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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 2, Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 3, Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 4

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Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 2

1

The white hair that is a sign of impurity for tzara'at is not less than two hairs. How long must they be? Long enough to be pulled out by tweezers. If one was long and the other was shorter than this measure or one was black and one white, or one was whole below but split in two above and so it appeared as two, or its base was black, but its top was white, the person is pure. If its base was white and its top dark, even though only the slightest amount was white, he is impure.

א

שֵׂעָר לָבָן שֶׁהוּא סִימַן טֻמְאָה בְּצָרַעַת אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה אָרְכָּן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִטָּלוֹת בְּזוּג. הָיְתָה אַחַת אֲרֻכָּה וְאַחַת קְצָרָה מִשִּׁעוּר זֶה. אוֹ אַחַת שְׁחוֹרָה וְאַחַת לְבָנָה. אוֹ אַחַת מִלְּמַטָּה וְנֶחְלְקָה מִלְּמַעְלָה וְנִרְאֵית כִּשְׁתַּיִם. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה עִקָּרָן מַשְׁחִיר וְרֹאשָׁן מַלְבִּין. הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. הָיָה עִקָּרָן מַלְבִּין וְרֹאשָׁן מַשְׁחִיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַלָּבָן כָּל שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא:

2

When there are two white hairs in a blemish, even though there is black hair between them and they are scattered, one in this portion and one in another portion, they serve as a sign of impurity. Even if the blemish was exactly the size of a gris, the space of the black hair does not reduce its size.

Whether the two hairs are in the midst of the baheret and it surrounds them or they are at its edge, the person is impure. If, however, they are at its side, outside of it, he is pure. The skin from which the two white hairs grow must be white in order to impart impurity.

If the two hairs originate in the midst of the blemish, but lie out of it, he is impure. If they originate outside of it, but lie within it, they are not a sign of impurity.

ב

שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לְבָנוֹת שֶׁהֵן בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שֵׂעָר שָׁחוֹר בֵּינֵיהֶן וְהֵן מְפֻזָּרוֹת אַחַת כָּאן וְאַחַת כָּאן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַנֶּגַע כִּגְרִיס מְצֻמְצָם אֵין מְקוֹם שֵׂעָר הַשָּׁחוֹר מְמַעֲטוֹ. וּבֵין שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּהֶרֶת וְהִיא מַקַּפְתָּן וּבֵין שֶׁהָיוּ בְּסוֹפָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ בְּצִדָּהּ מִבַּחוּץ הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָעוֹר שֶׁצּוֹמְחוֹת שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הַלְּבָנוֹת לָבָן. הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע וְשׁוֹכְבוֹת חוּצָה לוֹ טָמֵא. הָיוּ חוּצָה לוֹ וְשׁוֹכְבוֹת בְּתוֹכוֹ אֵינָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה:

3

Any shade of whiteness in the hair causes the person to be deemed impure, whether they were white as snow or a very weak shade of whiteness. Since they appear white, he is impure.

ג

לֹבֶן הַשְּׂעָרוֹת מְטַמֵּא בְּכָל מַרְאֶה בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ לְבָנוֹת כַּשֶּׁלֶג בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ לְבָנוֹת לֹבֶן דָּהֶה בְּיוֹתֵר הוֹאִיל וּמַרְאֵיהֶן לָבָן טָמֵא:

4

White hair is not a sign of impurity unless it is inside the baheret itself.

What is implied? If there is a baheret and in its midst there is a boil, burnt skin, a bohak, a boil that has healed, a burn that has healed and there were two white hairs in the boil, the burnt flesh, or the bohak that is in the midst of the blemish, they are not signs of impurity. It is like a baheret that does not have white hair, in which instance, the person should be isolated. This ruling is rendered even though the baheret surrounds the boil, the burnt flesh, the healed boil or burnt flesh or the bohak in which the two hairs were located.

Similarly, if the boil, the burnt flesh, the healed boil or burnt flesh or the bohak surround the two hairs, they are not a sign of impurity. The baheret is like a baheret that does not have white hair and the person should be isolated.

ד

אֵין שֵׂעָר לָבָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּגוּף הַבַּהֶרֶת. כֵּיצַד. בַּהֶרֶת וּבְתוֹכָהּ שְׁחִין אוֹ מִכְוָה אוֹ בֹּהַק אוֹ מִחְיַת הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ מִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה וּשְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לְבָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ הַמִּכְוָה אוֹ הַבֹּהַק שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע אֵינָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה וַהֲרֵי זוֹ כְּבַהֶרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וְיַסְגִּיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבַּהֶרֶת מַקֶּפֶת אֶת הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ אֶת הַמִּכְוָה אוֹ אֶת מִחְיָתָן אוֹ אֶת הַבֹּהַק שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה שְׁחִין אוֹ מִכְוָה אוֹ מִחְיָתָן אוֹ בֹּהַק מַקִּיף אֶת שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֵינָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה וַהֲרֵי הַבַּהֶרֶת כְּבַהֶרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וְיַסְגִּיר:

5

If the boil, the bohak, or the burnt flesh that surround, are next to, or divide the white hairs disappear and thus the two hairs are found in the baheret itself at the end of the first week or the end of the second week of the isolation period, the person is declared as definitively impure. If these abnormal skin features do not disappear, he should be released from the process of inspection.

ה

הָלְכוּ לָהֶן הַשְּׁחִין וְהַבֹּהַק וְהַמִּכְוָה שֶׁהִקִּיפוּ אֶת הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הַלְּבָנוֹת אוֹ נִסְמָכִין לָהֶן אוֹ חוֹלְקִין אוֹתָן. וְנִמְצְאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּהֶרֶת בְּגוּפָהּ בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ הָרִאשׁוֹן אוֹ בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ הַשֵּׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה מֻחְלָט. וְאִם לֹא הָלְכוּ לָהֶן יִפְטְרֶנּוּ:

6

White hair is not a sign of impurity unless the baheret precedes the white hair. This can be inferred from Leviticus 13:10: "And it turned hair to white." Implied is that the baheret caused it to turn white. If, however, the white hair existed before the baheret, it is like a baheret that does not have a sign and the person should be isolated.

ו

אֵין שֵׂעָר לָבָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתַּקְדִּים הַבַּהֶרֶת אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר הַלָּבָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג י) "וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן" שֶׁתַּהֲפֹךְ אוֹתוֹ הַבַּהֶרֶת. אֲבָל אִם קָדַם שֵׂעָר לָבָן אֶת הַבַּהֶרֶת הֲרֵי הִיא כְּבַהֶרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה וְיַסְגִּיר:

7

The following rule applies when a person had a baheret which contained white hair which caused him to be deemed definitively impure, and afterwards, the baheret disappeared and left the white hair in its place. He was then deemed pure. Afterwards, another baheret returned to the place of the first baheret and thus there was white hair in its midst. This hair is called "entrusted hair." It is not a sign of impurity. The phrase "And it turned hair to white" implies that the baheret in question must cause the color of the hair to change and not another baheret.

ז

הָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וְהֻחְלַט בּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָלְכָה הַבַּהֶרֶת וְהִנִּיחָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְטִהֵר וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזְרָה בַּהֶרֶת אַחֶרֶת בִּמְקוֹם הַבַּהֶרֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וַהֲרֵי הַשֵּׂעָר לָבָן בְּתוֹכָהּ זֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא שְׂעַר פְּקֻדָּה. אֵינוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג י) "וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן" שֶׁהֲפָכַתּוּ הִיא לֹא שֶׁהֲפָכַתּוּ חֲבֵרְתָהּ:

8

The following rules apply if a person had a baheret the size of a gris, it contained two white hairs, and therefore he was deemed definitively impure. A portion half the size of a gris disappeared and he was deemed pure. The two hairs were located in the portion half the size of a gris that remained. Afterwards, half a gris returned to the place where the half that disappeared was. Thus there were two white hairs in a baheret the size of a gris. This is not considered a sign of impurity, for one entire baheret must cause the color of the two hairs to change.

ח

הָיָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּבָהּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת וְהֻחְלַט וְהָלַךְ מִמֶּנָּה כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וְטִהֵר וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת בַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס הַנִּשְׁאָר וְחָזַר כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס בִּמְקוֹם זֶה שֶׁהָלַךְ וַהֲרֵי שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לְבָנוֹת בַּבַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס אֵינָן סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיַּהֲפֹךְ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת בַּהֶרֶת אַחַת:

9

When a person had a baheret that was half the size of a gris without any white hair inside of it and then another baheret that was half the size of a gris which contained one white hair erupted at its side, the person should be isolated. If a person had a baheret that was half the size of a gris with one white hair inside of it and then another baheret that was half the size of a gris which contained one white hair erupted at its side, the person should be isolated. When a person had a baheret that was half the size of a gris without any white hair inside of it and then another baheret that was half the size of a gris which contained two white hairs erupted at its side, the person should be deemed definitively impure. The rationale is that a baheret preceded the two white hairs.

When there is a doubt whether the white hair came first or the baheret came first, the person is deemed impure. It appears to me that this impurity is of a questionable nature.

ט

בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וְאֵין בָּהּ כְּלוּם וְנוֹלְדָה בְּצִדָּהּ בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר אַחַת הֲרֵי זוֹ לְהַסְגִּיר. בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר אַחַת וְנוֹלְדָה לָהּ בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שֵׂעָר אַחַת הֲרֵי זוֹ לְהַסְגִּיר. בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת וְנוֹלְדָה לָהּ בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שַׂעֲרָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זוֹ לְהַסְגִּיר. בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וְאֵין בָּהּ כְּלוּם וְנוֹלְדָה לָהּ בַּהֶרֶת כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וּבָהּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ לְהַחְלִיט שֶׁהֲרֵי קָדְמָה בַּהֶרֶת לִשְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הַלְּבָנוֹת. סָפֵק שֵׂעָר לָבָן קָדַם סְפֵק הַבַּהֶרֶת קָדְמָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טָמֵא. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁטֻּמְאָתוֹ בְּסָפֵק:

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 3

1

Flesh that heals is not considered as a sign of impurity unless it is the size of a lentil when a square is imposed upon it or more. How large is that? Enough for four hairs to grow, two lengthwise and two widthwise. The flesh that heals must be in the center of the baheret and the baheret must surround it on all sides with there being a margin of the size of two hairs or more between the healthy flesh and the edge of the baheret. If, however, the healthy flesh is at the side of the baheret, it is not a sign of impurity.

If the healthy flesh was scattered in different places in the baheret, e.g., there was healthy flesh the size of a mustard seed in one place and healthy flesh the size of a mustard seed in another place, they are not combined to be considered as the size of a lentil even though they are both in the midst of the same baheret. Instead, there must be healthy flesh the size of a lentil when a square is imposed upon it or more in one place in the midst of the baheret.

א

אֵין הַמִּחְיָה סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה כַּעֲדָשָׁה מְרֻבַּעַת אוֹ יֶתֶר עַל זֶה. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרָהּ כְּדֵי צְמִיחַת אַרְבַּע שְׂעָרוֹת שְׁתַּיִם אֹרֶךְ וּשְׁתַּיִם רֹחַב. וְהוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַמִּחְיָה בְּאֶמְצַע הַבַּהֶרֶת וְהַבַּהֶרֶת מַקֶּפֶת אוֹתָהּ מִכָּל צַד וְהִיא יְתֵרָה עַל הַמִּחְיָה רֹחַב שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת אוֹ יֶתֶר. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה הַמִּחְיָה בְּצַד הַבַּהֶרֶת אֵינָהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה. הָיְתָה מְפֻזֶּרֶת כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה בָּשָׂר חַי כְּחַרְדָּל בְּמָקוֹם זֶה וּבָשָׂר חַי כְּחַרְדָּל בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכּל בְּאֶמְצַע הַבַּהֶרֶת אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין לְכַעֲדָשָׁה. עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד בְּאֶמְצַע הַבַּהֶרֶת כַּעֲדָשָׁה מְרֻבָּע אוֹ יֶתֶר:

2

Healthy flesh imparts impurity regardless of its shade; it can be red, black, or white provided it is not one of the four shades of whiteness that we described.

ב

הַמִּחְיָה מְטַמְּאָה בְּכָל מַרְאֶה בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מַרְאֵה הַמִּחְיָה אָדֹם אוֹ שָׁחֹר אוֹ לָבָן וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה הַלֹּבֶן מֵאַרְבַּע הַמַּרְאוֹת שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

Flesh that healed is not a sign of impurity unless it is in the baheret itself.

What is implied? In the midst of a baheret, there was a boil, burnt flesh, or a healed boil or burnt flesh, or a bohak and there was totally healthy flesh in the midst of these abnormal skin features. Even though the healthy flesh is in the midst of the baheret, it is not a sign of impurity, because it is within the boil, the burnt flesh, the bohak, or their healed flesh. Similarly, if a boil or its healed flesh, burnt flesh or its healed flesh, or a bohak surrounds the healthy flesh, or one of these abnormal skin features is directly next to the healthy flesh at its side, or one of these abnormal skin features divides the healthy flesh and enters within it, it is not a sign of impurity. This is like a baheret that does not have any sign of impurity and the person should be isolated.

If the boil, the burnt flesh, or the bohak in which the healthy flesh was found, that was at its side, that surrounded it, or that entered it disappeared and thus the healthy flesh alone was found within the baheret at the end of the first week or at the end of the second week, the person should be deemed definitively impure. If they did not depart, he should be released from the process of inspection.

ג

אֵין הַמִּחְיָה סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה בְּגוּפָהּ שֶׁל בַּהֶרֶת. כֵּיצַד. בַּהֶרֶת שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּאֶמְצַע שְׁחִין אוֹ מִכְוָה אוֹ מִחְיָה אוֹ בֹּהַק. וְהַמִּחְיָה בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּכְוָה אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ מִחְיָתָן אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַבֹּהַק. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמִּחְיָה בְּאֶמְצַע הַבַּהֶרֶת אֵינָהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ הַמִּכְוָה אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַבֹּהַק אוֹ מִחְיָתָן. וְכֵן אִם הִקִּיף הַשְּׁחִין אֶת מִחְיָתוֹ וְהַמִּכְוָה אֶת מִחְיָתָהּ וְהַבֹּהַק אֶת הַמִּחְיָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּסְמַךְ אֶחָד מֵהֶן לַמִּחְיָה מִצִּדָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁחָלַק אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֶת הַמִּחְיָה וְנִכְנַס לְתוֹכָהּ אֵינָהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה וַהֲרֵי זוֹ כְּבַהֶרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ סִימָן וְיַסְגִּיר. הָלְכוּ לָהֶן הַשְּׁחִין אוֹ הַמִּכְוָה אוֹ הַבֹּהַק שֶׁהָיָה תַּחַת הַמִּחְיָה שֶׁהָיוּ בְּצִדָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ מַקִּיפִין אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ נִכְנָסִין לְתוֹכָהּ וְנִמְצֵאת הַמִּחְיָה לְבַדָּהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּהֶרֶת בְּסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ בְּסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ שֵׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה יַחְלִיט. אִם לֹא הָלְכוּ לָהֶן יִפְטֹר:

4

Healthy flesh is always a sign of impurity, whether the healthy flesh existed before the baheret or the baheret existed before the healthy flesh, because concerning it, the Torah does not state: "And it turned." Although the Torah does state Leviticus 13:10: "And it turned hair to white and there was healthy flesh in the si'ait," there is no need for a blemish to have both white hair and healthy flesh. Instead, each one independently is a sign of impurity. They were mentioned together only to identify the measure of healthy flesh that imparts impurity: enough to contain enough white hair to cause a person to be deemed impure, i.e., two hairs.

ד

הַמִּחְיָה סִימַן טֻמְאָה לְעוֹלָם בֵּין שֶׁקָּדְמָה מִחְיָה אֶת הַבַּהֶרֶת בֵּין שֶׁקָּדְמָה בַּהֶרֶת אֶת הַמִּחְיָה לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר בָּהּ וְהִיא הָפְכָה. זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא יג י) "וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּמִחְיַת בָּשָׂר חַי בַּשְּׂאֵת" אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִשְׁנֵיהֶן לְשֵׂעָר וּלְמִחְיָה אֶלָּא כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן סִימַן טֻמְאָה. וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר שֵׂעָר לָבָן עִם הַמִּחְיָה אֶלָּא לִתֵּן שִׁעוּר לְמִחְיָה שֶׁתִּהְיֶה כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל שֵׂעָר לָבָן שֶׁהוּא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת:

5

When a baheret is exactly the size of a gris and, in its midst, there is healthy flesh exactly the size of a lentil, the afflicted person should be deemed definitively impure. If the size of the baheret or the size of the healthy flesh was diminished, he is pure. Similarly, if the size of the healthy flesh in this baheret increased, he is pure. The rationale is that a baheret does not impart impurity because of healthy flesh until it has a margin of afflicted flesh the width of two hairs on every side.

If the healthy flesh was less than a lentil and then it increased until it reached the size of a lentil, the afflicted person should be deemed definitively impure. If the size of the healthy flesh then diminished or disappeared, its status returns to its initial state and there is no sign of impurity.

ה

בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס מְצֻמְצָם וּבְאֶמְצָעָהּ מִחְיָה כַּעֲדָשָׁה מְצֻמְצֶמֶת הֲרֵי זֶה מֻחְלָט. נִתְמַעֲטָה הַבַּהֶרֶת אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲטָה הַמִּחְיָה טָהוֹר וְכֵן אִם רָבְתָה הַמִּחְיָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ בַּהֶרֶת זוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין הַבַּהֶרֶת מְטַמָּא בְּמִחְיָה עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה יְתֵרָה עַל הַמִּחְיָה רֹחַב שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת מִכָּל צַד. הָיְתָה הַמִּחְיָה פְּחוּתָה מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה וְרָבְתָה הַמִּחְיָה עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית כַּעֲדָשָׁה הֲרֵי זֶה מֻחְלָט. נִתְמַעֲטָה הַמִּחְיָה מִמַּה שֶּׁהָיְתָה אוֹ שֶׁהָלְכָה לָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיְתָה וְאֵין כָּאן סִימַן טֻמְאָה:

6

If a baheret is larger than a gris and it contains healthy flesh that is larger than a lentil, the afflicted person is impure whether they increase or decrease in size, provided the size of the baheret does not decrease to less than a gris, the size of the healthy flesh does not decrease to less than a lentil, and the healthy flesh does not come within two hairsbreadth of edge of the baheret, as we explained.

ו

בַּהֶרֶת יְתֵרָה מִכִּגְרִיס וּבָהּ מִחְיָה יְתֵרָה מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה וְרַבּוּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲטוּ טָמֵא. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְמַעֵט בַּהֶרֶת מִכִּגְרִיס וְלֹא תִּתְמַעֵט הַמִּחְיָה מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה וְלֹא תִּקְרַב הַמִּחְיָה לְסוֹף הַבַּהֶרֶת בְּפָחוֹת מִכְּדֵי צְמִיחַת שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

7

When the baheret is the size of gris and there is healthy flesh the size of a lentil or more surrounding it from the outside and a second baheret surrounding the healthy flesh, the inner baheret would cause the afflicted person to be isolated, for it does not have a sign of impurity. The outer baheret causes him to be deemed definitively impure, because there is healthy flesh in its midst.

If the healthy flesh that was between the two blemishes was diminished or disappeared entirely - whether it was diminished or reduced from the inside or was diminished from the outside, the two are considered as one baheret that does not have a sign of impurity.

ז

בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּבָשָׂר חַי כַּעֲדָשָׁה אוֹ יֶתֶר מַקִּיפָהּ מִבַּחוּץ וּבַהֶרֶת שְׁנִיָּה מַקֶּפֶת אֶת הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי. הֲרֵי הַבַּהֶרֶת הַפְּנִימִית לְהַסְגִּיר שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין בָּהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה וּבַהֶרֶת הַחִיצוֹנָה לְהַחְלִיט שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמִּחְיָה בְּאֶמְצָעָהּ. נִתְמַעֵט הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן אוֹ שֶׁהָלַךְ כֻּלּוֹ בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִתְמַעֵט וְכָלֶה מִבִּפְנִים בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִתְמַעֵט מִבַּחוּץ הֲרֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן כְּבַהֶרֶת אַחַת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה:

8

When a baheret is located at the tip of one of the limbs and there is healthy flesh in its midst at the tip, it is not considered as a sign of impurity, because the healthy flesh divides the blemish into two. Thus one portion streams down one side of the limb and another portion streams down the other. The person is thus not deemed impure, because Leviticus 13:5 states: "And the priest shall see it." Implied is that he shall see the entire blemish as a single entity.

These are the 24 tips of the limbs that do not impart impurity when healthy flesh is found upon them: the tips of the fingers and the toes, the tips of the ear and the nose, the tip of the corona of the male organ, and the tips of a woman's breasts. The tips of a man's breasts, warts, and blisters, by contrast, impart impurity if there is a baheret and healthy flesh upon them.

ח

בַּהֶרֶת שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּרֹאשׁ אֵיבָר מִן הָאֵיבָרִים וְהַמִּחְיָה בְּאֶמְצַע הַבַּהֶרֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָאֵבָר אֵינָהּ סִימַן טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמִּחְיָה חוֹלֶקֶת אֶת הַנֶּגַע וְנִמְצָא מִקְצָתוֹ שׁוֹפֵעַ וְיוֹרֵד מִכָּאן וּמִקְצָתוֹ שׁוֹפֵעַ וְיוֹרֵד מִכָּאן וְנֶאֱמַר בִּנְגָעִים וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רוֹאֶה הַנֶּגַע כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַחַת. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן רָאשֵׁי אֵיבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם מִטַּמְּאִין בְּמִחְיָה. רָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹת יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם וְרָאשֵׁי אָזְנַיִם וְרֹאשׁ הַחֹטֶם וְרֹאשׁ הָעֲטָרָה וְרָאשֵׁי דָּדִין שֶׁל אִשָּׁה. אֲבָל רָאשֵׁי דָּדִין שֶׁל אִישׁ וְהַיִּבּוֹלֶת וְהַדִּלְדּוּלִין מִטַּמְּאִין בְּמִחְיָה:

9

When there was a flat surface the size of a gris at the tip of any of these limbs, a blemish imparts impurity. If they were round as is the case for most people, blemishes are pure.

What is implied? If there is a baheret the size of a gris at the tip of one's nose or the tip of one's finger, descending to either direction, he is pure, as implied by the phrase: "And the priest shall see it." Implied is that he shall see the entire blemish as a single entity.

ט

וְכָל רָאשֵׁי אֵיבָרִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁהָיָה מְקוֹמָן יוֹשֵׁב כִּגְרִיס מִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ עֲגֻלִּין כְּרֹב בְּרִיַּת בְּנֵי אָדָם טְהוֹרִין. כֵּיצַד. בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס בְּרֹאשׁ חָטְמוֹ אוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹ שׁוֹפַעַת אֵילָךְ וְאֵילָךְ טָהוֹר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן עַד שֶׁיִּרְאֵהוּ כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַחַת:

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 4

1

The increase of a blemish imparts impurity regardless of its size, provided the increase was one of the shades of blemishes that impart impurity. If, however, the increase was the color of a bohak, it is not considered as an increase. An increase of a blemish is a sign of impurity only when it spreads beyond the blemish. If, however, it spreads within the blemish, the person's original status is unchanged.

What is implied? There was a baheret with less than a lentil of healthy flesh inside of it. He was therefore isolated. At the end of a week, the size of the healthy flesh was diminished or it disappeared entirely, it is not considered as an increase. For, to be significant, an increase of a baheret may not spread within its own midst, but rather outside of it.

א

הַפִּשְׂיוֹן מְטַמֵּא בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַפִּשְׂיוֹן מֵאַחַת מִמַּרְאוֹת הַנְּגָעִים. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה הַפִּשְׂיוֹן מַרְאֵה בֹּהַק אֵינוֹ פִּשְׂיוֹן. וְאֵין הַפִּשְׂיוֹן סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּפְשֶׂה חוּץ לַנֶּגַע אֲבָל אִם פָּשָׂה לְתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה. כֵּיצַד. בַּהֶרֶת וּבְתוֹכָהּ בָּשָׂר חַי פָּחוֹת מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה וְהִסְגִּירָהּ וּבְסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ נִתְמַעֲטָה הַמִּחְיָה מִמַּה שֶּׁהָיְתָה אוֹ שֶׁהָלַךְ הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי כֻּלּוֹ אֵין זֶה פִּשְׂיוֹן. שֶׁאֵין הַבַּהֶרֶת פּוֹשָׂה לְתוֹכָהּ אֶלָּא חוּצָה לָהּ:

2

An increase is not considered as a sign of impurity unless it comes after isolation. If, however, a person came at the outset and the priest saw the blemish increasing, he does not deem the person definitively impure. Instead, he isolates him until the end of the week and then observes it.

ב

אֵין הַפִּשְׂיוֹן סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אַחַר הֶסְגֵּר. אֲבָל אִם בָּא בַּתְּחִלָּה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּגַע שֶׁהוּא פּוֹשֶׂה וְהוֹלֵךְ אֵינוֹ מַחְלִיטוֹ אֶלָּא מַסְגִּירוֹ עַד סוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ וְיֵרָאֶה:

3

To be significant, an increase may not spread into a boil or into burnt flesh or into a healed boil or burn, nor on the head, nor on the beard even though they became bald and the hair was removed from them, as implied by Leviticus 13:7: "If the blemish will spread on the skin." If, however, a baheret spreads to a bohak, it is considered an increase.

ג

אֵין הַבַּהֶרֶת פּוֹשָׂה לְתוֹךְ הַשְּׁחִין וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ הַמִּכְוָה. וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ מִחְיַת הַשְּׁחִין וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ מִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה. וְלֹא לָרֹאשׁ וְלֹא לַזָּקָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּקְרְחוּ וְהָלַךְ הַשֵּׂעָר מֵהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג ז) "וְאִם פָּשֹׂה תִפְשֶׂה הַמִּסְפַּחַת בָּעוֹר". אֲבָל בַּהֶרֶת שֶׁפָּשְׂתָה לְתוֹךְ הַבֹּהַק הֲרֵי זֶה פִּשְׂיוֹן:

4

If a boil, burnt flesh, a bohak, or a healed boil or burn separate between an increase and the original blemish, it is not a sign of impurity. If the person was isolated and these skin conditions departed and this increase was immediately adjacent to the original blemish, he is deemed definitively impure.

ד

הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וְהַבֹּהַק וּמִחְיַת הַשְּׁחִין וּמִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה שֶׁהֵן חוֹלְקִין בֵּין הָאוֹם לַפִּשְׂיוֹן אֵינוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה. הִסְגִּירוֹ וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶן עַד שֶׁנִּמְצָא הַפִּשְׂיוֹן סָמוּךְ לָאוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה מֻחְלָט:

5

When there was a baheret the size of a gris and it spread more than a half a gris, but approximately half a gris of the original blemish disappeared, the person is pure even though together, there remained more than a gris from the original blemish and the increase.

If the original blemish was the size of a gris and it spread more than a gris, but the original blemish disappeared entirely, it should be given an initial observation and isolated week after week. If a person has a baheret and was isolated and the baheret disappeared at the end of the days of isolation, and then the baheret returned to its original place, it is given its initial status. If it became diminished during the days of his isolation and then expanded and returned to its original size at the end of the week or increased and then the increased blemish diminished and returned to its original size at the end of the week, he should continue in isolation or is released from the process of inspection.

ה

בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּפָשְׂתָה כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס וְעוֹד וְהָלַךְ מִן הָאוֹם כַּחֲצִי גְּרִיס. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנּוֹתָר מִן הָאוֹם עִם הַפִּשְׂיוֹן יֶתֶר מִכִּגְרִיס [הֲרֵי] זֶה טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה כִּגְרִיס וּפָשְׂתָה כִּגְרִיס וְעוֹד וְהָלְכָה לָהּ הָאוֹם תֵּרָאֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה וְיַסְגִּיר שָׁבוּעַ אַחַר שָׁבוּעַ. הָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת וְהִסְגִּירוֹ וְהָלְכָה הַבַּהֶרֶת בְּסוֹף יְמֵי הֶסְגֵּר וְחָזְרָה בַּהֶרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיְתָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה. נִתְמַעֲטָה [בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי הֶסְגֵּר] וּפָשְׂתָה וְחָזְרָה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹ שֶׁפָּשְׂתָה וְנִתְמַעֵט הַפִּשְׂיוֹן וְחָזְרָה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיְתָה הֲרֵי זֶה יַסְגִּיר אוֹ יִפְטֹר:

6

If a baheret was the size of a gris, it then increased the size of a gris, then healthy flesh or white hair erupted in it, and then the original blemish disappeared, it should be given an initial observation.

The following rules apply if a person had a baheret the size of a gris and he was isolated. At the end of the week, the blemish was the size of a sela, but there was a doubt whether it was the original blemish or a new one that came in its place, it is impure.

ו

בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּפָשְׂתָה כִּגְרִיס וְנוֹלַד בַּפִּשְׂיוֹן מִחְיָה אוֹ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וְהָלְכָה לָהּ הָאוֹם תֵּרָאֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה. הָיְתָה בּוֹ בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וְהִסְגִּירוֹ בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּסֶלַע סָפֵק שֶׁהִיא הִיא סָפֵק שֶׁהִיא אַחֶרֶת בָּאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא:

7

The following rules apply when there is a baheret more than the size of a gris and a stretch of afflicted flesh emerging from it. If the stretch is two hairs wide, it requires white hair or an increase in size for the person to be considered impure. If, however, healthy flesh appears in it, this ruling does not apply. The rationale is that healthy flesh is not considered as a sign of impurity unless it is surrounded by a baheret and there is a space where two hairs can grow between the edge of the healthy flesh and the edge of the baheret.

The following laws apply when there were two baharot and a stretch of afflicted flesh extending from one to the other. If it is two hairsbreadth wide, they are considered as being joined together. If not, they are not considered as joined.

When the afflicted person was isolated as a result of a blemish for one week after another and a sign of impurity did not appear and, as a result, he was released from the process of inspection, but after he was released from the process of inspection, the blemish increased in size even slightly, he should be deemed definitively impure.

ז

בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וְחוּט יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ רֹחַב שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת זוֹקְקָהּ לְשֵׂעָר לָבָן וּלְפִשְׂיוֹן אֲבָל לֹא לְמִחְיָה שֶׁאֵין הַמִּחְיָה סִימַן טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתַּקִּיף אוֹתָהּ הַבַּהֶרֶת וְיִהְיֶה בֵּין סוֹף הַמִּחְיָה וְסוֹף הַבַּהֶרֶת רֹחַב צְמִיחַת שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי בֶּהָרוֹת וְחוּט יוֹצֵא מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ רֹחַב שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת מְצָרְפָן וְאִם לָאו אֵינוֹ מְצָרְפָן. הִסְגִּירוֹ שָׁבוּעַ אַחַר שָׁבוּעַ וְלֹא נוֹלַד לוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה וּפְטָרוֹ וּלְאַחַר הַפִּטּוּר פָּשָׂה הַנֶּגַע כָּל שֶׁהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻחְלָט:

8

When a baheret was declared pure either after the afflicted person was isolated or deemed definitively impure, i.e., the signs of impurity disappeared, he should not be isolated again.

ח

בַּהֶרֶת שֶׁטָּהֲרָה מִתּוֹךְ הֶסְגֵּר אוֹ מִתּוֹךְ הֶחְלֵט שֶׁהָלְכוּ מִמֶּנָּה סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה אֵין מַסְגִּירִין בָּהּ לְעוֹלָם:

9

When a baheret diminished after the person was released from the process of inspection after isolation and then increased to its original size or it increased and then decreased to its original size, the person remains in his state of purity.

ט

בַּהֶרֶת שֶׁכָּנְסָה אַחַר הַפִּטּוּר וּפָשְׂתָה לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹ שֶׁפָּשְׂתָה וְחָזְרָה לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיְתָה הֲרֵי הוּא בְּטָהֳרָתוֹ:

10

The following laws apply when there is a baheret the size of a gris and healthy flesh the size of a lentil in it and white hair in the midst of the healthy flesh. The afflicted person was deemed definitively impure. After that determination was made, the healthy flesh disappeared. He is still impure because of the white hair. If the white hair disappeared, he is impure because of the healthy flesh.

If the white hair was located in the baheret and not in the healthy flesh and then the white hair disappeared, the afflicted person is impure because of the healthy flesh. If the healthy flesh disappeared, he is still impure because of the white hair.

י

בַּהֶרֶת כִּגְרִיס וּבָהּ מִחְיָה כַּעֲדָשָׁה וְשֵׂעָר לָבָן בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּחְיָה וְהֶחְלִיטוֹ וּלְאַחַר הֶחְלֵט הָלְכָה הַמִּחְיָה טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֵׂעָר לָבָן. הָלַךְ הַשֵּׂעָר לָבָן טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַמִּחְיָה. הָיָה הַשֵּׂעָר לָבָן בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּהֶרֶת וְהָלָךְ לוֹ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַמִּחְיָה. הָלְכָה הַמִּחְיָה טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֵׂעָר לָבָן:

11

The following rules apply when after a person with a baheret was isolated for a week, he was deemed impure, because there was healthy flesh in the baheret and it increased in size. If later the healthy flesh disappeared, he is impure because of the increase. If the increase disappeared, he is impure because of the healthy flesh.

If a person was deemed definitively impure because of white hair, that white hair disappeared, but other white hair appeared, healthy flesh appeared, or the size of the blemish increased, his status of impurity remains unchanged. This law also applies if a person was deemed definitively impure because of healthy flesh and the healthy flesh disappeared, but other healthy flesh or white hair appeared or the size of the blemish increased or he was deemed definitively impure because the size of the blemish increased, that increase disappeared, but there was another increase or healthy flesh or white hair appeared.

Whether an afflicted person was deemed impure when he originally appeared before the priest, at the end of the first week of isolation, at the end of the second week, or after he was released from the process of inspection, since he was deemed definitively impure in any instance, he is not pure until no sign of impurity remains upon him, neither the sign for which he was deemed impure or any other sign.

יא

בַּהֶרֶת וּבָהּ מִחְיָה וּפִשְׂיוֹן. הָלְכָה הַמִּחְיָה טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַפִּשְׂיוֹן. הָלַךְ הַפִּשְׂיוֹן טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי הַמִּחְיָה. וְכֵן בְּשֵׂעָר לָבָן וּבְפִשְׂיוֹן הֶחְלִיטוֹ בְּשֵׂעָר לָבָן וְהָלַךְ הַשֵּׂעָר וְחָזַר בּוֹ שֵׂעָר לָבָן אַחֵר. אוֹ שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה לוֹ מִחְיָה אוֹ פִּשְׂיוֹן. אוֹ שֶׁהֶחְלִיטוֹ בְּמִחְיָה וְהָלְכָה הַמִּחְיָה וְנוֹלְדָה לוֹ מִחְיָה אַחֶרֶת. אוֹ שֵׂעָר לָבָן אוֹ פִּשְׂיוֹן. אוֹ שֶׁהֶחְלִיטוֹ בְּפִשְׂיוֹן וְהָלַךְ הַפִּשְׂיוֹן וְחָזַר בּוֹ פִּשְׂיוֹן אַחֵר. אוֹ שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בָּהּ מִחְיָה אוֹ שֵׂעָר לָבָן. הֲרֵי זֶה בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה. אֶחָד הַטָּמֵא שֶׁהֻחְלַט בַּתְּחִלָּה אוֹ שֶׁהֻחְלַט בְּסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ בְּסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ שֵׁנִי אוֹ אַחַר הַפִּטּוּר. הוֹאִיל וְהֻחְלַט מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר בּוֹ סִימַן טֻמְאָה לֹא סִימַן הֶחְלֵט וְלֹא סִימָן אַחֵר:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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