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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Korban Pesach - Perek 9, Korban Pesach - Perek 10, Chagigah - Perek 1

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Korban Pesach - Perek 9

1

Anyone who partakes of a Paschal sacrifice may partake of it only in one company. It may not be removed from the company to partake of it. If one removes an olive-sized portion of meat from a Paschal sacrifice from one company to another company on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan, he is liable for lashes, as Exodus 12:46 states: "Do not remove the meat from the house to the outside, "for that prooftext uses a form of the word hotza'ah which is used with regard to the Sabbath. Therefore it is necessary that one remove the article from its initial place and place it down outside, as is true with regard to the prohibition against transferring an article from one domain to another on the Sabbath.

With regard to the Paschal sacrifice, one is not liable for removing meat from a company after it has already been removed once. Instead, since it was removed by the first person, it is disqualified.

From the doorframe of a house inward is considered as part of the house. From the doorframe outward, is considered as outside the house. The doorframe, i.e., the width of the entrance, is considered as outside. The windows and the width of the walls are considered as inside. The roofs and the lofts are not considered as part of the house.

א

כָּל הָאוֹכֵל מִן הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אֶלָּא בַּחֲבוּרָה אַחַת וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִמֶּנּוּ מִן הַחֲבוּרָה שֶׁיֹּאכַל בָּהּ. וְהַמּוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר מֵחֲבוּרָה לַחֲבוּרָה בְּלֵיל חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מו) "לֹא תוֹצִיא מִן הַבַּיִת מִן הַבָּשָׂר חוּצָה". וְהוּא שֶׁיַּנִּיחֵנוּ בַּחוּץ. שֶׁהוֹצָאָה כְּתוּבָה בּוֹ כְּשַׁבָּת לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ עֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה כְּהוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת. וְאֵין מוֹצִיא אַחַר מוֹצִיא בְּפֶסַח שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן נִפְסַל. מִן הָאֲגַף וּלְפָנִים כִּלְפָנִים מִן הָאֲגַף וְלַחוּץ כְּלַחוּץ וְהָאֲגַף עַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא עֳבִי הַפֶּתַח כְּלַחוּץ. הַחַלּוֹנוֹת וָעֳבִי הַכְּתָלִים כִּלְפָנִים. הַגַּגִּים וְהָעֲלִיּוֹת אֵינָן בִּכְלַל הַבַּיִת:

2

When the meat of a Paschal sacrifice has been removed from its company - whether intentionally or inadvertently - it becomes forbidden to be eaten. It is comparable to the meat of sacrifices of the most sacred order that were taken outside the Temple Courtyard or sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity that were taken outside the walls of Jerusalem, in which instance, everything is considered like an animal that is treifah. One is liable for lashes for partaking of it, as stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot.

When part of a limb of a sacrificial animal is removed from its designated area,one should cut through the meat, descending until he reaches the bone and then scrape off the meat. Whatever is within the designated area should be eaten. Whatever is outside should be burnt. When he reaches the bone, he should cut off the bone with a butcher's knife, if other sacrifices are involved. If it is a Paschal sacrifice - in which instance, it is forbidden to break its bones - one should scrape off the meat until the joint, separate the limb whose portion was removed from the joint, and cast it outside.

ב

בְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַחֲבוּרָתוֹ בֵּין בְּזָדוֹן בֵּין בִּשְׁגָגָה נֶאֱסַר בַּאֲכִילָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּבְשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַעֲזָרָה אוֹ בְּשַׂר קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לְחוֹמוֹת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁהַכּל כִּטְרֵפָה. וְלוֹקִין עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת. אֵיבָר שֶׁיָּצָא מִקְצָתוֹ חוֹתֵךְ הַבָּשָׂר וְיוֹרֵד עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לָעֶצֶם וְקוֹלֵף אֶת הַבָּשָׂר כָּל שֶׁבִּפְנִים יֹאכַל וְכָל שֶׁבַּחוּץ יִשָּׂרֵף. כְּשֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לָעֶצֶם חוֹתֵךְ בְּקוֹפִיץ אִם הָיָה שְׁאָר קָדָשִׁים. וְאִם הָיָה פֶּסַח שֶׁאָסוּר לִשְׁבֹּר בּוֹ עֶצֶם קוֹלֵף עַד הַפֶּרֶק וּמְפָרֵק הָאֵיבָר שֶׁיָּצָא מִקְצָתוֹ מִן הַפֶּרֶק וּמַשְׁלִיכוֹ לַחוּץ:

3

When two companies are partaking of their Paschal sacrifices in one house, each company must delineate its borders with a partition. From the words "from the meat... outside," the Oral Tradition taught that the place outside the place where it is being eaten must be designated. Thus one company must turn their faces to one side and eat and the other must turn their faces to the other side and eat, so they will not appear as intermingled.

ג

שְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלוֹת בְּבַיִת אֶחָד צְרִיכָה כָּל חֲבוּרָה מֵהֶן לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ הֶקֵּף שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מו) "מִן הַבָּשָׂר חוּצָה". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִתֵּן לוֹ חוּצָה לִמְקוֹם אֲכִילָתוֹ. וְאֵלּוּ הוֹפְכִין אֶת פְּנֵיהֶן אֵילָךְ וְאוֹכְלִין וְאֵלּוּ הוֹפְכִין אֶת פְּנֵיהֶן אֵילָךְ וְאוֹכְלִין כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵרָאוּ מְעֹרָבִים:

4

If the water with which they would mix their wines was in the center of the house, between the two companies, when the attendant rises to pour water, he should shut his mouth closed and then turn his face away from his company, keeping it closed until he returns to them. Only afterwards may he swallow what is in his mouth, for it is forbidden to partake of the Paschal sacrifice in two companies.

A bride is permitted to turn her face away from the company and partake of the Paschal sacrifice, because she is embarrassed to eat in their presence.

ד

הָיוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁמּוֹזְגִים בּוֹ יֵינָם בְּאֶמְצַע הַבַּיִת בֵּין שְׁתֵּי הַחֲבוּרוֹת. כְּשֶׁהַשַּׁמָּשׁ עוֹמֵד לִמְזֹג קוֹפֵץ אֶת פִּיו וּמַחֲזִיר אֶת פָּנָיו עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ אֵצֶל חֲבוּרָתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹכֵל מַה שֶּׁבְּפִיו. שֶׁאָסוּר לָאוֹכֵל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת. וּמֻתָּר לְכַלָּה לְהַחְזִיר פָּנֶיהָ מִפְּנֵי חֲבוּרָתָהּ וְאוֹכֶלֶת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בּוֹשָׁה לֶאֱכל בִּפְנֵיהֶם:

5

When the divider between two companies has been undone, they should not partake of their Paschal sacrifices. Similarly, if one company was partaking of a Paschal sacrifice and a divider was made separating some from the others, they should not partake of it until the divider is removed. The rationale is that a Paschal sacrifice may not be eaten in two companies and one should not move from one company to another.

ה

שְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה מְחִצָּה מִבֵּינֵיהֶן אֵינָן אוֹכְלִין. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה חֲבוּרָה אַחַת וְנַעֲשֵׂית מְחִצָּה בֵּינֵיהֶן אֵינָן אוֹכְלִין עַד שֶׁתִּסְתַּלֵּק. שֶׁאֵין הַפֶּסַח נֶאֱכָל בִּשְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת וְאֵינָן נֶעֱקָרִין מֵחֲבוּרָה לַחֲבוּרָה:

6

The following rules apply when three or more members of a company come to partake of their Paschal sacrifice, but the other members of the company do not come. If they entered at the time most people partake of their Paschal sacrifices and the attendant called for the others and they did not come, they may enter and eat until satiation without waiting for the others. Even if those who came late come and see that the three consumed the entire sacrifice, they need not reimburse them for their portion. If, however, only two enter on time, they should wait.

When does this apply? When they enter to eat. When, however, they depart, no one has to wait for his colleague. Even if only one person finished eating, he may depart. He need not wait for the others.

ו

בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה מֵהֶן אוֹ יֶתֶר לֶאֱכל פִּסְחֵיהֶן וְלֹא בָּאוּ שְׁאָר בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה. אִם נִכְנְסוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לֶאֱכל הַפְּסָחִים וְחָזַר הַמְעוֹרֵר לְכֻלָּן עַל הַשְּׁאָר וְלֹא בָּאוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ אוֹכְלִין עַד שֶׁיִּשְׂבְּעוּ וְאֵין מַמְתִּינִים לַשְּׁאָר. וַאֲפִלּוּ בָּאוּ הַמִּתְאַחֲרִין אַחַר כָּךְ וּמָצְאוּ אֵלּוּ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ הַכּל אֵין מְשַׁלְּמִים לָהֶן כְּדֵי חֶלְקָם. אֲבָל אִם נִכְנְסוּ שְׁנַיִם בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַמְתִּינִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁעַת כְּנִיסָתָן לֶאֱכל אֲבָל בְּעֵת שֶׁנִּפְטָרִין אֵין אָדָם צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין לַחֲבֵרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ גָּמַר אֶחָד בִּלְבַד מִלֶּאֱכל יֵצֵא וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין:

7

One who gives an olive-sized portion of a Paschal sacrifice - whether the first Paschal sacrifice or the second - to an apostate who worships false deities, to a resident alien, or a gentile worker, violates a negative commandment, but is not liable for lashes. He is, however, liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.

The term "foreigner" mentioned in the Torah refers to one who worships alien deities. One may not give a portion of the Paschal sacrifice to a gentile, even a resident alien or a worker, as Exodus 12:45 states: "Neither a resident, nor an alien should partake of it."

ז

הַמַּאֲכִיל כְּזַיִת מִן הַפֶּסַח בֵּין מִפֶּסַח רִאשׁוֹן בֵּין מִפֶּסַח שֵׁנִי לְמוּמָר לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אוֹ לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב אוֹ לְשָׂכִיר. הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֲבָל מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת. וּ"בֶן נֵכָר" (שמות יב מג) הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה זֶה הָעוֹבֵד אֵל נֵכָר. וְאֵין מַאֲכִילִין מִמֶּנּוּ לְנָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב אוֹ שָׂכִיר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מה) "תּוֹשָׁב וְשָׂכִיר לֹא יֹאכַל בּוֹ":

8

An uncircumcised person who ate an olive-sized portion of the Paschal sacrifice is liable for lashes, as ibid.:48 states: "No uncircumcised person shall partake of it." That verse can also be interpreted as meaning: He may not partake "of it"; he may, however, partake of matzah and bitter herbs. Similarly, it is permitted to feed matzah and bitter herbs to a resident alien, or a gentile worker.

ח

עָרֵל שֶׁאָכַל כְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מח) "כָּל עָרֵל לֹא יֹאכַל בּוֹ". בּוֹ הוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אֲבָל אוֹכֵל הוּא מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַאֲכִיל מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב וּלְשָׂכִיר:

9

Just as the circumcision of one's sons and servants holds one back from slaughtering the Paschal sacrifice, so too, it holds him back from partaking of it, as ibid.:44 states: "He shall circumcise him, then he shall partake of it."

What is implied? One purchased a servant after the slaughter of the Paschal sacrifice or one had a son whose time for circumcision did not arrive until after the slaughter of the Paschal sacrifice. Such a person is forbidden to partake of the Paschal sacrifice until he circumcises them.

How is it possible for the son to be fit to be circumcised after the slaughter of the Paschal sacrifice, but not to be fit to be circumcised before its slaughtered? For example, he had a fever and seven full days are needed from the time at which he became healed,his eye hurt severely and he was healed after the slaughter of the Paschal sacrifice, or he was a tumtum and he was operated on after the slaughter of the Paschal sacrifice and it was discovered that he was male.

ט

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּילַת בָּנָיו וַעֲבָדָיו מְעַכַּבְתּוֹ מִלִּשְׁחֹט הַפֶּסַח כָּךְ מְעַכַּבְתּוֹ מִלֶּאֱכל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מד) "וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּוֹ". כֵּיצַד. קָנָה עֶבֶד אַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט הַפֶּסַח. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בֵּן שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ זְמַנּוֹ לְהִמּוֹל אֶלָּא אַחַר שְׁחִיטַת הַפֶּסַח. הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לֶאֱכל עַד שֶׁיָּמוּל אוֹתָן. וְכֵיצַד יִהְיֶה הַבֵּן רָאוּי לְמִילָה אַחַר שְׁחִיטַת הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא יִהְיֶה רָאוּי קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטָה. כְּגוֹן שֶׁחֲלַצְתּוֹ חַמָּה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מֵעֵת לְעֵת מִיּוֹם הַבְרָאָתוֹ. וּכְגוֹן שֶׁכָּאֲבָה עֵינוֹ וְנִרְפֵּאת אַחַר שְׁחִיטָה. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה טֻמְטוּם וְנִקְרַע אַחַר שְׁחִיטַת הַפֶּסַח וְנִמְצָא זָכָר:

Korban Pesach - Perek 10

1

A person who breaks a bone in a pure Paschal sacrifice is liable for lashes, as Exodus 12:46 states: "You shall not break a bone in it." And with regard to the second Paschal sacrifice, Numbers 9:12 states: "He shall not break a bone in it."

When, however, the Paschal sacrifice is brought in a state of impurity, one is not liable for lashes. According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught: "You shall not break in it," i.e., in a pure sacrifice, not an impure one.

Whether one breaks a bone of the Paschal sacrifice on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan, while it is still day on the fourteenth, or even after several days, he is liable for lashes.

א

הַשׁוֹבֵר עֶצֶם בְּפֶסַח טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מו) "וְעֶצֶם לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ בוֹ". וְכֵן נֶאֱמַר בְּפֶסַח שֵׁנִי וְעֶצֶם לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ בוֹ. אֲבָל פֶּסַח שֶׁבָּא בְּטֻמְאָה אִם שָׁבַר בּוֹ עֶצֶם אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ בוֹ בְּטָהוֹר וְלֹא בְּטָמֵא. אֶחָד הַשּׁוֹבֵר אֶת הָעֶצֶם בְּלֵילֵי חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁבַר בּוֹ עֶצֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁבַר אַחַר כַּמָּה יָמִים הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה:

2

For this reason, the bones of the Paschal sacrifice are burnt with the remainder of its meat so that they will not cause misfortune.

ב

לְפִיכָךְ שׂוֹרְפִין עַצְמוֹת הַפֶּסַח בִּכְלַל הַנּוֹתָר מִבְּשָׂרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ בָּהֶן לִידֵי תַּקָּלָה:

3

One is liable only for breaking a bone upon which there was an olive-sized portion of meat or which contains marrow. If, by contrast, a bone does not contain marrow and there is not an olive-sized portion of meat upon it, one is not liable for breaking it. If there was an olive-sized portion of meat on a bone, but one broke it in a place where they is no meat, he is liable, even though there is no meat where he broke the bone.

ג

אֵין חַיָּבִין אֶלָּא עַל שְׁבִירַת עֶצֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מוֹחַ. אֲבָל עֶצֶם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מוֹחַ וְשֶׁאֵין עָלָיו כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַל שְׁבִירָתוֹ. הָיָה עָלָיו כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר וְשָׁבַר הָעֶצֶם שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם הַבָּשָׂר חַיָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם שֶׁשָּׁבַר פָּנוּי מִבְּשָׂרוֹ:

4

When one breaks a bone that is already broken, he is liable for lashes.

ד

הַשּׁוֹבֵר אַחַר הַשּׁוֹבֵר בְּעֶצֶם אֶחָד לוֹקֶה:

5

When one burns the bones of a Paschal sacrifice or cuts its sinews, he is not liable for breaking a bone.

ה

הַשּׂוֹרֵף עֲצָמוֹת וְהַמְחַתֵּךְ גִּידִים אֵינוֹ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם שְׁבִירַת עֶצֶם:

6

When a Paschal sacrifice was lightly roasted or cooked and one broke a bone, he is liable for lashes. Even if it was disqualified because it contracted impurity, it was taken out of the home where it is being eaten, or the like, the prohibition against breaking its bones applies.

When does the above apply? When there was a time the Paschal sacrifice was acceptable and it was disqualified. If, however, there was never a time when it was acceptable, e.g., it became piggul or was brought with a disqualifying intent concerning time or with a disqualifying intent concerning the type of sacrifice, the prohibition against breaking a bone does not apply.

ו

פֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא נָא אוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל וְשָׁבַר בּוֹ אֶת הָעֶצֶם לוֹקֶה. אֲפִלּוּ נִפְסַל בְּטֻמְאָה וִיצִיאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם יֵשׁ בּוֹ אִסּוּר שְׁבִירַת הָעֶצֶם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ שְׁעַת הַכּשֶׁר וְנִפְסַל. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיְתָה לוֹ שְׁעַת הַכּשֶׁר כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּתְפַּגֵּל אוֹ נַעֲשָׂה מַחֲשֶׁבֶת זְמַן אוֹ מַחֲשֶׁבֶת שִׁנּוּי הַשֵּׁם. אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם שְׁבִירַת הָעֶצֶם:

7

If one breaks the bone of the fat-tail, he is not liable, because it is not fit to be eaten.

ז

שָׁבַר עֶצֶם הָאַלְיָה אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה:

8

Cartilage which is like soft bones are permitted to be eaten.

ח

הַסְּחוּסִים שֶׁהֵם כְּמוֹ עֲצָמִים רַכִּים. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין לְאָכְלָן:

9

If the Paschal sacrifice was a small and tender kid goat whose bones are soft, they may not be eaten, because that is considered as breaking a bone. If one partakes of them he is liable for lashes, for the liability applies equally whether one breaks a firm bone or a soft bone,

This is the general principle: Whatever could be eaten in a large ox after it has been cooked may be eaten in a tender kid after it has been roasted, e.g., the cartilage around the joints and similar types of body tissue.

ט

הָיָה גְּדִי קָטָן וְרַךְ שֶׁעַצְמוֹתָיו רַכִּים לֹא יֹאכַל אוֹתָן שֶׁזֶּה שׁוֹבֵר עֶצֶם וְאִם אָכַל לוֹקֶה. שֶׁאֶחָד הַשּׁוֹבֵר עֶצֶם קָשֶׁה אוֹ עֶצֶם רַךְ. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁנֶּאֱכָל בְּשׁוֹר הַגָּדוֹל אַחַר שֶׁיִּתְבַּשֵּׁל הוּא שֶׁמֻּתָּר לֶאֱכל כְּנֶגְדּוֹ מִן הַגְּדִי הָרַךְ אַחַר צְלִיָּתוֹ כְּגוֹן רָאשֵׁי כְּנָפַיִם וְהַסְּחוּסִים:

10

Soft sinews that will ultimately become firm, even though they are fit to be eaten at the time and may be eaten from the Paschal sacrifice, they are not considered when enumerating people on the sacrifice. Persons may be enumerated because of the brain in the head, because it is possible to remove it without breaking a bone. One may not be enumerated on the marrow in the hip bone - it is bone closed on both sides - because it is impossible to remove the marrow without breaking a bone.

י

גִּידִין הָרַכִּין שֶׁסּוֹפָן לְהִקָּשׁוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה עַתָּה וְנֶאֱכָלִין בְּפֶסַח אֵין נִמְנִין עֲלֵיהֶן. וְנִמְנִין עַל מוֹחַ שֶׁבָּרֹאשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּלֹא שְׁבִירַת עֶצֶם. וְאֵין נִמְנִין עַל מוֹחַ שֶׁבְּקוּלִית וְהוּא הָעֶצֶם הַסָּתוּם מִשְּׁנֵי רָאשָׁיו. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִירַת עֶצֶם:

11

When a person partakes of the Paschal sacrifice, he should cut off the meat and partake of it. He may cut off the bones at the joints and separate them if he desires.

When he reaches the sciatic nerve, he should remove it and place it with the remainder of sinews, bones, and membranes which are removed at the time of eating. It is not removed previously, as is done with regard to other meat.

The Paschal sacrifice should not be cut into pieces before it is roasted. Instead, it is roasted whole. If it was cut into pieces, it is acceptable, provided it is not lacking a limb.

A person should endeavor that none of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice remain until the morning, as Exodus 12:10 states: "Do not leave over any of it until the morning." Similarly, with regard to the second Paschal sacrifice, Numbers 9:12 states: "Do not have any of it remain until the morning." If one left some over, whether from the first Paschal sacrifice or the second, he violates a negative commandment. He is not liable for lashes for this commandment, because it can be corrected by a positive commandment,as Exodus 12:10 states: "What remains from it, you shall burn in fire."

יא

כְּשֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל אֶת הַפֶּסַח חוֹתֵךְ הַבָּשָׂר וְאוֹכֵל וְחוֹתֵךְ הָעֲצָמוֹת מִן הַפֶּרֶק וּמְפָרְקָן אִם רָצָה. וּכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה מוֹצִיאוֹ וּמַנִּיחוֹ עִם שְׁאָר הַגִּידִים וְהָעֲצָמוֹת וְהַקְּרוּמוֹת שֶׁיּוֹצְאִין בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָה. שֶׁאֵין מְנַקִּין אוֹתוֹ כִּשְׁאָר הַבָּשָׂר וְאֵין מְחַתְּכִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא צוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ שָׁלֵם. וְאִם חֲתָכוֹ חֲתִיכוֹת חֲתִיכוֹת כָּשֵׁר וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יֶחְסַר אֵיבָר. צָרִיךְ אָדָם לְהִשְׁתַּדֵּל שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁאִיר מִבְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח עַד בֹּקֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב י) "לֹא תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר". וְכֵן בַּשֵּׁנִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ט יב) "לֹא יַשְׁאִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר". וְאִם הִשְׁאִיר מִמֶּנּוּ בֵּין בָּרִאשׁוֹן בֵּין בַּשֵּׁנִי עָבַר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה. וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה עַל לָאו זֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתָּק לַעֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב י) "וְהַנֹּתָר מִמֶּנּוּ בָּאֵשׁ תִּשְׂרֹפוּ":

12

When the first Paschal sacrifice is offered, a peace-offering is sacrificed with it on the fourteenth of Nissan from cattle or from sheep, whether a large animal or a small one, like all other peace-offerings. It is called the festive-offering of the fourteenth. This is the intent of the Torah's statement Deuteronomy 16:2: "And you bring a Paschal offering to God your Lord from sheep and from cattle."

When is this festive-offering brought? When the Paschal sacrifice is offered during the week, in a state of ritual purity, and when there is a lack of Paschal sacrifices. If, however, the fourteenth of Nisan falls on the Sabbath, it is offered in a state of ritual impurity, or there are ample offerings, the festive offering is not brought with it. Instead, only the Paschal sacrifices are brought.

יב

כְּשֶׁמַּקְרִיבִין אֶת הַפֶּסַח בָּרִאשׁוֹן מַקְרִיבִין עִמּוֹ שְׁלָמִים בְּיוֹם י''ד מִן הַבָּקָר אוֹ מִן הַצֹּאן. גְּדוֹלִים אוֹ קְטַנִּים. זְכָרִים אוֹ נְקֵבוֹת כְּכָל זִבְחֵי הַשְּׁלָמִים. וְזוֹ הִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת חֲגִיגַת אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (דברים טז ב) "וְזָבַחְתָּ פֶּסַח לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ צֹאן וּבָקָר". אֵימָתַי מְבִיאִין עִמּוֹ חֲגִיגָה זוֹ בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא בָּא בְּחל וּבְטָהֳרָה וּבְמוּעָט. אֲבָל אִם חָל יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ שֶׁבָּא הַפֶּסַח בְּטֻמְאָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ הַפְּסָחִים מְרֻבִּים אֵין מְבִיאִין עִמּוֹ חֲגִיגָה. וְאֵין מַקְרִיבִין אֶלָּא הַפְּסָחִים בִּלְבַד:

13

The festive offering brought on the fourteenth is a voluntary matter; it is not an obligation. It may be eaten for two days and one night like all other peace-offerings. It is forbidden to leave over the meat of the festive offering of the fourteenth until the third day, as Deuteronomy 16:4 states: "Do not leave any of the meat that you will sacrifice in the evening for the first day until the morning." According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that this is a warning for a person who leaves over the meat of the festive offering of the fourteenth until the sixteenth. The term "until the morning" means until the morning of the second day. One who leaves over the meat is not liable for lashes. Instead, he should burn the left over meat in the same manner as meat left over from other sacrifices is burnt.

יג

חֲגִיגַת אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר רְשׁוּת וְאֵינָהּ חוֹבָה. וְנֶאֱכֶלֶת לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים וְלַיְלָה אֶחָד כְּכָל זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים. וְאָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ מִבְּשַׂר חֲגִיגַת אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז ד) "וְלֹא יָלִין מִן הַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר תִּזְבַּח בָּעֶרֶב בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן לַבֹּקֶר". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה אַזְהָרָה לְמַנִּיחַ בְּשַׂר חֲגִיגַת אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְיוֹם שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לַבֹּקֶר עַד בֹּקֶר שֶׁל יוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי. וְהַמּוֹתִיר אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֶלָּא יִשְׂרֹף הַנּוֹתָר מִמֶּנָּה כִּשְׁאָר הַנּוֹתָרִים:

14

The meat of the festive offering that was served on the table with the Paschal sacrifice and similarly, the other cooked dishes served with it should be burnt with it. They may only be eaten until midnight like the Paschal sacrifice itself. This is a decree lest a mixture occur.

יד

בְּשַׂר חֲגִיגָה שֶׁעָלָה עִם הַפֶּסַח עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְכָל הַתַּבְשִׁילִין הָעוֹלִים עִמּוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִתְבַּעֲרִין עִמּוֹ. וְאֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִים אֶלָּא עַד חֲצוֹת כַּפֶּסַח עַצְמוֹ גְּזֵרָה מִפְּנֵי הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת:

15

What are the differences between the first Paschal sacrifice and the second Paschal sacrifice? At the time of the first, chametz is forbidden to be seen or possessed in one's domain. It may not be slaughtered while one is in possession of chametz. Its meat may not be removed from the company in which it was designated to be eaten. The Hallel must be recited when it is eaten. A festive offering is brought with it. It may be brought in a state of impurity if the majority of the people are impure because of contact with a human corpse, as we explained.

With regard to the second Paschal sacrifice, by contrast, both chametz and matzah may be possessed by the person at home. Hallel is not recited while partaking of it. It may be taken out of the company in which it was designated to be eaten. A festive offering is not brought with it and it may not be brought in a state of impurity.

Both are alike in that offering them supersedes the Sabbath prohibitions. Hallel is recited when they are offered. They are eaten roastedin one house together with matzah and bitter herbs. In neither instance may their meat be left over until the next morning, nor may their bones may be broken.

Why does the second Paschal sacrifice not resemble the first in all matters, as might be expected since Numbers 9:12 states with regard to the second Paschal sacrifice: "It shall be offered according to all the statutes of the Paschal sacrifice"? Because some of the statutes of the Paschal sacrifice are explicitly mentioned with regard to it. This teaches that it is analogous to the first only in those matters which are stated explicitly regarding it. They are the mitzvot that concern the body of the sacrifice. They are "the statutes of the Paschal sacrifice" included in the general category.

The statements regarding the offering of the Paschal sacrifice in Egypt: that it should be set aside on the tenth of the month, that its blood should be applied to the lintel and the two doorposts with a bunch of hyssop, and that it should be eaten with haste, are not practices that are followed in future generations. They were observed only with regard to the Paschal sacrifice offered in Egypt.

טו

מַה בֵּין פֶּסַח רִאשׁוֹן לְפֶסַח שֵׁנִי. הָרִאשׁוֹן אָסוּר בְּחָמֵץ בְּבַל יֵרָאֶה וּבַל יִמָּצֵא. וְאֵינוֹ נִשְׁחָט עַל חָמֵץ. וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִמֶּנּוּ חוּץ לַחֲבוּרָה. וְטָעוּן הַלֵּל בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ. וּמְבִיאִין עִמּוֹ חֲגִיגָה. וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיָּבוֹא בְּטֻמְאָה אִם נִטְמָא רֹב הַקָּהָל טֻמְאַת מֵת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל פֶּסַח שֵׁנִי חָמֵץ וּמַצָּה עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִת. וְאֵינוֹ טָעוּן הַלֵּל בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ. וּמוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ חוּץ לַחֲבוּרָתוֹ. וְאֵין מְבִיאִין עִמּוֹ חֲגִיגָה וְאֵינוֹ בָּא בְּטֻמְאָה. וּשְׁנֵיהֶם דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. וּטְעוּנִין הַלֵּל בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָן וְנֶאֱכָלִין צָלִי בְּבַיִת אֶחָד עַל מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר. וְאֵין מוֹתִירִין מֵהֶן. וְאֵין שׁוֹבְרִין בָּהֶן אֶת הָעֶצֶם. וְלָמָּה לֹא יִשְׁוֶה הַשֵּׁנִי לָרִאשׁוֹן לְכָל הַדְּבָרִים מֵאַחַר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ט יב) "כְּכָל חֻקַּת הַפֶּסַח יַעֲשׂוּ". לְפִי שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ בּוֹ מִקְצָת חֻקַּת הַפֶּסַח. לְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵינָהּ שָׁוָה לָרִאשׁוֹן אֶלָּא בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְשׁוּ בּוֹ. וְהֵן הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁבְּגוּפוֹ וְהֵם חֻקַּת הַפֶּסַח. שֶׁכְּלָל זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמִצְרַיִם שֶׁיִּלָּקַח הַפֶּסַח מִבֶּעָשׂוֹר. וְשֶׁהוּא טָעוּן הַגָּעַת דָּם בַּאֲגוּדַת אֵזוֹב לַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְלִשְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזוֹת. וְשֶׁיֵּאָכֵל בְּחִפָּזוֹן. אֵין אוֹתָן הַדְּבָרִים נוֹהֲגִים לְדוֹרוֹת וְלֹא נַעֲשׂוּ אֶלָּא בְּפֶסַח מִצְרַיִם בִּלְבַד:

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות קרבן פסח בס"ד:

Chagigah - Perek 1

Introduction to Hilchot Chagigah

Included in this text are six mitzvot: 4 positive commandments and 2 negative commandments. They include the following:

1) to appear before the Divine presence;
2) to celebrate the three pilgrimage festivals;
3) to rejoice on the festivals;
4) not to appear before Divine presence empty-handed;
5) not to abandon the Levite [by refraining from] making him joyous and giving him his presents on the festivals;
6) to gather the people together on the day following Sukkot in the year following the Sabbatical year.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות חגיגה - הקדמה יש בכללן שש מצוות: ארבע מצוות עשה, ושתים מצוות לא תעשה. וזה הוא פרטן:
(א) להֵראות פני יי.
(ב) לחוג בשלושה רגלים.
(ג) לשמוח ברגלים.
(ד) שלא יֵראה ריקם.
(ה) שלא יעזוב לוי, מלשמחו וליתן לו מתנותיו ברגלים.
(ו) להקהיל את העם בחג הסכות במוצאי שמיטה. וביאור מצוות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

The Jewish people have been commanded to observe three positive commandments on each of the three pilgrimage festivals. They are:

a) to appear before the Divine presence, as Exodus 23:17 states: "All of your males shall appear";

b) bringing a festive offering, as Deuteronomy 16:15 states: "You shall bring a festive offering to God your Lord"; and

c) celebration, as ibid.:14 states: "And you shall rejoice in festivals."

The Torah's charge to appear before God mandates that one should appear in the Temple Courtyard on the first day of a festival and bring with him a burnt- offering, whether from fowl or from domesticated animals. One who comes to the Temple Courtyard on the first day of a festival without bringing a burnt-offering has not only failed to perform a positive commandment, but has violated a negative commandment, as Exodus 23:15 states: "You shall not appear in My presence empty-handed." One is not liable for lashes for the violation of this prohibition, because he did not perform a deed.

The Torah's charge to bring a festive offering mandates that one offer a peace-offering on the first day of the festival when one comes to appear before the Divine presence. It is a known matter that peace-offerings are brought only from domesticated animals. Women are not obligated in these two mitzvot of appearing before the Divine presence and bringing a festive sacrifice.

The Torah's charge to celebrate on festivals mandates that one offer peace-offerings in addition to the festive peace offerings. These are called the festive celebratory peace-offerings, as Deuteronomy 27:7 states: "You shall rejoice before God, your Lord." Women are obligated in this mitzvah.

א

שָׁלֹשׁ מִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה נִצְטַוּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל רֶגֶל מִשָּׁלֹשׁ רְגָלִים וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. הָרְאִיָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יז) (שמות לד כג) (דברים טז טז) "יֵרָאֶה כָּל זְכוּרְךָ". וְהַחֲגִיגָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז טו) "תָּחֹג לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ". וְהַשִּׂמְחָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז יד) "וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּחַגֶּךָ". הָרְאִיָּה הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה הִיא שֶׁנִּרְאֶה פָּנָיו בָּעֲזָרָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג וְיָבִיא עִמּוֹ קָרְבַּן עוֹלָה בֵּין מִן הָעוֹף בֵּין מִן הַבְּהֵמָה. וּמִי שֶׁבָּא לָעֲזָרָה בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן וְלֹא הֵבִיא עוֹלָה לֹא דַּיּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה אֶלָּא עוֹבֵר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג טו) (שמות לד כ) "לֹא יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם". וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה עַל לָאו זֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עָשָׂה מַעֲשֶׂה. הַחֲגִיגָה הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה הִיא שֶׁיַּקְרִיב שְׁלָמִים בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג בְּבוֹאוֹ לְהֵרָאוֹת. וְהַדָּבָר יָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵין הַשְּׁלָמִים בָּאִים אֶלָּא מִן הַבְּהֵמָה. וּשְׁתֵּי מִצְוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֵן הָרְאִיָּה וְהַחֲגִיגָה אֵין הַנָּשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בָּהֶן. וְהַשִּׂמְחָה הָאֲמוּרָה בָּרְגָלִים הִיא שֶׁיַּקְרִיב שְׁלָמִים יֶתֶר עַל שַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה. וְאֵלּוּ הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים שַׁלְמֵי שִׂמְחַת חֲגִיגָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כז ז) "וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ". וְנָשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בְּמִצְוָה זוֹ:

2

According to Scriptural Law, there are no fixed measures with regard to the sacrifices brought when appearing before God or the festive offerings, as Deuteronomy 16:17 states: "Each person according to what he gives." According to Rabbinic Law, however, limits were established. One should not bring a burnt-offering to mark one's appearance worth less that a silver me'ah, nor should one bring a festive peace-offering worth less than two silver me'ah. It is a mitzvah to bring these sacrifices proportionate to one's wealth, as implied by the phrase: "according to what one gives...."

ב

הָרְאִיָּה וְהַחֲגִיגָה אֵין לָהֶן שִׁעוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז יז) "אִישׁ כְּמַתְּנַת יָדוֹ" וְגוֹ'. אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא קָרְבַּן עוֹלַת רְאִיָּה פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה מָעָה כֶּסֶף וְלֹא שַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה שְׁתֵּי כֶּסֶף. וּמִצְוָה לְהָבִיא כְּפִי עָשְׁרוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כְּמַתְּנַת יָדוֹ:

3

Our Sages did not establish a minimum measure for the celebratory peace-offerings. When a person will ascend to Jerusalem for the festival, if he is in possession of the sacrifices required when presenting oneself, he should bring them or he should bring sufficient silver to purchase a sacrificial animal. If he does not possess silver, he should not bring articles of value equivalent to silver. Even if he is in possession of articles worth several gold pieces, it is forbidden for him to ascend to Jerusalem empty-handed without silver or a sacrificial animal.

Why was one forbidden to ascend while bringing articles worth money? Perhaps he will not be able to sell them or perhaps he will find impurities in the money he receives.

ג

שַׁלְמֵי שִׂמְחָה לֹא נָתְנוּ בָּהֶן חֲכָמִים שִׁעוּר. בְּעֵת שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה אָדָם לִירוּשָׁלַיִם לָחֹג אִם הָיוּ בְּיָדוֹ קָרְבְּנוֹת הָרְאִיָּה יְבִיאֵם אוֹ יַעֲלֶה עִמּוֹ כֶּסֶף לִקְנוֹת בּוֹ הַקָּרְבָּן. וְאִם אֵין בְּיָדוֹ כֶּסֶף לֹא יָבִיא שְׁוֵה כֶּסֶף אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בְּיָדוֹ שְׁוֵה כַּמָּה זְהוּבִים אָסוּר לוֹ לַעֲלוֹת רֵיקָם בְּלֹא כֶּסֶף וְלֹא קָרְבָּן. וְלָמָּה אָסְרוּ שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה בְּיָדוֹ שְׁוֵה כֶּסֶף גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא לֹא יִמְצָא לִמְכֹּר אוֹ שֶׁמָּא יִמָּצְאוּ הַמָּעוֹת סִיגִים:

4

One who did not offer the burnt offering marking his appearance and his festive peace-offering on the first day of the festival should offer them on the remaining days of the festival, as implied by Deuteronomy 16:15: "For seven days you shall celebrate unto God your Lord." This teaches that all of these days are fit for offering festive sacrifices. They are all compensation for the first day.

ד

מִי שֶׁלֹּא הִקְרִיב בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן עוֹלַת רְאִיָּתוֹ וְשַׁלְּמִי חֲגִיגָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מַקְרִיבָן בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הָרֶגֶל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז טו) "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תָּחֹג לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ" מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכֻּלָּן רְאוּיִין לַחֲגִיגָה וְכֻלָּן תַּשְׁלוּמֵי רִאשׁוֹן הֵם:

5

It is a mitzvah to be early and to offer these sacrifices on the first day. If, either inadvertently or intentionally, one did not offer them on the first day, they should be offered on the second day. Whoever delays is deserving of reproach. Concerning such a person is applied the words of censure, Tzephania 3:18: "I will gather in and break those who delay the festive prayers and offerings."

ה

וּמִצְוָה לְהַקְדִּים וּלְהַקְרִיב בָּרִאשׁוֹן. לֹא הִקְרִיב בָּרִאשׁוֹן בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג בֵּין מֵזִיד יַקְרִיב בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְכָל הַמְּאֻחָר הֲרֵי זֶה מְגֻנֶּה וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר (צפניה ג יח) "נוּגֵי מִמּוֹעֵד אָסַפְתִּי":

6

If the festival passed without one bringing these festive offerings, he is not obligated to bring them afterwards. Concerning such a situation and the like is applied the verse Ecclesiastes 1:15: "A wrong that cannot be righted."

ו

עָבַר הָרֶגֶל וְלֹא חָג אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ וְעַל זֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ נֶאֱמַר (קהלת א טו) "מְעֻוָּת לֹא יוּכַל לִתְקֹן":

7

When one did not bring the festive sacrifices on the first day of the Sukkos holiday, he may bring them throughout the entire festival and on the final holiday, which is the eighth day. For even the eighth day can serve as compensation for the first.

Similarly, one who did not bring the festive offerings on the holiday of Shavuot may bring them for seven days, i.e., he may compensate during the six days that following the festival of Shavuot. This concept - that the festival of Shavuot is similar to the festival of Pesach with regard to compensation - was communicated through the Oral Tradition.

ז

מִי שֶׁלֹּא חַג בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת חוֹגֵג אֶת כָּל הָרֶגֶל וּבַיּוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁהוּא שְׁמִינִי וְאַף הַשְּׁמִינִי תַּשְׁלוּמֵי רִאשׁוֹן הוּא. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁלֹּא חַג בְּיוֹם חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת חוֹגֵג כָּל שִׁבְעָה וְיֵשׁ לוֹ תַּשְׁלוּמִין כָּל שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים שֶׁלְּאַחַר חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת. וְדָבָר זֶה מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה נֶאֱמַר שֶׁחַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת כְּחַג הַמַּצּוֹת לְתַשְׁלוּמִין:

8

The burnt-offerings brought when appearing before God and the festive peace-offerings do not supersede either the Sabbath prohibitions or the restrictions against ritual impurity, because there is no fixed time when they are required to be brought like the communal offerings. For if one does not bring his festive offerings on one day, he may bring them on the next, as we explained.

They do, however, supersede the prohibitions of the holidays. Although sacrifices which one has vowed or pledged to bring are not offered on holidays, the burnt-offerings brought when appearing before God, the festive peace-offerings, and the celebratory peace-offerings are offered. The rationale is that these are not vows or pledges, but rather obligations.

ח

עוֹלַת רְאִיָּה וְשַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה אֵינָן דּוֹחִין לֹא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן זְמַן קָבוּעַ כְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר. שֶׁאִם אֵינוֹ חוֹגֵג הַיּוֹם חוֹגֵג לְמָחָר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל דּוֹחִין אֶת יוֹם טוֹב וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מַקְרִיבִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת מַקְרִיבִין עוֹלַת רְאִיָּה וְשַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה וְשַׁלְמֵי שִׂמְחָה שֶׁאֵין אֵלּוּ נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת אֶלָּא חוֹבוֹת:

9

When one brings the burnt-offerings brought when appearing before God, the festive peace-offerings, and the celebratory peace-offerings on a festival, he should lean on them with all his power as he does when bringing offerings on other days. Even though leaning on the animals is not an indispensable element of their sacrifice, as we explained in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, the Sages did not institute a decree forbidding this as a shvut.

ט

כְּשֶׁמַּקְרִיב הַמַּקְרִיב עוֹלַת רְאִיָּתוֹ וְשַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָתוֹ וְשִׂמְחָתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב. סוֹמֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁאָר הַיָּמִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסְּמִיכָה אֵינָהּ מְעַכֶּבֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת לֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת:

10

When a person sets aside a burnt-offering brought when appearing before God and dies, his heirs are obligated to offer it.

It is permitted to offer sacrifices which one has vowed or pledged during the intermediate days of a holiday, as Numbers 29:39 states: "You will offer these to God on your festivals aside from your vowed and pledged offerings." It can be understood from this that those offerings are brought during the festivals.

That verse continues "for your burnt-offerings, your meal-offerings, and your peace-offerings." "For your burnt-offerings" includes a burnt-offering brought by a person afflicted by tzara'at and a woman after childbirth." "Your meal-offerings" include the meal offering brought by a sinner and the meal-offering brought by a woman whose husband accused her of adultery. "Your peace-offerings" includes the peace-offering brought by a nazirite. All of these are offered on the intermediate days of a festival, but are not offered on the sacred days.

י

הַמַּפְרִישׁ עוֹלַת רְאִיָּתוֹ וּמֵת. הַיּוֹרְשִׁין חַיָּבִין לַהֲבִיאָהּ. מֻתָּר לְהַקְרִיב בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כט לט) "אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַה' בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם לְבַד מִנִּדְרֵיכֶם וְנִדְבֹתֵיכֶם" מִכְּלַל שֶׁקְּרֵבִין בָּרֶגֶל. (במדבר כט לט) "לְעלֹתֵיכֶם" כְּמוֹ עוֹלַת מְצֹרָע וְעוֹלַת יוֹלֶדֶת. (במדבר כט לט) "וּלְמִנְחֹתֵיכֶם" לְהָבִיא מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא וּמִנְחַת קְנָאוֹת. (במדבר כט לט) "וּלְשַׁלְמֵיכֶם" לְרַבּוֹת שַׁלְמֵי נָזִיר הַכּל קְרֵבִין בַּמּוֹעֵד וְאֵין קְרֵבִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב:

11

When a person who ascended to Jerusalem for a pilgrimage festival had many members of his household to partake of the offerings, but limited means, he should bring many festive peace-offerings, and few burnt-offerings brought when appearing before God. If he has few members of his household to partake of the offerings, but ample means, he should bring many burnt-offerings brought when appearing before God, and few festive peace-offerings. If he has few of both, concerning that our Sages said: "One should not bring less than a meah for a burnt-offering and two silver meah for a peace-offering." If he was blessed amply with both, concerning this, our Sages applied the verse Deuteronomy 16:17: "According to the blessing of God your Lord which He granted you."

יא

וּמִי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ אוֹכְלִים מְרֻבִּים וּנְכָסִים מוּעָטִין מֵבִיא שַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה מְרֻבִּין וְעוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה מוּעָטִין. הָיוּ לוֹ אוֹכְלִין מוּעָטִין וּנְכָסִים מְרֻבִּין מֵבִיא עוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה מְרֻבּוֹת וְשַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה מוּעָטוֹת. הָיוּ זֶה וְזֶה מוּעָט עַל זֶה אָמְרוּ לֹא יִפְחֹת מִמָּעָה לְעוֹלָה וּשְׁתֵּי כֶּסֶף לִשְׁלָמִים. זֶה וְזֶה מְרֻבֶּה עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (דברים טז יז) "כְּבִרְכַּת ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָךְ":

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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