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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Parah Adumah - Chapter 8, Parah Adumah - Chapter 9, Parah Adumah - Chapter 10

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Parah Adumah - Chapter 8

1

When a person was carrying water for the ashes of the red heifer on his shoulders and he stood and delivered a halachic ruling for others, rendered a judgment, a woman performed chalitzah in his presence, a girl performed mi'un in his presence, he gave directions to others, killed a snake or scorpion that did not present a threat to him, or took food from the market to set aside, the water is disqualified. The rationale is that he occupied himself with another activity before placing the ashes on the water.

If, however, he took food in order to eat and ate while he was proceeding on his way or killed a snake or scorpion that was preventing his progress, the water is acceptable, for these activities are necessary to carry the water. This is the general principle: Any activity that is considered as work which was performed before placing the ashes on the water, whether he stood still or not, disqualifies the water. When he performs an activity that is not considered as work, if he does not stand still, the water is acceptable. If he stands still, it is disqualified.

If he was walking while carrying such water and, while he was walking, he made an opening to walk through, the water he is carrying is acceptable, even though he made the opening with the intent of closing it afterwards. If he closes it before placing the ashes on the water, the water is disqualified. Similarly, if he dries fruit to eat, even if later he intends to dry the remainder, the water is acceptable. If he dries the remaining fruit before placing the ashes on the water, it is disqualified.

א

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ מֵימָיו עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְעָמַד וְהוֹרָה הוֹרָאָה לַאֲחֵרִים אוֹ שֶׁדָּן דִּין אוֹ שֶׁחָלְצָה בְּפָנָיו אוֹ מֵאֲנָה אוֹ שֶׁהֶרְאָה לַאֲחֵרִים אֶת הַדֶּרֶךְ אוֹ שֶׁהָרַג אֶת נָחָשׁ אוֹ עַקְרָב אוֹ נָטַל אֳכָלִין מִן הַשּׁוּק לְהַצְנִיעָם הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם פְּסוּלִין שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְעַסֵּק בְּדָבָר אַחֵר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן הָאֵפֶר עַל הַמַּיִם. אֲבָל אִם נָטַל הָאֳכָלִין לְאָכְלָן וַאֲכָלָן כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ אוֹ שֶׁהָרַג נָחָשׁ אוֹ עַקְרָב הַמְעַכְּבִין אוֹתוֹ הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁזֶּה מִצֹּרֶךְ הוֹלָכַת הַמַּיִם. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה שֶׁעָשָׂהוּ קֹדֶם מַתַּן הָאֵפֶר בֵּין עָמַד בֵּין לֹא עָמַד פָּסַל וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה אִם לֹא עָמַד כְּשֵׁרִים וְאִם עָמַד פָּסַל. הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בְּמַיִם וּפָרַץ בִּשְׁעַת הִלּוּכוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפָּרַץ עַל מְנָת לִגְדֹּר כְּשֵׁרִים. וְאִם גָּדַר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן הָאֵפֶר פְּסוּלִין. וְכֵן אִם קָצָה פֵּרוֹת לֶאֱכל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכַּוָּנָתוֹ לְהַקְצוֹת אֶת הַשְּׁאָר כְּשֵׁרִין. וְאִם הִקְצָה קֹדֶם מַתַּן הָאֵפֶר פָּסוּל:

2

The following laws apply if one was eating while carrying such water; he left over some food and cast the leftovers under a fig tree or under a net used to dry figs. If his intent was to prevent the food from perishing, the water is disqualified, because he performed work. If he cast it away because he no longer needs it, the water is acceptable.

When a person drew water to sanctify it and entrusted it to a watchman to oversee, the water is not disqualified if the owner performed work, because he entrusted it to a watchman. If the watchman performs work, he disqualifies it, because the water is in his domain and he takes the place of the owner.

If two people are watching such water and one performs work, the water is acceptable, because the other is watching. If the first returned to his watch and the second stood up and performed work, the water is acceptable. The water's status is maintained unless all of the watchmen perform work at the same time.

ב

הָיָה אוֹכֵל בִּשְׁעַת הוֹלָכַת הַמַּיִם וְהוֹתִיר וְזָרַק מַה שֶּׁהוֹתִיר לְתַחַת הַתְּאֵנָה אוֹ לְתַחַת הַמֻּקְצֶה אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יֹאבְדוּ הַפֵּרוֹת הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם פְּסוּלִין שֶׁהֲרֵי עָשָׂה מְלָאכָה. וְאִם זְרָקָן לְפִי שֶּׁאֵין לוֹ צֹרֶךְ בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם כְּשֵׁרִין. הַמְמַלֵּא מַיִם לְקַדְּשָׁן וּמְסָרָן לְאַחֵר לְשָׁמְרָן וְעָשׂוּ הַבְּעָלִים מְלָאכָה לֹא נִפְסְלוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁהֲרֵי מְסָרָן לְשׁוֹמֵר. וְאִם עָשָׂה הַשּׁוֹמֵר מְלָאכָה פְּסָלָן שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וְהוּא נִכְנַס תַּחַת הַבְּעָלִים. הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם שׁוֹמְרִין אֶת הַמַּיִם וְעָשָׂה אֶחָד מֵהֶן מְלָאכָה הַמַּיִם כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁהֲרֵי הַשֵּׁנִי מְשַׁמֵּר. חָזַר הָרִאשׁוֹן לִשְׁמֹר וְעָמַד הַשֵּׁנִי וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה הַמַּיִם כְּשֵׁרִים עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ כָּל הַשּׁוֹמְרִין מְלָאכָה כְּאַחַת:

3

The following rules apply when a person sanctifies water with one hand and performs work with another. If he sanctifies the water for himself, he disqualifies it, because he performed work before casting the ashes on the water. If he sanctified water for his colleague, the water is acceptable, because a person does not disqualify a colleague's water with the performance of such work. For the performance of work does not disqualify the act of sanctification; it disqualifies only the water, and that, only when the one performing the work is a watchman or the owner.

ג

הַמְקַדֵּשׁ בְּאַחַת יָדוֹ וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בַּשְּׁנִיָּה. אִם לְעַצְמוֹ קִדֵּשׁ פָּסַל שֶׁהֲרֵי עָשָׂה מְלָאכָה קֹדֶם מַתַּן אֵפֶר בְּמַיִם. וְאִם לַחֲבֵרוֹ קִדֵּשׁ הַמַּיִם כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁאֵין זֶה פּוֹסֵל מֵימָיו שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ בַּמְּלָאכָה שֶׁעָשָׂה. שֶׁאֵין הַמְּלָאכָה פּוֹסֶלֶת בְּקִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָעוֹשֶׂה הַשּׁוֹמֵר אוֹ הַבְּעָלִים:

4

When a person sanctifies water for himself and a colleague at the same time, his water is disqualified because of the activity he performed in sanctifying his colleague's water. If, however, he sanctifies water belonging to two other people at the same time, they are both acceptable, because the performance of work does not disqualify water belonging to others.

ד

הַמְקַדֵּשׁ לְעַצְמוֹ וּלְאַחֵר כְּאַחַת. שֶׁלּוֹ פָּסוּל שֶׁהֲרֵי נִפְסְלוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁל עַצְמוֹ בְּעֵסֶק שֶׁנִּתְעַסֵּק בְּקִדּוּשׁ חֲבֵרוֹ. אֲבָל אִם קִדֵּשׁ לִשְׁנַיִם כְּאַחַת שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּשֵׁרִין שֶׁאֵין מְלַאכְתּוֹ פּוֹסֶלֶת מֵי אֲחֵרִים:

5

When a person fills two buckets with his two hands for himself and sanctifies them at once, they are disqualified. If he sanctifies them individually, they are acceptable. If he sanctifies water for himself with both hands at the same time in one sanctification, it is acceptable. If he sanctified two buckets at the same time, they are both disqualified. If, with his two hands, he filled one bucket of water and sanctified another existing bucket for himself, they are both disqualified.

If he filled two buckets with his two hands for another person at the same time, when they are sanctified at once, they are both acceptable. If they were sanctified individually, they are disqualified. If he sanctifies water for another person with both hands at the same time as one sanctification it is acceptable. If, with his two hands, he filled one bucket of water and sanctified another existing bucket for another person, the bucket he filled is disqualified, but the bucket he sanctified is acceptable.

This is the general principle: Whenever work was performed when water was drawn, whether one drew the water for himself or for another person, it is disqualified, Whenever water was drawn according to law and then one performed work before placing the ashes upon it, if the water belonged to him, it is disqualified. If it belongs to someone else, it is acceptable.

In any situation when the water is in his hand and he performs work, whether there is a watchman who does not perform work or whether there is no watchman, the water is disqualified. When the water is not in his hand and he performed work, if there is a watchman, it is not disqualified. If there is no watchman, it is disqualified.

ה

הַמְמַלֵּא לְעַצְמוֹ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת בְּקִדּוּשׁ אֶחָד פָּסוּל. בִּשְׁנֵי קִדּוּשִׁים כָּשֵׁר. קִדֵּשׁ לְעַצְמוֹ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת בְּקִדּוּשׁ אֶחָד כְּשֵׁרִים בִּשְׁנֵי קִדּוּשִׁין פְּסוּלִין. מִלֵּא וְקִדֵּשׁ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת לְעַצְמוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּסוּלִין. מִלֵּא לְאַחֵר בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת בְּקִדּוּשׁ אֶחָד כָּשֵׁר בִּשְׁנֵי קִדּוּשִׁין פְּסוּלִין. קִדֵּשׁ לְאַחֵר בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת בֵּין בְּקִדּוּשׁ אֶחָד בֵּין בִּשְׁנֵי קִדּוּשִׁין שְׁנֵיהֶן כְּשֵׁרִים. מִלֵּא וְקִדֵּשׁ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת לְאַחֵר הַמִּלּוּי פָּסוּל וְהַקִּדּוּשׁ כָּשֵׁר. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל מִלּוּי שֶׁעָשָׂה עִמּוֹ מְלָאכָה בֵּין שֶׁמִּלֵּא לְעַצְמוֹ בֵּין שֶׁמִּלֵּא לְאַחֵר פָּסוּל. וְכָל מַיִם שֶׁנִּתְמַלְּאוּ כְּהִלְכָתָן וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן אֶת הָאֵפֶר אִם הָיוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁלּוֹ הֲרֵי הֵן פְּסוּלִין. וְאִם הָיוּ שֶׁל אַחֵר כְּשֵׁרִין. וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם שׁוֹמֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בֵּין שֶׁאֵין [שָׁם] שׁוֹמֵר פָּסוּל. וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה אִם יֵשׁ [שָׁם] שׁוֹמֵר לֹא פָּסַל. אִם אֵין שָׁם שׁוֹמֵר פָּסַל:

6

When a person tells a colleague: "Sanctify water for me and I will sanctify water for you," and they sanctified water for each other, the first is acceptable and the second is disqualified, because he received a wage for sanctifying.

If one tells the other: "Draw water for me and I will draw water for you," and they drew water for each other, the first is unacceptable. The rationale is that since his intent was that his colleague should draw water for him in exchange, it is considered as if he drew water for himself and another person at the same time, in which instance, the water is disqualified. The second bucket is acceptable, because it is permitted to receive payment for drawing water and he did not perform work after drawing the water, nor did have an intent regarding another drawing of water.

ו

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קַדֵּשׁ לִי וַאֲקַדֵּשׁ לְךָ וְקִדְּשׁוּ זֶה לָזֶה הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּשֵׁר וְהַשֵּׁנִי פָּסוּל שֶׁהֲרֵי קִדֵּשׁ בְּשָׂכָר. אָמַר לוֹ מַלֵּא לִי וַאֲמַלֵּא לְךָ וּמִלְּאוּ זֶה לָזֶה הָרִאשׁוֹן פָּסוּל הוֹאִיל וְכַוָּנָתוֹ שֶׁיְּמַלֵּא לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ. חֵלֶף מִלּוּי זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְמַלֵּא לוֹ וּלְאַחֵר שֶׁהֵן פְּסוּלִין. וְהַשֵּׁנִי כָּשֵׁר שֶׁהַמִּלּוּי בְּשָׂכָר מֻתָּר וַהֲרֵי לֹא עָשָׂה מְלָאכָה אַחַר שֶׁמִּלֵּא וְאֵין בְּכַוָּנָתוֹ מִלּוּי אַחֵר:

7

When a person tells a friend: "Sanctify water for me and I will draw water for you," they are both acceptable. The rationale is that work does not disqualify sanctification and it permitted to receive a wage for drawing water.

If one tells the other: "Draw water for me and I will sanctify water for you," they are both disqualified. The water drawn originally is disqualified, because it is considered as if he drew water and sanctified it at the same time and thus caused the water he drew to be disqualified because of the performance of work. And the water sanctified afterwards is disqualified, because it is as if he sanctified water for a wage, because it is as if he was repaying a debt for which he was liable.

ז

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קַדֵּשׁ לִי וַאֲמַלֵּא לְךָ שְׁנֵיהֶן כְּשֵׁרִין שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה אֵינָהּ פּוֹסֶלֶת הַקִּדּוּשׁ וְהַמִּלּוּי בְּשָׂכָר מֻתָּר. מַלֵּא לִי וַאֲקַדֵּשׁ לְךָ שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּסוּלִין. זֶה שֶׁמִּלֵּא בַּתְּחִלָּה פָּסוּל שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְמַלֵּא וּמְקַדֵּשׁ כְּאַחַת וּפָסַל הַמַּיִם בַּמְּלָאכָה. וְזֶה שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה פָּסוּל שֶׁהֲרֵי קִדֵּשׁ בְּשָׂכָר וּכְאִלּוּ הֶחְזִיר חוֹב שֶׁעָלָיו:

8

When a person goes to sanctify water for the ashes of the red heifer, he may take the key to the closet where the ashes are kept and open it to take out the ashes. If it is necessary to dig out the ashes, he may take a hatchet. He may take a ladder and carry it from place to place to bring the ashes. In all these circumstances, the water and the ashes remain acceptable. If after taking the ashes for the sanctification, he covered the container in which the ashes were held, locked the door of the closet, or stood the container where the ashes were held upright on the ground before casting the ashes on the water, the water is disqualified, but the ashes are acceptable to sanctify other water.

If, by contrast, he stood the container in which the ashes were held upright in his hand so that the remaining ashes would not be scattered, it is acceptable, because it is impossible to do otherwise. If he places it down on the ground, the water is disqualified and if he covers it, the water is disqualified.

If he took ashes and saw that the amount was excessive and returned some, it is acceptable. If he cast the ashes on the water and then returned some, the water is acceptable. If he cast the ashes on the water and saw that the amount was excessive and took some to sanctify other water, it is acceptable.

If he trimmed an olive leaf to use to cast the ashes, the ruling depends on his intent. If his intent was so that the leaf would not hold much ashes, the water is disqualified. If his intent was to direct the flow of the ashes so that they would enter the container holding the water, the water is acceptable.

ח

הַהוֹלֵךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹטֵל אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ וּפוֹתֵחַ לְהוֹצִיא הָאֵפֶר. וְנוֹטֵל קַרְדֹּם אִם צָרִיךְ לַחְפֹּר בּוֹ אֵפֶר הַפָּרָה. וְנוֹטֵל סֻלָּם וּמוֹלִיךְ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם לְהָבִיא הָאֵפֶר וְכָשֵׁר. וְאִם מִשֶּׁנָּטַל הָאֵפֶר לְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ כִּסָּה הַכְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ הָאֵפֶר. אוֹ שֶׁהֵגִיף אֶת הַדָּלֶת אוֹ שֶׁזָּקַף אֶת הַכְּלִי בָּאָרֶץ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּשְׁלִיךְ הָאֵפֶר לַמַּיִם פָּסַל הַמַּיִם. אֲבָל הָאֵפֶר כָּשֵׁר לְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַיִם אֲחֵרִים. זָקַף אֶת הַכְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ הָאֵפֶר בְּיָדוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּזֵּר כְּשֵׁרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם הִנִּיחוֹ בָּאָרֶץ פָּסַל. וְאִם כִּסָּהוּ פָּסַל. נָטַל אֶת הָאֵפֶר וְרָאָה שֶׁהוּא מְרֻבֶּה וְהֶחְזִיר מִמֶּנּוּ כָּשֵׁר. נָתַן הָאֵפֶר עַל הַמַּיִם וְרָאָה שֶׁהוּא מְרֻבֶּה וְנָטַל מִמֶּנּוּ לְקַדֵּשׁ מַיִם אֲחֵרִים כָּשֵׁר. קִרְסֵם עֲלֵה זַיִת לַחְתּוֹת בּוֹ הָאֵפֶר אִם בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזִיק אֵפֶר הַרְבֵּה פָּסַל וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס הָאֵפֶר בַּכְּלִי כָּשֵׁר:

Parah Adumah - Chapter 9

1

How is the water sanctified with the ashes of the red heifer? One should place the water that was drawn for this purpose in a container and then place ashes on the water so that they will be seen on the surface of the water. This is sufficient even though it is a large barrel filled with water. He should then mix the entire contents. If he placed the ashes in the container first and then placed the water upon them, it is disqualified.

What then is meant by the Torah's statement Numbers 19:17: "And he shall place living water upon it"? That the ash should be mixed with the water.

א

כֵּיצַד מְקַדְּשִׁין אֶת הַמַּיִם בְּאֵפֶר הַפָּרָה. נוֹתֵן אֶת הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּתְמַלְּאוּ לְשֵׁם מֵי חַטָּאת בַּכְּלִי וְנוֹתֵן אֵפֶר עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּרָאֶה עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא חָבִית גְּדוֹלָה מְלֵאָה מַיִם. וּמְעָרֵב הַכּל. וְאִם נָתַן הָאֵפֶר תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָתַן עָלָיו הַמַּיִם פָּסַל. וּמַהוּ זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (במדבר יט יז) "וְנָתַן עָלָיו מַיִם חַיִּים". כְּדֵי לְעָרֵב אֶת הָאֵפֶר בַּמַּיִם:

2

A person sanctifying must focus his concentration. He must cast the ashes on the water by hand. These concepts are implied by the phrase ibid.: "And he shall take for the impure person...." The latter words indicate that he must have a specific intent while sanctifying, drawing, and sprinkling.

Thus if the ashes of the red heifer fell from the container holding them into the water, he took the ashes with his hand, but then a friend or the wind thrust him and the ashes fell from his hand onto the water, or the ashes fell from his hand onto the side of the container or onto his hand and then onto the water, the water is disqualified,

ב

הַמְקַדֵּשׁ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּתְכַּוֵּן וְיִתֶּן הָאֵפֶר בְּיָדוֹ עַל הַמַּיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יט יז) "וְלָקְחוּ לַטָּמֵא" עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִתְכַּוֵּן לְקִדּוּשׁ וּלְמִלּוּי וּלְהַזָּיָה. אֲבָל אִם נָפַל הָאֵפֶר מִן הַכְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ הָאֵפֶר לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם. אוֹ שֶׁנָּטַל הָאֵפֶר בְּיָדוֹ וּדְחָפוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ הָרוּחַ וְנָפַל הָאֵפֶר מִיָּדוֹ עַל הַמַּיִם. אוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל הָאֵפֶר מִיָּדוֹ עַל צַד הַכְּלִי אוֹ עַל יָדוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָפַל לַמַּיִם הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל:

3

If one sanctified an amount of water insufficient for sprinkling in one container and sanctified another amount of water insufficient for sprinkling in another container, they are not sanctified. If the ashes were floating on the surface of the water and one gathered some from above and sanctified other water with it, it is sanctified. By contrast, any ashes that touched the water may not be used to sanctify water again even if they were dried. Indeed, even if ashes were blown onto water by the wind they may not be dried and used to sanctify other water.

ג

קִדֵּשׁ פָּחוֹת מִכְּדֵי הַזָּאָה בִּכְלִי זֶה וּפָחוֹת מִכְּדֵי הַזָּאָה בִּכְלִי אַחֵר לֹא נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ. הָיָה הָאֵפֶר צָף עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם וְכָנַס מִמֶּנּוּ מִלְּמַעְלָה וְקִדֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַיִם אֲחֵרִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְקֻדָּשִׁין. וְכָל שֶׁנָּגַע בַּמַּיִם אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין בּוֹ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְּבוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ נָשְׁבָה הָרוּחַ וְנָתְנָה אֶת הָאֵפֶר עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּיִם אֵינוֹ מְנַגְּבוֹ וּמְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ:

4

The following rules apply when there was a small container placed inside a large container, they were both filled with water drawn for the ashes of the red heifer, and their waters were intermingled. When one placed ashes on the water in the large container, all of the water in the small container became sanctified even though its opening is very narrow and no ashes entered there. The rationale is that the waters were intermingled.

ד

כְּלִי קָטָן שֶׁהָיָה בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי גָּדוֹל וְהֵן מְלֵאִין מַיִם וְהַמַּיִם מְעֹרָבִין כֵּיוָן שֶׁנָּתַן הָאֵפֶר בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי הַגָּדוֹל נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי הַקָּטָן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה פִּיו צַר בְּיוֹתֵר וְלֹא נִכְנַס לוֹ אֵפֶר שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמַּיִם כֻּלָּן מְעֹרָבִין:

5

When there was a sponge in the water at the time one placed the ashes upon it, the water in the sponge is disqualified because it is not in a container.

What should the person do to remove the water? He should pour off all the water until he reaches the sponge, but should not touch the sponge. If he touches the sponge, no matter how much water is above it, all of the water is disqualified, because the water in the sponge is released and mixes with the acceptable water.

If a sponge falls into sanctified water, one should take it and squeeze it outside the container and the water in the container remains acceptable.

ה

הָיָה סְפוֹג בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם בְּעֵת שֶׁנָּתַן הָאֵפֶר הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּסְּפוֹג פְּסוּלִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן בַּכְּלִי. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. זוֹלֵף אֶת כָּל הַמַּיִם עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לַסְּפוֹג וְלֹא יִגַּע בַּסְּפוֹג. וְאִם נָגַע בַּסְּפוֹג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּיִם צָפִין עַל גַּבָּיו כָּל שֶׁהֵן פְּסוּלִין. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּסְּפוֹג יוֹצְאִין וּמִתְעָרְבִין בַּמַּיִם הַכְּשֵׁרִין. נָפַל סְפוֹג לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם הַמְקֻדָּשִׁין נוֹטְלוֹ וְסוֹחֲטוֹ חוּץ לַכְּלִי וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי כְּשֵׁרִין:

6

When there are two adjacent troughs in one stone and ashes were placed into one of them, the water in the other is not sanctified. When there was a hole the size of a mouthpiece of a leather drinking pouch connecting the two or there was a layer of water even as thin as a garlic peel connecting them from above, if one placed the ashes into one, the water in the second is sanctified.

ו

שְׁתֵּי שְׁקָתוֹת שֶׁבְּאֶבֶן אַחַת שֶׁנָּתַן אֶת הָאֵפֶר לְתוֹךְ אַחַת מֵהֵן אֵין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּשְּׁנִיָּה מְקֻדָּשִׁין. וְאִם הָיוּ נְקוּבוֹת זוֹ לְזוֹ כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ הַמַּיִם צָפִין עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן אֲפִלּוּ כִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם וְנָתַן אֵפֶר לְאַחַת מֵהֵן הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּשְּׁנִיָּה מְקֻדָּשִׁין:

7

When two stones are placed together to form a trough, two kneading troughs are placed together, or a stone trough was divided and then the two portions held together, were the ashes of the red heifer to be placed in one, the water between them is not sanctified. If the two entities were connected with lime or with plaster and they could be carried as one, the water between them is sanctified.

ז

שְׁתֵּי אֲבָנִים שֶׁהִקִּיפָן זוֹ לְזוֹ וַעֲשָׂאָן שֹׁקֶת וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי עֲרֵבוֹת. וְכֵן שֹׁקֶת שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה וְנָתַן אֵפֶר בְּחֵלֶק אֶחָד מֵהֶן. הַמַּיִם שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן אֵינָן מְקֻדָּשִׁין. וְאִם חִבְּרָן בְּסִיד אוֹ בְּגַפְסִיס וְהֵם יְכוֹלוֹת לְהִנָּטֵל כְּאַחַת הַמַּיִם שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן מְקֻדָּשִׁין:

8

When even the smallest amount of other water - even water that was drawn for the sake of the ashes of the red heifer - becomes mixed with sanctified water, it is disqualified. Similarly, if dew descends into such water, it is disqualified. If other liquids or fruit juices fall into it, the entire quantity should be poured out. The container must be dried; only afterwards can other sanctified water be placed in it.

If ink, black earth, or dark earth, or any entity that leaves a mark falls into such water, it must be poured out, but there is no need to dry the container. The rationale is that if any portion of the entity that leaves a mark will remain, it will be apparent.

ח

מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בָּהֶן מַיִם אֲחֵרִים כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֲפִלּוּ מַיִם שֶׁנִּתְמַלְּאוּ לְקִדּוּשׁ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלִין. וְכֵן אִם יָרַד לְתוֹכָן טַל הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלִין. נָפַל לְתוֹכָן מַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת יְעָרֶה הַכּל וְצָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב הַכְּלִי וְאַחַר כֵּן יִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין אֲחֵרִים. נָפַל לְתוֹכָן דְּיוֹ קוֹמוֹס וְקַנְקַנְתּוֹם וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רוֹשֵׁם יְעָרֶה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב. שֶׁאִם יִשָּׁאֵר שָׁם דָּבָר הָרוֹשֵׁם הֲרֵי הוּא נִרְאֶה:

9

When a person immerses a container for water for the ashes of the red heifer in water that is not fit to be sanctified, he must dry it before he sanctifies other water in it. If he immersed it in water that is fit to be sanctified, he does not have to dry out the container. If, however, he immersed it with the intent of using it to hold sanctified water, he must dry it in any case.

ט

הַמַּטְבִּיל כְּלִי לְחַטָּאת בְּמַיִם שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לְקַדֵּשׁ צָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ. הִטְבִּילוֹ בְּמַיִם הָרְאוּיִין לְקַדֵּשׁ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב. וְאִם הִטְבִּילוֹ לֶאֱסֹף בּוֹ מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ צָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב:

10

When a gourd was immersed in water that was fit to be sanctified, one may sanctify water in it. But one may not collect water that has already been sanctified with the ashes in it. The rationale is that the water in which it was immersed becomes absorbed in its substance; afterwards, it emerges, becomes mixed with the sanctified water, and disqualifies it.

If it became impure, even if it was immersed, we do not sanctify water in it. The rationale is that impure water is absorbed in its substance. It will flow out and become mixed with the water that is being sanctified in it.

י

קֵרוּיָה שֶׁהִטְבִּילָהּ בְּמַיִם הָרְאוּיִין לְקַדֵּשׁ מְקַדְּשִׁין בָּהּ. אֲבָל אֵין אוֹסְפִין לְתוֹכָהּ מֵי חַטָּאת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁהֻטְבְּלָה בָּהֶן נִבְלָעִים בְּתוֹכָהּ וְיוֹצְאִין וּמִתְעָרְבִין בְּמֵי חַטָּאת וּפוֹסְלִין אוֹתָן. נִטְמֵאת וְהִטְבִּילוּהָ אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין בָּהּ שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקִין הַטְּמֵאִין הַנִּבְלָעִין בְּגוּפָהּ יֵצְאוּ וְיִתְעָרְבוּ בַּמַּיִם שֶׁמְּקַדְּשִׁין אוֹתָן בְּתוֹכָהּ:

11

When crawling animals or teeming animals fell into water that was sanctified and broke open or caused its color to change, the water is disqualified. This applies even if they were very dry like an ant, moth, or louse that is found in grain. If he placed beetles in such water, it is disqualified even if they did not break open or cause the color of the water to change. The rationale is that they are like tubes and the water enters their body and departs from it, mixed with their body fluids.

יא

מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכָן שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים וְנִתְבַּקְּעוּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן פְּסוּלִין. אַפִּילוּ הָיוּ יְבֵשִׁים בְּיוֹתֵר כְּגוֹן הַנְּמָלָה וְהָרִירָה וְהַכִּנָּה שֶׁבַּתְּבוּאָה. נָתַן לְתוֹכָהּ חִפּוּשִׁין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּקְּעוּ וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם פְּסוּלִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת וְהַמַּיִם נִכְנָסִין בְּתוֹכָהּ וְיוֹצְאִין מִתּוֹכָהּ עִם הַלֵּחָה שֶׁבָּהּ:

12

When a domesticated or wild animal drinks from sanctified water, the water is disqualified. Similarly, all birds disqualify it with the exception of a dove, because it sucks water and saliva does not flow from its mouth and become mixed in the water. Similarly, if any of the crawling animals drink from sanctified water, they do not disqualify it with the exception of the mole. It licks the water with its tongue and thus moisture will be released from its mouth into the water.

יב

מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין שֶׁשָּׁתָה מֵהֶן בְּהֵמָה אוֹ חַיָּה פְּסוּלִין. וְכֵן כָּל הָעוֹפוֹת פְּסוּלִין חוּץ מִן הַיּוֹנָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מוֹצֶצֶת וְאֵין רִיר יוֹצֵא מִפִּיהָ וּמִתְעָרֵב בַּמַּיִם. וְכֵן כָּל הַשְּׁרָצִים שֶׁשָּׁתוּ אֵינָן פּוֹסְלִין חוּץ מִן הַחֻלְדָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מְלַקֶּקֶת בִּלְשׁוֹנָהּ וְנִמְצֵאת הַלֵּחָה יוֹצְאָה מִפִּיהָ לַמַּיִם:

13

When the appearance of water sanctified with the ashes of the red heifer changes without any external cause, it is acceptable. If it changes color because of smoke, it is disqualified. If it froze and then melted, it is acceptable, even if it melted in the sun. If, however, it was melted by fire, it is disqualified.

יג

מֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָן כְּשֵׁרִים. נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מֵחֲמַת עָשָׁן פְּסוּלִין. הִגְלִידוּ וְחָזְרוּ וְנִמּוֹחוּ כְּשֵׁרִים אֲפִלּוּ נִמּוֹחוּ בַּחַמָּה אֲבָל אִם הִמְחָן בָּאוּר פְּסוּלִין:

14

When the appearance of the ashes of the red heifer changed without any external cause or because of smoke, they are acceptable. If their appearance changed because of dust, because lime or gypsum fell into them, or because even the slightest amount of oven ash fell into them, they are disqualified.

יד

אֵפֶר חַטָּאת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאָיו מֵחֲמַת עַצְמוֹ אוֹ מֵחֲמַת עָשָׁן כָּשֵׁר. נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מֵחֲמַת אָבָק אוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכוֹ סִיד אוֹ גַּפְסִיס אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בּוֹ אֵפֶר מַקְלֶה כָּל שֶׁהוּא הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל:

15

When a person thinks about drinking water sanctified with the ashes of the red heifer, he does not disqualify it until he actually drinks from it. If he poured from the container directly to his throat without his lips touching the water in the container, he does not disqualify it.

טו

הַחוֹשֵׁב עַל מֵי חַטָּאת לִשְׁתּוֹתָן לֹא פְּסָלָן עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה מֵהֶן. וְאִם שָׁפַךְ מִן הַכְּלִי לְתוֹךְ גְּרוֹנוֹ וְלֹא נָגְעָה שְׂפָתוֹ בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי לֹא פָּסַל:

16

When a container in which the water for the ashes of the red heifer had been placed was left open and then one discovered it closed, the water is disqualified. We suspect that maybe a person who had not purified himself for dealing with the water for the ashes of the red heifer touched it, for it is certain that a person covered it.

The following rules apply if one left it covered and found it open. If a mole could have drunk from it or dew could have descended upon it at night, it is disqualified. If not, it is acceptable. The rationale is that two undeterminable factors are involved. It is unknown whether it was uncovered by a person or a domesticated animal, wild animal, or crawling animal. And if you would say that it was uncovered by a person, it is unknown whether he was pure with regard to the water of the ashes of the red heifer.

טז

כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ מְגֻלֶּה וּבָא וּמְצָאוֹ מְכֻסֶּה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלִין שֶׁמָּא אָדָם שֶׁאֵינוֹ טָהוֹר לְחַטָּאת נָגַע בָּהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי אָדָם כִּסָּהוּ בְּוַדַּאי. הִנִּיחוֹ מְכֻסֶּה וּבָא וּמְצָאוֹ מְגֻלֶּה אִם יְכוֹלָה הַחֻלְדָּה לִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ שֶׁיָּרַד לוֹ טַל בַּלַּיְלָה פְּסוּלִין וְאִם לָאו כְּשֵׁרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן שְׁתֵּי סְפֵקוֹת סָפֵק אָדָם גִּלָּה אוֹ בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָרֶמֶשׂ וְאִם תִּמְצֵי לוֹמַר אָדָם גִּלָּהוּ שֶׁמָּא הָיָה טָהוֹר לְחַטָּאת אוֹ לֹא:

17

When a person transfers sanctified water or water that was drawn to be sanctified to an impure person to watch, the water is disqualified.

יז

הַמּוֹסֵר מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין אוֹ מַיִם שֶׁנִּתְמַלְּאוּ לְקִדּוּשׁ לְטָמֵא לְשָׁמְרָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלִין:

18

When two people are watching water and one becomes impure, the water is still acceptable, because it is in the domain of the other watchman. If the first purified himself and the other watchman became impure, it is acceptable because the water is in the domain of the first. If they both became impure at once, the water is disqualified.

יח

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְרִין אֶת הַמַּיִם וְנִטְמָא אֶחָד מֵהֶן כְּשֵׁרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי. טָהַר וְחָזַר לִשְׁמֹר וְנִטְמָא הַשֵּׁנִי כְּשֵׁרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן. נִטְמְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן כְּאַחַת הַמַּיִם פְּסוּלִין:

Parah Adumah - Chapter 10

1

When a person draws water to be sanctified, he does not have to be the person who sanctified and sprinkles the water on an impure person. Instead, another person may sanctify it and another may sprinkle it. Similarly, a person may draw water with one container and pour it from container to container. And he may sanctify it in a different container, pour the sanctified water from one container to another, and sprinkle it from a different container.

א

הַמְמַלֵא מַיִם לְקִדּוּשׁ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הוּא עַצְמוֹ הַמְקַדֵּשׁ וְהַמַּזֶּה אֶלָּא מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶחָד וּמַזֶּה אֶחָד. וְכֵן מְמַלֵּא אָדָם בִּכְלִי וּמְעָרֶה מִכְּלִי לִכְלִי וּמְקַדֵּשׁ בִּכְלִי אַחֵר וּמְעָרֶה הַמַּיִם הַמְקֻדָּשִׁין מִכְּלִי לִכְלִי וּמַזֶּה מִכְּלִי אַחֵר:

2

A person may draw water for the ashes of the red heifer and keep it in his possession without sanctifying it for as long as he desires. There is no difficulty in this. He may transport it from place to place and from city to city and then place ashes upon it and sanctify it whenever he desires.

Similarly, a person may keep sanctified water in his possession for many days or years and sprinkle from it on any day that he needs to until it is used up. He may transport it from place to place and from city to city. Similarly, a person may keep the ashes of the red heifer in his possession and transport it from place to place and from city to city. Once a container in which the ashes of the red heifer were held was transported in a ship on the Jordan River and an olive-sized portion of a corpse was discovered on the bottom of the ship, making the water impure. At that time, the High Court decreed that the water for the ashes of the red heifer and the ashes themselves should not be transported on a river, nor on a ship. Similarly, one should not float them on water, nor should a person stand on one side of a river and throw them to the other. A person may, however, pass through water until it reaches his neck while holding the ashes of the red heifer or sanctified water.

Similarly, a person and empty containers that were purified for the ashes of the red heifer and water that was drawn for the sake of the ashes of the red heifer that was not sanctified may be transported on a river and on a ship.

ב

מְמַלֵּא אָדָם מַיִם וּמַנִּיחָן אֶצְלוֹ בְּלֹא קִדּוּשׁ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה וְאֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. וּמוֹלִיכָן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וּמֵעִיר לְעִיר וְנוֹתֵן עֲלֵיהֶן אֵפֶר וּמְקַדְּשָׁן בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְכֵן הַמַּיִם הַמְקֻדָּשִׁין מַנִּיחָן אָדָם אֶצְלוֹ יָמִים וְשָׁנִים וּמַזֶּה מֵהֶן בְּכָל יוֹם שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ עַד שֶׁיִּתַּמּוּ וּמוֹלִיכָן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וּמֵעִיר לְעִיר. וּמְשַׁמֵּר אָדָם אֵפֶר פָּרָה אֶצְלוֹ וּמוֹלִיכָהּ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וּמֵעִיר לְעִיר. פַּעַם אַחַת הוֹלִיכוּ כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ מֵי חַטָּאת בִּסְפִינָה בַּיַּרְדֵּן וְנִמְצָא כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת בְּקַרְקַע הַסְּפִינָה וְנִטְמְאוּ הַמַּיִם. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה גָּזְרוּ בֵּית דִּין הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵין מַעֲבִירִין מֵי חַטָּאת וְלֹא אֵפֶר חַטָּאת בְּנָהָר וּבִסְפִינָה וְלֹא יְשִׁיטֵם עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם. וְלֹא יַעֲמֹד בְּצַד הַנָּהָר מִכָּאן וְיִזְרְקֵם לַצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי. אֲבָל עוֹבֵר הוּא אָדָם בְּמַיִם עַד צַוָּארוֹ וּבְיָדוֹ אֵפֶר פָּרָה אוֹ מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין. וְכֵן אָדָם וְכֵלִים הָרֵיקָנִים שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין לְחַטָּאת וּמַיִם שֶׁנִּתְמַלְּאוּ לְחַטָּאת וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ מַעֲבִירִין אוֹתָם בְּנָהָר בִּסְפִינָה:

3

Sanctified water may be transported on the Mediterranean Sea and it may be floated on such water. The decree encompassed only sanctified water and ashes on a river.

ג

מַעֲבִירִין מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁין בִּסְפִינָה בַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל וְשָׁטִין [בָּהֶם] עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם. שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ אֶלָּא עַל הַמַּיִם הַמְקֻדָּשִׁין וְעַל הָאֵפֶר בְּנָהָר:

4

When a person is transporting water to be sanctified - and, needless to say, water that has been sanctified - he should not sling the container over his back, but instead, should carry it in front of him, as implied by Numbers 19:9: "as safekeeping, as water for sprinkling." One can infer when it is watched, it may be used as water for sprinkling. If not, it is disqualified. If one filled two jugs, he should carry one in front of him and one behind him, because it is impossible to do otherwise.

ד

הַמּוֹלִיךְ מַיִם לְקַדְּשָׁן וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מַיִם שֶׁנִּתְקַדְּשׁוּ לֹא יַפְשִׁיל הַכְּלִי לַאֲחוֹרָיו אֶלָּא לְפָנָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יט ט) "לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת לְמֵי נִדָּה" בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן שְׁמוּרִין הֵן מֵי נִדָּה וְאִם לָאו פְּסוּלִין. מִלֵּא שְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת נוֹתֵן אַחַת לְפָנָיו וְאַחַת לַאֲחוֹרָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר:

5

When water for the ashes of the red heifer was weighed on a scale, it is disqualified if one diverted his attention from it. If not, it is acceptable. If, however, one weighed other entities with water for the ashes of the red heifer, it is disqualified. The rationale is that since one used it as a weight, it is not considered as having been "watched."

All of the pure individuals who draw water, sanctify it, and sprinkle it and, similarly, all of the utensils used for drawing water, sanctifying it, and sprinkling it are acceptable if they were immersed on that day even though night has not fallen upon them. For all of the activities involving the red heifer, drawing the water, and sprinkling it are acceptable when performed by individuals who had immersed that day, as we explained.

Because of the Sadducees, all of the utensils that can be purified are made impure, immersed, and then used for the water for the ashes of the red heifer.

ה

מֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁשְּׁקָלָן בְּמִשְׁקָל אִם הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ פְּסוּלִין וְאִם לָאו כְּשֵׁרִין. אֲבָל אִם שָׁקַל דְּבָרִים אֲחֵרִים בְּמֵי חַטָּאת הוֹאִיל וַעֲשָׂאָן מִשְׁקלֶת פְּסָלָן שֶׁאֵין זוֹ מִשְׁמֶרֶת. כָּל אֵלּוּ הַטְּהוֹרִים שֶׁמְּמַלְּאִין אוֹ שֶׁמְּקַדְּשִׁין אוֹ שֶׁמַּזִּין וְכֵן כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁמְּמַלְּאִין וּמְקַדְּשִׁין מֵהֶם וְשֶׁמַּזִּין מֵהֶן אִם הָיוּ טְבוּלֵי יוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֶעֱרִיב שִׁמְשָׁן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִים. שֶׁכָּל מַעֲשֵׂה הַפָּרָה וְהַמִּלּוּי וְהַקִּדּוּשׁ וְהַהַזָּיָה כָּשֵׁר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּמִפְּנֵי הַצְּדוֹקִין מְטַמְּאִין אֶת כָּל כְּלֵי שֶׁטֶף וּמַטְבִּילִין אוֹתָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בָּהֶן בְּמֵי חַטָּאת:

6

Everyone is acceptable to sprinkle the water with the ashes of the red heifer with the exception of a woman, a tumtum, an androgynus, a deafmute, an intellectually and/or emotionally compromised person, and a minor who is not intellectually mature. Similarly,] an uncircumcised person is acceptable, for an uncircumcised person is not impure.

When an intellectually mature minor sprinkles such water and a woman helps him, she holds the water in her hand, his sprinkling is acceptable provided she does not hold his hand while he is sprinkling. If she held his hand while he is sprinkling, the sprinkling is unacceptable.

ו

הַכּל כְּשֵׁרִין לְהַזּוֹת חוּץ מֵאִשָּׁה וְטֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס [וְחֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה] וְקָטָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ דַּעַת. אֲבָל קָטָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דַּעַת כָּשֵׁר לְהַזּוֹת וְהֶעָרֵל כָּשֵׁר לְהַזּוֹת שֶׁאֵין הֶעָרֵל טָמֵא. קָטָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דַּעַת שֶׁהִזָּה וְהָאִשָּׁה מְסַעֲדָּתוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָחֲזָה לוֹ הַמַּיִם בְּיָדוֹ הַזָּאָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא תֶּאֱחֹז בְּיָדוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַזָּאָה. וְאִם אָחֲזָה בְּיָדוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַזָּיָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה:

7

The person sprinkling the water must have the intent to sprinkle on the impure person to purify him. If he sprinkled without such an intent, the sprinkling is invalid. The person upon whom the water is sprinkled, by contrast, does not need to have any intent. Instead, water may be sprinkled on a person with his knowledge or without his knowledge.

When a person has the intent to sprinkle such water in front of himself and he sprinkles behind himself, or he had the intent of sprinkling water behind himself and he sprinkled in front of himself, his sprinkling is invalid. If he had the intent to sprinkle such water in front of himself and he sprinkled in front, but to the sides, his sprinkling is acceptable.

ז

הַמַּזֶּה צָרִיךְ לְכַוֵּן וּלְהַזּוֹת עַל הַטָּמֵא לְטַהֲרוֹ וְאִם הִזָּה שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה הַזָּאָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. אֲבָל זֶה שֶׁמַּזִּין עָלָיו אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כַּוָּנָה אֶלָּא מַזִּין עַל הָאָדָם לְדַעְתּוֹ וְשֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתּוֹ. הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזּוֹת לְפָנָיו וְהִזָּה לַאֲחוֹרָיו לַאֲחוֹרָיו וְהִזָּה לְפָנָיו הַזָּיָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזּוֹת לְפָנָיו וְהִזָּה לַצְּדָדִין שֶׁל פָּנָיו הַזָּיָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

8

The person sprinkling the water need not dip the hyssop in the water for every sprinkling. Instead, he may dip the hyssop and sprinkle once and again until the water was completed. He may sprinkle on many people or many utensils - even 100 - at a time. Anyone who was touched by even the slightest amount of the water is pure, provided the one sprinkling had the intent of sprinkling on him.

If one dipped the hyssop with the intent of sprinkling on an entity that is susceptible to ritual impurity or on a person and, instead, sprinkled the water on an entity that was not susceptible to ritually impurity or on an animal, he need not dip the hyssop again if water remained on it. Instead, he may sprinkle the remainder on an impure person or utensil. The rationale is that, at the outset, he dipped it in the water in an acceptable manner. If, by contrast, he dipped the hyssop in the water in order to sprinkle it on an entity that is not susceptible to ritual impurity or on an animal, and sprinkled it on an impure man or utensil, the sprinkling is invalid until he dips the hyssop in the water a second time, while having the intent to sprinkle on a person or on an entity that is susceptible to ritual impurity.

ח

הַמַּזֶּה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ טְבִילָה לְכָל הַזָּיָה אֶלָּא טוֹבֵל אֶת הָאֵזוֹב וּמַזֶּה הַזָּיָה אַחַר הַזָּיָה עַד שֶׁיִּגָּמְרוּ הַמַּיִם. וּמַזֶּה הַזָּיָה אַחַת עַל כַּמָּה בְּנֵי אָדָם אוֹ עַל כַּמָּה כֵּלִים כְּאַחַת אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה. כָּל שֶּׁנָּגַע בּוֹ מִן הַמַּיִם כָּל שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר וְהוּא שֶׁיִּתְכַּוֵּן הַמַּזֶּה לְהַזּוֹת עָלָיו. טָבַל אֶת הָאֵזוֹב וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזּוֹת עַל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה אוֹ עַל הָאָדָם וְהִזָּה מֵאוֹתָהּ טְבִילָה עַל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה אוֹ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה. אִם נִשְׁאֲרוּ מַיִם בָּאֵזוֹב אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְהַטְבִּיל אֶלָּא מַזֶּה מִן הַשְּׁאָר עַל הָאָדָם אוֹ עַל הַכֵּלִים הַטְּמֵאִים שֶׁהֲרֵי תְּחִלַּת טְבִילָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה הָיְתָה. אֲבָל אִם טָבַל אֶת הָאֵזוֹב לְהַזּוֹת עַל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה אוֹ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה וְהִזָּה עַל הָאָדָם אוֹ עַל הַכְּלִי הַטָּמֵא הַזָּיָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה עַד שֶׁיַּחְזֹר וְיִטְבּל פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה וְיִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזּוֹת עַל הָאָדָם אוֹ עַל דָּבָר הַמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

9

If he dipped the hyssop in the water with the intent of sprinkling on an entity that is not susceptible to ritual impurity, the water that drips from the hyssop are still acceptable. Therefore if it drips into a container and one dips the hyssop in it with the intent of sprinkling it on an entity that is susceptible to ritual impurity, the sprinkling is acceptable.

ט

הִטְבִּיל אֶת הָאֵזוֹב וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזּוֹת עַל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה הַמַּיִם הַמְנַטְּפִים כְּשֵׁרִין לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָטְפוּ בִּכְלִי וְחָזַר וְהִטְבִּיל בָּהֶן אֶת הָאֵזוֹב בְּכַוָּנָה לְהַזּוֹת עַל דָּבָר הַמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה הַזָּיָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

10

Although the volume of the water of the ashes of the red heifer has been reduced, one may dip even the tips of the hyssop stalks and sprinkle, provided one does not use it like a sponge. When a flask has a thin opening, he may dip and withdraw the hyssop in the ordinary manner and then sprinkle with it. He need not be careful that it does not touch the sides of the container a second time.

י

מֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲטוּ טוֹבֵל בָּהֶן אֲפִלּוּ רָאשֵׁי גִּבְעוֹלִין וּמַזֶּה וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְסַפֵּג. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁפִּיהָ צַר טוֹבֵל וּמַעֲלֶה כְּדַרְכּוֹ וּמַזֶּה וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁמָּא יִגַּע בְּצִדֵּי הַכְּלִי בְּפַעַם שְׁנִיָּה:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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