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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Tum'at Met - Chapter 15, Tum'at Met - Chapter 16, Tum'at Met - Chapter 17

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Tum'at Met - Chapter 15

1

The following laws apply when a functional window was closed entirely or closed to the extent that less than a handbreadth by a handbreadth remained. If it was closed with an entity that intervenes in the face of ritual impurity it is considered as closed, provided it is an entity that the owner does not intend to move.

Therefore if he closed a window or reduced its size with foods that were not made susceptible to contract ritual impurity, they do not intervene. Even though they are not susceptible to ritual impurity and they are pure, his intent is to move them. If they were rotting, they intervene. Similarly, straw that is rotting intervenes. If it is not rotting, it does not intervene, because we assume that the owner intends to move it.

When grain grew and blocked a window or reduced its size, it does not intervene, because the owner's intent is to remove it, lest it damage the wall. If its roots were distant from the wall, but the heads of the stalks grew on an incline and blocked the window, it intervenes. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

א

חַלוֹן תַּשְׁמִישׁ שֶׁסְּתָמָהּ כֻּלָּהּ אוֹ סְתָמָהּ עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר בָּהּ פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח אִם בְּדָבָר הַחוֹצֵץ בִּפְנֵי הַטֻּמְאָה סָתַם הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹצֵץ וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם סָתַם הַחַלּוֹן אוֹ מִעֲטוֹ בָּאֳכָלִין שֶׁאֵינָן מֻכְשָׁרִין אֵינָן חוֹצְצִין שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וַהֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין דַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתָן. הָיוּ סְרוּחִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חוֹצְצִין. וְכֵן תֶּבֶן סָרוּחַ חוֹצֵץ וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ סָרוּחַ אֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתוֹ. תְּבוּאָה שֶׁגָּדְלָה וְסָתְמָה אֶת הַחַלּוֹן אוֹ מִעֲטַתּוּ אֵינָהּ חוֹצֶצֶת לְפִי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתָהּ שֶׁמָּא תַּפְסִיד הַכֹּתֶל. הָיָה עִקָּרָהּ רָחוֹק מִן הַכֹּתֶל וְנָטָה רֹאשׁוֹ וְסָתַם הֲרֵי זוֹ חוֹצֶצֶת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

2

The following rules apply when a barrel that is filled with rotting dried figs which were never made susceptible to ritual impurity and are not fit to be eaten were placed in a window and the opening of the window faced a source of impurity. The barrel itself is impure, In such a situation, and similarly, if a container is filled with rotten straw that is not fit to be used as animal fodder, for mortar for building, or for kindling that was placed in the window: when the figs or the straw would be able to remain standing independently were their container to be removed, they would be considered as intervening. If not, they do not intervene.

The following entities all reduce the size of a window:

a) bitter grasses that are not fit for animal fodder,

b) patches that are not three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths, that are filthy and firm, so that they are not fit to clean blood off a scratch,

c) a limb or flesh that was hanging limply from an impure animal, provided the animal was lean and unfit to be sold to a gentile and tethered so that it will not flee,

d) an impure fowl resting in a window, provided it is one which scratches, so that it would not be fit for a child to play with,

e) a gentile who is bound, because he is one of the prisoners of the king whom another person may not release,

f) an infant born after an eighth month pregnancy on the Sabbath, because it is forbidden to move him,

g) salt that is mixed with thorns that is not fit to be used for food, nor for leatherworking, provided it is placed on a shard so that it will not damage the wall.

The rationale is that these substances are not susceptible to ritual impurity, nor does the owner intend to move them, because they are not fit for work. Similarly, when a Torah scroll was worn out and placed in a window, if the owner had decided that it would be entombed there, it reduces the size of the window. In contrast, snow, hail, sleet, ice, and water do not reduce the size of a window, for they are susceptible to ritual impurity.

ב

חָבִית שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה גְּרוֹגָרוֹת סְרוּחִין שֶׁאֵינָן מֻכְשָׁרִין וְלֹא רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה וּמֻנַּחַת בְּחַלּוֹן וּפִי הֶחָבִית כְּלַפֵּי הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הֶחָבִית טְמֵאָה. וְכֵן קֻפָּה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה תֶּבֶן סָרוּחַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לֹא לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה וְלֹא לְטִיט וְלֹא לְהַסָּקָה וּמֻנַּחַת בְּחַלּוֹן. אִם יְכוֹלִין הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְהַתֶּבֶן לַעֲמֹד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן כְּשֶׁיִּנָּטֵל הַכְּלִי שֶׁהֵן בּוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חוֹצְצִין וְאִם לָאו אֵינָן חוֹצְצִין. עֲשָׂבִים הַמָּרִים שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לִבְהֵמָה. וּמַטְלָנִיּוֹת שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן ג' עַל ג' שֶׁהָיוּ מְטֻנָּפִים וְקָשִׁים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ רְאוּיִין אֲפִלּוּ לְקַנֵּחַ הַדָּם מִן הַשְּׂרִיטָה. וְהָאֵיבָר וְהַבָּשָׂר הַמְדֻלְדָּלִים בִּבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה וְהוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה כְּחוּשָׁה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לְהִמָּכֵר לְעַכּוּ''ם וּקְשׁוּרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּבְרַח. וְהָעוֹף טָמֵא שֶׁשָּׁכַן בַּחַלּוֹן וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מְשָׂרֵט שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֲפִלּוּ לְתִינוֹק לְשַׂחֵק בּוֹ. וְעַכּוּ''ם כָּפוּת שֶׁהוּא מֵאֲסוּרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁאֵין אַחֵר יָכוֹל לְהַתִּירוֹ. וּבֶן שְׁמוֹנָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ. וְהַמֶּלַח הַמְעֹרָב בְּקוֹצִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לֹא לַאֲכִילָה וְלֹא לַעֲבָדָה וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻנָּח עַל הַחֶרֶשׂ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיק אֶת הַכֹּתֶל. כָּל אֵלּוּ מְמַעֲטִין בַּחַלּוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתָן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לִמְלָאכָה. וְכֵן סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֶׁבָּלָה וְהָיָה מֻנָּח בַּחַלּוֹן אִם גָּמַר שֶׁתִּהְיֶה שָׁם גְּנִיזָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְמַעֵט בְּחַלּוֹן. אֲבָל הַשֶּׁלֶג וְהַבָּרָד וְהַכְּפוֹר וְהַגְּלִיד וְהַמַּיִם אֵינָן מְמַעֲטִין בַּחַלּוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן רְאוּיִין וּמְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:

3

If one reduced the size of the handbreadth with less than an olive-sized portion of the flesh of a corpse, less than an olive-sized portion of the meat of a dead animal, a portion of bone from a corpse that is less than the size of a barley-corn, or a portion less than a lentil from a crawling animal, these substances intervene in the presence of ritual impurity. The rationale is that they are all pure and since they are not important to the owner, he does not intend to move them. Similarly, less than an egg-sized portion of food that was not made susceptible to ritual impurity is not important, he does not consider moving it. Hence, all of the above reduce the measure of the handbreadth.

ג

מִעֵט אֶת הַטֶּפַח בְּפָחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר הַמֵּת. בְּפָחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר נְבֵלָה. אוֹ בְּעֶצֶם פָּחוֹת מִכִּשְׂעוֹרָה מִן הַמֵּת. אוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה מִן הַשֶּׁרֶץ. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חוֹצְצִין שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין וְאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין אֶצְלוֹ לְפִיכָךְ אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתָן. וְכֵן פָּחוֹת מִכְּבֵיצָה אֳכָלִים שֶׁאֵינָן מֻכְשָׁרִין אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין אֶצְלוֹ וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתָן וּלְפִיכָךְ מְמַעֲטִין אֶת הַטֶּפַח:

4

If one closed a window with an earthenware vessel whose opening faced outward, it intervenes. The rationale is that it does not contract impurity from its outer side and thus it is pure. Therefore this earthenware vessel must be disgusting and perforated so that it is not fit to be used for anything, not even bloodletting, so that the person will not think of moving it.

ד

סָתַם הַחַלּוֹן בִּכְלִי חֶרֶשׂ וְהָיָה פִּיו לַחוּץ הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹצֵץ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא מִגַּבּוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר. וְצָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ זֶה מָאוּס וְנָקוּב עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה רָאוּי אֲפִלּוּ לְהַקִּיז בּוֹ דָּם. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה דַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתוֹ:

5

The following laws apply if there was a corpse, a fourth of a kab of bones, or the like from bones that impart impurity through ohel in a house and the owner sought to reduce the size of the window of this house with a bone that is less than a barley-corn. Its size is not reduced, because the bone in the window is considered as part of the bones that generate impurity.

Similarly, if a corpse or an olive-sized portion from the flesh of a corpse was in a home and the owner sought to reduce the size of the window with a portion of flesh from a corpse, its size is not reduced, because the flesh is combined with the other flesh. Nevertheless, a bone that is less than the size of a barley-corn reduces the size of a window and thus prevents the spread of impurity brought about by an olive-sized portion of flesh. And less than an olive-sized portion of flesh reduces [the size of a window and thus prevents the spread of impurity brought about by] a fourth [of a kab] of bones or the like.

If one sought to reduce the size of a handbreadth with the woof and the warp of cloth that is afflicted with tzara'at or with a clod of earth from a beit hapras, its size is not reduced. The rationale is that an impure object does not intervene in the face of ritual impurity.

If one made a brick from the earth of a beit hapras, it is pure and can reduce the size of a window. Our Sages' decree concerned only a clod of earth in its natural state.

The following rules apply if the handbreadth was closed or reduced in size by a spider web. If its strands were substantial, it is considered as an intervening substance. If not, it does not intervene.

ה

הָיָה בַּבַּיִת מֵת אוֹ רֹבַע עֲצָמוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מֵעֲצָמוֹת הַמְטַמְּאוֹת בְּאֹהֶל וּמִעֵט הַחַלּוֹן שֶׁל בַּיִת זֶה בְּעֶצֶם פָּחוֹת מִכִּשְׂעוֹרָה אֵינוֹ מִעוּט שֶׁהָעֶצֶם מִצְטָרֵף לָעֲצָמוֹת. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה שָׁם מֵת אוֹ כְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר הַמֵּת וּמִעֵט הַחַלּוֹן בְּפָחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר הַמֵּת אֵינוֹ מִעוּט לְפִי שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר מִצְטָרֵף לְבָשָׂר. אֲבָל עֶצֶם פָּחוֹת מִכִּשְׂעוֹרָה מְמַעֵט עַל יְדֵי כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר. וּפָחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר מְמַעֵט עַל יְדֵי רֹבַע עֲצָמוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. מִעֵט אֶת הַטֶּפַח בִּשְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב הַמְנֻגָּעִין אוֹ בְּגוּשׁ מִבֵּית הַפְּרָס אֵינוֹ מִעוּט שֶׁדָּבָר טָמֵא אֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ. עָשָׂה לְבֵנָה מֵעֲפַר בֵּית הַפְּרָס הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה וּמְמַעֶטֶת. שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא גּוּשׁ כִּבְרִיָּתוֹ. נִסְתַּם הַטֶּפַח אוֹ נִתְמַעֵט בְּקוּרֵי עַכָּבִישׁ אִם הָיָה בָּהּ מַמָּשׁ הֲרֵי זוֹ חוֹצֶצֶת וְאִם אֵין בָּהּ מַמָּשׁ אֵינָהּ חוֹצֶצֶת:

Tum'at Met - Chapter 16

1

The following rule applies when there is an aperture - whether it is the size of a handbreadth by a handbreadth or it is less than a handbreadth by a handbreadth - in the midst of the roof of a house and there is a source of impurity under the roof of the house: The space directly below the aperture is pure, because it is open to free space and the remainder of the house is impure. If the impurity was solely under the aperture, the entire house is pure.

The following rules apply when the source of impurity was partially under the roof and partially under the aperture. If the aperture comprised a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space, the house is impure entirely and the space below the entire aperture is impure. If does not comprise a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space, different rules apply. If the impurity is large enough so that if it was divided, a minimum measure would be found below the roof and also a minimum measure would be below the aperture, everything is impure. If not, the house is impure, but the space under the aperture is pure.

If the aperture comprised a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space and a person put his foot on top of the aperture, everything becomes considered as one ohel. Therefore whether there was impurity only under the roof or only under the aperture, everything is impure, the house and the space below the aperture. Moreover, the person who conveyed the impurity to this place is impure, because he became part of an ohel over impurity. If the aperture did not comprise a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space and the impurity is under the roof, the person who placed his foot over the aperture is not impure, because impurity does not depart through less than a handbreadth of open space.

The following laws apply if the impurity was under the aperture and a person closed it with his foot. If the impurity was there before his foot, he is impure, because he stood over the impurity. If his foot was there before the impurity, he is pure, because his foot is part of the ohel and the impurity does not depart to him.

א

אֲרֻבָּה שֶׁהִיא בְּאֶמְצַע תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה תַּחַת תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת כְּנֶגֶד אֲרֻבָּה טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא גָּלוּי לָאֲוִיר וּשְׁאָר הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה כְּנֶגֶד אֲרֻבָּה בִּלְבַד כָּל הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה מִקְצָת הַטֻּמְאָה תַּחַת הַתִּקְרָה וּמִקְצָתָהּ תַּחַת אֲרֻבָּה אִם הָיָה בָּאֲרֻבָּה פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח הַבַּיִת כֻּלּוֹ טָמֵא וּכְנֶגֶד כָּל הָאֲרֻבָּה טָמֵא. אֵין בָּהּ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח אִם יֵשׁ בַּטֻּמְאָה כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּתְחַלֵּק וְיִמָּצֵא כַּשִּׁעוּר תַּחַת הַתִּקְרָה וְכַשִּׁעוּר תַּחַת הָאֲרֻבָּה הַכּל טָמֵא. וְאִם לָאו הַבַּיִת טָמֵא וּכְנֶגֶד הָאֲרֻבָּה טָהוֹר. הָיָה בָּאֲרֻבָּה פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְנָתַן אָדָם רַגְלוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה עַל הָאֲרֻבָּה נַעֲשֶׂה הַכּל אֹהֶל אֶחָד. וּבֵין שֶׁהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה תַּחַת הַתִּקְרָה בִּלְבַד אוֹ תַּחַת הָאֲרֻבָּה בִּלְבַד הַכּל טָמֵא הַבַּיִת וּמַה שֶּׁכְּנֶגֶד אֲרֻבָּה. וְהָאָדָם שֶׁעֵרֵב אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה אֹהֶל עַל הַטֻּמְאָה. אֵין בָּאֲרֻבָּה פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה תַּחַת הַתִּקְרָה זֶה שֶׁנָּתַן רַגְלוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין טֻמְאָה יוֹצֵאת לוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִטֶּפַח. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה תַּחַת הָאֲרֻבָּה אִם טֻמְאָה קָדְמָה אֶת רַגְלוֹ טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי הֶאֱהִיל עַל הַטֻּמְאָה. אִם רַגְלוֹ קָדְמָה אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי רַגְלוֹ מִקְצָת הָאֹהֶל וְאֵין טֻמְאָה יוֹצֵאת לוֹ:

2

If there was an olive-sized portion of a corpse in the mouth of a raven that held it over an aperture in the roof of a house and thus the olive-sized portion was found in the space of the aperture, the house is impure even though the aperture does not comprise a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space.

ב

הָיָה כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת בְּפִי הָעוֹרֵב וְהֶאֱהִיל עַל גַּבֵּי אֲרֻבָּה עַד שֶׁנִּמְצָא כְּזַיִת בַּאֲוִיר אֲרֻבָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח הַבַּיִת טָמֵא:

3

The following rules apply when there is a house with an aperture in its roof, a loft built above it with an aperture in its roof, and the two apertures are positioned one on top of the other. Whether the apertures comprise a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space or not, if there is impurity in the house, the space under the apertures is pure and everything else is impure. If the impurity is under the apertures, the entire house is pure.

If the apertures comprised a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space, whether the impurity was under the roof of the house or under the apertures, were an entity that is susceptible to impurity to have been placed either above the aperture of the house or above the aperture of the loft, everything is impure. The rationale is that an impure entity does not intervene in the face of ritual impurity.

If one placed an entity that is not susceptible to ritual impurity over the aperture of the house, the house is impure and the loft is pure. If such an article was placed on the aperture of the loft, the house and the loft are impure and the space directly above the aperture until the heavens is pure.

If the apertures did not comprise a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space, impurity was found under the roof of the house, and one placed an object - whether an object that is susceptible to ritual impurity or one which is not susceptible to ritual impurity - on either the aperture of the house or the aperture of the loft, only the house becomes ritually impure. The rationale is that impurity does not depart to the loft unless there is an open space of a handbreadth by a handbreadth.

If the impurity was beneath the apertures and one placed an entity that was susceptible to ritual impurity over either the lower or the upper aperture, both the house and the loft are impure, because one has extended the impurity. If he placed an entity that is not susceptible to ritual impurity over either the lower or the upper aperture, only the house is impure.

All of these laws apply only when one purposely makes an aperture. If, however, a roof is opened as a matter of course, the measure which conveys ritual impurity is the full size of a rafter, as we explained.

ג

בַּיִת וַאֲרֻבָּה בְּאֶמְצַע תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת וַעֲלִיָּה עַל גַּבָּיו. וַאֲרֻבָּה אַחֶרֶת יֵשׁ בְּאֶמְצַע תִּקְרַת הָעֲלִיָּה וְהָאֲרֻבּוֹת מְכֻוָּנוֹת זוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ. בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּאֲרֻבּוֹת פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח. וְטֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת. כְּנֶגֶד הָאֲרֻבּוֹת טָהוֹר וְהַשְּׁאָר טָמֵא. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה כְּנֶגֶד אֲרֻבּוֹת הֲרֵי הַבַּיִת כֻּלּוֹ טָהוֹר. הָיוּ בָּאֲרֻבּוֹת פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְהַטֻּמְאָה בֵּין תַּחַת תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת בֵּין כְּנֶגֶד אֲרֻבּוֹת וְנָתַן דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה בֵּין לְמַעְלָה מֵאֲרֻבַּת הַבַּיִת בֵּין לְמַעְלָה מֵאֲרֻבַּת הָעֲלִיָּה הַכּל טָמֵא שֶׁאֵין דָּבָר טָמֵא חוֹצֵץ. נָתַן דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַל אֲרֻבַּת הַבַּיִת הַבַּיִת טָמֵא וְהָעֲלִיָּה טְהוֹרָה. נְתָנוֹ עַל אֲרֻבַּת הָעֲלִיָּה הַבַּיִת וְהָעֲלִיָּה טְמֵאִים וּכְנֶגְדוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה וְלַשָּׁמַיִם טָהוֹר. אֵין בָּאֲרֻבּוֹת פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְהַטֻּמְאָה תַּחַת תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת וְנָתַן בֵּין דָּבָר הַמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה וּבֵין דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה בֵּין עַל אֲרֻבַּת הַבַּיִת בֵּין עַל אֲרֻבַּת הָעֲלִיָּה אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא הַבַּיִת שֶׁאֵין טֻמְאָה יוֹצֵאת לָעֲלִיָּה בְּפָחוֹת מִטֶּפַח. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה כְּנֶגֶד אֲרֻבּוֹת וְנָתַן דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה בֵּין לְמַעְלָן בֵּין לְמַטָּן הַבַּיִת וְהָעֲלִיָּה טְמֵאִין שֶׁהֲרֵי עֵרֵב אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. נָתַן דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה בֵּין לְמַעְלָן בֵּין לְמַטָּן אֵינוֹ טָמֵא אֶלָּא הַבַּיִת. וְכָל אֵלּוּ הַדִּינִין בְּעוֹשֶׂה אֲרֻבָּה אֲבָל תִּקְרָה שֶׁנִּפְחֲתָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ שִׁעוּרָהּ מְלֹא אֶגְרוֹף כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

The following laws apply when one opens a ceiling to make an aperture in the roof of a house so that the leg of a bed can be inserted into it and the leg of the bed closes the aperture. If the aperture comprises a handbreadth by a handbreadth of open space and there is impurity in the house, the loft is also impure, because a k'li that can contract ritual impurity does not intervene. If it does not comprise a handbreadth by a handbreadth, the loft is pure, and the foot of the bed that extends below is impure, like a k'li that hangs over impurity. If, however, a roof is opened as a matter of course, the measure which conveys ritual impurity is the full size of a rafter, as we explained.

ד

הַפּוֹחֵת אֶת הַמַּעֲזִיבָה עַד שֶׁעָשָׂה אֲרֻבָּה בְּתוֹךְ תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס בָּהּ רֶגֶל הָעֶרֶשׂ וְהָיְתָה רֶגֶל הָעֶרֶשׂ סוֹתֶמֶת אֶת הָאֲרֻבָּה. אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת אַף הָעֲלִיָּה טְמֵאָה. שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי הַמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה חוֹצֵץ. וְאִם אֵין בָּהּ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח הָעֲלִיָּה טְהוֹרָה וְהָרֶגֶל שֶׁלְּמַטָּה טְמֵאָה כְּכֵלִים הַמַּאֲהִילִים. נִפְחֲתָה הַמַּעֲזִיבָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ שִׁעוּרָהּ מְלֹא אֶגְרוֹף כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

5

The following laws apply when there is an aperture in the roof of a house and there is an earthenware pot placed on the earth directly aligned with the aperture so that if it was lifted up, it would be able to be lifted through the aperture without leaving any space at all. If there was impurity beneath the pot, flush between it and the earth, or there was impurity inside the pot, or on its outer surface, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends and only objects that are directly above it or below it are impure. The remainder of the house is pure in its entirety.

If the pot was a handbreadth above the ground and there was impurity under it or under the roof of the house, the house is impure in its entirety and whatever is under the pot is impure, because it serves as a shelter. The inner space of the pot are pure, because an earthenware container cannot become impure from its outer surface and the open space of the pot is under the open space of the world at large. If there is a k’li in it or on its outer surface, the k’li is pure. If the impurity is in [the pot] or on its outer surface, the entire house is pure, for the impurity is only directly under the aperture.

If the pot was under the aperture and the aperture was greater than the pot to the extent that if the pot was lifted up there would be an open space of more than a handbreadth by a handbreadth between it and the edge of the aperture, even if the pot is a handbreadth above the ground and there is impurity in it, on its outer surface, or below it, the house is pure.

The following laws apply when the pot was placed next to the doorstep of a house in a way that if lifted up, a handbreadth of the space of its opening will be within the outer border of the lintel. If the impurity was flush under the pot, If the pot was a handbreadth above the ground and the impurity was under it or in the house, the area under it and the house are impure, because it is all considered as one structure and its inner space and outer surface are pure. If there was impurity in it and there was impurity below it, only the area below the pot is impure, the house, by contrast, is pure.

ה

אֲרֻבָּה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת וּקְדֵרָה מֻנַּחַת עַל הָאָרֶץ וּמְכֻוֶּנֶת כְּנֶגֶד אֲרֻבָּה שֶׁאִם תַּעֲלֶה תֵּצֵא בְּצִמְצוּם מִן הָאֲרֻבָּה וְהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה תַּחַת הַקְּדֵרָה רְצוּצָה בֵּינָהּ וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת וְאֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא כְּנֶגְדָּהּ וְהַבַּיִת כֻּלּוֹ טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה הַקְּדֵרָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ תַּחַת תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת הַבַּיִת כֻּלּוֹ טָמֵא וְתַחַת הַקְּדֵרָה טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אֹהֶל אֲבָל תּוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה וְגַבָּהּ טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ מִטַּמֵּא מִגַּבּוֹ וַהֲרֵי אֲוִיר הַקְּדֵרָה גָּלוּי לַאֲוִירוֹ. אִם הָיָה כְּלִי בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ לְמַעְלָה עַל גַּבָּהּ טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ הַבַּיִת כֻּלּוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי הַטֻּמְאָה כְּנֶגֶד אֲרֻבָּה בִּלְבַד. הָיְתָה הַקְּדֵרָה תַּחַת הָאֲרֻבָּה וְהָאֲרֻבָּה גְּדוֹלָה מִן הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁאִם תַּעֲלֶה הַקְּדֵרָה וְתֵצֵא מִן הָאֲרֻבָּה נִמְצָא בֵּינָהּ וּבֵין שִׂפְתֵי הָאֲרֻבָּה פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקְּדֵרָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ אוֹ תַּחְתֶּיהָ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה הַקְּדֵרָה מֻנַּחַת בְּצַד אַסְקֻפַּת הַבַּיִת שֶׁאִם תַּעֲלֶה נִמְצָא מִמֶּנָּה פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח לְפָנִים מִן הַמַּשְׁקוֹף. וְהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה רְצוּצָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת. הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בַּבַּיִת. תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְהַבַּיִת טָמֵא שֶׁהַכּל אֹהֶל אֶחָד וְתוֹכָהּ וְגַבָּהּ טָהוֹר. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ הַבַּיִת טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא נוֹגַעַת בַּמַּשְׁקוֹף טֶפַח וְכֵן תַּחְתֶּיהָ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה יוֹצְאָה לְתַחְתֶּיהָ מִן הַבַּיִת שֶׁהַכּל אֹהֶל אֶחָד. לְפִיכָךְ אִם לֹא הָיְתָה נוֹגַעַת בַּמַּשְׁקוֹף בְּפוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּצַד הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא תַּחְתֶּיהָ אֲבָל הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר:

6

The following laws apply when there are beams of a house and loft without a ceiling over them stretching from one side of a structure to another. If the beams of the house and the loft are aligned one beam directly over the other, the empty space between them is aligned one over the other, the width of a beam is a handbreadth, the width of the empty space is a handbreadth and there is impurity beneath one of the beams, only the area beneath it is impure. If the impurity was between the lower beam and the upper beam, only the space between them is impure. If the impurity was on top of an upper beam, the space above it until the heavens is impure.

If the upper beams were aligned above the empty space between the lower beams and there was impurity below one of them, the area beneath all of them is impure. If the impurity was on top of an upper beam, the space above it until the heavens is impure.

If the beams were not a handbreadth wide, whether they were aligned one above the other or whether the upper ones were aligned above the space between the lower ones, were impurity to be beneath them, between them, or on top of them, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends, and it imparts impurity only to entities under it or over it. The rationale is that any impurity that is not under a covering that is a handbreadth wide and a handbreadth high is considered as "flush."

When the roof and the walls of a building are split into halves and there was impurity in the outer portion where the entrance was, the keilim in the inner portion are all pure. Different laws apply when there was impurity in the inner portion. If the split was as wide as a plumb line, the keilim in the outer portion are pure. If the the split was less than this, they are impure.

ו

קוֹרוֹת הַבַּיִת וְהָעֲלִיָּה שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם מַעֲזִיבָה וְהֵן מְכֻוָּנוֹת קוֹרָה כְּנֶגֶד קוֹרָה וַאֲוִיר כְּנֶגֶד אֲוִיר וּבְכָל קוֹרָה מֵהֶן פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וּבֵינֵיהֶן אֲוִיר פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת אַחַת מֵהֶן. תַּחְתֶּיהָ בִּלְבַד טָמֵא. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בֵּין הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה לָעֶלְיוֹנָה בֵּין שְׁתֵּיהֶן בִּלְבַד טָמֵא. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה עַל גַּבֵּי הָעֶלְיוֹנָה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. הָיוּ הַקּוֹרוֹת הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת מְכֻוָּנוֹת כְּנֶגֶד הָאֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּין הַקּוֹרוֹת הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת אַחַת מֵהֶן תַּחַת כֻּלָּם טְמֵאָה. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה עַל גַּבֵּי קוֹרָה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. אֵין בַּקּוֹרוֹת פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ מְכֻוָּנוֹת זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ וּבֵין שֶׁהָיוּ הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת כְּנֶגֶד אֲוִיר הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת וְהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה תַּחְתֵּיהֶן אוֹ בֵּינֵיהֶן אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת וְאֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה אֶלָּא כְּנֶגְדָּהּ בִּלְבַד לְפִי שֶׁכָּל טֻמְאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ תַּחַת פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח בְּרוּם טֶפַח הֲרֵי הִיא כִּרְצוּצָה. בַּיִת שֶׁנִּסְדַּק גַּגּוֹ וּכְתָלָיו וְנַעֲשָׂה שְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים וְהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּחֶצְיוֹ הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁהַפֶּתַח בּוֹ הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּחֶצְיוֹ הַפְּנִימִי כֻּלָּם טְהוֹרִין. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּחֶצְיוֹ הַפְּנִימִי אִם הָיָה רֹחַב הַסֶּדֶק כְּחוּט הַמִּשְׁקלֶת כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּחֶצְיוֹ הַחִיצוֹן טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן הֲרֵי הֵן טְמֵאִין:

7

When an exedra was split and there was impurity in one side, the keilim on the other side are pure. For it is like two tents next to each other with space in between them, for the split runs across the entire exedra.

If he placed his foot or a reed above, over the crack, he joins the impurity to the other side of the exedra. If one placed a reed, or even a large k'li, on the earth, directly under the crack, it does not join the impurity unless the k'li is under the crack and is a handbreadth high.

If a person was lying on the ground below the crack, he joins the impurity to the other side. The rationale is that a person is hollow and his upper portion can be considered as a tent that is a handbreadth high. Similarly, if there were folded garments placed on the ground, one on top of the other and the upper one was a handbreadth above the ground, it joins the impurity to the other side. All of the garments below it are considered as garments that are under a tent.

ז

אַכְסַדְרָה שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה וְטֻמְאָה בְּצַד אֶחָד הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבַּצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי טְהוֹרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא שְׁנֵי אֹהָלִים זֶה בְּצַד זֶה וַאֲוִיר בֵּינֵיהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי הַסֶּדֶק בְּכָל הַתִּקְרָה. נָתַן רַגְלוֹ אוֹ קָנֶה מִלְּמַעְלָה עַל הַסֶּדֶק עֵרֵב אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. נָתַן אֶת הַקָּנֶה בָּאָרֶץ כְּנֶגֶד הַסֶּדֶק וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּלִי גָּדוֹל אֵינוֹ מְעָרֵב אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה גָּבוֹהַּ טֶפַח תַּחַת הַסֶּדֶק. הָיָה אָדָם מֻטָּל עַל הָאָרֶץ תַּחַת הַסֶּדֶק מְעָרֵב אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁאָדָם חָלוּל הוּא וְהַצַּד הָעֶלְיוֹן הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֹהֶל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ גֹּבַהּ טֶפַח. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ תַּחַת הַסֶּדֶק כֵּלִים מְקֻפָּלִין מֻנָּחִין עַל הָאָרֶץ זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה וְהָיָה הָעֶלְיוֹן גָּבוֹהַּ מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח עֵרֵב אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה וְכָל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ הֲרֵי הֵן כְּכֵלִים שֶׁתַּחַת הָאֹהֶל:

Tum'at Met - Chapter 17

1

When a projection protrudes from the side of an entrance to a home facing downward and it is twelve handbreadths or less above the earth, it conveys ritual impurity regardless of how small it is. It is clear that such a conveyance of impurity is merely a Rabbinic ordinance. Similarly, any analogous instance where impurity is conveyed by something that is not a sturdy ohel is only a Rabbinic ordinance.

Projections that are more than twelve handbreadths high or which face upward and similarly, the crowns and the ornamental embellishments that project from a structure, do not convey impurity unless they are a handbreadth by a handbreadth in area. This also applies to a projection that extends over an entrance from a lintel. Even if there was a reed at the side of the lintel as wide as the entrance, it does not convey ritual impurity unless it is a handbreadth by a handbreadth in area.

א

זִיז שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מִפֶּתַח הַבַּיִת וּפנָיו לְמַטָּה. וְהָיָה גָּבְהוֹ מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר טֶפַח אוֹ פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. וְדָבָר בָּרוּר הוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בַּהֲבָאַת הַטֻּמְאָה כָּזוֹ שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּאֹהֶל טֶפַח הַבָּרִיא אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. הָיָה גָּבוֹהַּ יֶתֶר מִי''ב טֶפַח אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ פָּנָיו לְמַעְלָה. וְכֵן הָעֲטָרוֹת וְהַפִּתּוּחִים הַיּוֹצְאוֹת מִן הַבִּנְיָן אֵין מְבִיאִין אֶלָּא בְּפוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח. וְכֵן זִיז שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַפֶּתַח הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה קָנֶה בְּצַד הַמַּשְׁקוֹף בְּרֹחַב הַפֶּתַח אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בּוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח:

2

When a projection surrounds an entire building and encompasses a handbreadth at the entrance to the house, it conveys ritual impurity. If it encompasses less than a handbreadth at the entrance of the house and there is impurity in the house, keilim under it are impure. If there is impurity under it, it does not convey impurity to the house. Similar laws apply with regard to a courtyard that is surrounded by an exedra.

ב

זִיז שֶׁהוּא סוֹבֵב אֶת כָּל הַבַּיִת וְאוֹכֵל בַּפֶּתַח טֶפַח מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. הָיָה אוֹכֵל בַּפֶּתַח פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח וְטֻמְאָה בַּבַּיִת כֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו טְמֵאִין. טֻמְאָה תַּחְתָּיו אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה לַבַּיִת. וְכֵן בְּחָצֵר שֶׁהִיא מֻקֶּפֶת אַכְסַדְרָה:

3

When a window serves a functional purpose and a projection protrudes across the entire window, even if it was only as wide as a thumbbreadth, it conveys ritual impurity. This applies provided it is two fingerbreadths or less above the window. If it is more than two fingerbreadths higher than the window, it does not convey ritual impurity unless it is a handbreadth wide. When there is a projection over a window that is made for light, it conveys ritual impurity regardless of its size and regardless of its height.

When there is a structure that protrudes in front of a window upon which a person looking out from the window leans while looking, it does not convey ritual impurity. If it has a projection over it, we consider the structure as if it does not exist and the projection above it conveys ritual impurity.

How do all these projections convey ritual impurity? If there was impurity under them or under the house, everything is impure - whether it is in the house or under the projection.

ג

חַלּוֹן הָעֲשׂוּיָה לְתַשְׁמִישׁ וְזִיז יוֹצֵא עַל גַּבֵּי הַחַלּוֹן אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כְּרֹחַב אֲגוּדָל מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה גָּבוֹהַּ מֵעַל הַחַלּוֹן רוּם אֶצְבָּעַיִם אוֹ פָּחוֹת. הָיָה לְמַעְלָה מֵאֶצְבָּעַיִם אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ רֹחַב טֶפַח. זִיז זֶה שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַחַלּוֹן הָעֲשׂוּיָה לְמָאוֹר מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא וַאֲפִלּוּ גָּבוֹהַּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא. בִּנְיָן הַיּוֹצֵא לִפְנֵי הַחַלּוֹן שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקִיף נִסְמָךְ עָלָיו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּשְׁקִיף אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. הָיָה בּוֹ זִיז רוֹאִין אֶת הַבִּנְיָן כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ וְהַזִּיז הָעֶלְיוֹן מֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. וְכֵיצַד מְבִיאִין כָּל הַזִּיזִין הָאֵלּוּ טֻמְאָה. שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אֶחָד מֵהֶן אוֹ בַּבַּיִת הַכּל טָמֵא בֵּין בַּבַּיִת בֵּין תַּחַת הַזִּיז:

4

When there are two projections one on top of the other, each one of them is a handbreadth by a handbreadth in area, there is a handbreadth of space between them, and there is impurity below the lower one, only the space below it is impure. If there is impurity between them, only the space between them is impure. If there is impurity above the upper one, the space above it until the heavens is impure.

If the upper one extended beyond the lower one for a handbreadth and there was impurity below the lower one or between them, the space beneath them and between them is impure. If there is impurity above the upper one, the space above it until the heavens is impure.

If the upper one extended beyond the lower one for less than a handbreadth and there was impurity beneath them, the space beneath them and between them is impure. If the impurity was between them or under only the extra portion of the upper projection, the space between them and under the extra portion is impure, but the space below the lower projection is pure.

If each of the projections were a handbreadth by a handbreadth in size, but there was not a handbreadth between them, and there was impurity below the lower one, only the space below it is impure. If there was impurity between them or on top of the upper one, the space directly above it until the heavens is impure.

If the projections were not a handbreadth by a handbreadth in size, whether there was a space of a handbreadth between them or not, whether the impurity was beneath the lower one, between them, or on top of the upper one, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends, because it is flush. Similar laws apply when there are two curtains that are a handbreadth above the ground and placed one on top of the other.

When there are keilim, garments, or wooden tablets placed on top of each other and impurity was flush between them, if the impurity was a handbreadth above the earth, the k'li that is above it is considered as creating an ohel over the space of a handbreadth and it imparts impurity to all the keilim under it. If there were stone tablets, even if they were a thousand cubits above the ground, the impurity pierces through and ascends and pierces through and descends, because they are considered as earth.

ד

שְׁנֵי זִיזִין זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה וְיֵשׁ בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וּבֵינֵיהֶם פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת הַתַּחְתּוֹן תַּחְתָּיו בִּלְבַד טָמֵא. הָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בֵּינֵיהֶן בֵּינֵיהֶם בִּלְבַד טָמֵא. הָיְתָה עַל גַּב הָעֶלְיוֹן כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד הָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. הָיָה הָעֶלְיוֹן עוֹדֵף עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹן פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת הַתַּחְתּוֹן אוֹ בֵּינֵיהֶן תַּחְתֵּיהֶן וּבֵינֵיהֶן טָמֵא. הָיְתָה עַל גַּב הָעֶלְיוֹן כְּנֶגְדּוֹ וְעַד הָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. הָיָה הָעֶלְיוֹן עוֹדֵף עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹן פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחְתֵּיהֶם תַּחְתֵּיהֶם וּבֵינֵיהֶן טָמֵא. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בֵּינֵיהֶם אוֹ תַּחַת הַמּוֹתָר בֵּינֵיהֶן וְתַחַת הַמּוֹתָר טָמֵא אֲבָל תַּחַת הַתַּחְתּוֹן טָהוֹר. יֵשׁ בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת הַתַּחְתּוֹן תַּחְתָּיו בִּלְבַד טָמֵא. הָיְתָה בֵּינֵיהֶן אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָעֶלְיוֹן כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה עַד לָרָקִיעַ טָמֵא. אֵין בָּהֶן פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וּבֵין שֶׁאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח. בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה תַּחַת הַתַּחְתּוֹן אוֹ בֵּינֵיהֶן אוֹ עַל גַּב הָעֶלְיוֹן. טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא רְצוּצָה. וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי יְרִיעוֹת שֶׁהֵן גְּבוֹהוֹת מִן הָאָרֶץ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ. כֵּלִים אוֹ בְּגָדִים אוֹ לוּחוֹת שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁהֵן מֻנָּחִין זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זֶה וְטֻמְאָה רְצוּצָה בֵּינֵיהֶן אִם הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח הֲרֵי הַכְּלִי שֶׁעָלֶיהָ מִלְּמַעְלָה מַאֲהִיל עַל חֲלַל הַטֶּפַח וּמֵבִיא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה לְכָל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו. הָיוּ טַבְלִיּוֹת שֶׁל שַׁיִשׁ אֲפִלּוּ גְּבוֹהוֹת מִן הָאָרֶץ אֶלֶף אַמָּה טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּקַרְקַע:

5

When tablets of wood are touching each other at their corners, they are a handbreadth above the ground, and there is impurity under one of them, the keilim which are under the second are pure, because it is not touching the other one over the space of a handbreadth. A person who touches the second tablet is considered as one who touched keilim that touched a covering over a corpse.

Different rules apply, by contrast, with regard to all those keilim which we said convey ritual impurity and do not intervene in the face of it. If such a k'li was positioned above a corpse, all of the keilim that are above it are impure, as we explained. They are deemed impure as keilim that were held over a corpse. Even the keilim over it that are not directly over the impurity are impure. They are considered keilim that touched keilim that were held over a corpse.

ה

לוּחוֹת שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁהֵן נוֹגְעוֹת זֶה בָּזֶה בְּקַרְנוֹתֵיהֶן וְהֵן גְּבוֹהוֹת מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת אַחַת מֵהֶן כֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחַת הַשְּׁנִיָּה טְהוֹרִין לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ נוֹגַעַת בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ בְּפוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּלוּחַ זוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה כְּנוֹגֵעַ בְּכֵלִים שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת. אֲבָל כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁמְּבִיאִין אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה וְאֵינָן חוֹצְצִין אִם הֶאֱהִיל הַכְּלִי עַל הַמֵּת כָּל כֵּלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו טְמֵאִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְטֻמְאָתָן מִשּׁוּם כֵּלִים הַמַּאֲהִילִין עַל הַמֵּת וְאַף הַכֵּלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו שֶׁאֵינָן כְּנֶגֶד הַטֻּמְאָה טְמֵאִים מִשּׁוּם כֵּלִים שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בְּכֵלִים שֶׁהֶאֱהִילוּ עַל הַמֵּת:

6

When an earthenware jug was standing on its base in open space and there was an olive-sized portion from a corpse inside of it or below it, directly below its inner space, the impurity pierces through and ascends, pierces through and descends. The jug is impure, because the impurity pierces its bottom and its inner space becomes impure.

If the impurity is located under the thickness of its walls, the impurity pierces through and ascends, pierces through and descends, but the jug is pure. Why is the jug pure? Because the impurity does not pierce through into its inner space, but only to its walls and an earthenware container contracts impurity only from its inner space.

If some of the impurity was below the thickness of its walls and some below its inner space, the impurity pierces through and ascends, pierces through and descends. If the walls were a handbreadth in thickness, it is entirely impure but the space aligned with its opening is pure, for the impurity has spread only throughout the walls.

When does the above apply? When the jug was pure. If, however, the jug was impure, it was a handbreadth raised above the earth, it was covered, or it was turned upside down, and the impurity was in it or on top of it, everything is impure and anything that touches it in its entirety is impure. If it had a cover fastened to it and was placed over a corpse, any food and drink inside of it are pure, but the keilim over it are impure.

When jugs are resting on their bases or leaning on their sides in open space, they touch each other over a handbreadth of space, and there is impurity below one of them, the impurity pierces through and ascends, pierces through and descends, because it is flush.

When does the above apply? When the jugs are pure. If, however, they are impure or they are raised a handbreadth above the ground, and there is impurity under one of them, the space below all of them is impure, because they are considered as a single ohel.

ו

חָבִית שֶׁהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל שׁוּלֶיהָ בָּאֲוִיר וּכְזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת נָתוּן בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ תַּחְתֶּיהָ כְּנֶגֶד אֲוִירָהּ טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת. וְהֶחָבִית טְמֵאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הַטֻּמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת מִתַּחְתֶּיהָ וְנִטְמֵאת אֲוִירָהּ. הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה תַּחַת עֳבִי דָּפְנָהּ טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת וְהֶחָבִית טְהוֹרָה. וְלָמָּה הֶחָבִית טְהוֹרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַטֻּמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת בַּאֲוִירָהּ אֶלָּא בְּדָפְנָהּ וְאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ מִטָּמֵּא אֶלָּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ. הָיְתָה מִקְצָת הַטֻּמְאָה תַּחַת עֳבִי דָּפְנָהּ וּמִקְצָתָהּ תַּחַת אֲוִירָהּ טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת. הָיָה בַּדְּפָנוֹת פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח כֻּלָּהּ טְמֵאָה וּכְנֶגֶד פִּיהָ טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי הַטֻּמְאָה פָּשְׁטָה בַּדְּפָנוֹת בִּלְבַד. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּחָבִית טְהוֹרָה. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח אוֹ מְכֻסָּה אוֹ כְּפוּיָה עַל פִּיהָ וְהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה תַּחְתֶּיהָ אוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ הַכּל טָמֵא וְכָל הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּהּ כֻּלּוֹ טָמֵא. הָיְתָה מֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּנְתוּנָה עַל גַּבֵּי הַמֵּת הָאֳכָלִים וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ טְהוֹרִין וְהַכֵּלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ טְמֵאִים. חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁהֵן יוֹשְׁבוֹת עַל שׁוּלֵיהֶן אוֹ מֻטּוֹת עַל צִדֵּיהֶם בָּאֲוִיר וְהֵן נוֹגְעוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ בְּפוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת אַחַת מֵהֶן טֻמְאָה בּוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרֶדֶת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא רְצוּצָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּטְהוֹרוֹת. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ טְמֵאוֹת אוֹ גְּבוֹהוֹת מִן הָאָרֶץ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח וְטֻמְאָה תַּחַת אַחַת מֵהֶן תַּחַת כֻּלָּן טָמֵא שֶׁהֲרֵי הַכּל אֹהֶל אֶחָד:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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