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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Tum'at Met - Chapter 18, Tum'at Met - Chapter 19, Tum'at Met - Chapter 20

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Tum'at Met - Chapter 18

1

The following rules apply when a person held one hand over a corpse and one hand over keilim or he touched a corpse and held his hand over keilim. If each of his hands cover a handbreadth of space, the keilim are impure. If they are smaller, they are pure.

Similarly, if there are two buildings near each other and there is a portion of a corpse the size of half an olive in each of them and a person inserted one hand into one building and the other into the second building, if each of his hands cover a handbreadth of space, he has joined the impurity together. Everything is considered as one ohel and he and the buildings are impure. If they are smaller, he does not join the impurity together.

א

אָדָם שֶׁהֶאֱהִיל בְּיָדוֹ אַחַת עַל הַמֵּת וְהֶאֱהִיל בַּשְּׁנִיָּה עַל הַכֵּלִים אוֹ שֶׁנָּגַע בְּמֵת וְהֶאֱהִיל עַל הַכֵּלִים אִם יֵשׁ בְּיָדוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח הַכֵּלִים טְמֵאִין וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן שְׁנֵי בָּתִּים וּבָהֶם שְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לְבַיִת זֶה וְיָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה לַבַּיִת הַשֵּׁנִי אִם יֵשׁ בְּיָדוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח עֵרֵב אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה וְנַעֲשָׂה הַכּל כְּאֹהֶל אֶחָד וְנִטְמָא הוּא וְהַבָּתִּים. וְאִם לָאו אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה:

2

When a person looks out from a window and leans over impurity, he conveys impurity to the house in which he is located. The entire house becomes impure. If he was lying on the doorstep, part of his body being in the house and part being outside the house and impurity was positioned above the portion outside the house, the house is impure, because a person is hollow and the upper portion of his body is a handbreadth high. Since impurity was held over him, it is as if he stood over it and he conveys the impurity.

Similarly, if there was impurity within a house and pure people stood over the portion of a man lying outside, over the doorstep, they are impure. The rationale is that he is considered as if he is covering impurity and a person conveys impurity, but does not intervene against it, as we explained.

ב

אָדָם שֶׁהִשְׁקִיף בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וְהֶאֱהִיל עַל הַטֻּמְאָה מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה לַבַּיִת וְנִטְמָא כָּל הַבַּיִת. הָיָה מֻטָּל עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה וּמִקְצָתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וּמִקְצָתוֹ בַּחוּץ וְהֶאֱהִילָה טֻמְאָה עַל מִקְצָתוֹ שֶׁבַּחוּץ הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָאָדָם חָלוּל וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ גֹּבַהּ טֶפַח וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהֶאֱהִילָה טֻמְאָה עָלָיו הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַאֲהִיל עָלֶיהָ וּמֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת וְהֶאֱהִילוּ טְהוֹרִין עַל מִקְצָתוֹ שֶׁבַּחוּץ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמַאֲהִיל עַל הַטֻּמְאָה וְהָאָדָם מֵבִיא וְאֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

The following rules apply when the people carrying a corpse passed under an exedra, one of them closed the door to a house and locked it with a key so that the house would not become impure or if there was a person inside or outside who closed the door. If the door could stand close by itself, the house is pure. If not, the house is impure. The rationale is that in the latter situation, it was the person who intervened in the face of ritual impurity. As we explained, a person and keilim convey ritual impurity and do not intervene in the face of it.

ג

נוֹשְׂאֵי הַמֵּת שֶׁעָבְרוּ בּוֹ תַּחַת הָאַכְסַדְרָה וְהֵגִיף אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֶת הַדֶּלֶת וּסְמָכוֹ בְּמַפְתֵּחַ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטַּמֵּא הַבַּיִת. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה אָדָם מִבִּפְנִים אוֹ מִבַּחוּץ סוֹמֵךְ הַדֶּלֶת. אִם יָכוֹל הַדֶּלֶת לַעֲמֹד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. וְאִם לָאו הַבַּיִת טָמֵא לְפִי שֶׁנִּמְצָא הָאָדָם הוּא שֶׁחָצַץ בִּפְנֵי הַטֻּמְאָה וְהָאָדָם וְהַכֵּלִים מְבִיאִין וְאֵינָן חוֹצְצִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

When an oven standing in a house has a dome-shaped opening that extends outside, if people carrying a corpse carried it over the opening that extends outside, the oven is impure, but the house is pure. The rationale is that the oven is not upraised above the ground so that it would bring impurity to the house.

When an oversized closet standing in an entrance opens to the outside and there is impurity in it, the house is pure. When there is impurity in the house, what is in the closet is impure, because it is open in the entrance and it is the nature of impurity to depart and not to enter. If its drawer was extended behind it, projecting less than a handbreadth, and could not be separated from the closet and there was impurity there opposite the boards of the roof of the house, the house is pure. The rationale is that even though it projects outward, it cannot be separated and it does not extend a handbreadth. This applies provided it is a handbreadth by a handbreadth and a handbreadth in height. If the drawer does not have an empty space of a handbreadth, the impurity is considered as flush within the house and the house is impure.

If the closet was standing in the house itself and there was impurity in it or in a chest within it, even though there is not an opening of a handbreadth through which the impurity could depart, the house is impure. If there is impurity in the house, everything in the closet is pure. The rationale is that the nature of impurity is to depart and not to enter.

ד

תַּנּוּר שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְעֵינוֹ קְמוּרָה לַחוּץ וְהֶאֱהִילוּ נוֹשְׂאֵי הַמֵּת עַל עֵינוֹ הַקְּמוּרָה הַתַּנּוּר טָמֵא וְהַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַתַּנּוּר גָּבוֹהַּ מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּבִיא טֻמְאָה לַבַּיִת. מִגְדָּל הַבָּא בְּמִדָּה שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח וְנִפְתַּח לַחוּץ טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא פָּתוּחַ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח וְדֶרֶךְ הַטֻּמְאָה לָצֵאת וְאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לְהִכָּנֵס. הָיְתָה מוּכְנִי שֶׁלּוֹ מְשׁוּכָה לַאֲחוֹרָיו וְיוֹצֵאת פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח וְאֵינָהּ נִשְׁמֶטֶת וְטֻמְאָה שָׁם בְּתוֹכָהּ כְּנֶגֶד הַקּוֹרוֹת הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא יוֹצְאָה אֵינָהּ נִשְׁמֶטֶת וְאֵינָהּ יוֹצֵאת טֶפַח. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּהּ טֶפַח עַל רוּם טֶפַח חָלוּל. אֲבָל אִם אֵין בַּמּוּכְנִי חֲלַל טֶפַח הֲרֵי הַטֻּמְאָה רְצוּצָה בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְהַבַּיִת טָמֵא. הָיָה הַמִּגְדָּל עוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְהַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתֵּבָה שֶׁלּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בִּיצִיאָתוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַטֻּמְאָה לָצֵאת וְאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לְהִכָּנֵס:

5

If there are keilim between the closet and the ground, between it and the wall, or between it and the ceiling, they are impure if there is a handbreadth of empty space there. If not, they are pure, because we considered it is if the beams of the ceiling descend and close the space between it and the closet.

ה

כֵּלִים שֶׁבֵּין הַמִּגְדָּל וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ שֶׁבֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַכֹּתֶל וְשֶׁבֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַקּוֹרוֹת אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח טְמֵאִים וְאִם לָאו טְהוֹרִים שֶׁהֲרֵי אָנוּ רוֹאִים אֶת הַקּוֹרוֹת כְּאִלּוּ הֵן יוֹרְדוֹת וְסוֹתְמוֹת:

6

If there is impurity under the closet, between it and the earth, between it and the boards of the ceilings, or between it and the wall, the house is impure whether there is an open space of a handbreadth or not.

If the closet was standing under the open air and there was impurity in it, the keilim within the breadth of its walls are pure. If there is impurity within the breadth of its walls, the keilim inside of it are pure.

ו

הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה תַּחַת הַמִּגְדָּל בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ אוֹ בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַקּוֹרוֹת אוֹ בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַכֹּתֶל בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם חָלָל טֶפַח בֵּין שֶׁאֵין שָׁם הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. הָיָה עוֹמֵד בָּאֲוִיר וְטֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּעָבְיוֹ טְהוֹרִים. טֻמְאָה בְּעָבְיוֹ כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טְהוֹרִים:

7

All the slanted walls of tents are considered as the tents themselves.

What is implied? When a tent slants downward and ends within a fingerbreadth of the ground and there is impurity in the tent, the keilim under the slanted side are impure. If there is impurity under the slanted wall, the keilim in the tent are impure.

If there is impurity within the slanted wall, one who touches its inner side contracts impurity that lasts a week. One who touches its outer side contracts impurity that lasts until the evening, for the outer side of the slanting wall is considered as a k'li that touches a tent that has become impure.

If there is impurity on the outer side of the slanted wall, one who touches its outer side contracts impurity that lasts a week. One who touches the inner side of the slanting wall contracts impurity that lasts until the evening.

If there was half an olive-sized portion of a corpse inside the tent and half behind it, one who touches it - whether from inside or outside - contracts impurity that lasts until the evening. The tent itself contracts impurity that lasts for seven days.

ז

כָּל שִׁפּוּעֵי אֹהָלִים כְּאֹהָלִים. כֵּיצַד. אֹהֶל שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹפֵעַ וְיוֹרֵד וְכָלֶה עַד כְּאֶצְבַּע וְטֻמְאָה בָּאֹהֶל כֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחַת הַשִּׁפּוּעַ טְמֵאִים. טֻמְאָה תַּחַת הַשִּׁפּוּעַ כֵּלִים שֶׁבָּאֹהֶל טְמֵאִים. הַטֻּמְאָה מִתּוֹךְ הַשִּׁפּוּעַ הַנּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ מִתּוֹכוֹ טָמֵא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בַּשִּׁפּוּעַ מֵאַחֲרָיו טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב, נַעֲשָׂה הַשִּׁפּוּעַ מֵאַחֲרָיו כְּאִלּוּ הוּא כְּלִי שֶׁנָּגַע בָּאֹהֶל. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה עַל אֲחוֹרֵי הַשִּׁפּוּעַ הַנּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרָיו טָמֵא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בַּשִּׁפּוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב. כַּחֲצִי זַיִת מִתּוֹכוֹ וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת מֵאֲחוֹרָיו הַנּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ בֵּין מִתּוֹכוֹ בֵּין מֵאֲחוֹרָיו טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב. וְהָאֹהֶל עַצְמוֹ טָמֵא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה:

8

If the edges of the tent were spread out on the ground and there was impurity on the ground under an edge of the tent spread out or above it, the impurity pierces through and ascends, pierces through and descends.

ח

הָיָה כְּנַף הָאֹהֶל מְרֻדָּד עַל הָאָרֶץ וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת כְּנַף הָאֹהֶל הַפָּרוּשׂ עַל הָאָרֶץ אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַכָּנָף. טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת:

Tum'at Met - Chapter 19

1

The following rules apply with regard to a beehive-like container lying on the ground, in the entrance of a building with its opening facing the outside and an olive-sized portion of a corpse under or on top of the portion outside the building. Whatever is directly under or above the olive-sized portion below or above the container is impure. Whatever is in its inner space is pure except a k'li that is directly above or below the impurity. The building is pure.

If there is impurity in the building, only the building is impure, but keilim that are in the container or under it or above it outside of the building are pure. If there was impurity in the container, everything is impure, i.e., everything in the building and everything in the container, everything above it and everything below it that is opposite the impurity, as we explained.

If the container was raised a handbreadth above the ground and there was impurity under it, in the building, or above it, everything is impure, i.e., everything in the building, everything below it and everything above it. Whatever is in its inner space, by contrast, is pure except a k'li that is directly above or below the impurity. If there was impurity in the container, everything is impure, i.e., everything in the container and everything in the building, everything below it and everything above it. The rationale is that keilim or people who become an ohel over impurity or who have impurity above them convey impurity and do not intervene in the face of it, as we explained.

When does the above apply? When the container is a k'li and hollow. Different laws apply, however, if it was damaged and broken open and the open portion was plugged with straw and thus it is not considered as a k'li, or it was filled with straw so there was not an empty space of a handbreadth by a handbreadth and a handbreadth high, but instead, it was stuffed and there was not an empty space of a handbreadth in one place. If it was a handbreadth raised above the ground and there was impurity under it or in the building, the building and all the space under it are impure, because everything constitutes one ohel. Its inner space and anything on top of it on the outside of the building are pure, because it is considered an ohel of wood and it is not a container. If there was impurity inside of it, only what is inside of it is impure. If the impurity was above it, the space above it until the heavens is impure.

If such a container was placed on the ground, it opened to the outside, and an olive-sized portion of a corpse was under it, the space under it until the depths is impure. If the impurity was above it, the space above it until the heavens is impure. If there was impurity in the building, only the building is impure. If there is impurity within the container, only its inner space is impure.

א

כַּוְּרֶת שְׁהִיא מֻטֶּלֶת בָּאָרֶץ וְהִיא בְּתוֹךְ פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת וּפִיהָ לַחוּץ וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת נָתוּן תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ מִבַּחוּץ. כָּל שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַזַּיִת בְּתַחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בָּגֹבַהּ טָמֵא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבַּאֲוִיר תּוֹכָהּ טָהוֹר חוּץ מִכְּלִי שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה וְהַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בַּבַּיִת אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא הַבַּיִת אֲבָל כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ טְהוֹרִים. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ הַכּל טָמֵא כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת וְכָל שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ וְכָל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ וְכָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בַּבַּיִת אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ הַכּל טָמֵא כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת וְכָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ וְכָל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁבַּאֲוִיר תּוֹכָהּ טָהוֹר חוּץ מִכְּלִי שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ הַכּל טָמֵא כָּל שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ וְכָל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת וְכָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ וְכָל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ. שֶׁהַכֵּלִים אוֹ הָאָדָם שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ אֹהֶל עַל הַטֻּמְאָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן מְבִיאִין וְלֹא חוֹצְצִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא כְּלִי וּמְחֻלְחֶלֶת. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה פְּחוּתָה וְסָתַם הַמָּקוֹם הַנִּפְחָת בְּקַשׁ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ כְּלִי. אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה אֲפוּצָה עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בָּהּ חֲלַל טֶפַח אֶלָּא אֲטוּמָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִמָּצֵא בָּהּ חֲלַל טֶפַח בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד. הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בַּבַּיִת. הֲרֵי הַבַּיִת וְכָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ טְמֵאִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא אֹהֶל אֶחָד וְתוֹכָהּ וְגַבָּהּ טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא אֹהֶל שֶׁל עֵץ וְאֵינוֹ כְּלִי. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא תּוֹכָהּ. הָיְתָה עַל גַּבָּהּ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. הָיְתָה מֻנַּחַת עַל הָאָרֶץ וּפִיהָ לַחוּץ וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת נָתוּן תַּחְתֶּיהָ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד הַתְּהוֹם טָמֵא. הָיְתָה עַל גַּבָּיו כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד הָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא הַבַּיִת בִּלְבַד. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא תּוֹכָהּ:

2

When a beehive-like container is lying on the ground in the entrance to a building, it opens up to the inside of the building, it is intact and hollow and there is an olive-sized portion of a corpse below it or above it, everything that is directly below the olive-sized portion of impurity or over it is impure. Everything that is in its inner space is impure except those keilim that are directly above or directly below the impurity and the building is pure.

If it was raised a handbreadth above the ground and there was impurity under it, in it, above it, or in the building, everything is impure: everything that is in the building and everything under it, because it and the building constitute one ohel.

If it was damaged and broken opened and the open portion was plugged with straw or stuffed, was raised a handbreadth above the ground and there was impurity under it, in the building, or in it, everything is impure except the articles above it. If the impurity was above it, the space above the impurity until the heavens is impure, but its inner space is pure and the space under it, the building, and everything in them is pure. Since it is not a k'li, it intervenes in the face of impurity.

If such a container was placed on the ground, it opened to the inside, and an olive-sized portion of a corpse was under it, the space under it until the depths is impure If [the impurity] was above it, the space above it until the heavens is impure. If there was impurity within it or within the building, its inner space and the building are impure.

ב

כַּוֶּרֶת הַמֻּטֶּלֶת בָּאָרֶץ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח וּפִיהָ לְפָנִים וְהִיא כְּלִי שָׁלֵם וַחֲלוּלָה וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת נָתוּן תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ מִבַּחוּץ כָּל שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַזַּיִת בְּתַחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ טָמֵא. וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבַּאֲוִיר תּוֹכָהּ טָהוֹר חוּץ מִכְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה. וְהַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ בַּבַּיִת הַכּל טָמֵא. הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ אוֹ בַּבַּיִת הַכּל טָמֵא כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת וְכָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא וְהַבַּיִת כְּאֹהֶל אֶחָד. וְכָל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ וְכָל שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ טָמֵא שֶׁהַכְּלִי מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה וְאֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. הָיְתָה פְּחוּתָה וּפְקוּקָה בְּקַשׁ אוֹ אֲפוּצָה וּגְבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בַּבַּיִת אוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ הַכּל טָמֵא חוּץ מֵעַל גַּבָּהּ. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה עַל גַּבָּהּ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ בִּלְבַד עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא אֲבָל תּוֹכָהּ טָהוֹר וְתַחְתֶּיהָ וְהַבַּיִת כָּל מַה שֶּׁבָּהֶן טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ כְּלִי חוֹצֶצֶת. הָיְתָה מֻנַּחַת עַל הָאָרֶץ וּפִיהָ לְפָנִים וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת נָתוּן תַּחְתֶּיהָ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד הַתְּהוֹם טָמֵא. הָיְתָה עַל גַּבָּהּ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ בַּבַּיִת תּוֹכָהּ וְהַבַּיִת טָמֵא:

3

The following laws apply when there is a beehive-like container inside a building, it fills the entire height of the building, its opening is positioned toward the ceiling of the building, and it reaches the ceiling so that there is less than a handbreadth of space between it and the ceiling. If there is impurity in it, the building is impure. If there is impurity in the building, its contents are pure. The rationale is that when there is less than a handbreadth of open space, it is the nature of impurity to depart towards the building, but not to enter the container.

This law applies whether the container was standing upright or leaning on its side, with its opening to the wall and there was less than a handbreadth between it and the wall, whether there was one beehive-like container or two beehive-like containers, one above the other, and there was not a handbreadth of empty space between the upper container and the ceiling or the upper container and the wall.

When such a container was standing in the entrance to a building with its opening facing upward and there was less than a handbreadth between it and the lintel, if there is impurity in it, the building is pure. If there is impurity in the building, the contents of the container are impure. The rationale is that it is the nature of impurity to depart and not to enter.

ג

כַּוֶּרֶת שֶׁהִיא בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְהִיא מְמַלְּאָה אֶת כָּל גֹּבַהּ הַבַּיִת וּפִיהָ לְמַעְלָה לְקוֹרוֹת הַבַּיִת וְאֵין בֵּינָהּ לְבֵין הַקּוֹרוֹת פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ טָהוֹר. שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַטֻּמְאָה לָצֵאת לְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת בְּפָחוֹת מִטֶּפַח וְאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לְהִכָּנֵס. בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻטָּה עַל צִדָּה וּפִיהָ לַכֹּתֶל וּבֵינוֹ וּבֵין הַכֹּתֶל פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה כַּוֶּרֶת אַחַת בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתַּיִם זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ וְאֵין בֵּין הָעֶלְיוֹנָה לַקּוֹרוֹת אוֹ לַכֹּתֶל פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח. הָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח וּפִיהָ לְמַעְלָה וְאֵין בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין הַמַּשְׁקוֹף פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ טָמֵא שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ טֻמְאָה לָצֵאת וְאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לְהִכָּנֵס:

4

The following laws apply when there is a hollow beehive-like container that is intact and resting on its side in the open and there is an olive-sized portion of a corpse below it or above it. Anything that is directly above or directly below the olive-size portion is impure. Whatever is within its inner space, is pure except what is directly above or below the impurity. Whatever is not directly above or below the impurity inside the container is pure. If there is impurity inside of it, everything is impure: everything inside of it and everything below the container or above it that is directly above or below the impurity.

If it was raised a handbreadth above the ground and there was impurity under it or above it, everything that is below it and everything that is above it is impure, but everything that is inside of it is pure except a k'li that is directly above or below the impurity.

If there is impurity inside of it, everything is impure, everything inside of it, everything below it, and everything resting upon it from above. The rationale is that keilim convey ritual impurity, but do not intervene in the face of it, as we explained. Accordingly, if this beehive-like container that was lying on the earth was damaged and then plugged with straw or it is an oversized wooden container and there is an olive-sized portion from a corpse under it, anything below it until the depths is impure. If the impurity is on top of it, anything above it until the heavens is impure. If the impurity is inside of it, only the keilim inside of it are impure.

If such a container was raised a handbreadth above the earth that an oversized wooden container is considered as an ohel and not as a k'li. Therefore, it intervenes in the face of impurity.

ד

כַּוֶּרֶת חֲלוּלָה שֶׁהִיא כְּלִי שָׁלֵם וְהָיְתָה מֻנַּחַת עַל צִדֶּיהָ בָּאֲוִיר וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת נָתוּן תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַזַּיִת בְּתַחְתֶּיהָ וּבְגַבָּהּ טָמֵא. וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבַּאֲוִיר תּוֹכָהּ טָהוֹר אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ הַכּל טָמֵא כָּל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ וְכָל שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה לְמַעְלָה עַל גַּבָּהּ אוֹ לְמַטָּה תַּחְתֶּיהָ. הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ כָּל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ טָמֵא וְכָל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ טָמֵא. אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ טָהוֹר חוּץ מִכְּלִי שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ הַכּל טָמֵא כָּל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ וְכָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ וְכָל שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה עַל גַּבָּהּ שֶׁהַכֵּלִים מְבִיאִין וְאֵינָן חוֹצְצִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה כַּוֶּרֶת זוֹ הַמֻּטֶּלֶת עַל הָאָרֶץ פְּחוּתָה וּפְקוּקָה בְּקַשׁ אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה בָּאָה בְּמִדָּה וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת נָתוּן תַּחְתֶּיהָ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד הַתְּהוֹם טָמֵא. עַל גַּבָּהּ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. בְּתוֹכָהּ אֵינוֹ טָמֵא אֶלָּא תּוֹכָהּ. הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה טֶפַח מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ תַּחְתֶּיהָ בִּלְבַד טָמֵא. בְּתוֹכָהּ תּוֹכָהּ בִּלְבַד טָמֵא. עַל גַּבָּהּ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכְּלִי עֵץ הַבָּא בְּמִדָּה כְּאֹהֶל הוּא חָשׁוּב לֹא כְּכֵלִים וּלְפִיכָךְ חוֹצֵץ:

5

When an intact beehive-like container was resting on its base in the open space and there was impurity under it, inside of it, or on top of it, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends. If, however, it was raised a handbreadth above the ground, covered, or standing upside down and there was impurity below it, in it, or above it, everything is impure: everything inside of it, everything below it, everything above it if the impurity was below it, for a k'li conveys ritual impurity and does not intervene in the face of it, as we explained.

Accordingly, if the container was damaged and plugged with straw and there is impurity under it, in it, or above it, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends. If it was raised a handbreadth above the ground and there was impurity below it, the space below it alone is impure. If the impurity was inside of it or on top of it, anything above it until the heavens is impure, but the keilim under it are pure, because it is a ohel and intervenes.

ה

כַּוֶּרֶת שֶׁהִיא כְּלִי שָׁלֵם וְהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל שׁוּלֶיהָ לָאֲוִיר וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ. טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח אוֹ מְכֻסָּה אוֹ כְּפוּיָה עַל פִּיהָ וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ הַכּל טָמֵא כָּל שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ וְכָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ וְכָל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ אִם הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה לְמַטָּה. שֶׁהַכְּלִי הַמַּאֲהִיל מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה וְאֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה פְּחוּתָה וּפְקוּקָה בְּקַשׁ אוֹ בָּאָה בְּמִדָּה טֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת. וְאִם הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ תַּחְתֶּיהָ בִּלְבַד טָמֵא. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא וְכֵלִים שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ טְהוֹרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא אֹהֶל וְחוֹצֶצֶת:

6

If there is a camel standing in the open space and there was impurity below it, the keilim above it are pure. If there is impurity above it, the keilim under it are pure. If it was lying down and there was impurity under it, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends. Similarly, if there was impurity flush under its foot or above its foot, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends.

We already explained in Hilchot Nizirut that if a nazirite and an olive-size portion of a corpse were both under a camel, a bed, or another similar k'li, even though he contracts impurity that lasts seven days, he does not shave. From this, we can derive that all of the impurity mentioned with regard to an ohel created by a person, an animal, or a k'li have their source in the words of the Sages. Some of them are part of the Oral Tradition and others are decrees and safeguards. Therefore a nazirite does not shave because of any of these impurities and one is not liable for karet for entering the Temple or partaking of consecrated food. All of the statements regarding the impurity conveyed in this manner are relevant only with regard to the ritual impurity of terumah and sacrificial foods, as we explained.

ו

גָּמָל שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בַּאֲוִיר טֻמְאָה תַּחְתָּיו כֵּלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו טְהוֹרִים. טֻמְאָה עַל גַּבָּיו כֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו טְהוֹרִין. הָיָה רוֹבֵץ וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתָּיו הֲרֵי זוֹ בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה רְצוּצָה תַּחַת רַגְלוֹ אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה וּבוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת. כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בִּנְזִירוּת שֶׁאִם הָיָה הַנָּזִיר וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת תַּחַת הַגָּמָל אוֹ תַּחַת הַמִּטָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ מִשְּׁאָר הַכֵּלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּטְמָא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה אֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ. וּמִשָּׁם אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ הַהֲלָכוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בְּטֻמְאַת אֹהָלִים הַנַּעֲשִׂים מִן הָאָדָם אוֹ מִן הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ מִן הַכֵּלִים הַכּל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. מֵהֶן דִּבְרֵי קַבָּלָה. וּמֵהֶן גְּזֵרוֹת וְהַרְחָקוֹת. וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין הַנָּזִיר מְגַלֵּחַ עֲלֵיהֶן וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כָּרֵת עַל בִּיאַת מִקְדָּשׁ אוֹ אֲכִילַת קֳדָשָׁיו. וְאֵין הַדְּבָרִים כֻּלָּן אֲמוּרִין אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאַת תְּרוּמָה וְקָדָשִׁים בִּלְבַד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Tum'at Met - Chapter 20

1

There are three conditions that protect an entity located under the same ohel as a corpse from contracting impurity: a sealed covering, an ohel, and the fact that something was swallowed. Being swallowed prevents pure entities from contracting impurity and prevents impurity that was swallowed from departing and spreading that impurity. In contrast, a sealed cover and an ohel prevent pure entities from contracting impurity, but they do not prevent the impurity from departing and causing other entities to become impure.

What is implied? If there is a container that is sealed in a house that is impure, everything in the container is pure. Similarly, if there is an ohel in such a house, all of the keilim in that ohel are pure. If, however, there was an olive-sized portion from a corpse placed in containers that were sealed close and then they were brought into a house, the house is impure. Similarly, if there was one ohel inside another ohel and an olive-sized portion of a corpse in the inner ohel, all of the keilim in the outer ohel are impure.

א

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים מַצִּילִין בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת. צָמִיד פָּתִיל. וְאֹהָלִין. וּבְלוּעִין. הַבְּלוּעִין מַצִּילִין עַל הַטְּהוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא יִתְטַמְּאוּ וּמוֹנְעִין הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁלֹּא תֵּצֵא וּתְטַמֵּא. אֲבָל צָמִיד פָּתִיל וְאֹהָלִין מַצִּילִין עַל הַטְּהוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא יִתְטַמְּאוּ וְאֵינָן מוֹנְעִין אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁלֹּא תֵּצֵא וּתְטַמֵּא אֶת אֲחֵרִים. כֵּיצַד. בַּיִת טָמֵא שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כְּלִי מֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל. כָּל שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי טְהוֹרִים. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה שָׁם אֹהֶל בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל טְהוֹרִין. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת נָתוּן בְּכֵלִים וּמֻקָּף עָלָיו בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל וְהִכְנִיסוֹ לַבַּיִת הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. וְכֵן אֹהֶל בְּתוֹךְ אֹהֶל וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת בָּאֹהֶל הַפְּנִימִי כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבָּאֹהֶל הַחִיצוֹן טְמֵאִים:

2

In contrast, when entities are swallowed, pure articles are prevented from contracting impurity and impurity is prevented from spreading.

What is implied? When a dog ate the flesh of a human corpse and entered a house, the house is pure. When a ring was swallowed, even by a person, and then the person who swallowed it entered an ohel where a corpse was located, even though the person contracts the impurity that lasts seven days, the ring remains pure. Similarly, the fact that an entity was swallowed by a beast, a domesticated animal, a fowl, or a fish prevents it from contracting impurity as long as they are alive. If, however, they die and the flesh of a human corpse or keilim are in their intestines, it is as if these articles were not swallowed.

ב

אֲבָל הַבְּלוּעִין מַצִּילִין עַל הַטְּהוֹרִים וּמוֹנְעִין אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. כֵּיצַד. כֶּלֶב שֶׁאָכַל בְּשַׂר הַמֵּת וְנִכְנַס לַבַּיִת הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. בָּלַע טַבַּעַת אֲפִלּוּ אָדָם שֶׁבָּלַע טַבַּעַת וְנִכְנַס לְאֹהֶל הַמֵּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּטְמָא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה הַטַּבַּעַת טְהוֹרָה. וְכֵן כָּל הַבְּלוּעִין בְּחַיָּה וּבְהֵמָה וּבְעוֹפוֹת וּבְדָגִים מַצִּילִין כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן חַיִּין. וְאִם מֵתוּ וּבְשַׂר הַמֵּת בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵיהֶן אוֹ הַכֵּלִים. הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּלוּעַ:

3

If the majority of one of a fowl's determining signs for ritual slaughter was slit or the majority of both an animal's signs were sli, even though the living beings were still in their death throes, they are considered as dead. They no longer protect the keilim that are swallowed in their intestines, nor do they prevent impurity that is in their intestines from spreading outward and imparting impurity.

ג

נִשְׁחַט רֹב אֶחָד בָּעוֹף וְרֹב שְׁנַיִם בִּבְהֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן הֵן מְפַרְכְּסִין הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמֵתִים וְאֵינָן מַצִּילִין עַל הַכֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים וְלֹא מוֹנְעִין אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵיהֶן שֶׁלֹּא תְּטָמֵא:

4

How long may the impurity remain in their intestines and still impart impurity when they die? For a dog three full days, i.e., three twenty-four hour periods. For other wild beasts, domesticated animals, fowl, or fish, one full day.

When does the above apply? When the flesh of the corpse remains in their intestines. If, however, a wolf swallows a baby and then expels it through its anus, the flesh is pure, but the bones are impure.

ד

וְכַמָּה תִּשְׁהֶא הַטֻּמְאָה בְּמֵעֵיהֶן וְתִהְיֶה מְטַמְּאָה כְּשֶׁיָּמוּתוּ. בְּכֶלֶב שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים מֵעֵת לְעֵת. וּבִשְׁאָר חַיָּה וּבְהֵמָה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים יוֹם אֶחָד מֵעֵת לְעֵת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁאַר בְּשַׂר הַמֵּת בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵיהֶן. אֲבָל זְאֵב שֶׁבָּלַע תִּינוֹק וֶהֱקִיאוֹ דֶּרֶךְ בֵּית הָרְעִי. הַבָּשָׂר טָהוֹר וְהָעֲצָמוֹת בְּטֻמְאָתָן:

5

Entities that are swallowed are protected from impurity only in the digestive organs of a living creature, as we explained. Those, however, which are concealed in the body of a k'li or a stone are not protected.

What is implied? If there is a spindle in which a metal hook was concealed, into which the iron point was driven, or a brick in which a ring was found that were brought into an ohel in which a corpse was found, the articles are impure even though they are not visible and they are covered. The rationale is that articles encompassed by keilim are protected from impurity only by a sealed cover.

Similarly, if there was a pin or a ring covered in the clay used to reinforce an oven and the oven became impure because it was in an ohel where a corpse was located or a dead crawling animal fell into its inner space, the keilim in the clay become impure. If, however, the oven was sealed close, since the oven itself is pure, the keilim that are covered up by the clay on top of it are also pure.

Similarly, if a jug is sealed closed and there is a needle or a ring in the clay sealing at its side, they are impure, and they are not saved in an ohel where a corpse was located. If they were in the sealing of the jug over its opening and they could be seen from the inside of the jug, but do not enter its inner space, they are pure. If they enter its inner space, they are impure. The rationale is that an earthenware container that is sealed close does not protect the keilim that are inside of it, as will be explained. If there is a layer of clay, even as thin as a garlic shell under them, they are pure, even though they project into the inner space of the jug.

ה

אֵין הַבְּלוּעִין נִצָּלִין אֶלָּא בְּבֶטֶן נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל הַבְּלוּעִין בְּגוּף הַכֵּלִים וְהָאֲבָנִים אֵינָן נִצָּלִין. כֵּיצַד. כּוּשׁ שֶׁנִּבְלְעָה בּוֹ הַצִּנּוֹר שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. וּמַלְמָד שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ הַדָּרְבָן. וּלְבֵנָה שֶׁהָיְתָה טַבַּעַת מֻבְלַעַת בְּתוֹכָהּ. וְנִכְנְסוּ לְאֹהֶל הַמֵּת. נִטְמְאוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נִרְאִין וַהֲרֵי הֵן מְחֻפִּין שֶׁאֵין הַבְּלוּעִין בַּכֵּלִים מַצִּילִין אֶלָּא בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל. וְכֵן מַחַט אוֹ טַבַּעַת שֶׁהָיוּ מֻבְלָעִין בִּטְפֵלַת הַתַּנּוּר וְנִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת אוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל שֶׁרֶץ לַאֲוִירוֹ נִטְמְאוּ הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַטְּפֵלָה. וְאִם הָיָה הַתַּנּוּר מֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל הוֹאִיל וְהַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר אַף הַכֵּלִים הַמֻּבְלָעִין בַּטִּיט שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו טְהוֹרִים. וְכֵן חָבִית הַמֻּקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וְהָיְתָה מַחַט אוֹ טַבַּעַת בִּמְגוּפַת הֶחָבִית מִצִּדָּהּ. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין וְאֵין מַצִּילִין בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת. הָיוּ בִּמְגוּפַת הֶחָבִית כְּנֶגֶד פִּיהָ אִם הָיוּ נִרְאִין לְתוֹךְ הֶחָבִית וְאֵינָן יוֹצְאִין לַאֲוִירָהּ טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם יָצְאוּ לַאֲוִירָהּ טְמֵאִין. שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ הַמֻּקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל מַצִּיל עַל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וְאִם יֵשׁ תַּחְתֵּיהֶן כִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן שׁוֹקְעִין לְתוֹךְ אֲוִירָהּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין:

6

All keilim that are embedded in the earth of a house are impure and they are not protected. The rationale is that the earth of an ohel has the same status of the ohel itself until the very depths of the earth. This does not apply with regard to its walls, as will be explained.

What is implied? If there is impurity in a house and there are keilim embedded in its earth, even if they are deeper than 100 cubits, they are impure. If, however, there is a handbreadth by a handbreadth by a handbreadth of empty space in their place, they are pure, because it is as if they are in another ohel. To what can the matter be compared? To a loft that is built over a house. If there is impurity in the loft, the house is pure.

Similarly, if one divided a house with a partition that runs parallel to the ground and there was impurity between the partition and the earth, the keilim that are in the house above the partition are impure, because an ohel does not prevent the spread of impurity, as we explained. If there was impurity above the partition, the keilim between the partition and the earth are pure, because the ohel protects them. If there is not a space of a handbreadth between the partition and the ground, the keilim are considered as if they are embedded in the earth of the house and they are impure.

ו

כָּל הַבְּלוּעִין בְּקַרְקָעִיתוֹ שֶׁל בַּיִת הֲרֵי הֵן טְמֵאִין וְאֵין נִצָּלִין. שֶׁקַּרְקַע הָאֹהֶל כָּמוֹהוּ עַד הַתְּהוֹם מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּכְתָלָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. כֵּיצַד. הַטֻּמְאָה בַּבַּיִת וְכֵלִים הַטְּמוּנִים בְּקַרְקָעִיתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ תַּחַת מֵאָה אַמָּה טְמֵאִים. אִם יֵשׁ בִּמְקוֹמָן טֶפַח עַל טֶפַח טְהוֹרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן תַּחַת אֹהֶל אֶחָד. לְמַה זֶּה דּוֹמֶה לַעֲלִיָּה שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַבַּיִת וְטֻמְאָה בַּעֲלִיָּה שֶׁהַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. וְכֵן אִם חָלַק הַבַּיִת בִּמְחִצָּה מִכְּלַפֵּי אַרְצוֹ וְהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בֵּין הַמְּחִצָּה וְהָאָרֶץ כֵּלִים שֶׁבַּבַּיִת לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמְּחִצָּה טְמֵאִין שֶׁאֵין הָאֹהָלִים מוֹנְעִין הַטֻּמְאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמְּחִצָּה כֵּלִים שֶׁבֵּין הַמְּחִצָּה וְהָאָרֶץ טְהוֹרִין שֶׁהָאֹהֶל מַצִּיל. וְאִם אֵין בֵּין הַמְּחִצָּה וְהָאָרֶץ גֹּבַהּ טֶפַח הֲרֵי הֵן כִּטְמוּנִים בְּקַרְקַע הַבַּיִת וּטְמֵאִים:

7

The following laws apply when there is a covered drain extending under a house and the drain is a handbreadth by a handbreadth by a handbreadth and its opening outside the house is a cubic handbreadth in size. If there is impurity in the drainage channel, the house is pure. If there is impurity in the house, the contents of the drainage channel are pure.

If the drain was a cubic handbreadth in size, but its opening on the outside was not a cubic handbreadth in size and there was impurity in it, the house is impure. If there is impurity in the house, the contents of the drainage channel are pure. The rationale is that it is not the way of impurity to enter a secondary entity like a drain.

If the drain was not a cubic handbreadth in size and its opening on the outside was not a cubic handbreadth in size and there was impurity in it, the house is impure. It is as if the impurity is in the house. If there is impurity in the house, the contents of the drain are impure. The rationale is that they are considered like keilim buried in the earth and the earth of a house has the same status as the house itself until the very depths.

ז

בִּיב שֶׁהוּא קָמוּר תַּחַת הַבַּיִת וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְיֵשׁ בְּפִתְחוֹ שֶׁהוּא חוּץ לַבַּיִת פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טָהוֹר. הָיָה בּוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְאֵין בִּיצִיאָתוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ שֶׁל טֻמְאָה לְהִכָּנֵס. אֵין בּוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְאֵין בִּיצִיאָתוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ הַבַּיִת טָמֵא כְּאִלּוּ הִיא בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת. טֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּכֵלִים הַטְּמוּנִים בַּקַּרְקַע וְקַרְקַע הַבַּיִת כָּמוֹהוּ עַד הַתְּהוֹם:

8

When there are two jugs, each containing half of an olive-sized portion of a corpse and each is sealed close, placed within a house, they are pure, because a partial measure of impurity does not impart impurity. The house is impure, because there is an olive-sized portion of a corpse in the house and a sealed cover does not prevent the spread of impurity outward. The jugs do not become impure because of the house, because they are sealed close. If one of the jugs are open, it and the house are impure and the other jug is pure.

Similarly, if there are two rooms open to each other and to the main room of a house and there is half of an olive-sized portion of a corpse in the inner room or the middle room and half of an olive-sized portion of a corpse in the outer room, the outer room is impure. The inner room and the middle room are pure. If there is half of an olive-sized portion of a corpse in the inner room and half of an olive-sized portion of a corpse in the middle room, the inner room is pure. The middle and the outer rooms are impure, because it is the way of impurity to depart and not to enter.

ח

שְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת בְּכָל אֶחָד וּמֻקָּפוֹת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּמֻנָּחוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת הֵן טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁאֵין חֲצִי שִׁעוּר מְטַמֵּא. וְהַבַּיִת טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ בַּבַּיִת כְּזַיִת וְאֵין צָמִיד פָּתִיל לַטֻּמְאָה. וְאֵינָן מִטַּמְּאוֹת מֵחֲמַת הַבַּיִת שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן מֻקָּפוֹת צָמִיד פָּתִיל. נִפְתְּחָה אַחַת מֵהֶן הִיא וְהַבַּיִת טְמֵאִין וַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ טְהוֹרָה. וְכֵן שְׁנֵי חֲדָרִים שֶׁהֵן פְּתוּחִים זֶה לָזֶה וְלַבַּיִת וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת בַּפְּנִימִי אוֹ בָּאֶמְצָעִי וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת בַּחִיצוֹן הַחִיצוֹן טָמֵא וְהַפְּנִימִי וְהָאֶמְצָעִי טְהוֹרִין. כַּחֲצִי זַיִת בַּפְּנִימִי וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת בָּאֶמְצָעִי הַפְּנִימִי טָהוֹר וְהָאֶמְצָעִי וְהַחִיצוֹן טְמֵאִים שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַטֻּמְאָה לָצֵאת וְאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לְהִכָּנֵס:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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