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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 5, Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 6, Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 7

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Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 5

1

The following principles apply with regard to a person who had a wound on the flesh of his skin and the skin peeled away because of the wound. If the wound came about because of fire, e.g., he was burnt by a coal, embers, iron or stone that were heated in fire, or the like, it is called michveh, a burn. If the wound did not come about because of fire, e.g., he received a blister from stone, wood, or the like, or the wound came about because of an infirmity within the body, a wart or eczema that ruined the skin or swelling lesions, feverous swellings, or infections that ruin the skin, it is called sh'chin, a boil.

א

מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ מַכָּה בְּעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְנִפְשַׁט הָעוֹר מֵחֲמַת הַמַּכָּה. אִם הָיְתָה הַמַּכָּה מֵחֲמַת הָאֵשׁ כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּכְוָה בְּגַחֶלֶת אוֹ בְּרֶמֶץ אוֹ בְּבַרְזֶל אוֹ בְּאֶבֶן שֶׁלִּבְּנוֹ בָּאֵשׁ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי זוֹ נִקְרֵאת מִכְוָה. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמִּכְוָה שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת הָאֵשׁ. בֵּין שֶׁלָּקָה בְּאֶבֶן אוֹ בְּעֵץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה הַמִּכְוָה מֵחֲמַת חֳלִי הַגּוּף כְּגוֹן גָּרָב אוֹ חֲזָזִית שֶׁהִפְסִיד הָעוֹר אוֹ שַׁחֶפֶת אוֹ קַדַּחַת וְדַלֶּקֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁהִשְׁחִיתוּ הָעוֹר הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא שְׁחִין:

2

The following laws apply if one heated a spit and hit another person with it. If its end was rounded, the wound it produces is considered as a burn. If its end was pointed, there is an unresolved question if it is considered as a burn or a boil.

When a person suffers a burn because of the hot springs of Tiberias, olive dregs, or the like, the affliction is considered as a boil.

ב

לִבֵּן שִׁפּוּד וְהִכָּה בּוֹ אִם הָיָה רֹאשׁוֹ (מְבוֹרָז) [כַּדּוּר] הֲרֵי זוֹ מִכְוָה. וְאִם הָיָה רֹאשׁוֹ חַד הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק אִם הִיא מִכְוָה אוֹ שְׁחִין. לָקָה בְּמֵי טְבֶרְיָא אוֹ בְּגֶפֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי זֶה שְׁחִין:

3

As long as boils and burns are fresh, festering wounds, they are called mordin and do not impart impurity because of tzara'at at all. If a boil or a burn heals and the afflicted person's flesh was entirely restored - even though there is a scar on the place and it is not entirely like other skin - it is considered like ordinary skin with regard to all matters. Such a person is deemed impure because of the three signs mentioned above and he is isolated for two weeks as part of the process of determination as explained.

ג

הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן מַכּוֹת טְרִיּוֹת הֵן נִקְרָאִין מוֹרְדִין וְאֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים כְּלָל. חָיוּ הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וְנִתְרַפְּאוּ רִפּוּי גָּמוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם צַלֶּקֶת וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לִשְׁאָר הָעוֹר הֲרֵי הֵן כְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר לְכָל דָּבָר וּמִתְטַמְּאִין בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה סִימָנִין וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן הֶסְגֵּר שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

If the boil or the burn began to heal and be restored, with a scab like the thickness of a garlic peel forming over them, this is the "scarring of the boil" mentioned in the Torah and the "healing burn" mentioned there. They impart impurity because of two signs: white hair or an increase in the size of the blemish and such a blemish is isolated only for one week.

What is implied? There was a baheret on the scarring of a boil or the healing of a burn. If it contained two white hairs, the person should be deemed definitively impure. If it does not contain white hair, he should be isolated for a week and examined at the end of the week. If white hair grew or size of the blemish increased, he should be deemed definitively impure. If there was no new development, he should be released from the inspection process. If size of the blemish increased or white hair grew after he was released from the inspection process, he should be deemed definitively impure.

ד

הִתְחִילוּ הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה לִחְיוֹת וּלְהִתְרַפְּאוֹת וְנַעֲשֵׂית עֲלֵיהֶן קְלִפָּה כִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם. זוֹ הִיא (ויקרא יג כג) "צָרֶבֶת הַשְּׁחִין" הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא יג כד) "וּמִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה" הָאֲמוּרָה שָׁם. וּמְטַמְּאוֹת בִּשְׁנֵי סִימָנִין בְּשֵׂעָר לָבָן אוֹ בְּפִשְׂיוֹן וְאֵין בָּהֶן הֶסְגֵּר אֶלָּא שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד. כֵּיצַד. בַּהֶרֶת שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּצָרֶבֶת הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ בְּמִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה אִם הָיָה בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן יַחְלִיט. לֹא הָיָה בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן יַסְגִּיר שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וְיֵרָאֶה בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ אִם נוֹלַד בָּהּ שֵׂעָר אוֹ פָּשְׂתָה יַחְלִיט וְאִם לֹא נוֹלַד בָּהּ כְּלוּם יִפְטֹר. פָּשְׂתָה לְאַחַר הַפִּטּוּר אוֹ נוֹלַד בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן יַחְלִיט:

5

A healing boil and a healing burn cannot be combined with each other. For that reason, the Torah described them separately, to teach that they are not to be combined, nor can they expand into each other, They do not expand into ordinary flesh and a baheret that is on ordinary flesh does not expand into them.

What is implied? If there is a boil next to a burn and a baheret that comprises a gris extending over both of them, the person is pure. If a baheret was in either of them and it extended into the other or it extended into ordinary skin, he is pure. If there was a baheret on ordinary skin and it extended to one of these, it is not considered as an extension.

When a person had a healed boil that was the size of a gris with a baheret the size of a gris on the palm of his hand, he should nevertheless be isolated. Although it is not fit to grow white hair, nor to expand, there is the possibility that he will develop another boil next to it and the baheret will spread into it.

ה

הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְפִיכָךְ חִלְּקָן הַכָּתוּב לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה וְאֵין פּוֹשִׂין זֶה לָזֶה וְאֵין פּוֹשִׂין לְעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר וְלֹא בַּהֶרֶת עוֹר הַבָּשָׂר פּוֹשָׂה לְתוֹכָן. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה שְׁחִין בְּצַד הַמִּכְוָה וּבַהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס בִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וּפָשְׂתָה לַשְּׁנִיָּה אוֹ שֶׁפָּשְׂתָה לְעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה בַּהֶרֶת בְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר וּפָשְׂתָה לְאַחַת מֵהֶן אֵינוֹ פִּשְׂיוֹן. הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ כַּפּוֹ צָרֶבֶת שְׁחִין כִּגְרִיס וּבָהּ בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס יַסְגִּיר שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לְשֵׂעָר לָבָן וְלֹא לְפִשְׂיוֹן שֶׁמָּא יִוָּלֵד לוֹ שְׁחִין אַחֵר בְּצִדָּהּ וְתִפְשֶׂה לְתוֹכוֹ:

6

When a boil became a burn, the burn nullifies the boil. When a burn became a boil, the boil nullifies the burn. If it is not known whether a blemish was a boil or a burn, it is not significant, for they both contract impurity due to the same signs and the impurity is the same. Scripture differentiates between them only to teach that they are not to be combined.

ו

שְׁחִין שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִכְוָה בִּטְּלָה מִכְוָה אֶת הַשְּׁחִין. וּמִכְוָה שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית שְׁחִין בִּטֵּל שְׁחִין הַמִּכְוָה. אִם אֵין יָדוּעַ אִם שְׁחִין הָיָה אִם מִכְוָה אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם סִימָן אֶחָד וְטֻמְאָה אַחַת וְלֹא חִלְּקָן הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין:

7

If a person was isolated because of a baheret in a boil and at the end of the week, the boil healed and became ordinary flesh or he was isolated because of a baheret on ordinary flesh and at the end of the week, it became a boil, he should be given an initial examination.

ז

הִסְגִּירוֹ בְּבַהֶרֶת שֶׁבַּשְּׁחִין וּבְסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ נַעֲשָׂה עוֹר הַבָּשָׂר. אוֹ שֶׁהִסְגִּירוֹ בְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר וּבְסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ נַעֲשֵׂית שְׁחִין יֵרָאֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה:

8

When all the hair on a person's head falls off, whether due to sickness, due to a wound that makes him unfit to grow hair, or due to eating foods that cause hair to fall off or applied lotions that cause hair to fall off, since he lost all of his hair at this particular moment, he is called a keireiach or a gibeiach, even though he is fit to grow hair at a later time.

If his hair from the top of his forehead and downward, descending backward until the first vertebra of his neck falls off, he is called a keireiach. If his hair from the top of his forehead and downward, descending frontward until it is level with his forehead falls off, he is called a gibeiach.

ח

מִי שֶׁנָּשַׁר כָּל שְׂעַר רֹאשׁוֹ בֵּין מֵחֲמַת חלִי בֵּין מֵחֲמַת מַכָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לְגַדֵּל שֵׂעָר בֵּין שֶׁאָכַל דְּבָרִים הַמַּשִּׁירִין אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר אוֹ סָךְ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהִשִּׁירוּ שְׂעָרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָאוּי לְגַדֵּל לְאַחַר זְמַן הוֹאִיל וְאָבַד כָּל שְׂעַר רֹאשׁוֹ עַתָּה הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא קֵרֵחַ אוֹ גִּבֵּחַ. אִם נָשַׁר שְׂעָרוֹ מִן הַקָּדְקֹד וּלְמַטָּה שׁוֹפֵעַ לְאָחוֹר וְעַד פִּיקָה שֶׁל צַוָּאר נִקְרָא קֵרֵחַ. וְאִם נָשַׁר מִן הַקָּדְקֹד וּלְמַטָּה שׁוֹפֵעַ לְפָנָיו עַד כְּנֶגֶד פַּדַּחְתּוֹ נִקְרָא גִּבֵּחַ:

9

With regard to both of these types of baldness, a person can contract impurity when a baheret appears on the skin through two signs: healthy skin and an increase in size. They should be isolated for two weeks, for Leviticus 13:43 states: "Like the appearance of tzara'at on the flesh of the skin." Since these portions of the body do not grow hair, the appearance of white hair is not a sign of impurity for them.

What is meant by incurring impurity through either of two signs and that a person may be isolated for two weeks. If there was a baheret in a bald spot whether at the back of a person's head or at its front and there was healthy flesh in it, he should be deemed definitively impure. If it does not have healthy flesh in it, he should be isolated and examined after the end of one week. If healthy flesh appeared or the blemish increased in size, he should be deemed definitively impure. If nothing changed, he should be isolated for a second week. If the blemish increased in size or healthy flesh appeared, he should be deemed definitively impure. If nothing changed, he should be released from the inspection process. If the blemish increased in size or healthy flesh appeared after he was released from the inspection process, he should be deemed definitively impure.

ט

הַקָּרַחַת וְהַגַּבַּחַת מְטַמְּאוֹת בִּשְׁנֵי סִימָנִין בְּמִחְיָה וּבְפִשְׂיוֹן. וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן הֶסְגֵּר שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶן (ויקרא יג מג) "כְּמַרְאֵה צָרַעַת עוֹר בָּשָׂר". וּלְפִי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן שֵׂעָר אֵין הַשֵּׂעָר הַלָּבָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה בָּהֶן. וְכֵיצַד מְטַמְּאִין בִּשְׁנֵי סִימָנִין וּבִשְׁתֵּי שָׁבוּעוֹת. שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה בַּהֶרֶת בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְּגַבַּחְתּוֹ וְהָיְתָה בָּהּ מִחְיָה יַחְלִיט. לֹא הָיְתָה בָּהּ מִחְיָה יַסְגִּיר וְיִרְאֶה בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ אִם נוֹלְדָה בָּהּ מִחְיָה אוֹ פִּשְׂיוֹן יַחְלִיט. לֹא נוֹלַד בָּהּ כְּלוּם יַסְגִּיר שָׁבוּעַ שֵׁנִי. פָּשָׂת אוֹ שֶׁנּוֹלַד בָּהּ מִחְיָה יַחְלִיט לֹא נוֹלַד בָּהּ כְּלוּם יִפְטֹר. וְאִם פָּשָׂת אוֹ נוֹלַד בָּהּ מִחְיָה לְאַחַר הַפִּטּוּר יַחְלִיט:

10

These two forms of baldness are not combined with each other, as indicated by Leviticus 13:42, which makes a distinction, stating: "on his karachet or on his gabachet." This teaches that they are two types of conditions and blemishes do not spread from one to the other, from either of them to ordinary flesh, or from ordinary flesh to them.

י

הַקָּרַחַת וְהַגַּבַּחַת אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג מב) "בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְּגַבַּחְתּוֹ" מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֵן שְׁתַּיִם וְאֵין פּוֹשׂוֹת מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ וְלֹא לִשְׁאָר עוֹר הַבָּשָׂר וְלֹא בַּהֶרֶת עוֹר הַבָּשָׂר פּוֹשָׂה לְתוֹכָן:

11

When there is a boil or a burn on a karachet, on a gabachet, or on a beard that has lost its hair, they are deemed impure in the same way as is a boil or a burn on ordinary flesh. For when one loses the hair of his head or of his beard, these parts of the body are considered as ordinary flesh with regard to all matters except that they do not contract impurity because of the emergence of white hair.

When hair has never grown on one's head or on one's chin or when there is a blister on one's head or chin, the surface is considered as ordinary flesh and they are deemed impure because of three signs and requires isolation for two weeks. Similar laws also apply to the chin of a woman and a sexually inadequate male. Until hair grows on these surfaces, they are considered as ordinary flesh. If they grew hair, they are considered as the chin of a male and incur impurity as a netek does, as will be explained. They do not incur impurity because of a baheret.

יא

הַקָּרַחַת אוֹ הַגַּבַּחַת אוֹ הַזָּקָן שֶׁנִּקְרַח וְנַעֲשָׂה בָּהֶן שְׁחִין אוֹ מִכְוָה מְטַמְּאִין כִּשְׁחִין וּכְמִכְוָה שֶׁבְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר. שֶׁהָרֹאשׁ אוֹ הַזָּקָן שֶׁנִּקְרְחוּ כְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר לְכָל דָּבָר אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין מִטַּמְּאִין בְּשֵׂעָר לָבָן. הָרֹאשׁ וְהַזָּקָן קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּצְמַח בָּהֶן הַשֵּׂעָר וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הֶעֱלוּ שֵׂעָר מֵעוֹלָם וְכֵן הַדִּלְדּוּלִין שֶׁבָּרֹאשׁ וְשֶׁבַּזָּקָן הֲרֵי הֵן כְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר וּמִתְטַמְּאִין בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה סִימָנִין וּשְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת. וְכֵן זְקַן הָאִשָּׁה וְהַסָּרִיס עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶעֱלוּ שֵׂעָר הֲרֵי הֵן כְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר. וְאִם הֶעֱלוּ שֵׂעָר הֲרֵי הֵן כִּזְקַן הָאִישׁ שֶׁמִּתְטַמֵּא בִּנְתָקִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר וְאֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּבַהֶרֶת:

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 6

1

These are the places in the human body which do not incur impurity because of a baheret: the inside of the eye, the inside of the ear, the inside of the nose, the inside of the mouth, the folds of the stomach, the folds of the neck, under the breasts, the armpits, the underside of the foot, a nail, the head and the chin where hair grows, and open boils and burns.

All of these surfaces do not become impure because of blemishes, nor can they be combined with blemishes. A blemish cannot expand into them; they are not considered as healthy flesh in the midst of a blemish, nor does the absence of tzara'at on them prevent a person whose entire body is afflicted from being placed in that category. These concepts are derived from Leviticus 12:2 which speaks of a blemish being "on the skin of one's flesh." None of the above surfaces can be considered as revealed flesh. Some of them are not flesh and some are flesh, but they are covered and not revealed.

The red portions of the lips are considered as "hidden places" and cannot incur impurity from blemishes.

א

אֵלוּ מְקוֹמוֹת בָּאָדָם שֶׁאֵין מִתְטַמְּאִין בְּבַהֶרֶת. תּוֹךְ הָעַיִן וְתוֹךְ הָאֹזֶן וְתוֹךְ הַחֹטֶם וְתוֹךְ הַפֶּה וְהַקְּמָטִים שֶׁבַּבֶּטֶן וְהַקְּמָטִים שֶׁבַּצַּוָאר וְתַחַת הַדָּד וּבֵית הַשֶּׁחִי וְכַף הָרֶגֶל וְהַצִּפֹּרֶן וְהָרֹאשׁ וְהַזָּקָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן שֵׂעָר וְהַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וְהַמּוֹרְדִין. כָּל אֵלּוּ הַמְּקוֹמוֹת אֵין מִתְטַמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים וְאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין בִּנְגָעִים. וְלֹא הַנֶּגַע פּוֹשֶׂה לְתוֹכָן. וְאֵין מִתְטַמְּאִין מִשּׁוּם מִחְיָה. וְאֵין מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַהוֹפֵךְ כֻּלּוֹ לָבָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג ב) "בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ". וְכָל אֵלּוּ אֵינוֹ עוֹר גָּלוּי אֶלָּא מֵהֶן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹר וּמֵהֶן שֶׁהוּא עוֹר וְהוּא מְכֻסֶּה וְאֵינוֹ גָּלוּי. וְאֹדֶם הַשְּׂפָתַיִם נִדּוֹן כְּבֵית הַסְּתָרִים וְאֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים:

2

When all the hair of the head and the chin fell off or a boil or a burn developed a scab, they may incur impurity due to a baheret, as we explained. Blemishes on these surfaces are not combined with each other, nor can a blemish on ordinary skin expand into them, nor are they considered as healthy flesh in the midst of a blemish. The absence of tzara'at on them does, however, prevent a person whose entire body is afflicted from being placed in this category.

ב

הָרֹאשׁ וְהַזָּקָן שֶׁנָּשַׁר כָּל שַׂעֲרָן וְהַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה שֶׁעָלוּ צָרֶבֶת מִטַּמְּאִין בְּבַהֶרֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה וְאֵין נֶגַע עוֹר הַבָּשָׂר פּוֹשֶׂה לְתוֹכָם וְאֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִים מִשּׁוּם מִחְיָה אֲבָל מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַהוֹפֵךְ כֻּלּוֹ לָבָן:

3

When there is a baheret next to the head, the eye, the ear, or the like or next to a boil or a burn, it is pure. This is derived from Leviticus 13:3: "And the priest shall see the blemish in the flesh of the skin." Implied is that the entire area immediately outside the blemish must be ordinary flesh that is fit for the blemish to spread into.

ג

בַּהֶרֶת הַסְּמוּכָה לָרֹאשׁ אוֹ לָעַיִן אוֹ לָאֹזֶן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אוֹ לַשְּׁחִין אוֹ לַמִּכְוָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג ג) "וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּגַע בְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר" שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כָּל שֶׁחוּצָה לָנֶגַע בְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר וְרָאוּי לְפִשְׂיוֹן:

4

The following are beharot that are pure:

a) A gentile who had a baheret and converted.

b) A baheret existed on a fetus and then the infant was born.

c) A baheret existed in a crease of a person's flesh and then it was revealed.

d) A baheret existed on the head and/or the chin where hair grew, and then all the hair fell off and the baheret was revealed.

e) There was a baheret on ordinary skin, either a boil or a burn formed on its place, and then they healed, and became like ordinary skin. Even though the initial and ultimate condition of the skin is susceptible to impurity, since it was pure in the interim, it remains pure.

In all the above instances, if the shade of the blemish changes, whether the whiteness becomes stronger or weaker, it should be given an initial examination. What is implied? A gentile had a baheret that was white like the membrane of an egg. After he converted, it became white as snow. Or originally, it was white as snow and after he converted, it became like the membrane of an egg, it should be given an initial examination. Similarly, when an infant is born, the creases of a person's skin straighten, a person's head or chin become bald, or a boil or a burn heal, if the shade of these blemishes change, they should be given an initial examination. If not, they are considered pure.

ד

אֵלּוּ בֶּהָרוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת. עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת וְנִתְגַּיֵּר. הָיְתָה בְּעֻבָּר וְנוֹלַד. בְּקֶמֶט וְנִגְלָה. בָּרֹאשׁ וּבַזָּקָן כְּשֶׁהָיָה בָּהֶן שֵׂעָר וְנִקְרְחוּ וְנָשַׁר כָּל הַשֵּׂעָר וְנִתְגַּלְּתָה הַבַּהֶרֶת. הָיְתָה בַּשְּׁחִין וּבַמִּכְוָה כְּשֶׁהֵן מוֹרְדִין וְהֶעֱלוּ צָרֶבֶת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרוֹת. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה הַבַּהֶרֶת בָּרֹאשׁ אוֹ בַּזָּקָן קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ שֵׂעָר מֵעוֹלָם וְהֶעֱלוּ שֵׂעָר וְהָלַךְ הַשֵּׂעָר. אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה הַבַּהֶרֶת בָּעוֹר וְנַעֲשָׂה מְקוֹמָהּ שְׁחִין אוֹ מִכְוָה וְחָיוּ וַהֲרֵי הֵן כְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתְּחִלָּתָהּ וְסוֹפָהּ טְמֵאִין הוֹאִיל וְהָיְתָה טְהוֹרָה בֵּינְתַיִם הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה. נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן בֵּין שֶׁהֵעֵזּוּ אוֹ שֶׁכָּהוּ יֵרָאֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה. כֵּיצַד. עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת כִּקְרוּם בֵּיצָה וּלְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר נַעֲשֵׂית כַּשֶּׁלֶג. אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה כַּשֶּׁלֶג וּלְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר נַעֲשֵׂית כִּקְרוּם בֵּיצָה. תֵּרָאֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְכֵן בְּקָטָן שֶׁנּוֹלַד. וּבַקֶּמֶט שֶׁנִּגְלָה. וּבָרֹאשׁ וּבַזָּקָן שֶׁנִּקְרְחוּ. וּבַשְּׁחִין וּבַמִּכְוָה שֶׁחָיוּ. אִם נִשְׁתַּנָּה מַרְאֵה אוֹתָן הַבֶּהָרוֹת יֵרָאוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרוֹת:

5

Until a person has been deemed impure, all questionable situations regarding blemishes are considered as pure except for the two questionable situations we mentioned already. When, however, a person has been deemed impure, a questionable situation is considered as impure.

What is implied? Two people came to a priest, one had a baheret the size of a gris and the other, one the size of a sela. He had both of them isolated. At the end of the week, they both had blemishes the size of a sela and it was not known which blemish increased in size, they are both considered pure. Not only does this apply with regard to two people, it also applies with regard to two blemishes on the body of one person. Even though a blemish on this person's flesh definitely increased, since it is not known which blemish increased, he is deemed pure until the identity of the blemish for which he will be deemed impure is known.

ה

כָּל סְפֵק נְגָעִים חוּץ מִשְּׁנֵי סְפֵקוֹת שֶׁמָּנִינוּ כְּבָר טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִזְקַק לְטֻמְאָה. אֲבָל מִשֶּׁנִּזְקַק לְטֻמְאָה סְפֵקוֹ טָמֵא. כֵּיצַד. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁבָּאוּ אֵצֶל כֹּהֵן בָּזֶה בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּבָזֶה כְּסֶלַע וְהִסְגִּירָן וּבְסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ הָיָה בָּזֶה כְּסֶלַע וּבָזֶה כְּסֶלַע וְאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּאֵיזֶה מֵהֶן פָּשְׂתָה. בֵּין בִּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים בֵּין בְּאִישׁ אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁוַּדַּאי פָּשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בָּזֶה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא הַבַּהֶרֶת שֶׁפָּשְׂתָה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיֵּדַע בְּאֵי זֶה נֶגַע טִמְּאוֹ:

6

Once a person has been deemed impure, any questionable situation is also considered impure. What is implied? Two people came to a priest. One had a baheret the size of a gris and the other, one the size of a sela. He had both of them isolated. At the end of the week, they came to the priest and they both had blemishes that were larger than a sela. They are both deemed impure. If they both shrank to the size of a sela and thus the increase receded from one of them, since it is not known which one originally had the blemish of this size, they are both impure until both their blemishes recede to the size of a gris. This is what is meant by the statement when a person has been deemed impure, a questionable situation is considered as impure.

Similar concepts apply when a person had a baheret and there was white hair within it that had existed before the baheret and other hair that was turned white by the baheret and the priest does not know how to distinguish between the hair that existed before the baheret and that which was turned white. If the doubt arose while the person was in isolation, he is pure. If the doubt arose after he was definitively deemed impure, he remains impure even if one of the hairs fell off and he does not know which fell off, the hair that was sign of impurity or the other hair.

ו

מִשֶּׁנִּזְקַק לְטֻמְאָה סְפֵקוֹ טָמֵא. כֵּיצַד. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁבָּאוּ אֵצֶל כֹּהֵן בָּזֶה בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּבָזֶה כְּסֶלַע וְהִסְגִּירָם בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ וַהֲרֵי בָּזֶה כְּסֶלַע וְעוֹד וּבָזֶה כְּסֶלַע וְעוֹד שְׁנֵיהֶן טְמֵאִין. חָזְרוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן לִהְיוֹת כְּסֶלַע שֶׁהֲרֵי הָלַךְ הַפִּשְׂיוֹן מֵאֶחָד מֵהֶן הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ אֵי זֶהוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן טְמֵאִים עַד שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן לִהְיוֹת כִּגְרִיס. וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמְרוּ מִשֶּׁנִּזְקַק לְטֻמְאָה סְפֵקוֹ טָמֵא. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן שֶׁקָּדַם אֶת הַבַּהֶרֶת וְשֵׂעָר לָבָן שֶׁהֲפָכַתּוּ הַבַּהֶרֶת. וְאֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ זֶה שֶׁקָּדַם מִזֶּה שֶׁנֶּהְפַּךְ. אִם מִתּוֹךְ הֶסְגֵּר נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. וְאִם אַחַר הֶחְלֵט הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָלַךְ שֵׂעָר אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵי זֶה הָלַךְ אִם הַשֵּׂעָר שֶׁהָיָה סִימַן טֻמְאָה אוֹ הַשֵּׂעָר הָאַחֵר:

7

When a person comes to a priest and he sees that he needs to be isolated or that he should be released from the inspection process and before he isolates him or releases him, signs of impurity erupt, he should be deemed definitively impure. Similarly, if he saw that he had signs of impurity and before he deemed him definitively impure and told him: "You are impure," those signs of impurity disappeared, the stringent ruling should not be delivered. Instead, if he is coming for his initial examination or at the end of the first week, he should be isolated. If he is coming after the conclusion of his second week or after he has been released from the inspection process, he should be released.

ז

מִי שֶׁבָּא אֵצֶל כֹּהֵן וְרָאָהוּ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ הֶסְגֵּר אוֹ שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר וְעַד שֶׁלֹּא הִסְגִּירוֹ אוֹ פְּטָרוֹ נוֹלְדוּ לוֹ סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה. הֲרֵי זֶה יַחְלִיט. וְכֵן אִם רָאָהוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיַּחְלִיטוֹ וְיֹאמַר לוֹ טָמֵא אַתָּה הָלְכוּ לָהֶן סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה. אִם הָיָה בַּתְּחִלָּה אוֹ בְּסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ רִאשׁוֹן יַסְגִּירוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה בְּסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ שֵׁנִי אוֹ לְאַחַר הַפִּטּוּר יִפְטֹר אוֹתוֹ:

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 7

1

When a person had a baheret and - whether at the outset or after isolation - he was definitively deemed as impure because of one of the signs of impurity or he was isolated and then the tzara'at spread over his entire body and his skin turned white, he is pure. This applies whether it turned while he was isolated or after he was deemed definitively as impure.

If, however, he was isolated and no sign of impurity emerged and as a result, he was released from the inspection process, but after being released, the tzara'at covered his entire body, he is deemed definitively impure.

א

מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת וְהֻחְלַט בְּאֶחָד מִסִּימָנֵי טֻמְאָה בֵּין בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין אַחַר הֶסְגֵּר. אוֹ שֶׁהֻסְגַּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ פָּרְחָה הַצָּרַעַת בְּכֻלּוֹ וְנֶהְפַּךְ לָבָן. בֵּין שֶׁנֶּהְפַּךְ מִתּוֹךְ הֶסְגֵּר בֵּין מִתּוֹךְ הֶחְלֵט הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. אֲבָל אִם הֻסְגַּר וְלֹא נוֹלַד לוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה וְנִפְטַר וּלְאַחַר הַפִּטּוּר פָּרְחָה הַצָּרַעַת בְּכֻלּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא מֻחְלָט:

2

The following rules apply when a person comes initially while he is entirely white with tzara'at. If he has a patch of healthy skin or two white hairs, he is deemed definitively impure. If there is no sign of impurity, he is isolated for one week. If white hair or a patch of healthy skin emerges, he is deemed definitively impure. If no sign emerges, he is isolated for a second week. If no sign emerges, he is deemed pure, for the laws applying to this large baheret are the same as those governing a small one.

If he was deemed impure because of two white hairs that emerged and either both or one of them turned black, either both or one of them became short, a boil grew next to either of them or one of them or encompassed both of them or one of them, a boil, a healed boil, a burn, a healed burn, or a bohak divided one hair from the other, he is pure. If white hair or healthy flesh emerges, he is impure, because he came initially while entirely white.

Whether the tzara'at spread over the person's entire skin all at once or whether it spread little by little until he became entirely white, if this occurred while the person was isolated or while he was deemed definitively impure, he is pure. If it occurred after he was released from the inspection process, he is impure. And if it occurred at the outset, he should be isolated. Similarly, it is irrelevant whether the blemish is entirely of one shade or that it is entirely white, but has the four shades of white and the four shades of petuch intermingled. All of these shades can be combined and considered as a single blemish, whether to cause the person to be declared pure or to be declared impure, as we explained.

ב

הַבָּא בַּתְּחִלָּה וְהוּא כֻּלּוֹ הָפַךְ לָבָן. אִם הָיְתָה בּוֹ מִחְיָה אוֹ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לְבָנוֹת מַחְלִיטִין אוֹתוֹ. אִם אֵין שָׁם סִימַן טֻמְאָה מַסְגִּירִין אוֹתוֹ שָׁבוּעַ רִאשׁוֹן. נוֹלַד לוֹ שֵׂעָר לָבָן אוֹ מִחְיָה מַחְלִיטוֹ. לֹא נוֹלַד בּוֹ כְּלוּם מַסְגִּירוֹ שָׁבוּעַ שֵׁנִי. לֹא נוֹלַד לוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. שֶׁדִּין בַּהֶרֶת זוֹ הַגְּדוֹלָה כְּדִין הַקְּטַנָּה. הֶחְלִיטוֹ בְּשֵׂעָר לָבָן שֶׁנּוֹלַד בּוֹ וְהִשְׁחִירוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן אוֹ אַחַת מֵהֶן. הִקְצִירוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן אוֹ אַחַת מֵהֶן. נִסְמַךְ הַשְּׁחִין לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן אוֹ לְאַחַת מֵהֶן. הִקִּיף הַשְּׁחִין אֶת שְׁתֵּיהֶן אוֹ אַחַת מֵהֶן. אוֹ שֶׁחִלְּקָן הַשְּׁחִין וּמִחְיַת הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וּמִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה וְהַבֹּהַק. הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. נוֹלַד לוֹ שֵׂעָר לָבָן אַחֵר אוֹ מִחְיָה הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבָּא כֻּלּוֹ לָבָן בַּתְּחִלָּה. אַחַר שֶׁפָּרְחָה הַצָּרַעַת בְּכֻלּוֹ כְּאַחַת וְאַחַר שֶׁפָּשְׂתָה וּפָרְחָה מְעַט מְעַט עַד שֶׁהִלְבִּין כֻּלּוֹ. אִם מִתּוֹךְ הֶסְגֵּר אוֹ מִתּוֹךְ הֶחְלֵט טָהוֹר. וְאִם אַחַר הַפִּטּוּר טָמֵא. וְאִם בַּתְּחִלָּה יַסְגִּיר. אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה כֻּלּוֹ מַרְאֶה אֶחָד אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה כֻּלּוֹ לָבָן בְּאַרְבַּע הַמַּרְאוֹת שֶׁבַּלֹּבֶן וּבְאַרְבַּע שֶׁל פָּתוּךְ הַכּל מִצְטָרְפִין בֵּין לְטַהֲרוֹ בֵּין לְטַמְּאוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

The following rules apply when a person had a baheret the size of a gris in which there was a patch of healthy flesh the size of a lentil and he was deemed definitively impure because of the healthy flesh. Afterwards, the tzara'at spread over his entire body and the healthy flesh disappeared. Alternatively, the healthy flesh disappeared and then the tzara'at spread over his entire body. He is considered as pure. This applies even if white hair emerges. If, however, healthy skin emerges, he is impure, as Leviticus 12:14 states: "On the day he exhibits healthy flesh, he will be deemed impure," provided the healthy flesh is the size of a square superimposed on a lentil or larger.

Different rules apply if one had a baheret with white hair and he was deemed impure because of it and afterwards, the tzara'at spread over his entire body. Even though the white hair remains in place, he is pure, as can be derived from the verse: "On the day he exhibits healthy flesh, he will be deemed impure." Implied is that a person whose entire skin turned white after being deemed definitively impure or being isolated becomes impure because of healthy flesh, but not because of white hair. If he was deemed impure because his blemish spread and then it continued to spread and covered his entire body, he is pure. If he exhibits any healthy flesh, he is impure.

ג

הָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּבָהּ מִחְיָה כַּעֲדָשָׁה וְהֻחְלַט בְּמִחְיָה וּפָרְחָה הַצָּרַעַת בְּכֻלּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָלְכָה הַמִּחְיָה. אוֹ שֶׁהָלְכָה הַמִּחְיָה תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ פָּרְחָה בְּכֻלּוֹ. הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר וַאֲפִלּוּ נוֹלַד לוֹ שֵׂעָר לָבָן. נוֹלְדָה בּוֹ מִחְיָה טָמֵא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג יד) "וּבְיוֹם הֵרָאוֹת בּוֹ בָּשָׂר חַי יִטְמָא". וְהוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה כַּעֲדָשָׁה מְרֻבַּעַת אוֹ יֶתֶר. הָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וְהֻחְלַט בְּשֵׂעָר לָבָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ פָּרְחָה בְּכֻלּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשֵּׂעָר לָבָן בִּמְקוֹמוֹ עוֹמֵד טָהוֹר. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּבְיוֹם הֵרָאוֹת בּוֹ בָּשָׂר חַי יִטְמָא בְּמִחְיָה מִתְטַמֵּא זֶה שֶׁנֶּהְפַּךְ כֻּלּוֹ לָבָן אַחַר הֶחְלֵט אוֹ אַחַר הֶסְגֵּר. וְאֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בְּשֵׂעָר לָבָן. הֶחְלִיטוֹ בְּפִשְׂיוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ פָּשְׂתָה וּפָרְחָה בְּכֻלּוֹ טָהוֹר. וְאִם נִרְאֵית בּוֹ מִחְיָה טָמֵא:

4

Even the tips of limbs that do not impart impurity as healthy flesh when they are located in the midst of a baheret, do impart impurity and prevent a person from being deemed pure if his entire flesh turns white.

What is implied? If a person who was definitively deemed impure or who was isolated whose entire flesh turned white because of tzara'at with the exception of a lentil's size of healthy flesh, even if the healthy flesh is located on his fingertip, the tip of his nose, or the like, he remains impure.

Similarly, if a person's entire flesh turned white and he was declared pure and then a lentil's size of healthy flesh returned, even at the tips of one of his limbs, he should be definitively deemed impure. If his flesh turned entirely to a shade of tzara'at except for a lentil's size portion - even on the tips of his limbs that turned to a bohak, he should be deemed definitively impure, as can be derived from Leviticus 13:12: "If... the tzara'at will cover the entire skin...." Implied is that it must be covered by tzara'at, not a bohak. Even if part of the lentil's size portion was healthy flesh and part was a bohak, it is a sign of impurity.

If a person's entire flesh turned to one of the shades of tzara'at and he was declared pure and then a portion of his flesh turned to the color of a bohak, he remains pure until he exhibits a lentil's size of healthy flesh, as implied by the verse: "On the day he exhibits healthy flesh...." Implied is that he must exhibit healthy flesh, not a bohak. If a lentil's size portion of flesh [changed appearance, part was healthy flesh and part was a bohak, it is not considered a sign of impurity and the person is still considered as pure.

ד

אַף רָאשֵׁי אֵיבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִין מִשּׁוּם מִחְיָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַבַּהֶרֶת מִטַּמְּאִין וּמְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַנֶּהְפָּךְ כֻּלּוֹ לָבָן. כֵּיצַד. מֻחְלָט אוֹ מֻסְגָּר שֶׁהִלְבִּין כֻּלּוֹ בְּצָרַעַת חוּץ מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה בָּשָׂר חַי אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֹאשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹ אוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ חָטְמוֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הוּא בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ. וְכֵן זֶה שֶׁנֶּהְפַּךְ כֻּלּוֹ לָבָן וְטָהַר אִם חָזַר בּוֹ כַּעֲדָשָׁה בָּשָׂר חַי אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֹאשׁ אֶחָד מִן הָאֵיבָרִים הֲרֵי זֶה מֻחְלָט. נֶהְפַּךְ כֻּלּוֹ לְמַרְאֵה צָרַעַת חוּץ מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֹאשׁ אֶחָד מִן הָאֵיבָרִים שֶׁנֶּהְפַּךְ לְבֹהַק הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא מֻחְלָט שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג יג) "וְהִנֵּה כִסְּתָה הַצָּרַעַת", לֹא הַבֹּהַק. אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה מִקְצָת הָעֲדָשָׁה בָּשָׂר חַי וּמִקְצָתָהּ בֹּהַק הֲרֵי זוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה. נֶהְפַּךְ כֻּלּוֹ לְמַרְאֵה צָרַעַת וְטִהַר וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזַר בּוֹ בָּשָׂר כְּמַרְאֵה הַבֹּהַק הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיֵּרָאֶה בּוֹ כַּעֲדָשָׁה בָּשָׂר חַי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג יד) "וּבְיוֹם הֵרָאוֹת בּוֹ בָּשָׂר חַי", לֹא בֹּהַק. חָזַר בּוֹ כַּעֲדָשָׁה מִקְצָתָהּ בָּשָׂר חַי וּמִקְצָתָהּ בֹּהַק אֵינוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְּטָהֳרָתוֹ:

5

Whenever tzara'at spreads over the entire body of an impure person, he becomes pure. If a lentil's size portion of healthy flesh was revealed, he is impure. If his entire flesh was again covered with tzara'at, he is pure, If healthy flesh was again revealed, he is impure. These rulings are given even if the cycle repeats itself 100 times.

If healthy flesh began to be revealed and it continues to grow and the size of the tzara'at shrinks, the person remains impure until the baheret becomes smaller than a gris.

ה

כָּל טָמֵא שֶׁפָּרְחָה הַצָּרַעַת בְּכֻלּוֹ טָהוֹר. נִתְגַּלָּה מִמֶּנּוּ כַּעֲדָשָׁה בָּשָׂר חַי נִטְמָא. חָזַר וְנִתְכַּסָּה בְּצָרַעַת טָהוֹר. חָזַר וְנִתְגַּלָּה נִטְמָא אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה פְּעָמִים. הִתְחִיל הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי לְהִתְגַּלּוֹת וַהֲרֵי הוּא מוֹסִיף וְהוֹלֵךְ וְהַצָּרַעַת מִתְמַעֶטֶת הֲרֵי זֶה בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ עַד שֶׁתִּתְמַעֵט הַבַּהֶרֶת מִכִּגְרִיס:

6

Any portion of skin that is fit to contract impurity because of baheret but remains healthy prevents a person whose entire flesh is becoming white from being placed in that category. Any portion of skin that is not fit to contract impurity because of baheret does not prevent a person whose entire flesh is becoming white from being placed in that category although that portion of skin remains healthy.

What is implied? When tzara'at spreads over a person's entire skin, but not on his head or his chin, nor onto a festering boil or burn or there is less than a lentil's size portion of healthy flesh next to a festering boil or burn or to his head or chin, he is pure. If the hair fell from the head and the chin or if a scab formed over the boil or the burn, the person is impure until the tzara'at spreads to them, for they are fit to contract impurity because of a baheret.

If there were two beharot, one had a sign of impurity and one was pure, the pure one spread to the impure and then covered the person's skin entirely, he is deemed pure. The rationale is that he was previously deemed definitively impure, even though it was the pure one that spread. Furthermore, this ruling applies even if one of the beharot was on his upper lip and the other on his lower lip or on two of his fingers or on his two eyelids, and thus when they are closed together, the two beharot appear as one. Nevertheless, since tzara'at spread over the person's entire skin, he is pure.

ו

כָּל הָרָאוּי לִטַּמֵּא בְּנֶגַע הַבַּהֶרֶת מְעַכֵּב הַהוֹפֵךְ כֻּלּוֹ לָבָן וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִטַּמֵּא בְּנֶגַע הַבַּהֶרֶת אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב. כֵּיצַד. פָּרְחָה בְּכֻלּוֹ אֲבָל לֹא בָּרֹאשׁ וּבַזָּקָן בַּשְּׁחִין וּבַמִּכְוָה הַמּוֹרְדִין. אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר פָּחוֹת מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה בָּשָׂר חַי סָמוּךְ לַשְּׁחִין וְלַמִּכְוָה הַמּוֹרְדִין וְלָרֹאשׁ וְלַזָּקָן הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. חָזַר הָרֹאשׁ וְהַזָּקָן וְנִקְרְחוּ וְכֵן אִם חָיוּ הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וְהֶעֱלוּ צָרֶבֶת הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא עַד שֶׁתִּפְרַח הַצָּרַעַת בָּהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן רְאוּיִין לְבַהֶרֶת. הָיוּ בָּהּ שְׁתֵּי בֶּהָרוֹת אַחַת יֵשׁ בָּהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה וְאַחַת טְהוֹרָה וּפָרְחָה הַטְּהוֹרָה לַטְּמֵאָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ פָּרְחָה בְּכֻלּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה מֻחְלָט בְּטֻמְאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַטְּהוֹרָה הִיא שֶׁפָּרְחָה. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ אַחַת בִּשְׂפָתוֹ הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וְאַחַת בִּשְׂפָתוֹ הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה אוֹ בִּשְׁתֵּי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו אוֹ בִּשְׁנֵי רִיסֵי עֵינָיו וּכְשֶׁהֵן נִדְבָּקִין זֶה לָזֶה נִרְאִין שְׁתֵּי הַבֶּהָרוֹת כְּבַהֶרֶת אַחַת הוֹאִיל וּפָרְחָה בְּכֻלּוֹ טָהוֹר:

7

There are those who show their blemishes to a priest and benefit from doing so, because they showed it to him early and did not delay, and others who suffer from doing so.

What is implied? A person was definitively deemed impure. His signs of impurity disappeared, but he did not have the opportunity to show this development to a priest before the tzara'at spread over his entire body. He is pure. If, however, he had acted earlier and showed it to the priest previously, he would have been released from the inspection process before it spread over his entire body. Thus it would have spread after he was released, in which instance, he would be deemed definitively impure, as we explained.

If he had a baheret without any signs of impurity and he did not have the opportunity to show it to a priest before it spread over his entire body, he is impure and must be isolated. If, however, he had acted earlier and had shown it to the priest, he would have been isolated before it spread. Thus it would have spread after he was isolated, in which instance, he would be pure, as we explained.

ז

יֵשׁ מַרְאֶה נִגְעוֹ לְכֹהֵן וְנִשְׂכַּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִקְדִּים לְהַרְאוֹתוֹ וְלֹא נִתְאַחֵר. וְיֵשׁ מַרְאֶה וּמַפְסִיד. כֵּיצַד. מִי שֶׁהָיָה מֻחְלָט וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶן סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לְהַרְאוֹתוֹ לַכֹּהֵן עַד שֶׁפָּרְחָה בְּכֻלּוֹ טָהוֹר. וְאִלּוּ קָדַם וְהֶרְאָה לַכֹּהֵן וּפְטָרוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּהֲפֹךְ וְנֶהְפַּךְ אַחַר הַפִּטּוּר הָיָה מֻחְלָט כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת וְאֵין בָּהּ כְּלוּם וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לְהַרְאוֹתוֹ לַכֹּהֵן עַד שֶׁפָּרְחָה בְּכֻלּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא וְצָרִיךְ הֶסְגֵּר. וְאִלּוּ קָדַם וְהֶרְאָה לַכֹּהֵן וְהִסְגִּירוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּהֲפֹךְ וְנֶהְפַּךְ מִתּוֹךְ הֶסְגֵּר הָיָה טָהוֹר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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