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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Bechorot - Perek 8, Shegagot - Perek 1, Shegagot - Perek 2

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Bechorot - Perek 8

1

The following laws apply when a person brought sheep into a corral, they began to depart one by one with him counting them as we explained, and he erred in numbering them, and called the eighth lamb or a lesser number, the tenth. In such a situation and, similarly, if he called the twelfth or a greater number, the tenth, those animals are not consecrated. If, however, he called the ninth or the eleventh, the tenth, they become consecrated.

This matter is a halachah, [communicated by the Oral Tradition: that an error when tithing causes one greater than the tenth or one lesser than the tenth to be consecrated, but not those greater or lesser than they.

Even if one called the ninth, the tenth, and the eleventh, the tenth, whether in error or intentionally, all three are consecrated.

א

הַמַּכְנִּיס צֹאן לַדִּיר וְהִתְחִילוּ לָצֵאת אַחַת אַחַת וְהוּא מוֹנֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְטָעָה בַּמִּנְיָן וְקָרָא לַשְּׁמִינִי אוֹ לְשֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ עֲשִׂירִי אוֹ שֶׁקָּרָא לַשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר אוֹ שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ עֲשִׂירִי לֹא נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ. אֲבָל אִם קָרָא לַתְּשִׁיעִי אוֹ לָאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה נִשְׁמַע שֶׁהַטָּעוּת מִתְקַדְּשׁוֹת לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ וְשֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ אֲבָל לֹא שֶׁלִּפְנֵיהֶם וְשֶׁלְּאַחֲרֵיהֶם. אֲפִלּוּ קָרָא לַתְּשִׁיעִי עֲשִׂירִי וְלַעֲשִׂירִי תְּשִׁיעִי וְלָאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי בֵּין בְּטָעוּת בֵּין בְּכַוָּנָה שְׁלָשְׁתָּן מֻקְדָּשִׁים:

2

What are the laws that apply to them? The ninth is not sacrificed. Instead, it should be eaten after it becomes blemished. The tenth is the tithe offering and the eleventh should be offered as a peace offering. Accompanying offerings are required to be brought with it. Its holiness may not be transferred to another animal, because it is considered as an animal to which holiness has been transferred itself.

When does the above apply? When the person counting was the owner of the animals. When, however, a person appoints an agent to tithe for him and the agent errs with regard to the ninth or the eleventh, only the true tenth one is consecrated, for he was not appointed as an agent to err and to cause him a loss, only to consecrate the animals in the appropriate manner.

ב

וְהֵיאַךְ דִּינָם. הַתְּשִׁיעִי אֵינוֹ קָרֵב אֶלָּא נֶאֱכָל בְּמוּמוֹ. וְהָעֲשִׂירִי מַעֲשֵׂר. וְהָאַחַד עָשָׂר יִקָּרֵב שְׁלָמִים וְטָעוּן נְסָכִים כִּשְׁלָמִים וְאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה תְּמוּרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עַצְמוֹ כִּתְמוּרָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַמּוֹנֶה הוּא בַּעַל הַבְּהֵמוֹת אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְעַשֵּׂר לוֹ וְטָעָה בֵּין בַּתְּשִׁיעִי בֵּין בָּאַחַד עָשָׂר אֵין מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶלָּא הָעֲשִׂירִי הַוַּדַּאי בִּלְבַד. שֶׁלֹּא עֲשָׂאָהוּ שָׁלִיחַ לִטְעוֹת וּלְהַפְסִיד אֶלָּא לְקַדֵּשׁ כָּרָאוּי:

3

The statement that if one called the eleventh animal "the tenth," it becomes consecrated applies when one called the tenth, "the ninth." If, however, he called the tenth "the tenth," and called the eleventh, "the tenth," the eleventh is not consecrated. The rationale is that the name "tenth" was not removed from the true tenth animal.

Moreover, even if the owner was silent when the tenth animal departed and did not call it "the tenth" or "the eleventh" and when the eleventh departed, he called it "the tenth," it is not consecrated. The rationale is that the tenth is consecrated as a matter of course, even though it was not explicitly called "the tenth." Hence, since the name "tenth" was not removed from the appropriate animal, the eleventh is not consecrated.

ג

זֶה שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁאִם קָרָא לָאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי נִתְקַדֵּשׁ כְּשֶׁקָּרָא לָעֲשִׂירִי תְּשִׁיעִי אֲבָל אִם קָרָא לָעֲשִׂירִי עֲשִׂירִי וְקָרָא אַחֲרָיו לָאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא נִתְקַדֵּשׁ אַחַד עָשָׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי הָעֲשִׂירִי הַוַּדַּאי לֹא עָקַר שֵׁם עֲשִׂירִי מֵעָלָיו. וַאֲפִלּוּ יָצָא הָעֲשִׂירִי וְלֹא קְרָאָהוּ לֹא עֲשִׂירִי וְלֹא אַחַד עָשָׂר אֶלָּא שָׁתַק וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָצָא אַחַד עָשָׂר וּקְרָאָהוּ עֲשִׂירִי לֹא נִתְקַדֵּשׁ שֶׁהָעֲשִׂירִי מֵעַצְמוֹ נִתְקַדֵּשׁ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קְרָאָהוּ עֲשִׂירִי הוֹאִיל וְלֹא עָקַר שֵׁם עֲשִׂירִי מֵעָלָיו אֵין אַחַד עָשָׂר מְקֻדָּשׁ:

4

The following rules apply when the ninth and the tenth depart together. Whether the owner called both of them "the ninth" or both of them "the tenth," they are both consecrated. They both, however, should be eaten after they contract blemishes and neither should be sacrificed.

Similarly, if the tenth and the eleventh departed together, if he called them "the tenth," the tenth and the eleventh are considered as intermingled. It is as if a tithe offering becomes intermingled with a peace-offering, in which instance, the law is that they should be eaten after they contract blemishes, as we explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim. If he called them "the eleventh," it is considered as if the tenth animal and an ordinary animal are intermingled and they should be eaten after they contract blemishes.

ד

יָצְאוּ תְּשִׁיעִי וַעֲשִׂירִי כְּאֶחָד בֵּין שֶׁקָּרָא שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲשִׂירִי. בֵּין שֶׁקְּרָאָם תְּשִׁיעִי. שְׁנֵיהֶם מֻקְדָּשִׁין וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן וְאֵינָן קְרֵבִין. וְכֵן אִם יָצָא עֲשִׂירִי וְאַחַד עָשָׂר כְּאֶחָד. אִם קְרָאָן עֲשִׂירִי הֲרֵי עֲשִׂירִי וְאַחַד עָשָׂר מְעֹרָבִים זֶה בָּזֶה וְהֵם כְּמוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בִּשְׁלָמִים שֶׁיֵּאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין. וְאִם קְרָאָן אַחַד עָשָׂר הֲרֵי הָעֲשִׂירִי וְהַחֻלִּין מְעֹרָבִין זֶה בָּזֶה וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן:

5

If, when the owner began counting, two animals, the first and the second, departed together, he should count all the animals in pairs and consecrate the tenth pair. Similarly, if he counted them all in sets of three or in sets of five, the tenth set becomes consecrated.

ה

הִתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת וְיָצְאוּ תְּחִלָּה שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהֵן רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹנֶה הַכּל זוּג זוּג וּמְקַדֵּשׁ זוּג עֲשִׂירִי. וְכֵן אִם מְנָאָן שְׁלֹשָׁה שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּכָל פַּעַם וּפַעַם אוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה חֲמִשָּׁה מְקַדֵּשׁ הַכַּת הָעֲשִׂירִית:

6

If, at the outset, two departed and he counted them as one, and then he called the third that departed after them, "the second," and continued counting one by one in the ordinary manner, the ninth and the tenth are both consecrated and should be eaten after they contract blemishes. The rationale is that the ninth is the true tenth, because two animals departed at the outset. And the one that he called "the tenth" is really, the eleventh and when the eleventh is called "the tenth," it is consecrated, as we explained.

ו

יָצְאוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה שְׁנַיִם וּמְנָאָן אֶחָד וְקָרָא הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁיָּצָא אַחֲרֵיהֶן שֵׁנִי וּמָנָה כְּדַרְכּוֹ אֶחָד אֶחָד הֲרֵי הַתְּשִׁיעִי וְהָעֲשִׂירִי מֻקְדָּשִׁין וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן. הַתְּשִׁיעִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא הָעֲשִׂירִי הַוַּדַּאי שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁנַיִם יָצְאוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְזֶה שֶׁקְּרָאוֹ עֲשִׂירִי הוּא אַחַד עָשָׂר וְהַקּוֹרֵא לְאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי נִתְקַדֵּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

7

If one counted backwards, i.e., when the first one departed, he counted it "ten;" when the second departed, he counted "nine;" until the tenth departed and he counted "one," it is consecrated, because the tenth is consecrated on its own accord.

ז

מְנָאָן לְמַפְרֵעַ כְּגוֹן שֶׁיָּצָא רִאשׁוֹן וְאָמַר עֲשִׂירִי וְיָצָא שֵׁנִי וְאָמַר תְּשִׁיעִי עַד שֶׁיָּצָא הָעֲשִׂירִי וּמָנָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה קָדַשׁ שֶׁהָעֲשִׂירִי מֵאֵלָיו נִתְקַדֵּשׁ:

8

If one mistakenly called the ninth, "the tenth" and the tenth remained in the corral, the ninth should be eaten after becoming blemished and the one that remained in the corral is the tithe. This applies even though it did not depart, nor was it designated as the tenth, because the tenth is consecrated on its own accord.

If the tenth died in the corral, the ninth should be eaten after becoming blemished and the eight which departed after being counted are exempt even though the tenth among them was not consecrated to be offered, but instead, died before departing, because once animals have been counted in a manner that was fitting for them to be tithed, they are exempt.

ח

קָרָא לַתְּשִׁיעִי עֲשִׂירִי וְנִשְׁאַר הָעֲשִׂירִי בַּדִּיר. הַתְּשִׁיעִי יֵאָכֵל בְּמוּמוֹ וְזֶה שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר בַּדִּיר מַעֲשֵׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא וְלֹא בֵּרְרוֹ שֶׁהָעֲשִׂירִי מֵאֵלָיו נִתְקַדֵּשׁ. מֵת הָעֲשִׂירִי בַּדִּיר הַתְּשִׁיעִי יֵאָכֵל בְּמוּמוֹ וְכָל הַשְּׁמוֹנָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ וְנִמְנוּ פְּטוּרִין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְקַדֵּשׁ עֲשִׂירִי שֶׁלָּהֶן לִקָּרֵב אֶלָּא מֵת קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּצָא. שֶׁהַמִּנְיָן הָרָאוּי פּוֹטֵר:

9

When one brought ten lambs into a corral and proceeded to count, if one of those counted died, he should continue counting and complete the reckoning in its ordinary manner, consecrating the tenth, even though there are only nine that are alive at the time.

ט

הִכְנִיס עֲשָׂרָה טְלָאִים לַדִּיר וְהָיָה מוֹנֶה וְהוֹלֵךְ. מֵת אֶחָד מִן הַמְּנוּיִין מוֹנֶה וּמַשְׁלִים כְּדַרְכּוֹ וּמְקַדֵּשׁ עֲשִׂירִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם עַתָּה חַיִּים אֶלָּא תִּשְׁעָה:

10

If after a person began counting, one of the animals in the corral died, those which were counted are exempt, because once animals have been counted in a manner that was fitting for them to be tithed even though one was not separated for them, they are exempt, as stated. Those that remained in the corral should be left for a later "threshing floor" until others are added to them.

Similar concepts apply when one had fourteen lambs and brought all of them into a corral and four departed through one opening and were counted, then six departed through another opening and were counted and four remained in the corral. If the four depart through the opening that the six departed, one should be taken as the tithe and all the others are exempt. The four that departed at first through the first opening are exempt, because once animals have been counted in a manner that was fitting for them to be tithed, they are exempt.

If the remaining four departed from the opening through which the first four departed, the four that departed at the outset and the six that departed afterwards through the second opening are exempt, because each one of them was counted in a manner that was fitting for them to be tithed. For at the time each of the groups departed, others remained in the corral to complete the counting and the tithing. The four that remained, however, although they departed through the first opening and were counted, were not counted in a manner appropriate for tithing. Therefore they must be included in another "threshing floor."

The following laws apply if four departed through one opening, four departed through another opening, and six remained. If all six departed from the same one of the two openings, one should be taken as a tithe and all the lambs are exempt from being tithed again. If, however, the six departed from both openings, some from one and some from the other, the six are included in another "threshing floor." The eight that departed from the two openings at the outset, however, are exempt, for each set of four was counted in a manner appropriate for ten to be counted and the tithe taken, for there were six remaining in the corral.

י

מֵת אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר אֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּמְנוּ פְּטוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמִּנְיָן הָרָאוּי לְמַעֲשֵׂר פּוֹטֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר מַנִּיחָן לְגֹרֶן אַחֵר עַד שֶׁיִּצְטָרְפוּ לַאֲחֵרִים. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר טְלָאִים וְהִכְנִיסָן לַדִּיר וְיָצְאוּ אַרְבָּעָה וּמְנָאָן בְּפֶתַח זֶה וְיָצְאוּ שִׁשָּׁה וּמְנָאָן בְּפֶתַח אַחֵר וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם אַרְבָּעָה בְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר. אִם יָצְאוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מִן הַפֶּתַח שֶׁיָּצְאוּ בּוֹ הַשִּׁשָּׁה נוֹטֵל מֵהֶן אֶחָד וְכֻלָּן פְּטוּרִין. שֶׁאוֹתָן הָאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ תְּחִלָּה מִפֶּתַח רִאשׁוֹן מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי פְּטָרָן. וְאִם יָצְאוּ אֵלּוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מִן הַפֶּתַח שֶׁיָּצְאוּ בּוֹ הָאַרְבָּעָה תְּחִלָּה. הֲרֵי אוֹתָם הָאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאוֹתָן הַשִּׁשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶן בְּפֶתַח שֵׁנִי פְּטוּרִין שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן נִמְנֶה מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם בַּדִּיר אֲחֵרִים לְהַשְׁלִים הַמִּנְיָן וּלְעַשֵּׂר. אֲבָל אֵלּוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצְאוּ וְנִמְנוּ מִפֶּתַח הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵינוֹ מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי לְפִיכָךְ מִצְטָרְפִין לְגֹרֶן אַחֵר. יָצְאוּ אַרְבָּעָה מִפֶּתַח זֶה וְאַרְבָּעָה מִפֶּתַח שֵׁנִי וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם שִׁשָּׁה. אִם יָצְאוּ הַשִּׁשָּׁה מֵאֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי הַפְּתָחִים נוֹטֵל מֵהֶן אֶחָד מַעֲשֵׂר וְכֻלָּן פְּטוּרִין. וְאִם יָצְאוּ הַשִּׁשָּׁה בִּשְׁנֵי הַפְּתָחִים הֲרֵי הַשִּׁשָּׁה מִצְטָרְפִין לְגֹרֶן אַחֵר וְהַשְּׁמוֹנָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ תְּחִלָּה מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן פְּטוּרִין שֶׁכָּל אַרְבָּעָה מֵהֶן נִמְנוּ מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי לְהַשְׁלִים עָלָיו עֲשָׂרָה וּלְעַשֵּׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי שִׁשָּׁה הָיוּ שָׁם נִשְׁאָרִים בְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר:

11

If there were nineteen lambs in the corral and nine departed from one opening and nine departed from the other opening, the last one should be taken as the tithes and all the previous are exempt, for both sets of nine were counted in a manner appropriate for tithing.

יא

הָיוּ לוֹ תִּשְׁעָה עָשָׂר טְלָאִים בְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר וְיָצְאוּ תִּשְׁעָה בְּפֶתַח זֶה וְתִשְׁעָה בְּפֶתַח שֵׁנִי נוֹטֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן לְשֵׁם מַעֲשֵׂר וְכֻלָּן פְּטוּרִין. שֶׁאוֹתָן הַתִּשְׁעָה נִמְנוּ מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי:

12

If one was counting and a lamb stuck out its head and the majority of its body from the corral and then returned, it is considered as having been counted in all contexts.

יב

הָיָה מוֹנֶה וְהוֹצִיא הַטָּלֶה רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ מִן הַדִּיר וְחָזַר הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמָנוּי לְכָל דָּבָר:

13

If a person was counting and interrupted the reckoning because his colleague spoke to him or because night fell beginning the Sabbath, he should continue and complete his counting afterwards.

יג

הָיָה מוֹנֶה וְהִפְסִיק הַמִּנְיָן מִפְּנֵי חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁדִּבֵּר עִמּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁחָשְׁכָה לֵיל שַׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹזֵר וּמַשְׁלִים מִנְיָנוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ:

14

When one was counting those that departed one by one and one consecrated the tenth and one of those which had been counted jumped back into the corral, becoming intermingled with those which had not been counted as of yet and which were not tithed, all of those in the corral are exempt. The rationale is that there is a doubt concerning every lamb in the corral: Is the one that was counted and jumped back in or is it another one? And we have already stated, that all those which were counted are exempt.

יד

הָיָה מוֹנֶה הַיּוֹצְאִין אֶחָד אֶחָד וּמְקַדֵּשׁ עֲשִׂירִי וְקָפַץ אֶחָד מִן הַמְּנוּיִין לְתוֹךְ הַדִּיר לְתוֹךְ אֵלּוּ שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִמְנוּ וְלֹא נִתְעַשְּׂרוּ. נִפְטְרוּ הַכּל. שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן סָפֵק אִם הוּא הַמָּנוּי שֶׁקָּפַץ אוֹ אַחֵר. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל הַמְּנוּיִין פְּטוּרִין:

15

If one of the animals selected as the tithes jumped back into the corral and became intermingled with the remaining animals, they should all be left to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish. Then they should be eaten after acquiring the blemish.

טו

קָפַץ אֶחָד מִן הָעֲשִׂירִיִּים לְתוֹךְ הַדִּיר. כֻּלָּן יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן:

Shegagot - Perek 1

Introduction to Hilchot Shegagot

Included in this text are five positive commandments. They include the following:

1) that a person who transgressed inadvertently bring a fixed sin-offering;
2) that a person who does not know whether or not he transgressed [inadvertently] should bring a guilt-offering until he finds out [that he transgressed] and he brings a sin-offering; this is called a provisional guilt-offering;
3) that a transgressor should offer a guilt-offering for certain sins; this is called a definitive guilt-offering;
4) that a transgressor should offer a sacrifice for certain transgressions; if he is rich, he should bring an animal; if poor, a fowl or a tenth of an ephah [as a meal-offering]; this is called an adjustable [guilt-]offering;
5) that the Sanhedrin should offer a sacrifice if they erred and issued an incorrect ruling regarding one of the severe transgressions.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות שגגות - הקדמה יש בכללן חמש מצוות עשה, וזה הוא פרטן: (א) שיקריב היחיד קרבן חטאת קבועה על שגגתו.
(ב) שיקריב אשם מי שלא נודע לו אם חטא אם לא חטא, עד שיִוָדע לו ויביא חטאתו; וזהו הנקרא "אשם תלוי".
(ג) שיקריב החוטא אשם על עבירות ידועות, וזהו הנקרא "אשם ודאי".
(ד) שיקריב החוטא קרבן על עבירות ידועות, אם היה עשיר בהמה, ואם היה עני עוף או עשירית האיפה; וזהו
הנקרא "קרבן עולה ויורד".
(ה) שיקריבו הסנהדרין קרבן אם טעו והורו שלא כהלכה באחת מן החמורות. וביאור מצוות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

Whenever a person inadvertently violates one of the negative commandments that involve a deed and for which one is liable for karet, he is obligated to bring a sin-offering. It is a positive commandment for him to offer a sin-offering for his inadvertent transgression.

א

כָּל הָעוֹבֵר בִּשְׁגָגָה עַל אַחַת מִמִּצְוֹת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ כָּרֵת. הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבַּן חַטָּאת. וּמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁיַּקְרִיב חַטָּאתוֹ עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ:

2

All transgressions for which one is liable for karet for their willful violation, one is liable to bring a sin-offering for their inadvertent violation except for three transgressions: blasphemy, negating circumcision, and negating the Paschal sacrifice. Negating circumcision and the Paschal sacrifice does not require such an offering, because they are positive commandments and a sin-offering is brought only for the inadvertent violation of a negative commandment, as Leviticus 4:27 states that the offering should be brought for violating: "one of the commandments of God that forbids an act to be performed." And blasphemy does not involve a deed. Thus a sacrifice is not necessary, because Numbers 15:29 speaks about this sacrifice being brought by "one who acts inadvertently," excluding a blasphemer who does not perform an action.

Accordingly, one who accepts a false deity as a god, even though he is liable for karet if he acts willfully and is liable for execution by stoning, is exempt from a sacrifice if he accept the deity inadvertently, because he did not perform a deed and Leviticus 4:27 states: "Acting in violation of one."

ב

וְכָל עֲבֵרָה שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל זְדוֹנָהּ כָּרֵת חַיָּבִין עַל שִׁגְגָתָהּ חַטָּאת חוּץ מִשָּׁלֹשׁ עֲבֵרוֹת. מְגַדֵּף. וּמְבַטֵּל מִילָה. וְקָרְבַּן פֶּסַח. הַפֶּסַח וְהַמִּילָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה וְחַטָּאת אֵין מְבִיאִין אֶלָּא עַל שִׁגְגַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד יג) "אַחַת מִכָּל מִצְוֹת ה' אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה". וְהַמְגַדֵּף מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה וְנֶאֱמַר (במדבר טו כט) "לָעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה" יָצָא מְגַדֵּף שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה. לְפִיכָךְ הַמְקַבֵּל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה בֵּאלוֹהַּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב כָּרֵת אִם הָיָה מֵזִיד נִסְקָל וְאִם קִבֵּל בִּשְׁגָגָה פָּטוּר מִן הַקָּרְבָּן לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה מַעֲשֶׂה וְנֶאֱמַר (ויקרא ד כז) "בַּעֲשֹׂתָהּ אַחַת":

3

With regard to all the transgressions punishable by karet in the Torah except for the three which were mentioned, if a private individual violated one of these prohibitions inadvertently, he must bring a fixed sin-offering with the exception of an impure person who partook of sacrificial meat and an impure person who entered the Temple. These two do not bring a fixed sin-offering, but rather an adjustable guilt-offering, as will be explained.

ג

כָּל כְּרֵתוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה חוּץ מִשָּׁלֹשׁ כְּרֵתוֹת שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ אִם עָבַר הַיָּחִיד עַל אַחַת מֵהֶן בִּשְׁגָגָה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה חוּץ מִטָּמֵא שֶׁאָכַל קֹדֶשׁ וְטָמֵא שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם אֵין מְבִיאִין חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה אֶלָּא קָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

4

Only an animal is brought as a fixed sin-offering. In contrast, an adjustable guilt-offering is a sacrifice whose object is not fixed. If one is rich, he must bring an animal as a sin-offering. If he is poor, he brings a fowl or a tenth of an ephah as a meal-offering, as will be explained. Thus all the sins for which a private person brings a fixed sin-offering are 43. They include:

a) one who is intimate with his mother,

b) one who is intimate with his wife's mother,

c) one who is intimate with his maternal grandmother,

d) one who is intimate with his paternal grandmother,

e) one who is intimate with his daughter,

f) one who is intimate with his daughter's daughter,

g) one who is intimate with his son's daughter,

h) one who is intimate with his wife's daughter,

i) one who is intimate with the daughter of his wife's daughter,

j) one who is intimate with the daughter of his wife's son,

k) one who is intimate with his sister,

l) one who is intimate with his sister who is the daughter of his father's wife,

m) one who is intimate with his father's sister,

n) m) one who is intimate with his mother's sister,

o) one who is intimate with his wife's sister,

p) one who is intimate with his father's wife,

q) one who is intimate with the wife of his father's brother,

r) one who is intimate with his son's wife,

s) one who is intimate with his brother's wife,

t) one who is intimate with another man's wife,

u) one who is intimate with a woman in the niddah state,

v) one who is intimate with a male,

w) one who is intimate with his father,

x) one who is intimate with his father's brother,

y) one who is intimate with an animal,

z) a woman who has an animal engage in relations with her. Thus all the prohibitions involving forbidden relations punishable by karet are 26.

Among other sins, there are seventeen. They are: a) one who serves a false deity by performing a deed,

b) one who gives his descendants to Molech,

c) one who divines through an ov,

d) one who performs a deed while divining with a yidoni,

e) one who desecrates the Sabbath,

f) one who performs forbidden labor on Yom Kippur,

g) one who eats or drinks on Yom Kippur,

h) one who eats chametz on Pesach,

i) one who partakes of fat,

j) one who partakes of blood,

k) one who partakes of sacrificial meat after the time for eating it passes,

l) one who partakes of sacrificial meat that was disqualified, because of an undesirable intent concerning time,

m) one who slaughters a sacrificial animal outside the Temple Courtyard,

n) one who offers a sacrifice outside the Temple Courtyard,

o) one who prepares anointing oil like that used in the Temple,

p) one who prepares incense like that used in the Temple,and

q) one who anoints himself with the anointing oil of the Temple. These are the 43 transgressions for which one brings a fixed sin-offering for their inadvertent violation.

What is the sacrifice that a person who inadvertently violates one of these transgressions should bring? If he inadvertently violated the prohibition against worshiping a false deity, he must bring a female goat in the first year of its life. This is the sacrifice mentioned in the portion Shelach Lecha. This applies whether the transgressor is an ordinary person, a king, a High Priest, or the priest anointed to lead the people in war. Every one is equal with regard to the inadvertent transgression of the worship of false divinities.

If, however, one inadvertently violated one of the other 42 transgressions mentioned above, different rules apply. If the transgressor was an ordinary person, he should bring a she-goat or a ewe. This is the sin offering of one of the common people mentioned in the portion Vayikra. If the king inadvertently violated one of these trangressions, he should bring a male goat as a sin-offering. If the transgressor is an anointed priest, he should bring a bull, the offspring of an ox as a sin-offering. It is burnt, as described there.

ד

חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה הִיא הַבָּאָה מִן הַבְּהֵמָה בִּלְבַד וְקָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד הוּא קָרְבָּן שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ אֶלָּא אִם הָיָה עָשִׁיר מֵבִיא חַטַּאת בְּהֵמָה וְאִם הָיָה עָנִי מֵבִיא עוֹף אוֹ עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁכָּל הָעֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁהַיָּחִיד מֵבִיא עַל שִׁגְגָתָן חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה אַרְבָּעִים וְשָׁלֹשׁ. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: א) הַבָּא עַל אִמּוֹ. ב) הַבָּא עַל אֵם אִשְׁתּוֹ. ג) הַבָּא עַל אֵם אִמָּהּ. ד) הַבָּא עַל אֵם אָבִיהָ. ה) הַבָּא עַל בִּתּוֹ. ו) הַבָּא עַל בַּת בִּתּוֹ. ז) הַבָּא עַל בַּת בְּנוֹ. ח) הַבָּא עַל בַּת אִשְׁתּוֹ. ט) הַבָּא עַל בַּת בִּתָּהּ. י) הַבָּא עַל בַּת בְּנָהּ. יא) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ. יב) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ שֶׁהִיא בַּת אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו. יג) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו. יד) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ. טו) הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ. טז) הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו. יז) הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אֲחִי אָבִיו. יח) הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת בְּנוֹ. יט) הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו. כ) הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ. כא) הַבָּא עַל הַנִּדָּה. כב) הַשּׁוֹכֵב עִם זָכָר. כג) הַבָּא עַל אָבִיו. כד) הַבָּא עַל אֲחִי אָבִיו. כה) הַשּׁוֹכֵב עִם בְּהֵמָה. כו) הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁמְּבִיאָהּ עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה. נִמְצְאוּ כָּל כְּרֵתוֹת שֶׁבַּעֲרָיוֹת עֶשְׂרִים וְשָׁלֹשׁ. וּבִשְׁאָר הָעֲבֵרוֹת שְׁבַע עֶשְׂרֵה. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: א) הָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה בְּמַעֲשֶׂה. ב) הַנּוֹתֵן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמּלֶךְ. ג) בַּעַל אוֹב. ד) בַּעַל יִדְּעוֹנִי בְּמַעֲשֶׂה. ה) הַמְחַלֵּל אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. ו) הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. ז) הָאוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. ח) הָאוֹכֵל נוֹתָר. ט) הָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח. י) הָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב. יא) הָאוֹכֵל דָּם. יב) הָאוֹכֵל פִּגּוּל. יג) הַשּׁוֹחֵט קָדָשִׁים חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה. יד) הַמַּעֲלֶה קָרְבָּן חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה. טו) הַמְפַטֵּם אֶת שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. טז) הַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת. יז) הַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעִים וְשָׁלֹשׁ עֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁמְּבִיאִין עַל שִׁגְגָתָן חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה. וּמַה הוּא הַקָּרְבָּן שֶׁמֵּבִיא הַשּׁוֹגֵג בְּאַחַת מֵאֵלּוּ. אִם שָׁגַג בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה מֵבִיא עֵז בַּת שְׁנָתָהּ לְחַטָּאת וְהִיא הָאֲמוּרָה בְּפָרָשַׁת שְׁלַח לְךָ בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה הַחוֹטֵא הֶדְיוֹט אוֹ מֶלֶךְ אוֹ כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אוֹ מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה הַכּל שָׁוִין בְּשִׁגְגַת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. אֲבָל אִם שָׁגַג בְּאַחַת מִשְּׁאָר אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁתַּיִם אִם הָיָה הֶדְיוֹט מֵבִיא שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים אוֹ נְקֵבָה מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וְזוֹ הִיא חַטָּאת שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ הָאֲמוּרָה בְּפָרָשַׁת וַיִּקְרָא. וְאִם הַמֶּלֶךְ הוּא שֶׁשָּׁגַג בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן מֵבִיא שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת. וְאִם כֹּהֵן מָשׁוּחַ הוּא מֵבִיא פַּר בֶּן בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהוּא נִשְׂרָף כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְפָּרֵשׁ שָׁם:

5

The same laws apply whether one person inadvertently violates one of these transgressions or many do, as implied by Numbers 15:29: "There will be one law for those who transgress inadvertently."

What is implied? If the people of a city inadvertently transgressed and thought the day was an ordinary day, but it was Yom Kippur. As a result, they all ate and performed work, each one of the transgressors should bring two sin-offerings, ewes or she-goats. Similarly, if they all inadvertently transgressed and offered incense to a false deity, each one of the transgressors must bring a goat in its first year of life as a sin-offering.

ה

אֶחָד יָחִיד שֶׁשָּׁגַג בְּאַחַת מֵאֵלּוּ אוֹ מְרֻבִּין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו כט) "תּוֹרָה אַחַת תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם לָעשֶֹׁה בִּשְׁגָגָה". כֵּיצַד. אַנְשֵׁי מְדִינָה שֶׁשָּׁגְגוּ וְדִמּוּ שֶׁהַיּוֹם חֹל וַהֲרֵי הוּא יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְכֻלָּן אָכְלוּ וְעָשׂוּ מְלָאכָה. כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן מֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי חַטָּאוֹת כְּבָשׂוֹת אוֹ שְׂעִירוֹת. וְכֵן אִם שָׁגְגוּ כֻּלָּן וְהִקְטִירוּ לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִן הָעוֹבְדִים מֵבִיא עֵז בַּת שְׁנָתָהּ לְחַטָּאת:

Shegagot - Perek 2

1

A person is not liable for a sin-offering for an inadvertent transgression unless he acts inadvertently from the beginning to the end. If, however, he acted inadvertently at the beginning, but acted willfully at the end or began acting willfully, but acted inadvertently at the end, he is exempt from the obligation to bring a sin-offering.

What is implied? A person transferred an article from one domain to another on the Sabbath. If one lifted up the article willfully, but placed it down inadvertently or lifted it up inadvertently, but placed it down willfully, he is exempt. To be liable for a sin-offering, he must lift it up inadvertently and place it down inadvertently. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

א

אֵין אָדָם חַיָּב חַטָּאת עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שׁוֹגֵג מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף אֲבָל אִם שָׁגַג בַּתְּחִלָּה וְהֵזִיד בַּסּוֹף אוֹ הֵזִיד בַּתְּחִלָּה וְשָׁגַג בַּסּוֹף פָּטוּר מִקָּרְבַּן חַטָּאת. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוֹצִיא חֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת בְּשַׁבָּת עָקַר בְּזָדוֹן וְהִנִּיחַ בִּשְׁגָגָה אוֹ שֶׁעָקַר בִּשְׁגָגָה וְהִנִּיחַ בְּזָדוֹן פָּטוּר עַד שֶׁיַּעֲקֹר בִּשְׁגָגָה וְיַנִּיחַ בִּשְׁגָגָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

2

If a person violated a transgression knowing that involved violation of a negative commandment, but he did not know that he is liable for karet for its violation, he is considered to have transgressed inadvertently and he must bring a sin-offering. If, however, he did know that it was punishable by karet, but was unaware of the obligation for a sacrifice, i.e., he did not know whether or not he was liable for a sacrifice for the transgression, he is considered to have acted willfully. For the lack of knowledge concerning a sacrifice is not considered as a lack of knowledge concerning these transgressions for which one is liable for karet.

ב

עָבַר עֲבֵרָה וְיוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהִיא בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ כָּרֵת הֲרֵי זוֹ שְׁגָגָה וּמֵבִיא חַטָּאת. אֲבָל אִם יָדַע שֶׁהִיא בְּכָרֵת וְשָׁגַג בְּקָרְבָּן וְלֹא יָדַע אִם חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ קָרְבָּן אִם לָאו הֲרֵי זֶה מֵזִיד. שֶׁשִּׁגְגַת קָרְבָּן אֵינָהּ שְׁגָגָה בַּעֲבֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁחַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כָּרֵת:

3

When a person does not know the nature of the transgression that he violated, even though he definitely knows that he violated a negative commandment punishable by karet, he is exempt from bringing a sin-offering, as implied by Leviticus 4:23: "that he transgressed with regard to it," implying that he must know the transgression that he violated.

What is implied? There was a piece of forbidden fat and meat from a sacrifice left beyond its permitted time before him and he partook of one of them, but did not know which he ate; his wife who was in the niddah state and his sister were at home, he inadvertently was intimate with one of them, but did not know with whom he had relations; the Sabbath and Yom Kippur passed, he performed a forbidden labor on one of them, but did not know on which, he is exempt from the obligation to bring a sin-offering.

ג

מִי שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדַע לוֹ עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל חֵטְא שֶׁחָטָא. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּדַע בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁעָבַר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כָּרֵת. הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִקָּרְבַּן חַטָּאת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד כג) "אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּהּ" עַד שֶׁיֵּדַע הַחֵטְא שֶׁחָטָא בּוֹ. כֵּיצַד. חֵלֶב וְנוֹתָר לְפָנָיו וְאָכַל אֶת אֶחָד מֵהֶם וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זֶה אָכַל. אִשְׁתּוֹ נִדָּה וַאֲחוֹתוֹ בַּבַּיִת וְשָׁגַג וּבָא עַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ מֵהֶן בָּעַל. שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לְפָנָיו וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּאֵי זֶה מֵהֶן עָשָׂה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִקָּרְבַּן חַטָּאת:

4

If a person transgressed, became aware of the transgression, and then forgot which transgression he violated, he should bring a sin-offering for whichever transgression he violated. This offering should be eaten, like the other sin-offerings that are eaten.

ד

חָטָא וְנוֹדַע לוֹ חַטָּאתוֹ וְחָזַר וּשְׁכָחוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת לְשֵׁם מַה שֶּׁהוּא וְתֵאָכֵל כִּשְׁאָר חַטָּאוֹת הַנֶּאֱכָלוֹת:

5

If one inadvertently committed one transgression, but there are two persons involved and he is unaware of the one with whom he committed the transgression, he is liable.

What is implied? There were two women in the niddah state. Inadvertently, he was intimate with one of them, but he did not know with whom. He had two sisters. Inadvertently, he was intimate with one of them, but he did not know with whom. In these instances, he is liable for a sin-offering. To what can this be compared? To two lamps that are burning and one extinguished one of them on the Sabbath without knowing which one he extinguished or two pots of forbidden fat from which he ate one and yet, he did not know the identity of the one from which he ate.In these instances, he is liable. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ה

שָׁגַג בְּשֵׁם אֶחָד וְהֵם שְׁנֵי גּוּפִין חַיָּב. כֵּיצַד. שְׁתֵּי נִדּוֹת וְשָׁגַג בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא. שְׁתֵּי אֲחָיוֹת וְשָׁגַג בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא חַיָּב חַטָּאת שֶׁהֲרֵי יָדַע עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל חֵטְא. לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לִשְׁתֵּי נֵרוֹת דּוֹלְקוֹת שֶׁכָּבָה אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ נֵר הִיא. אוֹ לִשְׁנֵי תַּמְחוּיִין שֶׁל חֵלֶב שֶׁאָכַל מֵאֶחָד מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ מֵאֵי זֶה תַּמְחוּי מֵהֶן אָכַל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

6

In all situations when a person is obligated to bring a fixed sin-offering for his inadvertent transgression and he transgressed inadvertently and he becomes aware of the transgression after violating it, he is liable for a sin-offering, even though initially, he was not aware that this act is a a transgression.

What is implied? A child was captured by gentiles and raised by them without knowing who are the Jewish people or what their faith is. He performed labor on the Sabbath, ate forbidden fat, blood, and the like. When he discovers that he is Jewish and commanded to eschew all of the above, he is obligated to bring a sin-offering for every particular sin. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ו

כָּל הַמְחֻיָּב חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ וְעָשָׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְנוֹדַע לוֹ אַחַר שֶׁחָטָא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה לוֹ יְדִיעָה בַּתְּחִלָּה שֶׁזֶּה חֵטְא הוּא הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב חַטָּאת. כֵּיצַד. תִּינוֹק שֶׁנִּשְׁבָּה לְבֵין הָעַכּוּ''ם וְגָדַל וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מַה הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא דָּתָם וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת וְאָכַל חֵלֶב וְדָם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. כְּשֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ שֶׁהוּא יִשְׂרָאֵל ומְצֻוֶּה עַל כָּל אֵלּוּ חַיָּב לְהָבִיא חַטָּאת עַל כָּל עֲבֵרָה וַעֲבֵרָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

7

When a person transgresses unintentionally by engaging in forbidden sexual relations or partaking of forbidden foods, he is liable for a sin-offering. If he does so with regard to the Sabbath, he is exempt from the obligation of a sin-offering.

What is implied? If he was acting casually with a woman and engaged in relations with her without intending to engage in relations and she is forbidden to him as an ervah, he is liable for a sin-offering. This ruling also applies if he thought that what was in his mouth was spittle and he swallowed it without the intent of eating at all and then he discovered that it was forbidden fat. If, by contrast, his intent was to lift up produce that was already cut and instead, he cut off a plant that was growing without intending to cut it off, he is exempt from a sin-offering, for the Torah forbade only the performance of purposeful labor, as explained in the appropriate place.

ז

הַשּׁוֹגֵג בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה בַּעֲרָיוֹת אוֹ בְּמַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת חַיָּב חַטָּאת. בְּשַׁבָּת פָּטוּר מֵחַטָּאת. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה מִתְעַסֵּק עִם אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה לִבְעִילָה וַהֲרֵי הִיא עֶרְוָה עָלָיו. דִּמָּה שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁבְּפִיו רֹק הוּא וּבְלָעוֹ בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה לְשֵׁם אֲכִילָה בָּעוֹלָם וַהֲרֵי הוּא חֵלֶב הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב חַטָּאת. נִתְכַּוִּן לְהַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת הַתָּלוּשׁ וְחָתַךְ אֶת הַמְחֻבָּר בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה לַחֲתִיכָתוֹ פָּטוּר. מְלֶאכֶת מַחֲשֶׁבֶת אָסְרָה תּוֹרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

8

Whenever one performs one of the mitzvot and while he was performing it, a transgression punishable by karet was violated inadvertently, he is not liable for a sin-offering, because the person was acting with license.

What is implied? A man engaged in intimacy with his yevamah. She was in the niddah state, but he was unaware. He is exempt from a sin-offering, for he acted with license. If, by contrast, one was intimate with his wife when she was in the niddah state, he is liable, because he did not ask her before engaging in relations. With regard to his yevamah, however, he is not familiar with her, so that he might ask her.

Similarly, if a person had two infants to circumcise, one, on the Sabbath, and one on Friday or on Sunday, should he have forgotten and circumcised them both on the Sabbath, he is exempt from bringing a sin-offering. For he was licensed to circumcise one of them on the Sabbath, the Sabbath laws are suspended in his regard, and he performed a mitzvah. Even though two bodies are involved, since it is a pressing time, he is not precise. If, however, neither of the children was scheduled to be circumcised on the Sabbath and on the Sabbath, he circumcised a person who was not fit to be circumcised on the Sabbath, he is liable for a sin-offering.

ח

כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה מִן הַמִּצְוֹת וּבִכְלַל עֲשִׂיָּתָהּ נַעֲשֵׂית עֲבֵרָה שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ כָּרֵת בִּשְׁגָגָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מֵחַטָּאת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעָשָׂה בִּרְשׁוּת. כֵּיצַד. הַבָּא עַל יְבִמְתּוֹ וַהֲרֵי הִיא נִדָּה וְהוּא לֹא יָדַע. הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מֵחַטָּאת שֶׁהֲרֵי עֲשָׂאָהּ בִּרְשׁוּת. אֲבָל אִם בָּא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ וַהֲרֵי הִיא נִדָּה חַיָּב חַטָּאת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא שְׁאָלָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִבְעל. אֲבָל יְבִמְתּוֹ אֵינוֹ רָגִיל בָּהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁאַל לָהּ. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי תִּינוֹקוֹת אֶחָד לָמוּל בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֶחָד לָמוּל בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אוֹ בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְשָׁכַח וּמָל שְׁנֵיהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת. פָּטוּר מֵחַטָּאת שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ רְשׁוּת לָמוּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת וְשַׁבָּת דְּחוּיָה הִיא אֶצְלוֹ וּמִצְוָה עָשָׂה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם שְׁנֵי גּוּפִין הוֹאִיל וּזְמַנּוֹ בְּחל אֵינוֹ מְדַקְדֵּק. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן רָאוּי לָמוּל בְּשַׁבָּת וְשָׁכַח וּמָל בְּשַׁבָּת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָמוּל בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב חַטָּאת:

9

The following rules apply when a proficient expert comes to circumcise a child before sunset on the Sabbath and he is told: "There is not enough time in the day left to perform the circumcision. If you begin circumcising, you will not be able to complete the act before the Sabbath departs. Thus you will have made a wound on the Sabbath without performing a mitzvah." If he says: "I am familiar with the task and deft and I will circumcise him speedily," should he not complete the circumcision until after the conclusion of the Sabbath, he is liable for a sin-offering, for they warned him.

ט

אֻמָּן שֶׁבָּא לָמוּל לִפְנוֹת הַיּוֹם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ לֹא נִשְׁאַר פְּנַאי בַּיּוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁתָּמוּל וְאִם תַּתְחִיל לָמוּל לֹא תַּשְׁלִים עַד יְצִיאַת הַשַּׁבָּת וְנִמְצֵאתָ חוֹבֵל בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא עוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה. וְאָמַר רָגִיל אֲנִי וְזָרִיז וּבִמְהֵרָה אָמוּל. אִם לֹא הִשְׁלִים אֶלָּא עַד יְצִיאַת הַשַּׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב חַטָּאת שֶׁהֲרֵי הִתְרוּ בּוֹ:

10

When a person takes a lulav out to the public domain on the first day of Sukkot which falls on the Sabbath in order to fulfill his obligation or carries it four cubits in the public domain inadvertently, he is exempt from a sin-offering, because he acted with license.

Similarly, if one slaughters an animal for a Paschal sacrifice on the fourteenth of Nisan which fell on the Sabbath and afterwards, he discovered that the owners removed their connection from it, they died or became impure before it was slaughtered, or it became tereifah in a hidden place, e.g., its intestines or lungs were perforated, he is exempt, because he slaughtered it with license. If, however, it was discovered to be blemished or there was a readily apparent factor that caused it to be deemed tereifah, he is liable for a sin-offering, since he should have checked it before slaughtering. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

י

הַמּוֹצִיא אֶת הַלּוּלָב בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי לְצֵאת בּוֹ וְהֶעֱבִירוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּשׁוֹגֵג פָּטוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּרְשׁוּת הוֹצִיא. וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַפֶּסַח בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת וְנוֹדַע לוֹ אַחַר כֵּן שֶׁמָּשְׁכוּ הַבְּעָלִים אֶת יְדֵיהֶם אוֹ שֶׁמֵּתוּ אוֹ נִטְמְאוּ קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטָה. אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצָא טְרֵפָה בַּסֵּתֶר כְּגוֹן נְקוּב מֵעַיִם אוֹ רֵאָה. הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשָּׁחַט בִּרְשׁוּת. אֲבָל נִמְצָא בַּעַל מוּם אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה טְרֵפָה גְּלוּיָה הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב חַטָּאת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לִבְדֹּק וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁחֹט. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11

If one slaughtered a Paschal sacrifice on the Sabbath for the sake of another sacrifice in error, he is exempt, because the sacrifice is acceptable. For supplanting the designation of a sacrifice in error is not considered of consequence, as explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim.

יא

שָׁחַט אֶת הַפֶּסַח בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמוֹ בְּטָעוּת פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַזֶּבַח כָּשֵׁר שֶׁעֲקִירַת שְׁמוֹ בְּטָעוּת אֵינוֹ עֲקִירָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין:

12

The following rules apply if, on the Sabbath, one slaughtered animals designated for other sacrifices for the sake of a Paschal sacrifice in error. If they are fit to serve as a Paschal sacrifice, he is free from the obligation of bringing a sin-offering, because he slaughtered with license. If they are not fit to serve as a Paschal sacrifice, e.g., the animal was female or in its second year of life, he is liable for a sin-offering, because they are not fitting for this sacrifice.

Similarly, one is liable for a sin-offering if he slaughtered an animal as a Paschal sacrifice on the Sabbath for the sake of individuals who cannot partake of it, for those who were not enumerated on it, for the uncircumcised, or for the ritually impure. If, however, he slaughtered it on the Sabbath for the sake of individuals who can partake of it and for those who cannot partake of it, for those enumerated on it and for those who were not enumerated on it, for the circumcised and for the uncircumcised, or for the pure and for the impure, he is exempt from bringing a sin-offering, because the Paschal sacrifice is acceptable. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

יב

שָׁחַט זְבָחִים אֲחֵרִים לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח בְּטָעוּת. אִם רְאוּיִין הֵם לְקָרְבַּן פֶּסַח פָּטוּר מִקָּרְבַּן חַטָּאת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשָּׁחַט בִּרְשׁוּת. אִם אֵינָן רְאוּיִין כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה נְקֵבָה אוֹ בֶּן שְׁתַּיִם חַיָּב חַטָּאת שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְקָרְבַּן פֶּסַח. וְכֵן אִם שָׁגַג וּשְׁחָטוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁלֹּא לְאוֹכְלָיו אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִמְנוּיָיו אוֹ לַעֲרֵלִים אוֹ לִטְמֵאִים חַיָּב חַטָּאת. שְׁחָטוֹ לְאוֹכְלָיו וְשֶׁלֹּא לְאוֹכְלָיו לִמְנוּיָיו וְשֶׁלֹּא לִמְנוּיָיו לְמוּלִים וְלַעֲרֵלִים לִטְמֵאִים וְלִטְהוֹרִים פָּטוּר. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַפֶּסַח כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

13

When a person slaughters an animal designated for a communal sacrifice on the Sabbath for an intent other than that for which it was designated, he is obligated to bring a sin-offering. Nevertheless, the fats and the organs from the sacrificial animal should be offered on the altar's pyre on Saturday evening. Similarly, if on the Sabbath one slaughtered other animals besides those required as the day's obligations, he is liable for a sin-offering for the additional animal.

יג

הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּשַׁבָּת קָרְבַּן צִבּוּר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב חַטָּאת וְיַקְטִיר אֵימוּרִים לָעֶרֶב. וְכֵן אִם שָׁחַט יֶתֶר עַל חוֹבַת הַיּוֹם חַיָּב חַטָּאת עַל הַתּוֹסֶפֶת:

14

A person who slaughters animals for individual sacrifices whose offering does not supersede the Sabbath prohibitions on the Sabbath inadvertently is liable for a sin-offering. One is, however, permitted to benefit from the meat of those sacrifices and the blood should not be cast on the altar. If he transgressed and cast the blood on the altar for the intent of those sacrifices whether without knowing it is a transgression or knowingly, the owner is considered to have fulfilled his obligation, the organs and fats may be offered on the altar's pyre, and the meat should be eaten. The one who slaughtered the animal should bring a sin-offering for his inadvertent violation.

יד

שָׁחַט קָרְבְּנוֹת יָחִיד שֶׁאֵין דּוֹחִים אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁגָגָה חַיָּב חַטָּאת וְהַבָּשָׂר מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה. וְאֵין זוֹרְקִין אֶת הַדָּם. וְאִם עָבַר וְזָרַק דָּמָם לִשְׁמָן בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד עָלוּ לַבְּעָלִים לְשֵׁם חוֹבָה. וְיַקְטִיר אֵימוּרִין לָעֶרֶב וְהַבָּשָׂר יֵאָכֵל וְיָבִיא הַשּׁוֹחֵט חַטָּאת עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ:

15

The following laws apply when, on the Sabbath, there were two animals designated for communal offerings before a priest, one, lean and one, stocky, and the sacrificial obligation of the day required - as either a sin-offeringor a burnt-offering - the offering of only one of them and he inadvertently slaughtered them both. If he slaughtered the lean one first and afterwards, slaughtered the stocky one, he is exempt from the obligation to bring a sin-offering. Indeed, he is told: "Bring the stocky animal and slaughter it as an initial preference." If, however, he slaughtered the stocky animal initially and then the lean one, he is liable for a sin-offering for the additional slaughter.

Nevertheless, in the latter instance, there is room for leniency if the stocky animal was slaughtered first and discovered to be tereifah because of a disqualifying factor in its intestines. Even though he did not know that the stocky one was tereifah when he slaughtered the lean one and he did not have that intent, since the last one was slaughtered as required by law, he is exempt from a sin-offering for its slaughter.

A similar law also applies if one spreads out a net to catch fish at sea on the Sabbath unknowingly and lifts up a child with the fish, he is exempt from bringing a sin-offering. Even though his intent was only to catch fish, since he acted unknowingly and lifted up a child with the fish, he is exempt whether he heard that a child had fallen into the sea or not, he is exempt. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

טו

הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי בְּהֵמוֹת שֶׁל צִבּוּר אַחַת כְּחוּשָׁה וְאַחַת שְׁמֵנָה וְהָיְתָה חוֹבַת הַיּוֹם בְּאַחַת בֵּין חַטָּאת בֵּין עוֹלָה וְשָׁגַג וְשָׁחַט הַשְּׁתַּיִם. אִם שָׁחַט כְּחוּשָׁה בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁחַט הַשְּׁמֵנָה פָּטוּר מִקָּרְבַּן חַטָּאת וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לוֹ הָבֵא שְׁמֵנָה וּשְׁחֹט לְכַתְּחִלָּה. אֲבָל אִם שָׁחַט הַשְּׁמֵנָה תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַכְּחוּשָׁה חַיָּב חַטָּאת עַל הַתּוֹסֶפֶת. נִמְצֵאת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה הַשְּׁמֵנָה טְרֵפָה בִּבְנֵי מֵעַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָדַע שֶׁהִיא טְרֵפָה בְּעֵת שֶׁשָּׁחַט הַכְּחוּשָׁה וְלֹא לָזֶה נִתְכַּוֵּן הוֹאִיל וְנִשְׁחֲטָה הָאַחֲרוֹנָה כְּמִצְוָתָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מֵחַטָּאת. וְכֵן הַפּוֹרֵס מְצוּדָה לְהַעֲלוֹת דָּגִים מִן הַיָּם בִּשְׁגָגָה וְהֶעֱלָה תִּינוֹק עִם הַדָּגִים בֵּין שֶׁשָּׁמַע שֶׁטָּבַע תִּינוֹק בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע הוֹאִיל וְהֶעֱלָה תִּינוֹק הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מֵחַטָּאת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה כַּוָּנָתוֹ אֶלָּא לָצוּד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹגֵג. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

16

When, on the night of Pesach, a person had roasted meat from the Paschal sacrifice and meat that was left over from other sacrifices before him and intended to partake of the roasted meat which is a mitzvah and inadvertently partook of the leftover meat, he is liable for a sin-offering, since he did not perform a mitzvah when eating. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

טז

מִי שֶׁהָיָה לְפָנָיו בְּלֵילֵי הַפֶּסַח צָלִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְנוֹתָר מִן הַקָּדָשִׁים וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לֶאֱכל צָלִי שֶׁהוּא מִצְוָה וְשָׁגַג וְאָכַל הַנּוֹתָר הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב חַטָּאת שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עָשָׂה מִצְוָה בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah