶׁלֹּא מָצִינוּ כְּמוֹתָהּ בְּכָל הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁאִם הֵסִיט אֶת הַטְּהוֹרִין טְמֵאִין. כֵּיצַד. הָיְתָה קוֹרָה מֻטֶּלֶת עַל רֹאשׁ הַגָּדֵר וְאָדָם טָהוֹר אוֹ כֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ כְּלִי חֶרֶס עַל קְצָתָהּ וְהֵנִיד הַזָּב אֶת הַקָּצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי הוֹאִיל וְנִתְנַדְנְדוּ מֵחֲמַת הַזָּב הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהֶן וּטְמֵאִין וְנַעֲשׂוּ רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה דִּין תּוֹרָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם נָשָׂא הַזָּב אֶת הָאָדָם אוֹ אֶת הַכֵּלִים שֶׁטִּמְּאָן. וְאֶחָד זָב וְזָבָה נִדָּה וְיוֹלֶדֶת בְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ. הִנֵּה לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁהָאָדָם הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁהֵסִיט אֶת הַזָּב נִטְמָא מִשּׁוּם נוֹשֵׂא זָב. וְהַזָּב שֶׁהֵסִיט אֶת הַטָּהוֹר בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ כְּלֵי חֶרֶס טְמֵאִין. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַנָדַת הַזָּב לַאֲחֵרִים כְּאִלּוּ נָגַע בָּהֶן:

3

There is a more stringent dimension to the impurity imparted by a zav moving an entity than to the impurity he imparts by touching it. If a zav touches an earthenware container that is firmly sealed close, it is pure. If, however, the zav moves the article, it becomes impure.

A similar stringency applies to an earthenware container that is hollow like a ball for which an opening was not made, e.g., a double frying pan. If it was moved by a zav, it is impure, even though it would be considered pure were it to have been located in a tent containing a human corpse, for it is like an earthenware container that is sealed close, for its opening is sealed. Similarly, when a needle is entirely embedded in a piece of wood or a ring is entirely embedded in a brick, if a zav moves the wood or the brick, the keilim embedded within become impure. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ג

חֹמֶר בְּהֶסֵּט הַזָּב מִמַּגָּעוֹ שֶׁאִם נָגַע בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס הַמֻּקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל טָהוֹר וְאִם הֱסִיטוֹ טִמְּאָהוּ. וְכֵן כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהוּא נָבוּב כְּכַדּוּר וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשָׂה לוֹ פֶּה כְּמוֹ אִלְפָּסִין אִירְנִיוֹת אִם הֱסִיטָן הַזָּב טְמֵאִים וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלִי חֶרֶס הַמֻּקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל שֶׁפִּתְחוֹ סָתוּם. וְכֵן מַחַט שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּלוּעָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵץ וְטַבַּעַת הַבְּלוּעָה בְּתוֹךְ הַלְּבֵנָה וְהֵסִיט הַזָּב אֶת הָעֵץ אוֹ הַלְּבֵנָה נִטְמְאוּ הַכֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

4

When a zav inserts his hand or foot into the inner space of an earthenware container, since he did not touch the inside of the container, nor did he move it, it remains pure. The rationale is that a nidah or the like do not impart impurity through their limbs alone.

ד

זָב שֶׁהִכְנִיס יָדוֹ אוֹ רַגְלוֹ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נָגַע בּוֹ מִתּוֹכוֹ וְלֹא הֱנִידוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין הַנִּדָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ מְטַמְּאִין לְאֵיבָרִים:

5

When a zav had a rod held fast in the folds of his skin and used the end of the rod to move a person or a k'li, he or it remain pure, as implied by Leviticus 15:11: "Anything that will be touched by the zav when his hands were not washed in water." According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that this verse is speaking about a zav moving entities. It uses the wording "touch" to teach the following concept: Just as touch involves one's hand and other parts of the body like one's hands, i.e., revealed limbs that can touch, so too, moving an object must be performed by a revealed portion of the body and not by a hidden portion.

If a rod was in the folds of the skin of a pure person and he moved a zav with it, he contracts impurity. For one who moves an impure object is considered as if he carried it. Hence, just as one who carries an article in the hidden portions of his body contracts impurity, as we stated at the beginning of this book, so too, one who moves an impure object with the hidden portions of his body contracts impurity.

ה

זָב שֶׁהָיָה קָנֶה אָחוּז בְּתוֹךְ קֻמְטוֹ וְהֵסִיט וְהוֹצִיא בִּקְצֵה הַקָּנֶה אָדָם אוֹ כְּלִי הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו יא) "וְכָל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בּוֹ הַזָּב וְיָדָיו לֹא שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם" מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁהַכָּתוּב הִזָּה מְדַבֵּר בְּהֶסֵּט הַזָּב וְהוֹצִיאוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן נְגִיעָה לוֹמַר מָה נְגִיעָה בְּיָדָיו וְהַדּוֹמֶה לְיָדָיו מִשְּׁאָר גּוּפוֹ הַגָּלוּי אֵצֶל הַנְּגִיעָה אַף הֶסֵּטוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּסִיט בְּגָלוּי שֶׁבְּגוּפוֹ לֹא שֶׁיָּסִיט בְּבֵית הַסְּתָרִים. הָיָה הַקָּנֶה בְּקֻמְטוֹ שֶׁל טָהוֹר וְהֵסִיט בּוֹ אֶת הַזָּב טָמֵא שֶׁהַמֵּסִיט אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה כְּנוֹשֵׂא אוֹתָהּ וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהַנּוֹשֵׂא בְּבֵית הַסְּתָרִים טָמֵא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּתְחִלַּת סֵפֶר זֶה כָּךְ הַמֵּסִיט בְּבֵית הַסְּתָרִים טָמֵא:

6

The following laws apply when a zav was on one side of a scale and a k'li made to lie on or ride on was placed on the other side. If the zav outweighed them, causing them to rise, they are considered as keilim which he touched, for he moved them. If they outweighed him, they contract the impurity associated with articles on which one lies and become a primary source of impurity. The rationale is that they lifted up the zav. Thus it is as if he stood on them.

If there were other keilim, foods, liquids, or another person on the other side of the scale, whether they outweighed the zav or he outweighed them, they are all considered a primary derivative of impurity.

ו

הַזָּב בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם וּכְלִי הֶעָשׂוּי לְמִשְׁכָּב אוֹ לְמֶרְכָּב בְּכַף שְׁנִיָּה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. כָּרַע הַזָּב הֲרֵי הֵן כְּכֵלִים שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי הֱסִיטָן. כָּרְעוּ הֵן טְמֵאִין מִשּׁוּם מִשְׁכָּב וְנַעֲשׂוּ אָב שֶׁהֲרֵי נָשְׂאוּ הַזָּב וּכְאִלּוּ עָמַד עֲלֵיהֶן. הָיָה בְּכַף שְׁנִיָּה שְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין אוֹ אָדָם בֵּין שֶׁכָּרְעוּ הֵן בֵּין שֶׁכָּרַע הַזָּב כֻּלָּן רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה:

7

The following laws apply when a zav and a pure person:

a) were sitting on opposite ends of a bench or a board that moved up and down,

b) both climbed a tree that was not strong, i.e., its trunk is not thick enough for a cavity fit to contain a fourth of a kab to be hollowed out within,

c) ascended a booth that is not strong, i.e., one that can be bent over by a person's hand and when he does so, he presses it and moves it,

d) climbed an Egyptian ladder that was not affixed with nails, or

e) ascended a ramp, a beam, or a door which was not firmly held in place with mortar.

In all these instances, they are impure because the entity they are ascending will shake back and forth and it would be as if the zav is moving the pure person. If, however, they sat in a large boat which would not be affected by the movement of one person, on a board or a bench that was not shaky, or climbed a tree or a booth that was strong, or an Egyptian ladder that was nailed down, or a ramp, a beam, or a door that was held in place with mortar, the pure person remains pure, even if they ascended from the same side.

ז

הַזָּב וְהַטָּהוֹר שֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ עַל הַסַּפְסָל אוֹ עַל הַנֶּסֶר בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן מַחְגִּירִין. אוֹ שֶׁעָלוּ בְּאִילָן שֶׁכֹּחוֹ רַע וְהוּא הָאִילָן שֶׁאֵין בָּעֳבִי עִקָּרוֹ כְּדֵי לָחֹק רֹבַע הַקַּב. אוֹ שֶׁעָלוּ בְּסֻכָּה שֶׁכֹּחָהּ רַע וְהוּא שֶׁנֶּחְבָּא בָּהּ וְדוֹחֵק אוֹתָהּ תָּזוּז בּוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁעָלוּ בְּסֻלָּם מִצְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ בְּמַסְמֵר. אוֹ שֶׁעָלוּ עַל הַכֶּבֶשׁ וְעַל הַקּוֹרָה וְעַל הַדֶּלֶת בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָן מְחֻבָּרִין בְּטִיט. הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מִתְנַדְנְדִין בָּהֶן וּכְאִלּוּ הֵסִיט הַזָּב אֶת הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁעִמּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם יָשְׁבוּ בִּסְפִינָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהָסִיט בָּאָדָם. אוֹ עַל הַנֶּסֶר אוֹ עַל הַסַּפְסָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָם מַחְגִּירִין. אוֹ שֶׁעָלוּ בְּאִילָן וּבְסֻכָּה שֶׁכֹּחָן יָפֶה. אוֹ בְּסֻלָּם מִצְרִי הַקָּבוּעַ בְּמַסְמֵר. אוֹ בְּכֶבֶשׁ וּבְקוֹרָה וּבְדֶלֶת שֶׁמְּחֻבָּרִים בְּטִיט. אֲפִלּוּ עָלוּ מִצַּד אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר:

8

When both a zav and a pure person were closing or opening a door at the same time, the pure person remains pure. If one was closing the door and the other opening it, the pure person contracts impurity.

The following laws apply when one lifted the other out of a pit. If the impure person lifted out the pure person, he imparted impurity to him, because he moved him. If the pure person lifted up the impure person, he contracts impurity, because it is as if he carried the impure person, as we explained.

ח

זָב וְטָהוֹר שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּאֶחָד מְגִיפִין אֶת הַדָּלֶת אוֹ פּוֹתְחִין הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. הָיָה אֶחָד מֵגִיף וְאֶחָד פּוֹתֵחַ נִטְמָא. הֶעֱלוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה מִן הַבּוֹר אִם הַטָּמֵא הֶעֱלָה אֶת הַטָּהוֹר טִמְּאָהוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֱסִיטוֹ. וְאִם הַטָּהוֹר הֶעֱלָה אֶת הַטָּמֵא נִטְמָא בְּמַשָּׂאוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

9

When a zav and a pure person where pulling ropes back and forth, one pulling in one direction and the other, in the other direction, the pure person contracts impurity. If they were weaving together, whether standing or sitting, or working a mill, unloading or loading a donkey, if their burden is heavy, the pure person contracts impurity. If it is light, he remains pure.

ט

זָב וְטָהוֹר שֶׁהָיוּ מַפְשִׁילִין בַּחֲבָלִים אִם הָיָה זֶה מוֹשֵׁךְ אֵילָךְ וְזֶה מוֹשֵׁךְ אֵילָךְ נִטְמָא. הָיוּ אוֹרְגִין בֵּין בְּעוֹמְדִין בֵּין בְּיוֹשְׁבִין אוֹ טוֹחֲנִין אוֹ פּוֹרְקִין מִן הַחֲמוֹר אוֹ טוֹעֲנִין. בִּזְמַן שֶׁמַּשָּׂאָן כָּבֵד הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא וְאִם הָיָה מַשּׂוֹי קַל טָהוֹר:

10

When a pure person was administering lashes to a zav, he is pure. When a zav is administering lashes to a pure person, he is impure. The rationale is that that if the pure person will move, the impure person will fall. Thus he is leaning on him. Accordingly, even the clothes of the pure person contract impurity.

י

טָהוֹר שֶׁהָיָה מַכֶּה אֶת הַזָּב הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. וְזָב שֶׁהִכָּה אֶת הַטָּהוֹר טִמְּאָהוּ. שֶׁאִם יִמָּשֵׁךְ הַטָּהוֹר וַהֲרֵי הַטָּמֵא נוֹפֵל וְנִמְצָא כְּאִלּוּ נִשְׁעָן עָלָיו. וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף בִּגְדֵי הַטָּהוֹר טְמֵאִין:

11

When a portion of a zav's body was resting above a pure person or a portion of a pure person's body was resting above a zav, the pure person contracts impurity.

What is implied? If a finger of a zav was placed above a pure person or a pure person placed his finger above a zav, even if there is a stone, a beam, or the like between them, the pure person contracts impurity.

Similarly, when entities joined to a zav's body rest on a pure person or entities joined to a pure person's body rest on the zav, the pure person contracts impurity. It is as if each one carried the body of the other. These are what is meant by the term "entities joined to the body": the teeth, the nails, and the hair. It appears to me that this impurity is of Rabbinic origin.

יא

זָב שֶׁנִּשָּׂא מִקְצָתוֹ עַל הַטָּהוֹר אוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁנִּשָּׂא מִקְצָתוֹ עַל הַזָּב נִטְמָא. כֵּיצַד. אֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁל זָב שֶׁהִנִּיחָהּ לְמַעְלָה מִן הַטָּהוֹר אוֹ הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁהִנִּיחַ אֶצְבָּעוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִן הַזָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶן אֶבֶן אוֹ קוֹרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. וְכֵן חִבּוּרֵי הַזָּב שֶׁנִּשְּׂאוּ עַל הַטָּהוֹר אוֹ חִבּוּרֵי טָהוֹר שֶׁנִּשְּׂאוּ עַל הַזָּב הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. וּכְאִלּוּ נָשָׂא כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶם עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ. וְאֵלּוּ הֵם הַחִבּוּרִים. הַשִּׁנַּיִם הַצִּפָּרְנַיִם וְהַשֵּׂעָר שֶׁלָּהֶן. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁטֻּמְאָה זוֹ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם:

Metamme'ey Mishkav uMoshav - Chapter 9

1

The following laws apply when a support is firmly joined to the earth or nailed down. If it is sound and strong and a zav banged upon it and when doing so, a k'li, food, or liquids that were resting on it were moved or caused to fall from the power of his blow, they are pure. If the support was not sound or strong, but shaky and a zav banged upon it and caused keilim, food, or liquids to fall or move from the power of his blow, they are impure. It is as if he moved them, because they fell as a result of his power.

This is the general principle: Whatever falls as a direct result of the power of the zav's movement is impure. Anything that falls due to the trembling of the support is pure.

What is implied? If he knocked on a tree or a booth that were not sturdy, on an Egyptian ladder that was not affixed with nails, on a ramp, a beam, or a door that was not firmly held in place with mortar or he knocked on a door-bolt, a lock, or an oar, and when he knocked upon these entities, he caused food, liquids, or keilim to fall - or even caused them to shake without falling - they are impure. If, however, he knocked on a tree or a booth that was strong, or an Egyptian ladder that was nailed down, or a ramp, a beam, or a door that was held in place with mortar, a central building beam or an oven, and when he knocked on that entity, keilim, foods, and liquids on it were moved - and even if they fell - they remain pure. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

א

דָבָר שֶׁהָיָה מְחֻבָּר בָּאָרֶץ אוֹ מְסֻמָּר בְּמַסְמְרִים. אִם הָיָה כֹּחוֹ יָפֶה וְחָזָק וְהִקִּישׁ עָלָיו הַזָּב וּבְעֵת שֶׁהִקִּישׁ הֵנִיד כְּלִי אוֹ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין מִכֹּחַ הַכָּאָתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהִפִּילָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִים. וְאִם לֹא הָיָה כֹּחוֹ יָפֶה וְחָזָק אֶלָּא מִתְנַדְנֵד וְהִקִּישׁ עָלָיו הַזָּב וְהִפִּיל אוֹ הֵנִיד בְּכֹחַ הַכָּאָתוֹ כֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין. וּכְאִלּוּ הֱסִיטָן שֶׁהֲרֵי מִכֹּחוֹ נָפְלוּ. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁנָּפַל מִכֹּחַ הֶסֵּטוֹ טָמֵא. מִכֹּחַ הָרְעָדָה טָהוֹר. כֵּיצַד. הִקִּישׁ עַל אִילָן אוֹ סֻכָּה שֶׁכֹּחָן רַע. אוֹ עַל סֻלָּם מִצְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ בְּמַסְמֵר. אוֹ עַל קוֹרָה וְדֶלֶת וְכֶבֶשׁ שֶׁאֵינָם מְחֻבָּרִים בְּטִיט. אוֹ שֶׁהִקִּישׁ עַל הַנֶּגֶר עַל הַמַּנְעוּל וְהַמָּשׁוֹט. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִקִּישׁ הִפִּיל אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין אוֹ כֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ הֱנִידָן וְלֹא נָפְלוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִים. אֲבָל אִם הִקִּישׁ עַל אִילָן אוֹ עַל סֻכָּה שֶׁכֹּחָן יָפֶה. אוֹ עַל סֻלָּם מְסֻמָּר. אוֹ עַל כֶּבֶשׁ אוֹ עַל דֶּלֶת אוֹ קוֹרָה הַמְחֻבָּרִין בְּטִיט. אוֹ עַל הַמָּרִישׁ. אוֹ עַל הַתַּנּוּר. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִקִּישׁ הֵנִיד כֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין אֲפִלּוּ הִפִּילָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּאֵלּוּ:

2

When there was a loaf of bread attached to the wall of an oven and a zav knocked on the oven and caused the loaf to fall, it is pure, even if the loaf is terumah. If a shard from the oven is clinging to the loaf that fell, it is impure, even if the loaf is ordinary food.

ב

תַּנּוּר שֶׁהָיְתָה הַפַּת דְּבוּקָה בּוֹ וְהִקִּישׁ עַל הַתַּנּוּר וְנָפַל כִּכָּר אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. וְאִם הָיָה חֶרֶס מִן הַתַּנּוּר מְדֻבָּק בַּכִּכָּר שֶׁנָּפַל אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה חֻלִּין הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא:

3

A surface on which one lies or rides that has contracted midras impurity does not impart impurity to keilim, foods, or liquids, unless it touches them. If, however, the keilim, foods, or liquids were above the impure midras or the impure midras was above them, as long as they do not touch it, even if there is only a paper separating between them, they are pure. Similarly, if an object on which one sits caused keilim, foods, or liquids to move, they are pure.

ג

אֵין הַמִּשְׁכָּב אוֹ הַמֶּרְכָּב מְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין אֶלָּא בְּמַגָּע בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כֵּלִים אוֹ אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמִּדְרָס אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַמִּדְרָס לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם אֶלָּא נְיָר הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נָגַע בָּהֶן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן אִם הֵסִיט הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֶת הַכֵּלִים אוֹ אֶת הָאֳכָלִים וְהַמַּשְׁקִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין:

4

When a zav and a pure person were sitting in a small boat that could tip due to the movement of one person, on a dinghy, or riding an animal together, even if their clothes are not touching each other, the clothes of the pure person are considered to have contracted midras impurity. This impurity comes as a result of a doubt; perhaps the zav stepped upon them. Similarly, if a woman in the nidah state sat together with a woman who is pure on a bed, the other woman's clothes are impure because of midras impurity, with the exception of the cap on her head. Similarly, when a zav was in a small boat, clothes on top of the masthead are pure.

ד

הַזָּב וְהַטָּהוֹר שֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ בִּסְפִינָה קְטַנָּה הַיְכוֹלָה לְהָמִיט בָּאָדָם אֶחָד אוֹ בְּאַסְדָּא אוֹ שֶׁרָכְבוּ עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בִּגְדֵיהֶן נוֹגְעִין זֶה בָּזֶה הֲרֵי בִּגְדֵי הַטָּהוֹר טְמֵאִים מִדְרָס וְטֻמְאָתָן בְּסָפֵק שֶׁמָּא דָּרַס הַזָּב עֲלֵיהֶן. וְכֵן נִדָּה שֶׁיָּשְׁבָה עִם הַטְּהוֹרָה בַּמִּטָּה בְּגָדֶיהָ טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס חוּץ מִכִּפָּה שֶׁבְּרֹאשָׁהּ. וְכֵן הַבְּגָדִים שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הַנֵּס שֶׁבַּסְּפִינָה טְהוֹרִין:

5

When one pushes into a mill in which a gentile, a zav, or the like is located, his clothes contract midras impurity.

With regard to which type of mill was this said? One that shakes the ground to the extent that it will raise the person standing there and force him from his place.

It is obvious that this impurity was decreed due to a doubt: perhaps the impure person was displaced and stepped on the clothes of the pure person.

ה

הַנִּדְחָק בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁהָעַכּוּ''ם בְּתוֹכָם אוֹ זָב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ הֲרֵי בְּגָדָיו טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס. בְּאֵי זֶה רֵחַיִם אָמְרוּ בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁמְּנַדְנְדִין אֶת הַקַּרְקַע עַד שֶׁעוֹקְרִין אֶת הָעוֹמֵד כָּאן וְדוֹחֲפִין אוֹתוֹ מִמְּקוֹמוֹ. וְדָבָר בָּרוּר הוּא שֶׁטֻּמְאָה זוֹ בְּסָפֵק שֶׁמָּא נֶעֱקַר הַטָּמֵא וְדָרַס עַל בִּגְדֵי הַטָּהוֹר:

Published and copyright by Moznaim Publications, all rights reserved.
To purchase this book or the entire series, please click here.
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Vowelized Hebrew text courtesy Torat Emet under CC 2.5 license.
The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah