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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Bechorot - Perek 5, Bechorot - Perek 6, Bechorot - Perek 7

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Bechorot - Perek 5

1

The following laws apply when a sheep that had not given birth before gives birth to two males. Even if both of their heads emerged at the same time, it is impossible that one did not emerge before the other. Since it is not known which emerged first, the priest should take the weaker one and the second one is a firstborn of doubtful status.

If one of them died, the priest does not receive anything, for the living offspring is of doubtful status and we follow the principle: "When one desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him." Similarly, if the mother gave birth to a male and a female, the male is of doubtful status, for perhaps the female emerged first. Therefore the priest does not receive anything, for when one desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him.

א

רָחֵל שֶׁלֹּא בִּכְּרָה וְיָלְדָה שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים. אֲפִלּוּ יָצְאוּ שְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁיהֶן כְּאֶחָד אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא קָדַם אֶחָד. הוֹאִיל וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זֶה מֵהֶם יָצָא רִאשׁוֹן הַכֹּהֵן נוֹטֵל אֶת הַכָּחוּשׁ וְהַשֵּׁנִי סְפֵק בְּכוֹר. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֵין לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם שֶׁזֶּה הַחַי סָפֵק הוּא וְהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. וְכֵן אִם יָלְדָה זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה הֲרֵי הַזָּכָר סָפֵק שֶׁמָּא הַנְּקֵבָה יָצָאת תְּחִלָּה לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם שֶׁהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה:

2

When there are two sheep that have not given birth previously and they give birth to two males, they are both given to the priest. If they gave birth to a male and a female and they become intermingled, the male is given to the priest. If they gave birth to two males and a female, the priest may take the weaker one. If one of them died, the priest does not receive anything. The rationale is that the male that is alive is a firstborn of doubtful status and when one desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him.

If the two sheep gave birth to two females and a male or two males and two females the males are firstborn of doubtful status. For it is possible to say that the female was born first and then the male. Hence the priest does not receive anything, because when one desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him.

If one of the sheep had given birth beforehand and one had not, should they give birth to two males and they become intermingled, they are both firstborn of doubtful status and the priest may take the weaker one. If one dies, the priest does not receive anything, for the living offspring is of doubtful status. Similarly, if the two sheep give birth to a male and a female and it is not known which gave birth to which, the priest does not receive anything, for the male is of doubtful status.

ב

שְׁתֵּי רְחֵלוֹת שֶׁלֹּא בִּכְּרוּ וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים. שְׁנֵיהֶן לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה הַזָּכָר לַכֹּהֵן. שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבָה הַכֹּהֵן נוֹטֵל אֶת הַכָּחוּשׁ וְהַשֵּׁנִי סְפֵק בְּכוֹר. וְאִם מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֵין לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. שֶׁזֶּה הַזָּכָר הַחַי סְפֵק בְּכוֹר הוּא וְהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. יָלְדוּ שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת וְזָכָר אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּשְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת הֲרֵי הַזְּכָרִים סְפֵק בְּכוֹר. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא הַנְּקֵבָה נוֹלְדָה תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַזָּכָר. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם שֶׁהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. אַחַת בִּכְּרָה וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא בִּכְּרָה וְיָלְדוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים. אֶחָד לוֹ וְאֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן סְפֵק בְּכוֹר וְהַכֹּהֵן נוֹטֵל אֶת הַכָּחוּשׁ. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם שֶׁזֶּה הַחַי סָפֵק הוּא. וְכֵן אִם יָלְדוּ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם שֶׁזֶּה הַזָּכָר סְפֵק בְּכוֹר הוּא:

3

Whenever a firstborn is of doubtful status, the law is that it should be allowed to pasture until it becomes blemished and then it may be eaten by its owner. If a priest takes possession of it, it is not expropriated from him. He must partake of it only after it becomes blemished. He may not offer it as a sacrifice, for only an offspring that is definitely a firstborn is offered as a sacrifice, lest one slaughter an ordinary animal in the Temple Courtyard.

ג

כָּל בְּכוֹר שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק דִּינוֹ שֶׁיִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיֵאָכֵל לִבְעָלָיו. וְאִם תְּפָשׂוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֵין מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּדוֹ וְאוֹכֵל אוֹתוֹ בְּמוּמוֹ. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ מַקְרִיבוֹ שֶׁאֵין מַקְרִיב לְעוֹלָם אֶלָּא בְּכוֹר וַדַּאי שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁחֹט חֻלִּין בָּעֲזָרָה:

4

When a person had both animals that had given birth before and animals that had not given birth before in his herd and they both gave birth while no one was present. If the owner entered and found those who had given birth previously giving suck to females and those who had not given birth previously giving suck to males, we do not suspect that the offspring of one went to another to suck and the offspring of the other went to the first. Instead, we follow the presumption that every animal is giving suck to its own offspring.

ד

מִי שֶׁהָיָה בְּעֶדְרוֹ מְבַכְּרוֹת וְשֶׁאֵינָן מְבַכְּרוֹת וְיָלְדוּ וְאֵין שָׁם אָדָם וְנִכְנַס וּמָצָא אֶת הַמְבַכְּרוֹת מֵינִיקוֹת נְקֵבוֹת וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינָן מְבַכְּרוֹת מֵינִיקוֹת זְכָרִים. אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא בְּנָהּ שֶׁל זוֹ בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל זוֹ וּבְנָהּ שֶׁל זוֹ בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל זוֹ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר בְּחֶזְקָתוֹ שֶׁכָּל אַחַת מֵינִיקָה בְּנָהּ:

5

When two individuals entrusted male animals - one a firstborn and one an ordinary animal - with a shepherd and one of the animals died, the shepherd may leave the second animal between them and depart. This animal is considered a firstborn of doubtful status and should be divided between the two owners, because neither can identify his animal.

ה

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהִפְקִידוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים אֵצֶל הָרוֹעֶה הָאֶחָד בְּכוֹר וְהַשֵּׁנִי פָּשׁוּט וּמֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן. מַנִּיחַ הָרוֹעֶה הַשֵּׁנִי בֵּינֵיהֶן וּמִסְתַּלֵּק וַהֲרֵי הוּא סְפֵק בְּכוֹר וּשְׁנֵיהֶן חוֹלְקִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן מַכִּיר אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ:

6

When a person entrusts a firstborn animal to another person who placed it together with his own ordinary animal and then one of them died, but they do not know which one, we follow the principle: When one desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him. The animal is considered a firstborn of doubtful status.

Even if a priest who is a shepherd leaves his firstborn animal in a person's courtyard together with that person's ordinary animal, should one of them die, we follow the principle: When one desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him. We may not expropriate property from a person's courtyard unless there is substantial proof, for it is with the consent of the owner of the firstborn that it was placed together with the ordinary animal belonging to the other person.

ו

הִפְקִיד בְּכוֹר אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת עִם פָּשׁוּט שֶׁלּוֹ וּמֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵיזֶהוּ. הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. וַהֲרֵי הוּא סְפֵק בְּכוֹר. וַאֲפִלּוּ רוֹעֶה כֹּהֵן שֶׁהִנִּיחַ בְּכוֹרוֹ בַּחֲצַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת עִם פָּשׁוּט שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וּמֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין מֵחֲצַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אֶלָּא בִּרְאָיָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי מִדַּעַת בַּעַל הַבְּכוֹר הִנִּיחוּ עִמּוֹ הַפָּשׁוּט שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת:

7

Israelites are not suspect to cause blemishes to firstborn animals. Therefore the word of an Israelite is accepted if he states: "This is a firstborn of doubtful status." We inspect the blemish and permit him to partake of the animal if it is blemished.

ז

לֹא נֶחְשְׁדוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל הַבְּכוֹרוֹת לְפִיכָךְ נֶאֱמָן הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לוֹמַר זֶה סְפֵק בְּכוֹר הוּא וְרוֹאִין לוֹ מוּמוֹ וְאוֹכֵל אוֹתוֹ בְּמוּמוֹ:

8

Whenever a consecrated animal received a permanent blemish before it was consecrated and was later redeemed, its offspring are governed by the requirements of the firstborn. If they received a temporary blemish before they were consecrated or they were consecrated while unblemished and received a permanent blemish and were then redeemed, their offspring are exempt from the requirements of the firstborn. The rationale is that they did not become ordinary animals in all respects, as indicated by the fact that they are forbidden to be shorn and work is forbidden to be performed with them, as we explained in Hilchot Me'ilah.

ח

כָּל הַקָּדָשִׁים שֶׁקָּדַם לָהֶם מוּם קָבוּעַ לְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן וְנִפְדּוּ חַיָּבִין בִּבְכוֹרָה. וְאִם קָדַם מוּם עוֹבֵר לְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן אוֹ שֶׁהִקְדִּישָׁן תְּמִימִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹלַד לָהֶם מוּם קָבוּעַ וְנִפְדּוּ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא יָצְאוּ לְחֻלִּין לְכָל דָּבָר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין בְּגִזָּה וַעֲבוֹדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מְעִילָה:

9

When a person purchases an animal with money from the second tithes in Jerusalem, its offspring is obligated in the requirements of the firstborn. If, however, a person purchases an animal with the produce of the Sabbatical year, their offspring are exempt from the requirements of the firstborn. The rationale is that one is not allowed to perform commercial activity with the produce of the Sabbatical year, for concerning that, Leviticus 25:6 states: "to partake of it." Implied is that license is granted "to partake of it" and not to perform commercial activity with it. And if its offspring were obligated in the requirements of the firstborn, it is considered as if he would be performing commercial activity with a firstborn, because it is released from the category of the produce of the Sabbatical year.

We already explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot that it is forbidden to perform commercial activity with substances that are forbidden to be eaten. And we already explained in Hilchot Terumot that it is forbidden to perform commercial activity with terumot. Similarly, it is forbidden to perform commercial activity with the firstborn even though it is permitted to sell them in the manner explained above.

ט

הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּהֵמָה מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם חַיֶּבֶת בִּבְכוֹרָה. אֲבָל הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּהֵמָה מִפֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לַעֲשׂוֹת סְחוֹרָה בְּפֵרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בָּהּ (ויקרא כה ו) "לְאָכְלָהּ" לְאָכְלָהּ וְלֹא לִסְחוֹרָה. וְאִם תִּהְיֶה חַיֶּבֶת בִּבְכוֹרָה הֲרֵי זֶה מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בִּבְכוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי יָצָא מִתּוֹרַת פֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת סְחוֹרָה בִּדְבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בַּאֲכִילָה וְכֵן בֵּאַרְנוּ בִּתְרוּמוֹת שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת סְחוֹרָה בִּתְרוּמוֹת וְכֵן אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת סְחוֹרָה בִּבְכוֹרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְמָכְרָן עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

10

If a person purchased a firstborn for a wedding feast for his son or for a festival and he did not need it, it is permitted to sell it.

י

לָקַח בְּכוֹר לְמִשְׁתֵּה בְּנוֹ אוֹ לָרֶגֶל וְלֹא צָרִיךְ לוֹ מֻתָּר לְמָכְרוֹ:

11

We do not evaluate unblemished firstborn animals for Israelites, but we do evaluate blemished firstborn. We evaluate unblemished firstborn animals for priests in the present age, because ultimately, they will be eaten after they are blemished. Needless to say, we evaluate blemished animals for them.

יא

אֵין שָׁמִין בְּכוֹרוֹת תְּמִימִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל שָׁמִין לָהֶן בְּכוֹרוֹת בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין. וְשָׁמִין בְּכוֹרוֹת תְּמִימִים לַכֹּהֲנִים בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁהֵן עוֹמְדִין לְהֵאָכֵל בְּמוּמָן. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁשָּׁמִין לָהֶן בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִים:

Bechorot - Perek 6

1

It is a positive commandment to separate one out of every ten kosher animals, which are born to a person each year. This mitzvah applies only to cattle and sheep, as Leviticus 27:32 states: "All the tithes of your cattle and sheep...."

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְהַפְרִישׁ אֶחָד מֵעֲשָׂרָה מִכָּל בְּהֵמוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁיִּוָּלְדוּ לָאָדָם בְּכָל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה. וְאֵין מִצְוָה זוֹ נוֹהֶגֶת אֶלָּא בְּבָקָר וְצֹאן בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז לב) "וְכָל מַעְשַׂר בָּקָר וָצֹאן" וְגוֹ':

2

The tithing of animals applies with regard to ordinary animals, but not to consecrated ones. It applies in Eretz Yisrael and in the Diaspora, in the era that the Temple was standing and in the era when the Temple is not standing. Nevertheless, our Sages forbade tithing animals in the present era and ordained that they should be tithed only when the Temple is standing. This is a decree, lest the consecrated animal be eaten when it is unblemished and thus one will be violating a transgression punishable by karet: slaughtering consecrated animals outside the Temple Courtyard. If one transgressed and tithed in the present era, the animal is designated as a tithe offering and should be eaten after it contracts a disqualifying blemish.

ב

מַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה נוֹהֵג בְּחֻלִּין אֲבָל לֹא בְּמֻקְדָּשִׁין. וְנוֹהֵג בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת. אֲבָל חֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ לְעַשֵּׂר בְּהֵמָה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה וְתִקְּנוּ שֶׁאֵין מְעַשְּׂרִין אֶלָּא בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאכְלֵהוּ תָּמִים וְנִמְצָא בָּא לִידֵי אִסּוּר כָּרֵת שֶׁהוּא שְׁחִיטַת קָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ. וְאִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר וְיֵאָכֵל בְּמוּמוֹ:

3

All are obligated in the tithing of their animals: priests, Levites, and Israelites.

ג

הַכּל חַיָּבִין בְּמַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה. כֹּהֲנִים לְוִיִּים וְיִשְׂרְאֵלִים:

4

The laws applying to a tithe offering of an animal are that it should be slaughtered in the Temple Courtyard and its blood cast in one heave towards the Altar's base. Its organs and fats are offered on the altar's pyre and the remainder of the meat is eaten by the owner in Jerusalem like other sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity. The priests do not receive any portion of it. Instead, it is given to its owner in its entirety, like the Paschal sacrifice.

If it was blemished, whether it became blemished after it was designated or it was blemished when it was set aside, it may be eaten in any place.

ד

וְדִין מַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נִשְׁחָט בָּעֲזָרָה וְזוֹרְקִין אֶת דָּמוֹ זְרִיקָה אַחַת כְּנֶגֶד הַיְסוֹד וּמַקְטִירִין אֵימוּרָיו. וּשְׁאָר הַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לַבְּעָלִים בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם כִּשְׁאָר קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וְאֵין לַכֹּהֲנִים בּוֹ כְּלוּם אֶלָּא כֻּלּוֹ לַבְּעָלִים כַּפֶּסַח. וְאִם הָיָה בַּעַל מוּם בֵּין שֶׁנָּפַל בּוֹ מוּם בֵּין שֶׁהִפְרִישׁוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּמוּמוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה נֶאֱכָל בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

5

It is forbidden to sell an animal designated as a tithe offering when it is unblemished, for Leviticus 27:33 states with regard to it: "It shall not be redeemed." According to the Oral Tradition, the phrase "It shall not be redeemed" also implies a prohibition against selling it; it is neither redeemed, nor sold at all.

It appears to me that when one sells an animal designated as a tithe offering, the sale is of no consequence and the animal is not acquired by the purchaser. For this reason, the seller is not liable for lashes like one who sells property designated as a dedication offering to the priests, in which instance, the purchaser does not acquire it, or like one who sells a female captive, as will be explained in its place.

ה

מַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה אָסוּר לְמָכְרוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא תָּמִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (ויקרא כז לג) "לֹא יִגָּאֵל". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לֹא יִגָּאֵל אַף אִסּוּר מְכִירָה בְּמַשְׁמָע שֶׁאֵין נִגְאָל וְאֵינוֹ נִמְכָּר כְּלָל. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר מַעֲשֵׂר לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם וְלֹא קָנָה לוֹקֵחַ. וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה כְּמוֹכֵר חֶרְמֵי כֹּהֲנִים שֶׁלֹּא קָנָה לוֹקֵחַ וּכְמוֹכֵר יְפַת תֹּאַר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

6

According to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to sell an animal designated as a tithe offering when it is blemished and even when it is slaughtered. This is a decree, lest one sell such an animal when it is alive. For this reason, we may not weigh one portion against another, as is done when weighing portions of a firstborn animal, because it appears as if he is selling it.

ו

מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁאָסוּר לְמָכְרוֹ בַּעַל מוּם וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁחוּט גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ חַי. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין שׁוֹקְלִין מָנָה כְּנֶגֶד מָנָה בְּמַעֲשֵׂר כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁשּׁוֹקְלִין בִּבְכוֹר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹכֵר:

7

An animal designated as a tithe offering that belongs to orphans is permitted to be sold in an ordinary manner after being slaughtered when blemished. To prevent the orphans from suffering a loss, our Sages did not uphold their decree in this instance.

ז

וּמַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה שֶׁל יְתוֹמִים שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט בְּמוּמוֹ מֻתָּר לְמָכְרוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ. מִפְּנֵי הֲשָׁבַת אֲבֵדָה לִיתוֹמִים לֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו:

8

When an animal designated as a tithe offering is slaughtered when blemished, it is permitted to sell its fats, sinews, hide, and bones. Only the sale of its meat was prohibited. If one included the price for its meat together with the price for its hide, fats, and sinews and sold everything in a collective price, the sale is permitted. If the price of the bones was high and he included the price of the meat in the price of the bones, it is permitted.

ח

מַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט בְּמוּמוֹ מֻתָּר לִמְכּוֹר חֶלְבּוֹ וְגִידָיו וְעוֹרוֹ וְעַצְמוֹתָיו. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ לִמְכֹּר אֶלָּא בְּשָׂרוֹ בִּלְבַד. וְאִם הִבְלִיעַ דְּמֵי הַבָּשָׂר בִּדְמֵי הָעוֹר וְהַחֵלֶב וְהַגִּידִין וּמָכַר הַכּל בְּהַבְלָעָה מֻתָּר. וְאִם הָיוּ דְּמֵי הָעֲצָמוֹת יְקָרִים וְהִבְלִיעַ דְּמֵי הַבָּשָׂר בִּדְמֵי הָעֲצָמוֹת מֻתָּר:

9

Anyone's word is accepted with regard to the blemishes of animals designated as tithe offerings if he says: "This blemish came about on its own accord; it was not brought about intentionally." Even the statements of those individuals whose word is not accepted with regard to the blemishes of a firstborn animal are accepted with regard to an animal designated as a tithe offering. Moreover, a person may inspect the blemishes of his animals designated as tithe offerings and permit their slaughter if he is an expert. The rationale for these leniencies is that if a person desired, he could have blemished every animal in his flock and then tithed them. Thus from the outset, the tithed animal would be blemished.

ט

הַכּל נֶאֱמָנִים עַל מוּמֵי מַעֲשֵׂר לוֹמַר מוּם זֶה מֵאֵלָיו בָּא וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה לְדַעַת. וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵינָן נֶאֱמָנִים עַל הַבְּכוֹר נֶאֱמָנִים עַל הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. וְרוֹאֶה אָדָם מוּמֵי מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלּוֹ וּמַתִּירוֹ אִם הָיָה מֻמְחֶה. שֶׁאִם יִרְצֶה יַטִּיל מוּם בְּכָל עֶדְרוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְעַשֵּׂר וְנִמְצָא הַמַּעֲשֵׂר בַּעַל מוּם מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ:

10

When a person purchases lambs that were born this year or they were given to him as a present, he is not obligated to tithe them. The obligation applies only when the animals are born in his domain. Accordingly, if partners enter into a partnership with regard to animals: one brings 100 and the other brings 100 and they have them intermingle and own them jointly, these 200 are exempt from the requirement to tithe. The rationale is that each of the lambs is considered as having been sold. Similarly, if brothers inherit lambs in their first year of life from their father, they are exempt from the requirement to tithe.

The offspring born to the partners or the brothers after the partnership was established, by contrast, from their jointly owned animals are obligated to be tithed. Similarly, if a partnership was established with money or brothers purchased animals from the funds of the estate, the offspring born afterwards are obligated to be tithed, for they were born in their domain and they are considered as one person.

If the brothers and the partners divided their property after animals were born to them in their joint domain and then reestablished their partnership, the animals born previously are exempt from the requirement to tithe. The rationale is that when the assets of the partnership or the estate were divided, everything is considered as having been sold and animals that are sold are exempt. And when the partnership was reestablished, no new offspring was born to them afterwards. Even though they divided kids for kids and lambs for lambs, and even if they divided them by tens, they are all exempt from the tithes and considered as having been purchased.

י

הַלּוֹקֵחַ טְלָאִים שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ בְּשָׁנָה זוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְּנוּ לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה הֲרֵי הֵם פְּטוּרִים מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר עַד שֶׁיִּוָּלְדוּ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בִּבְהֵמוֹת וְהֵבִיא זֶה מֵאָה טְלָאִים וְזֶה מֵאָה טְלָאִים וְעֵרְבוּם וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הַמָּאתַיִם פְּטוּרִים מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁכָּל טָלֶה מֵהֶן כְּמָכוּר. וְכֵן הָאַחִים שֶׁיָּרְשׁוּ טְלָאִים מֵאֲבִיהֶם הֲרֵי הֵן פְּטוּרִין מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. אֲבָל הַנּוֹלָדִים לָהֶם בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת לְאַחַר מִכָּאן מֵאֵלּוּ הַבְּהֵמוֹת בֵּין לַשֻּׁתָּפִין בֵּין לָאַחִים חַיָּבִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂר. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ שֻׁתָּפִין בְּמָעוֹת וּקְנוּ בְּהֵמוֹת מִמְּעוֹת הַשֻּׁתָּפוּת וְהָאַחִים שֶׁקָּנוּ בְּהֵמוֹת מִמְּעוֹת הַיְרֻשָּׁה הֲרֵי הַנּוֹלָדִים מֵהֶם לְאַחַר מִכָּאן חַיָּבִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּרְשׁוּתָן נוֹלְדוּ וַהֲרֵי הֵן כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד. חָלְקוּ הָאַחִים וְהַשֻּׁתָּפִין אַחַר שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ לָהֶן הַבְּהֵמוֹת בִּרְשׁוּתָן וְחָזְרוּ וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁחָלְקוּ נַעֲשׂוּ הַכּל לְקוּחִין וְהַלָּקוּחַ פָּטוּר וּכְשֶׁחָזְרוּ וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ הֲרֵי נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַּבְּהֵמוֹת וַעֲדַיִן לֹא יָלְדוּ לָהֶן בִּרְשׁוּתָן אַחַר שִׁתּוּף זֶה הַשֵּׁנִי. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָלְקוּ גְּדָיִים כְּנֶגֶד גְּדָיִים וּטְלָאִים כְּנֶגֶד טְלָאִים וַעֲשָׂרָה כְּנֶגֶד עֲשָׂרָה הַכּל פְּטוּרִין מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וַהֲרֵי הֵן כִּלְקוּחִין:

11

When brothers and partners divided the financial assets of the partnership, but did not divide the animals, the animals are obligated to be tithed, for they are not considered as having been purchased yet. If, however, the animals of the partnership were divided even though the financial assets were not, the offspring are exempt.

יא

הָאַחִין וְהַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ בִּכְסָפִים וְלֹא חָלְקוּ בִּבְהֵמָה חַיָּבִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשׂוּ הַבְּהֵמוֹת לְקוּחִין. אֲבָל אִם חָלְקוּ הַבְּהֵמוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא חָלְקוּ הַכְּסָפִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין:

12

When a person purchases ten unborn fetuses in their mother's womb,they all enter the corral for tithing, for they were born in his domain.

יב

הַלּוֹקֵחַ עֲשָׂרָה עֵבָּרִים בִּמְעֵי אִמָּן. כֻּלָּן נִכְנָסִין לַדִּיר לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ נוֹלְדוּ:

13

When a priest received ten newborn animals because of the return of property stolen from a convert, they are exempt from the tithes. The rationale is that the priestly presents are comparable to ordinary presents. And we already explainedthat when one gives a present, it is exempt from the tithes.

יג

כֹּהֵן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לוֹ עֶשֶׂר בְּהֵמוֹת בְּגֵזֶל הַגֵּר פְּטוּרִים מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. שֶׁמַּתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה מַתָּנוֹת הֵם. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר:

14

All the animals in one's herd are brought into the corral for tithing, whether they are unblemished or blemished, even those which are forbidden to be offered on the altar with the exception of hybrids, animals that are tereifah, born through Caesarian section, or "lacking in age." For all of these are exempt from the tithes.

Similarly, an animal whose mother died or was slaughtered when it was born should not be tithed. These concepts are part of the Oral Tradition.

יד

הַכּל נִכְנָסִין לַדִּיר לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר. בֵּין תְּמִימִים בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין. וְכָל אִסּוּרֵי מִזְבֵּחַ. חוּץ מִן הַכִּלְאַיִם. וְהַטְּרֵפָה. וְיוֹצֵא דֹּפֶן. וּמְחֻסָּר זְמַן. שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. וְכֵן הַיָּתוֹם שֶׁמֵּתָה אִמּוֹ אוֹ נִשְׁחֲטָה עִם לֵידָתוֹ אֵינוֹ מִתְעַשֵּׂר. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה הֵם:

15

A purchaser is not exempt from the obligation to tithe unless he purchased the animals after they were fit to be tithed. Therefore one who purchases lambs in the seven days after their birth, is obligated to tithe them when the time comes.Since an animal that is "lacking in age" is not fit to be tithed, it is as if he purchased a fetus and it was born in his domain.

טו

אֵין הַלּוֹקֵחַ פָּטוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִלְקַח אַחַר שֶׁנִּרְאָה לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר. לְפִיכָךְ הַלּוֹקֵחַ טְלָאִים בְּתוֹךְ שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַלֵּידָה כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַנָּם חַיָּב לְעַשְּׂרָן. שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מְחֻסָּר זְמַן רָאוּי לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁלָּקַח עֻבָּרִים וְנוֹלְדוּ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ:

16

Whenever there is a doubt whether an animal is obligated to be tithed or exempt from being tithed, it is exempt from being tithed. Therefore when an orphaned lamb, a purchased one, or the like becomes intermingled with other lambs, they are all exempt from the tithes, because the status of each one of them is in doubt.

טז

כָּל בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִיא סָפֵק אִם בַּת מַעֲשֵׂר הִיא אוֹ אֵינָהּ בַּת מַעֲשֵׂר. הֲרֵי הִיא פְּטוּרָה מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. לְפִיכָךְ טְלָאִים שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהֶן יָתוֹם אוֹ לָקוּחַ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן פְּטוּרִין מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן סָפֵק הוּא:

Bechorot - Perek 7

1

When a person possesses ten lambs and he separates one as the tithes or he possesses 100 and he separates ten as the tithes, these are not tithes. What, instead, should he do? He should gather all of the lambs or all of the calves born that year in a corral. He then makes a small entrance so that two cannot emerge at the same time. He positions their mothers outside the corral and they bleat so that the lambs will hear their voices and leave the corral to meet them. This is necessary, as implied by Leviticus 27:32 which states: "all that passes beneath the staff," i.e., they must pass on their own initiative; one should not remove them by hand.

As they leave the corral one by one, the owner begins to count them with a staff: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine. The tenth animal that departs, whether male or female, whether unblemished or blemished, should be painted with red paint, and the owner should say: "This is the tithe."

If he did not paint the animals designated as the tithes with red paint, did not count them with a staff, or counted them while they are lying down or standing, the tithing takes effect. Since he counted them ten by ten and consecrated the tenth, it is considered a tithe.

א

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ עֲשָׂרָה טְלָאִים וְהִפְרִישׁ אֶחָד מֵעֲשָׂרָה. הָיוּ לוֹ מֵאָה וְהִפְרִישׁ עֲשָׂרָה לְמַעֲשֵׂר. אֵין אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר. אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. כּוֹנֵס כָּל הַטְּלָאִים אוֹ כָּל הָעֲגָלִים לַדִּיר. וְעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ פֶּתַח קָטָן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵצְאוּ שְׁנַיִם כְּאֶחָד. וְאִמּוֹתֵיהֶן מַעֲמִיד מִבַּחוּץ. וְהֵן גּוֹעוֹת שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ הַטְּלָאִים קוֹלָן וְיֵצְאוּ מִן הַדִּיר לִקְרָאתָן. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז לב) "כּל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲבֹר תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט". שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר מֵעַצְמוֹ וְלֹא שֶׁיּוֹצִיאוֹ בְּיָדוֹ. וּכְשֶׁיֵּצְאוּ מִן הַדִּיר זֶה אַחַר זֶה. מַתְחִיל וּמוֹנֶה אוֹתָן בַּשֵּׁבֶט. א' ב' ג' ד' ה' ו' ז' ח' ט'. וְהַיּוֹצֵא עֲשִׂירִי בֵּין זָכָר בֵּין נְקֵבָה בֵּין תָּמִים בֵּין בַּעַל מוּם סוֹקְרוֹ בְּסִקְרָא וְאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר. לֹא סְקָרוֹ בְּסִקְרָא וְלֹא מְנָאָן בַּשֵּׁבֶט אוֹ שֶׁמְּנָאָן רְבוּצִים אוֹ עוֹמְדִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר הוֹאִיל וּמְנָאָם עֲשָׂרָה עֲשָׂרָה וְקִדֵּשׁ עֲשִׂירִי הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר:

2

It is not necessary to collect every animal born in a person's domain to one corral. Instead, the reckoning is made for every herd alone. If a person owned five lambs in Jerusalem and five in Acre, they are not combined into a single herd. Instead, they are all exempt from the tithes.

What is the distance required to be between two herds for them to be combined? Sixteen mil.

ב

אֵין צָרִיךְ לְצָרֵף כָּל בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ לְדִיר אֶחָד אֶלָּא מְצָרֵף כָּל עֵדֶר וְעֵדֶר לְבַדּוֹ. הָיוּ לוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה טְלָאִים בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וַחֲמִשָּׁה טְלָאִים בְּעַכּוֹ אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין וְכֻלָּן פְּטוּרִין מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה בֵּין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ וְיִצְטָרְפוּ שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר מִיל:

3

If there are three herds and there are sixteen mil between each one, the three are combined. What is implied? There were nine on one side, nine on the other side, and one in the center, all three herds are brought into the corral together to be tithed.

ג

הָיוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֲדָרִים בֵּין כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר מִיל הֲרֵי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן מִצְטָרְפִין. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה תִּשְׁעָה מִכָּאן וְתִשְׁעָה מִכָּאן וְאֶחָד בְּאֶמְצַע הֲרֵי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן נִכְנָסִין לַדִּיר לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר:

4

Tithes are not taken from sheep for cattle, nor from cattle for sheep. One must, however, tithe sheep for goats and goats for sheep. This is derived from Leviticus 27:32: "All the tithes of your cattle and tzon." Implied is that all light, domesticated animals are included as one category, for they are both referred to with the term seh and they are like one species.

ד

אֵין מְעַשְּׂרִין מִן הַצֹּאן עַל הַבָּקָר וְלֹא מִן הַבָּקָר עַל הַצֹּאן. אֲבָל מְעַשְּׂרִין מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים עַל הָעִזִּים וּמִן הָעִזִּים עַל הַכְּבָשִׂים. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז לב) "וְכָל מַעְשַׂר בָּקָר וָצֹאן" מַשְׁמָע כָּל צֹאן אֶחָד שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם נִקְרָאִים שֶׂה וַהֲרֵי הֵם כְּמִין אֶחָד:

5

We do not tithe animals born in one year with animals born in another year just as we do not tithe the crops from the new year for the crops from the past year nor the crops from the past year for the crops of the new year, as Deuteronomy 14:22: "Which are produced by the field year for year."

It appears to me that if one tithed animals from one year for animals of another year, the tithing is binding because of the severity of consecrated animals. For the Torah did not explicitly emphasize that the tithing of animals must be from the same year.

ה

אֵין מְעַשְּׂרִים מִן הַנּוֹלָדִים בְּשָׁנָה זוֹ עַל הַנּוֹלָדִים בְּשָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין מְעַשְּׂרִין בְּזֶרַע הָאָרֶץ מִן הֶחָדָשׁ עַל הַיָּשָׁן וְלֹא מִן הַיָּשָׁן עַל הֶחָדָשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד כב) "הַיֹּצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה שָׁנָה שָׁנָה". וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאִם עִשֵּׂר בְּהֵמָה מִשָּׁנָה עַל שָׁנָה הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר מִפְּנֵי חֻמְרַת הַקֳדָשִׁים שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הִקְפִּידָה תּוֹרָה עַל מַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁנָה שָׁנָה:

6

All of the offspring born from the first of Tishrei until the twenty-ninth of Elul are combined and are tithed for each other. If five lambs are born on the twenty-ninth of Elul and five on the first of Tishrei of the following year, they are not combined. If an animal gave birth to offspring in its first year of life, it and its daughter should be brought into the corral together to be tithed.

ו

כָּל הַנּוֹלָדִים בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי עַד עֶשְׂרִים וְתִשְׁעָה בֶּאֱלוּל מִצְטָרְפִין וּמְעַשְּׂרִין מֵאֵלּוּ עַל אֵלּוּ. נוֹלְדוּ חֲמִשָּׁה טְלָאִים בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְתִשְׁעָה בֶּאֱלוּל וַחֲמִשָּׁה בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין. יָלְדוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שְׁנָתָן הֲרֵי הִיא וּבִתָּהּ נִכְנָסִים לַדִּיר לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר:

7

The lambs which are born are not like tevel from which one may not eat until one tithes as explained in its place. Instead, one may sell or slaughter all the offspring one desires until one tithes. Then animal designated as the tithe offering will be consecrated and must be eaten according to law, as explained above.

ז

אֵין הַטְּלָאִים הַנּוֹלָדִים כְּמוֹ הַטֶּבֶל שֶׁאָסוּר לֶאֱכל מִמֶּנּוּ עַד שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ אֶלָּא מֻתָּר לִמְכֹּר וְלִשְׁחֹט כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה עַד שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר וְיִהְיֶה הַמַּעֲשֵׂר קֹדֶשׁ וְיֵאָכֵל כְּהִלְכָתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

8

Our Sages established three fixed times for the tithing of one's animals.When one of these dates arrives, it is forbidden for a person to sell or slaughter the offspring of his animals until he tithes. If he slaughters, the meat is permitted.

These are the three dates: the fifteenth day before the Paschal sacrifice, the fifteenth day before Shavuot, and the fifteenth day before Sukkot. Each of these times is called a "threshing floor" for the tithing of animals. Thus the "threshing floor" for the tithing of animals is on the last day of the month of Adar, on the thirty-fifth day of the Counting of the Omer, and on the last day of the month of Elul.

Why were the "threshing floors" established on these dates? So that the animals would be available to the festive pilgrims. For even though it is permitted to sell animal offspring before they were tithed, as we explained, the people would refrain from selling them until they would tithe them and perform the mitzvah.

ח

קָבְעוּ חֲכָמִים שְׁלֹשָׁה זְמַנִּים בְּשָׁנָה לְמַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה וּמִשֶּׁיַגִּיעַ זְמַן מֵהֶן אָסוּר לוֹ לִמְכֹּר אוֹ לִשְׁחֹט עַד שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר וְאִם שָׁחַט הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה זְמַנִּים. בְּיוֹם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וּבַיּוֹם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר קֹדֶם עֲצֶרֶת וּבַיּוֹם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר קֹדֶם הֶחָג. וְכָל זְמַן מֵאֵלּוּ נִקְרָא גֹּרֶן מַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה. נִמְצֵאתָ אוֹמֵר שֶׁהַגֳּרָנוֹת שֶׁל מַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה בְּיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן מֵחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וּבַיּוֹם שְׁלֹשִׁים וַחֲמִשָּׁה מִסְּפִירַת הָעֹמֶר וּבְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן מֵחֹדֶשׁ אֱלוּל. וְלָמָּה קָבְעוּ הַגֳּרָנוֹת בַּיָמִים אֵלּוּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶינָה הַבְּהֵמוֹת מְצוּיוֹת לְעוֹלֵי רְגָלִים. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִמְכֹּר קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הָיוּ נִמְנָעִים לִמְכֹּר עַד שֶׁיְּעַשְּׂרוּ וְיַעֲשׂוּ הַמִּצְוָה:

9

When a person brought all his sheep or cattle into a corral and began to sanctify the tenth animal that departs until there remained less than ten in the corral, those should be left for the next "threshing floor" and they are joined together with those born and tithed and all are collected in one "threshing floor." Even though one knows that some will remain in the corral, he is obligated to bring them all into the corral and the remainder will be left over.

ט

הִכְנִיס כָּל הַצֹּאן אוֹ הַבָּקָר לַדִּיר וְהִתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת וּלְקַדֵּשׁ עֲשִׂירִי עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה הֲרֵי זֶה מַנִּיחָן לְגֹרֶן אַחֵר וְהֵן מִצְטָרְפִין לְאֵלּוּ שֶׁיִּוָּלְדוּ וְיִתְעַשְּׂרוּ הַכּל בְּגֹרֶן אֶחָד. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֵלּוּ יִשָּׁאֲרוּ בַּמִּנְיָן חַיָּב לְהַכְנִיס הַכּל לַדִּיר וְהַנִּשְׁאָר יִשָּׁאֵר:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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