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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Shegagot - Perek 15, Mechussarey Kapparah - Perek 1, Mechussarey Kapparah - Perek 2

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Shegagot - Perek 15

1

We have already explained that for every transgression for which an ordinary person must bring a ewe or a she-goat as a fixed sin-offering, a nasiwho violates it inadvertently must bring a he-goat. And if an anointed priest violates it inadvertently, he must bring a bull.

When does the statement that an anointed priest brings a bull because of his inadvertent transgression apply? When he errs in issuing a ruling and acts according to his ruling alone. And to be liable he must be a sage of distinction, as implied by Leviticus 4:3: "If the anointed priest will sin, bringing guilt to the nation," i.e., an equivalence is established between the anointed priest and the people as a whole. Just as the community, i.e., the court, are not obligated to bring a sacrifice unless the judges are sages fit to deliver rulings, they deliver an erroneous ruling, the transgressors err because of this ruling, and they ruled to nullify certain aspects of a prohibition and maintain others, so too, an anointed priest is not liable unless all these stipulations are met.

א

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל שְׁגָגָה שֶׁהַהֶדְיוֹט מֵבִיא עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת הַקְּבוּעָה כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ שְׂעִירָה אִם שָׁגַג בָּהּ הַנָּשִׂיא מֵבִיא שָׂעִיר וְאִם שָׁגַג בָּהּ כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ מֵבִיא פַּר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁכֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ מֵבִיא פַּר עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ כְּשֶׁטָּעָה בְּהוֹרָאַת עַצְמוֹ וְעָשָׂה מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׁגְגַת הוֹרָאָתוֹ לְבַדָּהּ וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה חָכָם מֻפְלָא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד ג) "אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם" הֲרֵי מָשִׁיחַ כְּצִבּוּר מָה הַצִּבּוּר שֶׁהֵן בֵּית דִּין אֵינָן חַיָּבִין בְּקָרְבָּן עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ חֲכָמִים רְאוּיִין לְהוֹרָאָה וְיִטְעוּ בְּהוֹרָאָה וְיַעֲשׂוּ הָעוֹשִׂים עַל פִּיהֶם וְיוֹרוּ לְבַטֵּל מִקְצָת וּלְקַיֵּם מִקְצָת כָּךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ בְּכָל הַדְּרָכִים הָאֵלּוּ:

2

What is implied? If the anointed priest ruled erroneously for himself and thought that it was permitted to throw an article from one domain to another on the Sabbath and acted in this manner, relying on his judgment, when he becomes aware of his transgression, he should bring a bull as a sin-offering. If, however, he did not rely on his ruling, but instead, acted inadvertently and threw an article, or he relied on his ruling, but was not a distinguished sage, or he nullified a prohibition in its entirety when ruling for himself, or he ruled erroneously to negate only a portion of the prohibition, but did not act while relying on his ruling, but instead, performed the transgression inadvertently for another reason, or he purposely delivered an erroneous ruling, but performed the transgression inadvertently, he is exempt from bringing a sacrifice entirely. For the laws that apply to an anointed priest's ruling for himself are identical to those applying to the congregation with regard to the ruling of the court in all regards.

If he delivered a ruling for himself and then forgot the rationale motivating the ruling and at the time he acted said: "I am acting on the basis of my previous ruling," he must bring a bull as a sin-offering.

ב

כֵּיצַד. כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁטָּעָה בְּהוֹרָאָה לְעַצְמוֹ. וְדִמָּה שֶׁהַזּוֹרֵק מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת בְּשַׁבָּת מֻתָּר וְזָרַק מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת וְהוּא תּוֹלֶה בְּהוֹרָאָתוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ. כְּשֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ חֶטְאוֹ יָבִיא פַּר לְחַטָּאת. אֲבָל אִם לֹא תָּלָה בְּהוֹרָאָתוֹ אֶלָּא שָׁגַג וְזָרַק בִּשְׁגָגָה. אוֹ שֶׁתָּלָה בְּהוֹרָאָתוֹ וְלֹא הָיָה חָכָם מֻפְלָא. אוֹ שֶׁעָקַר כָּל הַגּוּף בְּהוֹרָאָתוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁגַג בְּהוֹרָאָתוֹ לְבַטֵּל מִקְצָת וְלֹא עָשָׂה וְהוּא סוֹמֵךְ עַל הוֹרָאָתוֹ אֶלָּא עָשָׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה אַחֶרֶת. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מֵזִיד בְּהוֹרָאָה וְשָׁגַג בְּמַעֲשֶׂה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִקָּרְבַּן כְּלָל שֶׁדִּינוֹ לְהוֹרָאַת עַצְמוֹ כְּדִין הַקָּהָל לְהוֹרָאַת בֵּית דִּין לְכָל דָּבָר. הוֹרָה לְעַצְמוֹ וְשָׁכַח מֵאֵי זֶה טַעַם הוֹרָה וּבִשְׁעַת מַעֲשֶׂה אָמַר הֲרֵינִי עוֹשֶׂה עַל דַּעַת הוֹרָאָתִי הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא פַּר חַטָּאת:

3

If he delivered a ruling for himself to nullify certain aspects of the prohibition against the worship of false deities and maintain others and he acted according to his ruling, he brings a she-goat, as does an ordinary person, provided he erred in his ruling, as we explained. For the anointed priest is not obligated to bring a sacrifice unless he has a lapse of awareness while delivering a ruling and then acts inadvertently as is the law with regard to the community as a whole. If, however, he merely acted inadvertently without delivering a ruling, whether he violated the prohibition against the worship of false deities or other commandments, he does not bring a sacrifice at all.

ג

הוֹרָה לְעַצְמוֹ לְבַטֵּל מִקְצָת וּלְקַיֵּם מִקְצָת בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְעָשָׂה כְּפִי הוֹרָאָתוֹ. הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא שְׂעִירָה כְּהֶדְיוֹט וְהוּא שֶׁיִּשְׁגֹּג בְּהוֹרָאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ חַיָּב קָרְבָּן אֶלָּא בְּהֶעְלֵם דָּבָר בְּהוֹרָאָה עִם שִׁגְגַת הַמַּעֲשֶׂה בְּצִבּוּר אֲבָל אִם שָׁגַג בְּמַעֲשֶׂה בִּלְבַד בְּלֹא הוֹרָאָה בֵּין בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה בֵּין בִּשְׁאָר מִצְוֹת אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן כְּלָל:

4

When the anointed priest ruled together with the High Court and he and they both erred in their ruling, the anointed priest is exempt even though he acted according to the mistaken ruling that he issued. The rationale is that he did not rely only on his ruling alone, but his ruling together with that of the court. Hence it is not necessary for him to bring a sacrifice for atonement individually. Instead, if the court bring a sacrifice, he receives atonement together with the community at large. And if the transgressors bring a sacrifice, he does not bring a sacrifice, because he does not bring a sacrifice individually.

ד

הוֹרָה הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ עִם בֵּית דִּין וְשָׁגַג הוּא וְהֵם בְּהוֹרָאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשׂוּ עַל פִּי הַהוֹרָאָה הַזֹּאת שֶׁטָּעוּ בָּהּ. הוֹאִיל וְלֹא סָמַךְ בִּשְׁעַת מַעֲשֶׂה עַל הוֹרָאָתוֹ לְבַדָּהּ אֶלָּא עַל הוֹרָאָתוֹ עִם הוֹרָאַת בֵּית דִּין הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא כַּפָּרָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. אֶלָּא אִם הָיוּ בֵּית דִּין מְבִיאִין קָרְבָּן מִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ בִּכְלַל הַצִּבּוּר. וְאִם הָיוּ הָעוֹשִׂים הֵם הַמְּבִיאִים קָרְבָּן הוּא אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין צָרִיךְ כַּפָּרָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ:

5

If he together with the court ruled erroneously, they ruled concerning forbidden blood and he ruled concerning forbidden fats, he does not receive atonement together with the community. Instead, he brings a bull on his own accord.

ה

הוֹרָה עִם בֵּית דִּין בִּשְׁגָגָה וְשָׁגְגוּ הֵם בְּדָם וְהוּא בְּחֵלֶב. אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ עִם הַצִּבּוּר אֶלָּא מֵבִיא פַּר לְעַצְמוֹ:

6

When an anointed priest is in doubt of whether or not he committed this type of advertent transgression - i.e., he ruled in error and acted accordingly - he does not bring a provisional guilt offering, for he is comparable to the community at large who do not bring a provisional guilt-offering. When, by contrast, a nasi is in doubt whether he transgressed or did not transgress, he should bring a provisional guilt-offering like other ordinary people, because his obligation for an inadvertent transgression is not dependent on his ruling.

What is the connotation of the term nasi used in the Torah? A king who is not under the jurisdiction of any other man in Israel. There is no one superior to him in his sovereignty except, God, his Lord. This applies whether he is of the Davidic dynasty or of other tribes. If there were several kings and one is not subject to the other, each one should bring a goat for his inadvertent transgression.

What is meant by the term "anointed priest"? This refers to a High Priest who was anointed with the oil of anointment, not one who was installed in his office through wearing the priestly garments.

ו

כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁנִּסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם שָׁגַג שְׁגָגָה זוֹ שֶׁהִיא שִׁגְגַת הוֹרָאָה עִם הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אוֹ לֹא שָׁגַג אוֹתָהּ. אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָּהּ כְּצִבּוּר שֶׁאֵינָן מְבִיאִין אָשָׁם תָּלוּי עַל לֹא הוֹדַע שֶׁל שִׁגְגַת הוֹרָאָה. אֲבָל הַנָּשִׂיא אִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם חָטָא אוֹ לֹא חָטָא מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי כִּשְׁאָר הַהֶדְיוֹטוֹת. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין שִׁגְגָתוֹ תְּלוּיָה בְּהוֹרָאָתוֹ. אֵי זֶהוּ נָשִׂיא הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה זֶה מֶלֶךְ שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו רְשׁוּת מֵאָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין לְמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּמַלְכוּתוֹ אֶלָּא ה' אֱלֹהָיו. בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִבֵּית דָּוִד אוֹ מִשְּׁאָר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאִם הָיוּ מְלָכִים רַבִּים וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן עוֹבֵד אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן מֵבִיא שְׂעִיר עִזִּים עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ. וְאֵי זֶהוּ כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ זֶה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּמְשַׁח בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה לֹא הַמְרֻבֶּה בִּבְגָדִים:

7

When a High Priest who had been anointed with the anointing oil, but was removed from his office, because of a physical blemish, old age, or the like and inadvertently violated a transgression in this manner, he must bring a bull for his inadvertent transgression. For there is no difference between an anointed priest who serves and one who was removed from his office except the bull offered on Yom Kippur and the tenth of an ephah offered each day. These are brought only by a High Priest who is serving in his office, but with regard to the bull brought for the inadvertent violation of all the mitzvot, the two are governed by the same laws.

ז

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּמְשַׁח בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְעָבַר מֵעֲבוֹדָתוֹ מִפְּנֵי מוּם אוֹ זִקְנָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וְחָטָא בִּשְׁגָגָה זוֹ מֵבִיא פַּר עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ. לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בֵּין כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ הַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְכֹהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁעָבַר אֶלָּא פַּר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַקְרִיב אוֹתָן אֶלָּא כֹּהֵן הַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּכְהוּנָה גְּדוֹלָה. אֲבָל פַּר הַבָּא עַל כָּל הַמִּצְווֹת שָׁוִים הֵם בּוֹ:

8

When a nasi performs a transgression together with the community, because of a ruling of the court, he receives atonement together with the people at large. If the court were offering a sacrifice due to their error, the entire nation and the king are exempt from a sacrifice, as we explained. If those who transgressed due to the court's ruling were obligated to bring a sacrifice and the king was one of them who transgressed, he should bring a goat. For the goat brought by the nasi takes the place of a ewe or a she-goat that an ordinary person brings.

ח

נָשִׂיא שֶׁעָשָׂה עִם הַצִּבּוּר בְּהוֹרָאַת בֵּית דִּין הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ בִּכְלַל הָעָם. שֶׁאִם הָיוּ בֵּית דִּין הֵם שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ עַל שִׁגְגָתָן כָּל הָעָם וְהַמֶּלֶךְ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַקָּרְבָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאִם הָיוּ הָעוֹשִׂים עַל פִּי בֵּית דִּין הֵם שֶׁחַיָּבִין בְּקָרְבָּן וְהָיָה הַמֶּלֶךְ מִן הָעוֹשִׂים. הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא שָׂעִיר שֶׁשְּׂעִיר נָשִׂיא בִּמְקוֹם כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ שְׂעִירָה שֶׁל הֶדְיוֹט הוּא עוֹמֵד:

9

When a nasi becomes afflicted by tzara'at and is removed from his office or he is removed from his office for other reasons, he is considered as an ordinary person. If a nasi transgressed while in office and then was removed, he must still bring a goat, as can be inferred from Leviticus 4:22: "because of his transgression that he violated," i.e., the sacrifice that he brings depends on his status at the time he transgresses.

ט

נָשִׂיא שֶׁנִּצְטָרֵעַ עָבַר מִנְּשִׂיאוּתוֹ וְנָשִׂיא שֶׁעָבַר מִנְּשִׂיאוּתוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּהֶדְיוֹט. חָטָא כְּשֶׁהָיָה נָשִׂיא וְעָבַר מִגְּדֻלָּתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא שָׂעִיר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד ג) "עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא". כִּשְׁעַת חַטָּאתוֹ הוּא מֵבִיא:

10

When an anointed priest or a king violate a transgression requiring a sacrifice before they are appointed to their office, they must bring a sacrifice like an ordinary person even if they become aware of it after they become appointed. This is derived from Leviticus 4:22: "When a nasi transgresses," and ibid.:3: "If the anointed priest will transgress...," i.e., these sacrifices are required only when he transgresses while a nasi or while anointed.

Accordingly, if a priest ate a piece of fat concerning which there was a question whether it was forbidden and he became aware of this question after he was appointed as a High Priest, he must bring a provisional guilt-offering.

If one ate half an olive-sized portion of forbidden fat while he was an ordinary person and another half after becoming a nasi in one lapse of awareness or he ate half an olive-sized portion while he was a nasi and half after leaving his office, they are not combined and he is exempt.

If one ate half an olive-sized portion when he was an ordinary person, he was appointed as a nasi and then was removed from his office, there is an unresolved doubt if the two times he ate are combined to make him liable or his service as a nasi creates a distinction between the two.

י

כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ אוֹ מֶלֶךְ שֶׁחָטְאוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַנּוּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדַע לָהֶם אֶלָּא אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְמַנּוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּהֶדְיוֹט. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד כב) "אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא". (ויקרא ד ג) "אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא". עַד שֶׁיֶּחְטָא כְּשֶׁהוּא נָשִׂיא וּכְשֶׁהוּא מָשִׁיחַ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָכַל סְפֵק חֵלֶב כְּשֶׁהוּא הֶדְיוֹט וְנוֹדַע לוֹ עַל סְפֵקוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְמַנָּה לִהְיוֹת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. אָכַל חֲצִי זַיִת חֵלֶב כְּשֶׁהוּא הֶדְיוֹט וַחֲצִי זַיִת כְּשֶׁהוּא נָשִׂיא בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל חֲצִי זַיִת כְּשֶׁהוּא נָשִׂיא וַחֲצִי זַיִת אַחַר שֶׁעָבַר אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף וּפָטוּר. אָכַל חֲצִי זַיִת כְּשֶׁהוּא הֶדְיוֹט וְנִתְמַנָּה וְעָבַר וְאָכַל חֲצִי זַיִת כְּשֶׁהוּא הֶדְיוֹט. הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם מִצְטָרֵף אוֹ כְּבָר הִפְסִיקָה הַנְּשִׂיאוּת:

Blessed be the Merciful One Who offers assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות שגגות בס"ד:

Mechussarey Kapparah - Perek 1

Introduction to Hilchot Mechussarey Kapparah

Included in this text are four positive commandments. They include the following:

1) that a zavah should bring a sacrifice when she becomes pure;
2) that a women should bring a sacrifice after childbirth when she becomes pure;
3) that a zav should bring a sacrifice when he becomes pure;
4) that a person afflicted by tzara’at should bring a sacrifice when he becomes pure. After these individuals offer their sacrifices, their attainment of ritual purity is completed.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות מחוסרי כפרה - הקדמה יש בכללן ארבע מצוות עשה, וזה הוא פרטן: (א) שתקריב הזבה כשתטהר קרבן.
(ב) שתקריב היולדת כשתטהר קרבן.
(ג) שיקריב הזב כשיטהר קרבן.
(ד) שיקריב מצורע כשיטהר קרבן. ואחר שיקריבו קרבנותיהן – תגמר טהרתן. וביאור מצוות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

There are four individuals who are referred to as "requiring atonement": a zavah, a woman after childbirth, a zav, and a person afflicted by tzara'at.

Why are they referred to as "requiring atonement"? Because even after each one of them has become pure from the condition that caused his impurity, he has immersed in a mikveh, and the day of the immersion has passed, the person's status is still lacking. His attainment of purity is not complete to the extent that he may partake of sacrificial foods until he brings the sacrifice required of him. Before he brings this sacrifice, he is forbidden to partake of sacrificial food as explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim.

א

אַרְבָעָה הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין מְחֻסְּרֵי כַּפָּרָה. הַזָּבָה. וְהַיּוֹלֶדֶת. וְהַזָּב. וְהַמְצֹרָע. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָאוּ מְחֻסְּרֵי כַּפָּרָה שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּהַר מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ וְטָבַל וְהֶעֱרִיב שִׁמְשׁוֹ עֲדַיִן הוּא חָסֵר וְלֹא גָּמְרָה טָהֳרָתוֹ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכל בְּקָדָשִׁים עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ. וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבִיא כַּפָּרָתוֹ אָסוּר הוּא לֶאֱכל בְּקָדָשִׁים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין:

2

When a convert becomes circumcised, but has not brought his sacrifice, although he is forbidden to partake of sacrificial food until he brings his sacrifice, he is not considered as one requiring in atonement. It is merely that failing to bring his sacrifice prevents him from being a complete convert and being from the full-fledged members of the Jewish people. Accordingly, he may not partake of sacrificial foods, because he has not become a full-fledged member of the Jewish people. Once he brings his sacrifice and becomes a full-fledged member of the Jewish people, he may partake of sacrificial foods in the evening.

If he brings one dove as a sacrifice in the morning, he may partake of sacrificial foods and bring the second dove at a later time. For the sacrifice of a convert is an animal brought as a burnt-offering or two young doves or two turtle doves both brought as burnt-offerings, as explained in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot.

ב

גֵּר שֶׁמָּל וְטָבַל וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר לֶאֱכל בְּקָדָשִׁים עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ אֵינוֹ מִמְּחֻסְּרֵי כַּפָּרָה. שֶׁקָּרְבָּנוֹ עִכְּבוֹ לִהְיוֹת גֵּר גָּמוּר וְלִהְיוֹת כְּכָל כְּשֵׁרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל בְּקָדָשִׁים שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשָׂה כִּכְשֵׁרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ וְיֵעָשֶׂה יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּשֵׁר אוֹכֵל בְּקָדָשִׁים. הֵבִיא פְּרֵדָה אַחַת בְּשַׁחֲרִית אוֹכֵל בְּקָדָשִׁים לָעֶרֶב וְיָבִיא פְּרֵדָה שְׁנִיָּה. שֶׁקָּרְבָּנוֹ שֶׁל גֵּר עוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אוֹ שְׁתֵּי תּוֹרִים וּשְׁנֵיהֶן עוֹלָה. כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת:

3

The sacrifice brought by either a zav or a zavah is two turtle doves or two young doves, one brought as a burnt-offering and one brought as a sin-offering. The sacrifice of a woman after childbirth is a sheep as a burnt-offering and a young dove or turtle dove as a sin-offering. If she lacks the means for that offering, she must bring two turtle doves or two young doves, one as a burnt-offering and one as a sin-offering. The sacrifice of a person afflicted by tzara'at is three sheep, one as a burnt-offering, one as a guilt offering, and a ewe as a sin-offering. If he does not have the means, he may bring two doves, one as a burnt-offering and one as a sin-offering, and a sheep as a guilt-offering.

ג

הַזָּב וְהַזָּבָה קָרְבָּן כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן שְׁתֵּי תּוֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֶחָד עוֹלָה וְאֶחָד חַטָּאת. וְהַיּוֹלֶדֶת קָרְבָּנָהּ כֶּבֶשׂ עוֹלָה וּבֶן יוֹנָה אוֹ תּוֹר חַטָּאת. וְאִם אֵין יָדָהּ מַשֶּׂגֶת מְבִיאָה שְׁתֵּי תּוֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֶחָד עוֹלָה וְאֶחָד חַטָּאת. וְהַמְצֹרָע קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה כְּבָשִׂים אֶחָד עוֹלָה וְאֶחָד אָשָׁם. וְכִשְׂבָּה לְחַטָּאת. וְאִם אֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת מֵבִיא קֵן אֶחָד עוֹלָה וְאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְכֶבֶשׂ לְאָשָׁם:

4

Each of the three, a zav, a zavah, and a person afflicted by tzara'at, bring the sacrifices for their atonement on the eighth day after they become purified from their condition. For each one of them must count seven days of purity, immerse on the seventh day, wait until the conclusion of that day, and offer his sacrifices on the eighth day.

ד

הַזָּב וְהַזָּבָה וְהַמְצֹרָע מֵבִיא כָּל אֶחָד מִשְּׁלָשְׁתָּן כַּפָּרָתוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי לְטָהֳרָתוֹ שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן סוֹפֵר שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי טָהֳרָה וְטוֹבֵל בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וּמַעֲרִיב שִׁמְשׁוֹ וּמַקְרִיב קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי:

5

A woman does not bring her sacrifices on the fortieth day after the birth of a male or the eightieth day after the birth of a female. Instead, she waits until that day is completed and on the following day, the forty-first day after the birth of a male and the eighty-first day after the birth of a female. This is the day concerning which Leviticus 12:6 states: "And upon completion of her days of purity for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring...." If she brings the sacrifices in the midst of these days, she does not fulfill her obligation. Even if she brings these sacrifices for a previous birth in the midst of the days of purity for her present offspring, she does not fulfill her obligation.

If these days passed and the individuals mentioned above did not bring the sacrifices for their atonement, they should offer them afterwards. As long as they have not brought the sin-offering for which they are liable, they are forbidden to partake of sacrificial foods. Failure to bring their burnt-offering and guilt-offering does not hold them back.

We already explained in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot that a sacrifice may not be brought on behalf of anyone obligated to bring it without their consent with the exception of the sacrifices of those requiring atonement. In this instance, the consent of the principals is not required, as evident from the fact that a person may bring sacrifices on behalf of his sons and daughters who are below majority if they require atonement and allow them to partake of sacrifices.

ה

הַיּוֹלֶדֶת אֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּנָהּ בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעִים לְזָכָר אוֹ בְּיוֹם שְׁמוֹנִים לִנְקֵבָה. אֶלָּא מַעֲרֶבֶת שִׁמְשָׁהּ וּמְבִיאָהּ קָרְבָּנָהּ לְמָחָר שֶׁהוּא יוֹם אַרְבָּעִים וְאֶחָד לְזָכָר וְיוֹם שְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד לִנְקֵבָה וְהוּא הַיּוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (ויקרא יב ו) "וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא" וְגוֹ'. וְאִם הֵבִיאָה קָרְבָּנָהּ תּוֹךְ יְמֵי מְלֹאת לֹא יָצָאת אֲפִלּוּ הֵבִיאָה עַל וְלָדוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי מְלֹאת שֶׁל וָלָד זֶה לֹא יָצָאת. עָבְרוּ יָמִים אֵלּוּ וְלֹא הֵבִיאוּ כַּפָּרָתָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַקְרִיבִין כַּפָּרָתָן לְאַחַר זְמַן. וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הִקְרִיבוּ חַטָּאתָם אֲסוּרִים לֶאֱכל בְּקָדָשִׁים. אֲבָל הָעוֹלָה (וְהָאָשָׁם) אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין. כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁכָּל מְחֻיְּבֵי קָרְבָּן אֵין מַקְרִיבִין עַל יָדָן אֶלָּא מִדַּעְתָּן. חוּץ מִמְּחֻסְּרֵי כַּפָּרָה שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִין דַּעַת בְּעָלִים שֶׁהֲרֵי אָדָם מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן עַל בָּנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו הַקְּטַנִּים אִם הָיוּ מְחֻסְּרֵי כַּפָּרָה וּמַאֲכִילָן בִּזְבָחִים:

6

What is meant by a zavah? A woman who experienced uterine bleeding for three consecutive days at a time other than the days when she usually menstruates. She is considered a greater zavah and is required to count seven spotless days and bring a sacrifice. We have already explained with regard to the laws of nidah, when a woman will be considered as a zavah because of uterine bleeding that she discovers and when she will not be a zavah, but rather a nidah or ritually pure, and when there will be a question whether she is a zavah. In all situations that we said that she was a zavah and should count seven "spotless" days, she is obligated to bring a sacrifice and her sin-offering should be eaten. Whenever we said that there is a question of whether she was a zavah, she should bring a sacrifice, but her sacrifice is not eaten. We have already explained that a sin-offering of fowl brought because of a questionable situation should be burnt.

We have already explained what type of birth or miscarriage will cause a woman to contract impurity because of birth and which will not cause her to contract impurity. Whenever we stated that she contracts impurity because of birth, she must bring a sacrifice and her sacrifice is eaten. Whenever we stated that she is not impure because of birth, she is exempt from bringing a sacrifice.

ו

אֵי זוֹ הִיא זָבָה. זוֹ שֶׁזָּב דָּמָהּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה בְּלֹא עֵת נִדָּתָהּ. וְזוֹ הִיא זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁצְּרִיכָה סְפִירַת שִׁבְעָה וְחַיֶּבֶת בְּקָרְבָּן. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּעִנְיַן הַנִּדָּה אֵימָתַי תִּהְיֶה הָאִשָּׁה זָבָה בְּדָמִים שֶׁתִּרְאֶה וְאֵימָתַי לֹא תִּהְיֶה זָבָה אֶלָּא נִדָּה אוֹ טְהוֹרָה וּמָתַי תִּהְיֶה סְפֵק זָבָה. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁהִיא זָבָה וְסוֹפֶרֶת שִׁבְעָה הֲרֵי הִיא חַיֶּבֶת לְהָבִיא קָרְבָּן וְחַטָּאתָהּ נֶאֱכֶלֶת. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁהִיא סְפֵק זָבָה הֲרֵי זוֹ מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן וְאֵין חַטָּאתָה נֶאֱכֶלֶת. שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁחַטַּאת הָעוֹף הַבָּאָה עַל הַסָּפֵק תִּשָּׂרֵף. וְשָׁם בֵּאַרְנוּ מַה תֵּלֵד הָאִשָּׁה אוֹ מַה תַּפִּיל וְתִהְיֶה טְמֵאָה לֵידָה וּמַה תֵּלֵד אוֹ תַּפִּיל וְלֹא תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה לֵידָה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה לֵידָה הֲרֵי זוֹ מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן וְחַטָּאתָהּ נֶאֱכֶלֶת. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ טְמֵאָה לֵידָה הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה מִן הַקָּרְבָּן:

7

When a woman was uncertain whether or not she was pregnant and then miscarried and she did not know the nature of the fetus that she miscarried, whether she was required to bring a sacrifice for it or not, she is considered as a woman in childbirth of doubtful status. She must bring a sacrifice, but her sin-offering is not eaten. Similarly, if two women both miscarried, the fetus that one had carried was mature enough to warrant a sacrifice, but the other fetus was not, and the women did not know which of them had carried which fetus, they should each bring a sacrifice because of the doubt, but neither of their sin-offerings are eaten. For a sin-offering of fowl that is brought because of an unresolved question is burnt, lest the woman bringing it not be liable. In such a situation, this sin-offering would be a non-consecrated animal slaughtered in the Temple Courtyard, from which it is forbidden to benefit, as explained in Hilchot Shechitah.

ז

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא הֻחְזְקָה עֵבָּרָה וְהִפִּילָה וְלֹא יָדְעָה מַה הִפִּילָה. אִם נֵפֶל שֶׁחַיֶּבֶת עָלָיו קָרְבָּן אוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינָהּ חַיֶּבֶת עָלָיו קָרְבָּן. הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק יוֹלֶדֶת וּמְבִיאָהּ קָרְבָּן וְאֵין חַטָּאתָה נֶאֱכֶלֶת. וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֶׁהִפִּילוּ שְׁנֵי נְפָלִים נֵפֶל אֶחָד רָאוּי לְהַקְרִיב עָלָיו וְהַנֵּפֶל הָאַחֵר פְּטוּרָה עָלָיו וְאֵין אַחַת מֵהֶן מַכֶּרֶת נִפְלָהּ. כָּל אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן מִסָּפֵק וְאֵין חַטַּאת אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן נֶאֱכֶלֶת שֶׁחַטַּאת הָעוֹף הַבָּאָה עַל הַסָּפֵק נִשְׂרֶפֶת שֶׁמָּא אֵינָהּ חַיֶּבֶת וְנִמְצֵאת חַטָּאת זוֹ חֻלִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטוּ בָּעֲזָרָה שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁחִיטָה:

8

Whether a woman who gives birth or miscarries gives birth or miscarries to one offspring or many offspring, she may bring one sacrifice that includes all of them. This applies provided the births or the miscarriages take place within the days associated with the prior birth or miscarriage. If, however, they take place afterwards, a separate sacrifice must be brought for the second birth or miscarriage.

What is implied? When a woman gives birth to a girl, any miscarriages that occur from the day of that child's birth until the conclusion of the eightieth day are grouped together with the first child. It is as if she gave birth to twins, one after the other, and she is only required to bring one sacrifice. If she miscarried on the eighty-first day or from that date onward, should it be mature enough to require a sacrifice, she must bring a sacrifice for it independently.

Should she have given birth to a girl and after sixty or seventy days, miscarry a female fetus, she is exempt from bringing a sacrifice for any fetus she miscarries within the eighty days associated with this second female. Similarly, if she miscarries a third female after sixty or seventy days since the miscarriage of the second female, she is exempt from bringing a sacrifice for any fetus she miscarries within the eighty days associated with this third female. The rationale is that it is taken into account with the third miscarriage and the third birth is taken account with the second birth, because it is within the days associated with it. The second birth is taken into account with the first birth. Thus the woman is required to bring only one sacrifice for everything.

ח

אַחַת הַיּוֹלֶדֶת וְאַחַת הַמַּפֶּלֶת וָלָד אֶחָד אוֹ וְלָדוֹת הַרְבֵּה הֲרֵי זוֹ מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן וְהוּא שֶׁתֵּלֵד כֻּלָּן בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי מְלֹאת. אֲבָל אִם הִפִּילָה אַחַר יְמֵי מְלֹאת מְבִיאָה אַף עַל הַשֵּׁנִי. כֵּיצַד. יָלְדָה נְקֵבָה כָּל נְפָלִים שֶׁתַּפִּיל מִיּוֹם הַלֵּידָה עַד סוֹף יוֹם שְׁמוֹנִים הֲרֵי הֵן נֶחְשָׁבִין עִם הַוָּלָד הָרִאשׁוֹן וּכְאִלּוּ יָלְדָה תְּאוֹמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה וְאֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה אֶלָּא קָרְבָּן אֶחָד. הִפִּילָה נֵפֶל בְּיוֹם שְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד וּמִיּוֹם אֶחָד וּשְׁמוֹנִים וָהָלְאָה אִם הִיא רְאוּיָה לְקָרְבַּן הֲרֵי זוֹ מְבִיאָה עָלָיו בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. יָלְדָה נְקֵבָה וּלְאַחַר שִׁשִּׁים אוֹ שִׁבְעִים יוֹם הִפִּילָה נְקֵבָה שְׁנִיָּה. כָּל נֵפֶל שֶׁתַּפִּיל בְּתוֹךְ שְׁמוֹנִים שֶׁל נְקֵבָה זוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה פְּטוּרָה עָלָיו. וְכֵן אִם הִפִּילָה נְקֵבָה שְׁלִישִׁית אַחַר שִׁשִּׁים אוֹ שִׁבְעִים יוֹם שֶׁל נְקֵבָה שְׁנִיָּה. הֲרֵי כָּל נֵפֶל שֶׁתַּפִּיל בְּתוֹךְ שְׁמוֹנִים שֶׁל נְקֵבָה שְׁלִישִׁית פְּטוּרָה עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב עִם הַנֵּפֶל הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וְהַנֵּפֶל הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חָשׁוּב עִם הַשֵּׁנִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי מְלֹאת שֶׁלּוֹ וְהַשֵּׁנִי חָשׁוּב עִם הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְאֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה אֶלָּא קָרְבָּן אֶחָד עַל הַכּל:

9

When a woman gives birth to a tumtum or an androgynus, and then miscarries after forty days from the birth of the first child, she should bring a sacrifice for this miscarriage, for perhaps the first one was a male and thus the miscarriage took place after the days associated with its birth. Nevertheless, her sin-offering is not eaten, lest the first birth have been a female and thus the miscarriage took place in the days associated with its birth, in which instance, she is exempt from a second sacrifice.

ט

הַיּוֹלֶדֶת טֻמְטוּם אוֹ אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס וְהִפִּילָה נֵפֶל אַחַר אַרְבָּעִים מִיּוֹם לֵידָתוֹ. הֲרֵי זוֹ מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן עַל נֵפֶל זֶה שֶׁמָּא זָכָר הוּא הָרִאשׁוֹן וַהֲרֵי הִפִּילָה אַחַר מְלֹאת. וְאֵין חַטָּאתָהּ נֶאֱכֶלֶת שֶׁמָּא נְקֵבָה הִיא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וּבְתוֹךְ מְלֹאת הִפִּילָה שֶׁהִיא פְּטוּרָה מִקָּרְבָּן שֵׁנִי:

10

When there are five births or miscarriages of questionable status for which a woman might be liable or five states of zivah of questionable status for which she might be liable, she may bring one set of sacrifices and partake of sacrificial food. The remainder are not considered as an obligation that she must requite. If she was obligated to bring sacrifices for five definite births or five definite zavah bleedings, she may bring one set of sacrifices and partake of sacrificial food. The remainder are considered as an obligation that she must requite. Similar concepts apply to a zav.

If a woman is liable for five definite births or miscarriages and five births or miscarriages of questionable status or five definite births or miscarriages and five zivah bleedings of questionable status, she must bring two sets of sacrifices. One is for the definite obligations. That sin-offering is eaten; the sacrifices for the other definite births remain an obligation for her. And she brings one set of sacrifices for the questionable situations. That sin-offering is not eaten; the sacrifices for the other questionable situations do not remain an obligation for her. She may then partake of sacrificial food.

י

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ סְפֵק חָמֵשׁ לֵידוֹת אוֹ סְפֵק חָמֵשׁ זִיבוֹת. מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן אֶחָד וְאוֹכֶלֶת בִּזְבָחִים וְאֵין הַשְּׁאָר עָלֶיהָ חוֹבָה. הָיוּ עָלֶיהָ חָמֵשׁ לֵידוֹת וַדָּאוֹת וְחָמֵשׁ זָבוֹת וַדָּאוֹת מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן אֶחָד וְאוֹכֶלֶת בִּזְבָחִים וְהַשְּׁאָר עָלֶיהָ חוֹבָה. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּזָב. הָיוּ עָלֶיהָ חָמֵשׁ לֵידוֹת וַדָּאוֹת וְחָמֵשׁ לֵידוֹת סָפֵק אוֹ חָמֵשׁ לֵידוֹת וַדָּאוֹת וְחָמֵשׁ זִיבוֹת סָפֵק. מְבִיאָה שְׁנֵי קָרְבָּנוֹת אֶחָד עַל הַוַּדַּאי וְנֶאֱכָל וּשְׁאָר הַוַּדָּאוֹת עָלֶיהָ חוֹבָה וְאֶחָד עַל הַסָּפֵק וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל וְאֵין הַשְּׁאָר עָלֶיהָ חוֹבָה וְאוֹכֶלֶת בִּזְבָחִים:

11

When a woman converted and it was not known whether she gave birth before she converted or afterwards, because of the doubt, she must bring a sacrifice for the birth, but the sin-offering is not eaten.

In Hilchot Shegagot, we already explained that whenever there is an unresolved question whether or not a person requires atonement and Yom Kippur passes, they must bring the sacrifices after Yom Kippur, because it is these sacrifices which make them fit to partake of sacrificial food.

יא

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְגַּיְּרָה יָלְדָה אוֹ מִשֶּׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה יָלְדָה. הֲרֵי זוֹ מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן מִסָּפֵק וְאֵין חַטָּאתָהּ נֶאֱכֶלֶת. כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁגָגוֹת שֶׁכָּל מְחֻסְּרֵי כַּפָּרָה מִסָּפֵק שֶׁעָבַר עֲלֵיהֶם [יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים] חַיָּבִין לְהָבִיא אַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. שֶׁקָּרְבָּן זֶה מַכְשִׁירָן לֶאֱכל בְּקָדָשִׁים:

12

When a woman is obligated to bring a sacrifice for a birth or a zivah, she should bring money for the set of doves and place it in the appropriate chest. She may then partake of sacrificial food in the evening, relying on the assumption that the court of priests will not depart from the Temple until all of the money in the chest is used and sets of doves are offered for it, as we explained in Hilchot Shekalim and in Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash VeHaOvdim Bo.

יב

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ לֵידָה אוֹ זִיבָה. מְבִיאָה מְעוֹת הַקִּנִּים וְנוֹתֶנֶת בַּשּׁוֹפָר וְאוֹכֶלֶת בְּקָדָשִׁים לָעֶרֶב חֲזָקָה שֶׁאֵין בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים עוֹמְדִין מִשָּׁם עַד שֶׁיִּכְלוּ כָּל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁבַּשּׁוֹפָר וְיַקְרִיבוּ כְּנֶגְדָּן קִנִּים. כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּשְׁקָלִים וּבְהִלְכוֹת כְּלֵי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְהָעוֹבְדִין בּוֹ:

13

When a woman brought her sin-offering and then died, her heirs should bring her burnt-offering even if she did not separate it during her lifetime. The rationale is that a lien for the sacrifice was already established on her property and this lien has the power of Scriptural Law.

יג

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהֵבִיאָה חַטָּאתָהּ וּמֵתָה יָבִיאוּ הַיּוֹרְשִׁים עוֹלָתָהּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִפְרִישָׁה אוֹתָהּ מֵחַיִּים כְּבָר נִשְׁתַּעַבְּדוּ נְכָסֶיהָ לַקָּרְבָּן. וְהַשִּׁעְבּוּד דִּין תּוֹרָה הוּא:

Mechussarey Kapparah - Perek 2

1

The term zav used by the Torah refers to a discharge of sperm that is released because of an internal sickness that effects the organs of the body in which it collects. When a zav emission is discharged, it is not released with an erection like semen and its release does not involve any desire or satisfaction. Instead, it is drawn out like a barley dough and is dark like the white of an unfertilized egg. In contrast, viable sperm is white and adhesive like the white of a fertilized egg.

א

הַזָב הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה הוּא שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע הַבָּא מֵחֳלָיֵי הַחֲלָלִים שֶׁהִיא מִתְקַבֶּצֶת בָּהֶן. וּכְשֶׁיּוֹצֵא הַזּוֹב אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בְּקֹשִׁי כְּשִׁכְבַת זֶרַע וְאֵין בִּיצִיאָתוֹ תַּאֲוָה וְלֹא הֲנָאָה אֶלָּא נִגְרָר וְיוֹצֵא כְּמוֹ בָּצֵק שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים כֵּהֶה כְּלֹבֶן בֵּיצָה הַמּוּזֶרֶת. אֲבָל שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע לְבָנָה קְשׁוּרָה כְּלֹבֶן בֵּיצָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מוּזֶרֶת:

2

If a person releases a discharge which would have caused him to be deemed a zav because of another sickness or because of factors beyond his control, he is not deemed a zav, as implied by Leviticus 15:2: "A man who will release discharges from his flesh." That phrase can be interpreted to mean: He will become impure "because of his flesh," and not due to any other factor.

On this basis, our Sages said: we check a zav with regard to seven factors: food, drink, burdens, jumping, infirmity, provocative sights, and thoughts.

What is implied? If a person overate or overdrank or he ate or drank foods or beverages that lead to the discharge of seed, he carried a heavy burden, he jumped from place to place, included in this category is also his being beaten on his back, he was sick, he saw a woman and desired intimacy with her, or he thought about sexual relations even if he did not think specifically about a particular woman whom he knew - if any of these factors preceded his discovery of a zav discharge, we account the discharge to it and it does not render him impure.

ב

הֲרוֹאֶה רְאִיּוֹת הַזּוֹב הַגּוֹרְמוֹת לוֹ לִהְיוֹת זָב מֵחֲמַת חלִי אוֹ אֹנֶס וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֵינוֹ זָב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו ב) "זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ" מֵחֲמַת בְּשָׂרוֹ הוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה טָמֵא לֹא מֵחֲמַת דָּבָר אַחֵר. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ בְּשִׁבְעָה דְּרָכִים בּוֹדְקִין אֶת הַזָּב. בְּמַאֲכָל. וּבְמִשְׁתֶּה. בְּמַשָּׂא. וּבִקְפִיצָה. בְּחלִי. וּבְמַרְאֶה. וּבְהִרְהוּר. כֵּיצַד. אָכַל אֲכִילָה גַּסָּה אוֹ שָׁתָה הַרְבֵּה. אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל אוֹ שָׁתָה אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין הַמְּבִיאִין לִידֵי שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע. אוֹ שֶׁנָּשָׂא מַשּׂוֹי כָּבֵד. אוֹ שֶׁקָּפַץ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וּבִכְלַל דָּבָר זֶה אִם הֻכָּה עַל גַּבּוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה חוֹלֶה. אוֹ שֶׁרָאָה אִשָּׁה וְהִתְאַוָּה שְׁכִיבָתָהּ. אוֹ שֶׁהִרְהֵר בְּעִסְקֵי בְּעִילָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִרְהֵר בִּבְעִילַת אִשָּׁה שֶׁהוּא מַכִּירָהּ. אִם קָדַם אֶחָד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ וְרָאָה רְאִיָּה שֶׁל זוֹב תּוֹלִין בּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא:

3

When a person has a seminal emission, he is not rendered impure as a zav for an entire 24-hour period, for the zav comes as a result of the seminal emission. Similarly, we attribute a discharge to provocative sights and lustful thoughts for 24 hours afterwards. By contrast, with regard to food, drink, jumping, and a burden, we attribute a discharge to them only for as long as this factor causes discomfort.

ג

הָרוֹאֶה קֶרִי אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּזוֹב מֵעֵת לְעֵת שֶׁרְאִיָּה זוֹ שֶׁל זוֹב מֵחֲמַת שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע הִיא. וְכֵן לְמַרְאֶה וּלְהִרְהוּר תּוֹלִין בָּהֶן מֵעֵת לְעֵת. אֲבָל לְמַאֲכָל וּלְמִשְׁתֶּה וְלִקְפִיצָה וּלְמַשָּׂא. תּוֹלִין בָּהֶן כָּל זְמַן שֶׁמִּצְטַעֵר:

4

When a man, whether a gentile or a Jew, becomes circumcised and then sees a discharge, we attribute it to the circumcision as long as he is suffering. When a gentile has a seminal discharge and converts afterwards, he can become impure because of zivah immediately. We do not attribute any discharges in a 24-hour period to the seminal emission.

When a minor has a discharge, we do not attribute it to provocative sights and lustful thoughts, for there are no provocative sights and lustful thoughts that will cause a minor to have a discharge. Therefore we check him only with regard to five factors.

ד

מִי שֶׁמָּל וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָאָה זוֹב בֵּין עַכּוּ''ם בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל תּוֹלִין בַּמִּילָה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁמִּצְטַעֵר. עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיֵּר מְטַמֵּא בְּזִיבָה מִיָּד וְאֵין תּוֹלִין לוֹ מֵעֵת לְעֵת. קָטָן אֵין תּוֹלִין לוֹ לֹא בְּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְּהִרְהוּר שֶׁאֵין לְקָטָן מַרְאֶה וְהִרְהוּר הַמֵּבִיא לִידֵי זוֹב. לְפִיכָךְ בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה דְּרָכִים בִּלְבַד:

5

Just as we attribute the discharges of a minor to his sickness, so too, we attribute his discharges to the sickness of his mother if he is nursing or in need of her care.

When does the statement that we check a zav with regard to these matters apply? With regard to his second discharge of zivah, for that characterizes him as a zav, as will be explained. If, however, he has one discharge due to factors beyond his control and one "because of his flesh," he is impure with the impurity of zivah. Nevertheless, he should also be checked initially, in order to count three discharges so that he will be liable for a sacrifice.

He is not checked for the third discharge. Instead, even if he experiences it due to factors beyond his control, since he was already categorized as impure - because the first two discharges that caused him to be characterized as a zav were "because of his flesh" - he is therefore obligated to bring a sacrifice.

ה

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁתּוֹלִין לְקָטָן בְּחָלְיוֹ כָּךְ תּוֹלִין לוֹ בָּחֳלִי אִמּוֹ אִם הָיָה יוֹנֵק מִמֶּנָּה אוֹ צָרִיךְ לְאִמּוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁבּוֹדְקִין אֶת הַזָּב בִּדְרָכִים אֵלּוּ בִּרְאִיָּה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁל זוֹב שֶׁבָּהּ יֵעָשֶׂה זוֹב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. אֲבָל רְאִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה אֲפִלּוּ רָאָה אוֹתָהּ בְּאֹנֶס וּרְאִיָּה שְׁנִיָּה מֵחֲמַת בְּשָׂרוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא טֻמְאַת זִיבוּת. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה כְּדֵי לִמְנוֹת בָּהּ שָׁלֹשׁ רְאִיּוֹת לְחַיְּבוֹ קָרְבָּן. רְאִיָּה שְׁלִישִׁית אֵין בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ בָּהּ אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ רָאָה אוֹתָהּ מֵחֲמַת אֹנֶס הוֹאִיל וְנִזְקָק לְטֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי רְאִיּוֹת שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָּהֶן זָב מֵחֲמַת בְּשָׂרוֹ הָיָה לְפִיכָךְ יִתְחַיֵּב בְּקָרְבָּן:

6

When a person experiences one zav discharge, his status is equivalent to that of one who had a seminal emission. If he experiences two discharges, this is a zav condition. He must count seven clean days and immerse in "living water." He is not, however, obligated to bring a sacrifice.

If he experiences three discharges, he is a zav in the full sense of the term and is obligated to bring a sacrifice. There is no difference between a zav who experienced two discharges and one who experienced three except the obligation to bring a sacrifice. All of these matters are part of the Oral Tradition conveyed from Moses from Sinai.

ו

הָרוֹאֶה רְאִיָּה אַחַת שֶׁל זוֹב הֲרֵי הוּא כְּבַעַל קֶרִי. רָאָה שְׁתַּיִם הֲרֵי זֶה זוֹב וְצָרִיךְ סְפִירַת שִׁבְעָה וּבִיאַת מַיִם חַיִּים וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּקָרְבָּן. רָאָה שָׁלֹשׁ רְאִיּוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה זָב גָּמוּר וְחַיָּב בְּקָרְבָּן. וְאֵין בֵּין זָב שֶׁרָאָה שְׁתֵּי רְאִיּוֹת לְרוֹאֶה שָׁלֹשׁ אֶלָּא קָרְבָּן בִּלְבַד. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ כֻּלָּן דִּבְרֵי קַבָּלָה מִפִּי משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ מִסִּינַי:

7

Whether a person experiences two discharges or three in one hour one after the other or experienced one discharge a day for three consecutive days, he is categorized as a zav. For the Torah made the categorization of a zavah dependent on days, as Leviticus 15:25 states: "If she will experience a flow of blood for many days," It did not make the categorization of a zav dependent on days.

ז

אֶחָד הָרוֹאֶה שְׁתֵּי רְאִיּוֹת אוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ בְּשָׁעָה אַחַת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ אוֹ שֶׁרָאָה רְאִיָּה בְּכָל יוֹם זֶה אַחַר זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה זָב. לְפִי שֶׁתָּלָה הַכָּתוּב אֶת הַזָּבָה בְּיָמִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו כה) "כִּי יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים" וְהַזָּב לֹא תָּלָה אוֹתוֹ בְּיָמִים:

8

If the zav experienced an interruption of an entire day between one discharge and another, they are not linked together.

What is implied? A man experienced a discharge on the Sabbath and a second discharge on Monday, they are not linked together and he is not categorized as a zav. Similarly, if he experienced a second discharge on Sunday ands experienced a third discharge on Tuesday, he is not obligated to bring a sacrifice, for it is not linked to the first two, for there was an interruption of a day between them. If, however, he experienced a discharge during the day and another, on the following night, they are linked together. Needless to say, if he experienced one discharge at night and the second, on the following day, that they are linked together. Similarly, if he experienced three discharges, one on each of three consecutive nights, they are linked together.

ח

וְאִם הִפְסִיק הַזָּב בֵּין רְאִיָּה לִרְאִיָּה יוֹם גָּמוּר אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפוֹת. כֵּיצַד. רָאָה רְאִיָּה בְּשַׁבָּת וּרְאִיָּה שְׁנִיָּה בְּשֵׁנִי בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפוֹת וְאֵינוֹ זָב. וְכֵן אִם רָאָה רְאִיָּה שְׁנִיָּה בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְרָאָה רְאִיָּה שְׁלִישִׁית בִּשְׁלִישִׁי בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּקָרְבָּן שֶׁאֵין זוֹ מִצְטָרֶפֶת לִשְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֲרֵי הִפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶן יוֹם אֶחָד. אֲבָל אִם רָאָה אַחַת הַיּוֹם וְאַחַת בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם רָאָה אַחַת בַּלַּיְלָה וּשְׁנִיָּה בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהֵן מִצְטָרְפוֹת. וְכֵן אִם רָאָה שָׁלֹשׁ רְאִיּוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה לֵילוֹת זֶה אַחַר זֶה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת:

9

There is no minimum measure for the discharge of a zav. Instead, even a discharge of the slightest size renders him impure, as Leviticus 15:3 states: "or whether it seals his flesh." Implied is any discharge that is apparent on his flesh renders him as ritually impure.

ט

רְאִיַּת הַזָּב אֵין לָהּ שִׁעוּר אֶלָּא הָרוֹאֶה כָּל שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו ג) "הֶחְתִּים בְּשָׂרוֹ" כָּל שֶׁהוּא. נִכָּר בִּבְשָׂרוֹ מְטַמֵּא:

10

The following rules apply when a zav discharge flowed without interruption for an extended time. If the time that elapsed from the beginning of the discharge until its end was as long as it takes to immerse oneself and dry or longer, it is considered as two discharges, because it takes as long a time as two would. If it did not take that long, even if it ceased in the middle, and he had a second discharge within that time period, it is considered as one discharge.

Similarly, if one discharge lasted the amount of time that three discharges would take - i.e., from its beginning to its end, there was enough time for a man to immerse himself and dry himself twice - it is considered as three discharges and he must bring a sacrifice.

י

הָיָה הַזּוֹב נִגְרָר וְיוֹצֵא וְלֹא פָּסַק. אִם יֵשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת הָרְאִיָּה עַד סוֹפָהּ כְּדֵי טְבִילָה וְסִפּוּג אוֹ יֶתֶר הֲרֵי זוֹ נֶחְשֶׁבֶת כִּשְׁתֵּי רְאִיּוֹת הוֹאִיל וְהִיא אֲרֻכָּה כִּשְׁתַּיִם. וְאִם לֹא הָיְתָה אֲרֻכָּה כַּשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה אֲפִלּוּ פָּסַק הַזּוֹב בֵּינְתַיִם הֲרֵי זוֹ רְאִיָּה אַחַת. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה רְאִיָּה אַחַת אֲרֻכָּה כְּשָׁלֹשׁ רְאִיּוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצָא מִתְּחִלָּתָהּ וְעַד סוֹפָהּ כִּשְׁתֵּי טְבִילוֹת וּשְׁנֵי סִפּוּגִין הֲרֵי זוֹ נֶחְשֶׁבֶת כְּשָׁלֹשׁ רְאִיּוֹת וְיָבִיא קָרְבָּן:

11

If a person experienced a discharge during the day, it ceased for the amount of time it takes to immerse and dry oneself and afterwards, he experienced another two discharges or one discharge that lasts as long as two or if he experienced two discharges or one discharge that lasts as long as two, and then it ceased for the amount of time it takes to immerse and dry oneself and afterwards, he experienced another discharge, he is a zav in a full sense.

יא

רָאָה רְאִיָּה אַחַת בַּיּוֹם וְהִפְסִיק כְּדֵי טְבִילָה וְסִפּוּג וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָאָה שְׁתַּיִם אוֹ אַחַת אֲרֻכָּה כִּשְׁתַּיִם אוֹ שֶׁרָאָה שְׁתַּיִם אוֹ אַחַת מְרֻבָּה כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְהִפְסִיק כְּדֵי טְבִילָה וְסִפּוּג וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָאָה רְאִיָּה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה זָב גָּמוּר:

12

A discharge is considered as two discharges even though it did not last for the time two discharges last, if part of it was experienced at the end of the day and part at the beginning of the night. The rationale is that the change of dates divides the discharge as it were, and causes it to be considered as two.

Therefore if a man experiences a discharge bein hashamashamot concerning which there is an unresolved doubt whether it is considered as day or as night, there is an unresolved doubt whether he is impure.

יב

רָאָה רְאִיָּה אַחַת מִקְּצָתָהּ בְּסוֹף הַיּוֹם וּמִקְצָתָהּ בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֲרֻכָּה כִּשְׁתַּיִם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שְׁתֵּי רְאִיּוֹת שֶׁהַיָּמִים מְחַלְּקִין הָרְאִיָּה. לְפִיכָךְ הָרוֹאֶה רְאִיָּה אַחַת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק מִן הַיּוֹם וּמִן הַלַּיְלָה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק לְטֻמְאָה:

13

If a man experiences one discharge during the day and another bein hashamashot, he has definitely contracted the impurity of a zav, but there is an unresolved doubt whether he must bring a sacrifice. He must bring a set of doves as sacrifices, but the sin-offering is not eaten.

יג

רָאָה רְאִיָּה אַחַת בַּיּוֹם וְאַחַת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה וַדַּאי לְטֻמְאָה וְסָפֵק לְקָרְבָּן וּמֵבִיא קָרְבָּן וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל:

14

If a person experienced a discharge during bein hashamashot on the night of the Sabbath and another discharge on the night following the Sabbath there is an unresolved doubt whether he contracted zav impurity and there is an unresolved doubt whether he is obligated for a sacrifice.

There is an unresolved doubt whether he has contracted zav impurity, for perhaps the first discharged took place on Friday and the second on Saturday night. Thus the Sabbath intervened between them and there is no concept of zav impurity at all. And there is an unresolved doubt whether he is obligated to bring a sacrifice, for perhaps one of them took place, partially during the day and partially during the night, in which instance, it is considered as two. Thus he would have experienced three discharges and would be liable for a sacrifice. Therefore he brings a sacrifice, but it is not eaten.

יד

[רָאָה] רְאִיָּה אַחַת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת [שֶׁל שַׁבָּת] וּרְאִיָּה שְׁנִיָּה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק לְטֻמְאָה וְסָפֵק לְקָרְבָּן. סָפֵק לְטֻמְאָה שֶׁמָּא רְאִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה הָיְתָה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּשְׁנִיָּה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וַהֲרֵי הִפְסִיק שַׁבָּת בֵּינֵיהֶן וְאֵין כָּאן זִיבוּת כְּלָל. וַהֲרֵי הוּא סָפֵק לְקָרְבָּן שֶׁמָּא אַחַת מֵהֶן הָיְתָה מִקְּצָתָהּ בַּיּוֹם וּמִקְצָתָהּ בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה כִּשְׁתַּיִם וַהֲרֵי רָאָה שָׁלֹשׁ רְאִיּוֹת שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּקָרְבָּן. וּלְפִיכָךְ מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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