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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 2, Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 3, Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 4

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Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 2

1

Any food that grows from the earth,1 is guarded,2 is harvested at the same time, and is placed in storage3 is required that pe'ah [be separated from it], as [Leviticus 19:9] states: "When you reap the harvest of your land."4

א

כל אוכל שגידוליו מן הארץ ונשמר ולקיטתו כולו כאחת ומכניסין אותו לקיום חייב בפאה שנאמר ובקצרכם את קציר ארצכם:

2

Anything that resembles a crop that is harvested by having these five qualities requires that pe'ah be separated from it, e.g., grain, legumes, carobs, nuts, almonds, pomegranates, grapes, olives, dates - whether dried or fresh - and any similar produce.

By contrast, indigo, rubia, and the like are exempt, because they are not food.5 Similarly, truffles and mushrooms are exempt, because they do not grow from the earth, like other produce of the earth.6 Similarly, ownerless produce is exempt, for there is no one to watch it, for it is free for anyone to take. Similarly, figs are exempt, because they are not harvested at one time. Instead, on the tree, there are some that will become ripe on one day and others that will not become ripe until after several days. Similarly, vegetables are exempt, for they are not placed in storage. Garlic and onions require that pe'ah [be separated], for they are dried out and placed in storage. Similarly, seed onions that are placed in the earth to produce seed require that pe'ah [be given from them]. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ב

כל הדומה לקציר בחמש דרכים אלו הוא שחייב בפאה כגון התבואה והקטניות והחרובין והאגוזין והשקדים והרמונים והענבים והזיתים והתמרים בין יבשים בין רכים וכל כיוצא באלו אבל אסטיס ופואה וכיוצא בהן פטורין מפני שאינן אוכל וכן כמהין ופטריות פטורין מפני שאין גידוליהן מן הארץ כשאר פירות הארץ וכן ההפקר פטור שאין לו מי שישמרנו שהרי הוא מופקר לכל וכן התאנים פטורין מפני שאין לקיטתן כאחת אלא יש באילן זה מה שיגמר היום ויש בו מה שיגמר לאחר כמה ימים וכן ירק פטור שאין מכניסין אותו לקיום השומים והבצלים חייבין בפאה שהרי מייבשין אותן ומכניסין אותן לקיום וכן האמהות של בצלים שמניחין אותן בארץ ליקח מהן הזרע חייבות בפאה וכן כל כיוצא בהן:

3

A portion of land of any size7 requires that pe'ah [be separated from its produce]. [This applies] even if it belongs to partners, for [the prooftext] states "the harvest of your8 land," even if it belongs to many people.

ג

קרקע כל שהוא חייבת בפאה ואפילו היתה של שותפין שנאמר קציר ארצכם אפילו של רבים:

4

When gentiles harvested a field for their own sake,9 thieves harvested it, ants destroyed its produce, or the wind or an animal crushed it, it is exempt from pe'ah. For the obligation of pe'ah lies on the standing grain.10

ד

שדה שקצרו נכרים לעצמן או שקצרוה ליסטים או קרסמוה נמלים או שברתה הרוח או בהמה הרי זו פטורה מן הפאה שחובת הפאה בקמה:

5

If he harvested half of it and thieves harvested the remaining half, it is exempt, for the obligation was incumbent on the half that was harvested by the thieves.11 If, however, thieves harvested half of it and [the owner] harvested the remaining half, he should leave pe'ah according to the measure of what he harvested.12

If he harvested half and sold the [remaining] half, the purchaser must leave pe'ah for the entire field.13 If he harvested half and consecrated half, the person who redeems [the half] from the Temple treasury must leave pe'ah for the entire [field].14 If he harvested half [the field] and consecrated [what he harvested], he should leave pe'ah for the entire field from the remainder [of the crop].15

ה

קצר חציה וקצרו הליסטים חציה שנשאר הרי זו פטורה שהחיוב בחצי שקצרו הליסטים אבל אם קצרו הליסטים חציה וחזר הוא וקצר השאר נותן פאה כשיעור מה שקצר קצר חציה ומכר חציה הלוקח נותן פאה (לכל) קצר חציה והקדיש חציה הפודה מיד הגזבר נותן פאה לכל קצר חציה והקדישו מניח מן הנשאר פאה הראויה לכל:

6

[The following rules apply when a person] harvested [some of] the grapes in his vineyard to sell in the market place, but had the intent to leave the remainder for the vat to press [for wine].16 If he would harvest for the marketplace from either side [of the vineyard], he should give pe'ah for [the grapes] that he harvests for the vat according to the amount that remain.17 If he would harvest for the marketplace from only one side, he should leave the amount of pe'ah appropriate for the entire field from the amount remaining. [The rationale is that] since he harvested from only one side, he is not considered as harvesting haphazardly in which instance, he would be exempt [from leaving pe'ah].18

Similarly, when a person harvests ears of grain bit by bit and brings them home, he is exempt from leket, shichachah, and pe'ah, even if he harvested his entire field in this manner.

ו

כרם שהיה בוצר ממנו ענבים למכור בשוק ובדעתו שיניח השאר לגת לדרוך אותו אם היה בוצר לשוק מכאן ומכאן הרי זה נותן פאה למה שבוצר לגת כפי הנשאר ואם היה בוצר לשוק מרוח אחת מלבד הרי זה נותן פאה מן הנשאר כפי הראוי לכל הכרם הואיל ובצר מרוח אחת אינו כבוצר עראי מעט מכאן ומעט מכאן שהוא פטור וכן כל הקוטף מלילות מעט מעט ומכניס לביתו אפילו קטף כן כל שדהו פטור מן הלקט ומן השכחה ומן הפאה:

7

When a person harvests his entire field before it becomes completely ripe, before it reaches a third of its growth, he is exempt [from pe'ah].19 If it reached a third of its growth, he is obligated. Similarly, with regard to fruit from trees, if a third of their growth is completed, there is an obligation [to leave pe'ah].

ז

הקוצר כל שדהו קודם שתוגמר ועדיין לא הביאה שליש הרי זו פטורה ואם הגיעה לשליש חייבת וכן בפירות האילן אם נגמרו שליש גמירתן חייבין:

8

When a person consecrates his field while his grain is standing and redeems it while it is [still] standing, there is an obligation [to leave pe'ah]20 from it.21 If the Temple treasurer harvested it and then he redeemed it, it is exempt, for at the time when the obligation for pe'ah became relevant, [the field] was consecrated and thus there was no obligation [to leave pe'ah] from it.

ח

המקדיש שדהו והיא קמה חייבת בפאה קצרה הגזבר ואחר כך פדאה פטורה שבשעת חיוב הפאה היתה קודש שאינו חייב בפאה:

9

When a gentile reaps his field and then converts, he is exempt from pe'ah, leket, and shichachah.22 [This applies] even though [Scripture mentions the obligation of] shichachah only with regard to the time when sheaves [are transferred].23

ט

נכרי שקצר שדהו ואח"כ נתגייר הרי זו פטור מן הפאה ומן הלקט ומן השכחה אף על פי שאין השכחה אלא בשעת העימור:

10

One may not hire non-Jewish laborers to harvest, because they are not knowledgeable with regard to the laws of leket and pe'ah.24 If one hired them and they harvested the entire field, he is obligated [to leave] pe'ah.25

י

אין שוכרין פועלים נכרים לקצור מפני שאינן בקיאין בלקט ופאה ואם שכר וקצרו את כולו הרי זו חייבת בפאה:

11

When a landowner harvested his entire field and did not leave pe'ah, he should give some of the stalks of grain as pe'ah to the poor.26 He does not have to tithe [the grain he leaves as pe'ah].27 Even if he gives the majority of the harvest as pe'ah, he is exempt from tithes.28

Similarly, if he threshed the grain, but did not winnow it, he should give them pe'ah, before he tithes. If, however, he threshed and winnowed the grain with a pitchfork and a shovel and completed the task, he should tithe29 and give [the poor] tithed produce equivalent to the appropriate measure of pe'ah for that field.30 Similar [concepts apply] with regard to trees.

יא

בעל הבית שקצר כל שדהו ולא הניח פאה הרי זה נותן מן השבלים פאה לעניים ואינו צריך לעשר ואם נתן להם רוב הקציר משום פאה הרי זה פטור מן המעשרות וכן אם דש ועדיין לא זרה נותן להם הפאה קודם שיעשר אבל דש וזרה ברחת ובמזרה וגמר מלאכתו מעשר ונותן להם מן הפירות המעושרין שיעור הפאה הראויה לאותה שדה וכן באילנות:

12

Pe'ah should be left only at the edge of the field, so that the poor will know where to come to collect it,31 so it will be obvious to passersby and they will not suspect [that the owner did not leave pe'ah], and so that deceivers will not intend to harvest their entire field and [will excuse themselves by] telling the observers: "I left it in the beginning of the field." Also, [leaving it there will prevent him from] waiting until a time when no one is present and leaving it for a poor person with whom he is close.

If a person transgressed and left pe'ah in the beginning or the middle of his field, it is considered as pe'ah, but he must leave an appropriate measure of pe'ah for the portion of the field that remained after he separated the initial [pe'ah].32

יב

אין מניחין את הפאה אלא בסוף השדה כדי שיהיו עניים יודעין מקום שיבאו לו וכדי שתהיה ניכרת לעוברים ולשבים ולא יחשד ומפני הרמאים שלא יתכוין לקצור הכל ואומר לאלו שרואים אותו קוצר סוף השדה בתחלת השדה הנחתי ועוד שלא ישמור שעה שאין שם אדם ויניחנה ויתננה לעני הקרוב לו עבר והניח הפאה בתחלת השדה או באמצעה הרי זו פאה וצריך שיניח בסוף השדה כשיעור הפאה הראויה למה שנשאר בשדה אחר שהפריש את הראשונה:

13

When the owner of a field gave pe'ah to the poor33 and they told him: "Give us from the [other] side," and he gave them from the other side [as well], both of the gifts are considered as pe'ah. Similarly, if the owner of a field separated pe'ah and then said: "This is pe'ah and this also is" or "This is pe'ah and this,"34 they are both pe'ah.

יג

בעל הבית שנתן פאה לעניים ואמרו לו תן לנו מצד זה ונתן להם מצד אחר זו וזו פאה וכן בעל השדה שהפריש פאה ואמר הרי זו פאה וגם זו או שאמר הרי זו פאה וזו הרי שתיהן פאה:

14

It is forbidden for workers to harvest the entire field.35 Instead, they should leave the appropriate measure [of grain] for pe'ah at the end of the field. [Nevertheless,] the poor do not have a share in it until the owner willfully separates it. Therefore [although] a poor person sees pe'ah at the end of a field,36 he is forbidden to touch it lest it be considered as theft until he knows that it was left with the consent of the owner of the field.

יד

אסור לפועלים לקצור את כל השדה אלא מניחין בסוף השדה כשיעור הפאה ואין לעניים בה כלום עד שיפרישנה בעל הבית מדעתו לפיכך עני שראה פאה בסוף שדה אסור ליגע בה משום גזל עד שיודע לו שהיא מדעת בעל הבית:

15

Pe'ah from grain, legumes, and other similar species of crops that are harvested and similarly, pe'ah left in vineyards and orchards37 should be given while it is [growing] from the earth. The poor should grab it by hand; they should not cut it with sickles, nor uproot it with hatchets lest one person [accidentally] strike a colleague.

If the poor desired to divide it [equally] among themselves,38 they may. If, however, ninety-nine say that they desire to divide it and one says that each should grab what he can, we listen to the latter, for his statement is in accord with Torah law.39

טו

הפאה של תבואה וקטניות וכיוצא בהן מזרעים הנקצרים וכן פאת הכרם והאילנות ניתנת במחובר לקרקע והעניים בוזזין אותה בידם ואין קוצרין אותה במגלות ואין עוקרין אותו בקרדומות כדי שלא יכו איש את רעהו רצו העניים לחלקה ביניהם הרי אלו מחלקין אפילו תשעים ותשעה אומרין לחלק ואחד אומר לבוז לזה האחד שומעין שאמר כהלכה:

16

Pe'ah from a grape vine [draped over a high wall] and from a date palm that the poor cannot reach to grab except at great danger40 the owner of the land should bring it down41 and divide it among them. If they all desire that it be left to be grabbed, that option is followed. If, however, ninety-nine say that they desire that it be left to be grabbed and one says that it should be divided, we listen to the latter, for his statement is in accord with Torah law.42 We obligate the owner to bring it down and divide it among them.

טז

פאה של דלית ושל דקל שאין עניים מגיעין לבוז אותה אלא בסכנה גדולה בעל הבית מוריד אותה ומחלק אותה בין העניים ואם רצו כולן לבוז אותה לעצמן בוזזין אפילו תשעים ותשעה אומרים לבוז ואחד אומר לחלק שומעין לאחד שאמר כהלכה ומחייבין בעל הבית להוריד ולחלק ביניהן:

17

At three times during the day,43 pe'ah is divided among the poor or left for them to take: at daybreak, at noon, and at minchah.44When a poor person does not come at these times, he is not allowed to take, so that there will be fixed times for the poor so that they will all gather together to take [pe'ah].

Why wasn't only one time a day established [for the poor to take]? Because there are poor nursing mothers that need to eat at the beginning of the day.45 And there are poor children who are not awake in the morning and will not reach the field until midday and there are elderly people who will not come until the late afternoon.46

יז

בשלש עתות ביום מחלקין את הפאה לעניים בשדה או מניחין אותם לבוז בשחר ובחצי היום ובמנחה ועני שבא שלא בזמן זה אין מניחין אותו ליטול כדי שיהיה עת קבוע לעניים שיתקבצו בו כולן ליטול ולמה לא קבעו לה עת אחת ביום מפני שיש שם עניות מניקות שצריכות לאכול בתחלת היום ויש שם עניים קטנים שאין נעורין בבקר ולא יגיעו לשדה עד חצי היום ויש שם זקנים שאינם מגיעין עד המנחה:

18

When a poor person takes some of the pe'ah and throws it over the remainder, falls on it, or spreads his garment over it,47 we penalize him and make him relinquish it. Even what he took48 is removed from his possession and given to another poor person. [These laws] also apply with regard to leket and to a sheave that was forgotten.

יח

עני שנטל מקצת הפאה וזרק על השאר או שנפל עליה או שפירש טליתו עליה קונסין אותו ומעבירין אותו ממנה ואפילו מה שנטל לוקחין אותו מידו וינתן לעני אחר [וכן בלקט וכן בעומר השכחה]:

19

[The following rules apply if a person] took pe'ah and said: "This is for the poor person, so-and-so." If the person who took possession of the pe'ah is also poor, [the acquisition is binding]. Since he has the right to acquire it himself, he may acquire it for the other person.49 If [the person who took possession] was rich, he does not acquire it for him.50 Instead, he should give it to the poor person he finds first.

יט

מי שלקח את הפאה ואמר הרי זה לאיש פלוני העני אם עני הוא זה שלקח מתוך שזוכה בו לעצמו זכה בו לאותו פלוני ואם עשיר הוא לא זכה לו אלא יתננה לעני שנמצא ראשון:

20

When the owner of a field leaves pe'ah for the poor people standing before him and a poor person comes from behind him and takes it, that person acquires it. For a person does not acquire leket, shichachah, and pe'ah, or a sela51 that was lost52 until it reaches his possession.53

כ

בעל הבית שהניח פאה לעניים אלו העומדים לפניו ובא עני אחר מאחוריו ונטלה זכה בה שאין אדם זוכה בלקט שכחה ופאה וסלע של מציאה עד שיגיע לידו:

Footnotes
1.

In the following halachah, the Rambam explains how each of the five factors he mentions here is significant and excludes a different type of produce.

2.

I.e., protected against thieves.

3.

To keep over a long period of time.

4.

All these concepts are implied by the word "harvest"; see the Sifri to the prooftext cited.

5.

I.e., they are used for dye and the like.

6.

I.e., they don't have roots in the earth through which they derive nurture (ibid.).

7.

I.e., a field does not have to be of a given size.

8.

The prooftext uses a plural term.

9.

I.e., taking the produce for themselves. If, however, they harvested it for the sake of the Jews, pe'ah must be given, as stated in Halachah 10.

10.

Although pe'ah must be given even if the grain was harvested (Chapter 1, Halachah 2), that is only because the obligation was incurred at the time of harvest. In these instances, the field was destroyed and the Jew received no benefit from the harvest. Hence, there is no obligation to leave pe'ah.

11.

The pe'ah is included in the standing grain. Since that was stolen by the thieves, it is considered as if they stole the portion due the poor.

12.

He need not, however, leave pe'ah for the portion stolen by the thieves.

13.

For the pe'ah is in the remaining half. Since the purchaser was obviously aware that the first half of the field had been harvested, he implicitly accepted the responsibility to leave pe'ah for the part of the field that had been harvested previously. For the owner has no right to sell the portion of the crops belonging to the poor [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 2:8)].

14.

I.e., he purchases the field from the Temple treasury with the understanding that he must leave pe'ah for the entire field.

15.

Since he consecrated the crop after he harvested it, he was already obligated to leave pe'ah for it.

16.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 23, which mentions laws that are relevant to this situation.

17.

He does not have to leave pe'ah for the amount that he harvested previously. The rationale is that since he harvested it indiscriminately, his act is not considered as significant. It is as if he picked some grapes haphazardly. As the Rambam continues to state, pe'ah is not required for such a harvest. Hence, when he harvests the grapes for the vat, he must leave pe'ah only for the grapes he is harvesting at that time.

18.

As explained above, a person is obligated to leave pe'ah only when he "harvests" his field. If he just gathers his food in a haphazard sporadic manner, he is not considered to have harvested and hence, is not liable to leave pe'ah.

19.

Here, also, the same rationale applies. Since the produce did not ripen completely, reaping it is not considered as a "harvest" (Menachot 71b).

20.

Or any of the other "presents to the poor" [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 4:7)].

21.

For at the time he harvested it, it was his private property.

22.

Because at the time he harvested it, he was not obligated to observe these mitzvot.

23.

The Rambam's wording is perplexing, for he refers to two differing opinions in Pe'ah 4:6. To explain: That mishnah states: "When a gentile harvested his field and afterwards, converted, he is exempt from pe'ah, leket, and shichachah. Rabbi Yehudah obligates him in shichachah, because shichachah applies only when sheaves [are transferred]."

The first opinion in the mishnah maintains that we draw an equation between the obligation of shichachah that applies to standing grain and the obligation of shichachah that applies to sheaves. Since shichachah does not apply to one, it does not apply to the other. Rabbi Yehudah, by contrast, maintains that each obligation of shichachah should be considered independently. The Rambam subscribes to the first opinion, but borrows the wording used by Rabbi Yehudah.

24.

The Radbaz explains that we suspect that they will give either less than the required amount and thus disadvantage the poor or give more than the required amount and thus disadvantage the owner.

25.

The fact that the individuals who did the actual harvesting were not obligated to fulfill the mitzvah does not remove the responsibility from the owner of the field.

26.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 2.

27.

For the produce he leaves as pe'ah is not his, and hence, he is not obligated to tithe it. Nor are the poor, because they were not the owners at the time it was harvested. See Hilchot Terumot 2:9.

28.

I.e., one might think that he is liable, because such a large gift would be considered as a present (for which tithes must be given) and not as pe'ah. Hence it is necessary to state that this is not so (Radbaz).

29.

For he is already obligated to give tithes once he completes winnowing.

30.

Without subtracting the amount set aside as tithes from the pe'ah.

31.

The Tosefta (Pe'ah, ch. 1) states that this measure was instituted for the sake of the poor, so that their time would not be wasted waiting in limbo until the owner of the field designated a portion of the field as pe'ah. Instead, they could judge when he would complete his harvest and come at that time alone.

32.

He need not, however, leave pe'ah for the entire field. The pe'ah that he separated originally is effective in discharging the obligation for the crops harvested before it was separated.

33.

On one side of his field. Our translation is based on the gloss of the Radbaz.

34.

Although the owner did not explicitly say "And also this," we interpret that as his intent. Since this question is left unresolved by Nedarim 6b, the Rambam rules stringently (Kessef Mishneh).

35.

For they are acting on the owner's behalf.

36.

If, however, a poor person sees the owner separating pe'ah, he may take it, for he can assume that the owner consciously separated it.

37.

In contrast to the following halachah, here the Rambam is speaking about orchards with low trees which are not dangerous for the poor to climb.

38.

Instead of each person grabbing whatever he could.

39.

For the Torah instructs us to "leave" the pe'ah for the poor, implying that each one takes what he can get (Radbaz).

40.

Obviously, people vying with each other at heights for food could be severely dangerous.

41.

As he harvests the remainder of his crop.

42.

Because of the danger involved.

43.

Neither less, nor more.

44.

I.e., minchah ketanah, an hour and fifteen minutes before sunset.

45.

So it was established that pe'ah would be divided in the morning so that they would receive a portion at that time.

46.

Thus a time was established to enable every type of poor person to gather the pe'ah at an appropriate time.

47.

I.e., he is attempting to take possession of it, but is not employing accepted kinyanim, formal means of acquisition and hence, he is not entitled to that grain.

48.

And would rightfully belong to him.

49.

See Hilchot Gezeilah ViAveidah 17:3, Hilchot Mechirah 4:15, which quote this principle is a binding construct in Jewish business law.

50.

For he has no right to acquire it himself.

51.

A coin of the Talmudic period.

52.

And therefore able to be acquired by the finder.

53.

And he acquires it through a formal kinyan.

Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 3

1

Pe'ah should not be left in one field for another field.

What is implied? If [a person] owned two fields, he should not harvest one entirely and leave the amount of pe'ah appropriate for both in the second field. [This is derived from Leviticus 23:22:] "Do not completely remove [the grain in] the corners of your field." [Implied is] that one should leave in each field the pe'ah that is appropriate for it. If one left [pe'ah] from one field for another, it is not pe'ah.

א

אין מניחין את הפאה משדה על חברתה כיצד היו לו שתי שדות לא יקצר את האחת כולה ויניח בשניה פאה הראויה לשתיהן שנאמר לא תכלה פאת שדך בקוצרך שיניח בכל אחת ואחת פאה הראויה לה ואם הניח משדה על חברתה אינה פאה:

2

Although one's entire field was sowed with one crop, if there was a stream - even if did not flow1 - or an irrigation ditch - provided water flowed through it and it was established2 - in the midst of the field that would prevent one from harvesting both sides at the same time,3 it is considered as two fields and one should give pe'ah on each side for the portion there.

ב

היתה שדהו זרועה כולה מין אחד והיה נחל בתוך השדה אע"פ שאינו מושך או אמת המים שאינו יכול לקצור מה שבשני צדדיה כאחת והוא שתהיה מושכת וקבועה הרי זה כשתי שדות ונותן פאה מצד זה לעצמו ומצד זה לעצמו:

3

Similarly, a path belonging to a private individual which is four cubits wide or a public thoroughfare which is sixteen cubits wide separates [between one field and another]. [Different rules apply regarding] a private path that is less than four cubits wide or a public path that is less than sixteen cubits wide.4 If it is permanent, i.e., it is maintained in the summer and in the rainy season, it is considered as a separation. If it is not permanent in the rainy season, it is not considered as a separation and [the entire area] is considered as one field.

ג

וכן אם היה מפסיק דרך היחיד שהוא רחב ארבע אמות או דרך הרבים הרחב שש עשרה אמה אבל שביל היחיד והוא פחות מארבע או שביל הרבים פחות משש עשרה אמה אם היה קבוע בימות החמה ובימות הגשמים מפסיק ואם אינו קבוע בימות הגשמים אינו מפסיק אלא הרי הוא כשדה אחת:

4

There are other factors which constitute a separation into two fields:

a) land that was uncultivated, that was neither sown, nor plowed;

b) land left fallow, that was plowed, but not sown;

c) crops were interrupted with another crop, e.g., there was wheat on either side and barley in the middle;5

d) one harvested in the middle of his field before the grain reached a third of its maturity and plowed the portion which he harvested.6

[The above applies] provided the width of each of the above is three rows of plowing. [This is] less7 than the area necessary to sow a quarter [of a kav].8

When does the above apply? With regard to a small field that is 50 cubits by two cubits or less. If it is larger than this uncultivated or fallow land does not cause it to be divided in two unless it was as wide as the area necessary to sow a quarter of a kav.9 [In this instance,] even the smallest amount of another crop creates a separation.10

ד

היה מפסיק בה ארץ בורה שאינו זרועה ולא חרושה או ארץ נירה והיא שנחרשה ולא נזרעה או שהפסיק בה זרע אחר כגון שהיה חטים מכאן וחטים מכאן ושעורים באמצע או שקצר באמצעה אפילו קודם שתביא שליש וחרש מקום שקצר הרי זה נפסקת לשתי שדות והוא שיהיה רוחב כל אחד מאלו כשלשה תלמים של פתיח והוא פחות מבית רובע בד"א בשדה קטנה שהיא חמשים אמה של שתי אמות או פחות אבל אם היתה יתרה על זו אין הבור או הניר מפסיקה לשתים אא"כ היתה בו רוחב בית רובע אבל זרע אחר כל שהוא מפסיק בה:

5

If locusts consumed [a field] in its midst or ants destroyed it, should one plow the portion that was consumed,11 it is considered to be a separation.

ה

אכלה גובאי או קרסמוה נמלים באמצעה אם חרש מקום שאכלו הרי זה מפסיק:

6

[The following law applies when one] sows [crops] on a mountain [slope] that is not level, but instead has knolls and hollows. Even though he cannot plow it all at once and sow it all at once, but instead must plow the knolls by themselves and the hollows by themselves, it is considered as a single field. He should leave one portion of pe'ah at the end of the mountain for the entire mountain.12

ו

הזורע בהר שאינו כולו שוה אלא יש בו תילים גבוהים ומקומות מקומות עמוקות אף על פי שאינו יכול לחרוש אותו כולו ולזרעו כאחת אלא נחרש המקום הגבוה בפני עצמו והנמוך בפני עצמו הרי זה כשדה אחת ומניח פאה אחת בסוף ההר על כל ההר:

7

[The following laws apply when one sows crops on] terraced land. [When each terrace] is ten handbreadths higher than the other, one should leave pe'ah [separately] for each terrace. If the heads of the rows are joined together, he should leave one portion of pe'ah for the entire area. If they were less than ten handbreadths higher, he should leave one portion of pe'ah even if the heads of the rows are not joined together.

[The following rules apply] if there was a rock covering the surface of the entire field. If he must lift up the plow from one side and place it on the other side, it is considered an interruption.13 If not, it is not considered an interruption.

ז

מדרגות שהן גבוהות עשרה טפחים נותן פאה מכל אחת ואחת ואם היו ראשי שורות מעורבים נותן מאחת על הכל היו פחות מעשרה אע"פ שאין ראשי השורות מעורבין נותן מאחת על הכל היה סלע על פני כל השדה אם עוקר הוא את המחרישה מצד זה ונותנה מצד זה מפסיק ואם לאו אינו מפסיק:

8

When a person sows a field that has trees - even though he sows it in squares14 between the trees and thus the entire crop does not come together as one - he should give one portion of pe'ah for the entire field. For it is known that it is one field; it is only the place of the trees that causes the crop to be divided.15

ח

הזורע שדה שיש בה אילנות אף על פי שהיא מלבנות מלבנות בין האילנות ואין כל הזרע מעורב נותן פאה אחת לכל השדה שדבר ידוע ששדה אחת היא ומפני מקום האילנות נחלק הזרע:

9

When does the above apply? When all ten trees were located in an area in which a se'ah [of grain can be sowed].16 If, however, all ten trees were located in an area larger than that in which a se'ah [of grain can be sowed], he should leave pe'ah from every square separately. For the trees are far apart and they did not cause him to sow the field in squares.17

ט

במה דברים אמורים בשהיו האילנות כל עשרה בתוך בית סאה אבל אם היו כל עשרה אילנות ביותר מבית סאה הרי זה נותן פאה מכל מלבן ומלבן שהרי האילנות מרוחקים הרבה ולא מפני האילנות זרע מלבנות מלבנות:

10

Similarly, if squares of onions [grow] between vegetables,18 one should leave a single portion of pe'ah for all the onions even though the vegetables grow between them and cause them to appear as separate squares.19

י

וכן מלבנות הבצלים שבין הירק נותן פאה אחת לכל הבצלים ואף על פי שהירק מבדיל ביניהן ומשימם מלבנות מלבנות:

11

[The following laws apply when a person] sowed an entire field with one crop, but when certain places in the field began to dry out, he uprooted or pulled out the crops that had dried out on either side until the fresh crops appeared as separate blocks. If it was customary for people to sow that crop in individual rows, e.g., dill or mustard seed,20 he should leave pe'ah for each individual square, for an observer would say: "It was planted in separate rows."21 If it was a species that was usually sown throughout an entire field, e.g., grain or legumes, he should leave one portion of pe'ah for the entire [field].22

יא

שדה שכולה זרועה מין אחד וכיון שהתחילו בה מקומות ליבש עקר או תלש מה שיבש מכאן ומכאן עד שנשאר הלח מפורד מלבנות מלבנות מרוחקות זו מזו אם היה דרך בני אדם שם לזרוע מאותו המין ערוגות ערוגות כגון שבת או חרדל הרי זה מניח פאה מכל מלבן ומלבן שהרואה אומר ערוגות ערוגות נזרעו ואם היה מין אחד שזורעין אותו שדות כגון תבואה וקטניות נותן אחת לכל:

12

When does the above apply? When there were dried out portions on either side and the fresh portion in the center.23 If, however, the fresh portions are on either side and the dried out portion is in the center, he should leave pe'ah separately for the dried out portion and the fresh portions.24

יב

בד"א כשהיה יבש מכאן ויבש מכאן ולח באמצע אבל לח מכאן ומכאן ויבש באמצע מניח מן היבש בפני עצמו ומן הלח בפני עצמו:

13

[The following law applies when a person] sowed a field with onions, beans, peas,25 or the like. If he had the intent to sell some of the fresh produce in the marketplace and leave part of the field to dry out and to be put aside in storage, he is obligated to leave pe'ah separately for both the portion he sells and the portion he harvests for storage.26 For [produce sold in] the market and produce set aside in storage are considered as two separate types.

יג

שדה שזרעה בצלים או פולים או אפונים וכיוצא בהן והיה בדעתו למכור מקצתן לחין בשוק ומניח מקצת השדה יבש ויעשה ממנו גורן חייב להניח פאה לזה שמוכר לח בפני עצמו ולזה שקוצר אותו יבש בפני עצמו:

14

When a person sows his field with one species, he should leave one portion of pe'ah even though he collects the crops in two grain heaps.27 If he sows two species, even though he makes only one grain heap, he should leave pe'ah for each species separately.

יד

הזורע את שדהו מין אחד אף על פי שהוא עושהו שתי גרנות מניח פאה אחת זרעה שני מינים אע"פשהוא עושה אותה גורן אחת נותן פאה למין זה בפני עצמו ופאה למין זה בפני עצמו:

15

[The following law applies when a person] sows two types of the same species, e.g., he sows two types of wheat28 or two types of barley. If he stores them in one grain heap, he should leave one portion of pe'ah. If he stores them in two grain heaps, he should leave separate portions of pe'ah. This is a halachah communicated by Moses from Sinai.29

טו

זרע שני זרעים ממין אחד כגון שזרעה שני מיני חטים או שני מיני שעורים אם עשאן גורן אחת נותן פאה אחת שתי גרנות נותן שתי פאות ודבר זה הלכה למשה מסיני:

16

When brothers have divided [the estate they inherited], they should leave pe'ah separately. If later30 they joined together in partnership, they should leave only one portion of pe'ah.31 When partners who have harvested half of a field break up the partnership, [one taking the grain that was harvested already and one taking the standing grain,] the one who took the grain that was harvested does not separate anything32 and the one who took the standing grain is required to separate only for the half which he took.33 If, afterwards, they reestablished their partnership34 and harvested the second half as partners, either one may separate [pe'ah] for his colleague's portion of the standing grain from his own portion of the standing grain,35 but not for the portion that was already harvested.36

טז

האחין שחלקו נותנין שתי פאות חזרו ונשתתפו נותנין פאה אחת השותפין שקצרו חצי השדה ואחר כך חלקו זה שלקח הקציר אינו מפריש כלום וזה שלקח הקמה מפריש על החצי שלקח בלבד חזרו ונשתתפו וקצרו החצי האחר בשותפות כל אחד מהן מפריש מחלקו שבקמה על חלק חבירו שבקמה אבל לא על החצי שנקצר:

17

[There are situations in which pe'ah may be given from different parts of a field for other parts of the same field that were harvested afterwards. For example, the grain of] half of a field ripened to a third of its maturity and half did not ripen to that extent. [The owner] harvested half of the portion that reached maturity.37 Afterwards, the remainder of the field ripened to one third and then he completed the harvest of the first half that reached [a third of its maturity] previously. He may separate [pe'ah] from [the crops] harvested first for the middle portion38 and from the middle portion on the first portion39 and on the last portion.40

יז

שדה שהגיע חציה עד שליש וחציה לא הגיע והתחיל וקצר בחצי שהגיע חציו ואחר כך הביאה כולה שליש ואח"כ גמר החצי הראשון שהגיע בתחלה מפריש מן הראשון על האמצעיים ומן האמצעיים על הראשון ועל האחרון:

18

[The following laws apply when a person] sells separate portions in his field to different people. If he sold his entire field, each one of the purchasers should leave pe'ah for the portion that he purchased.41 If the owner of the field had begun to harvest his field and sold a portion and retained a portion, the owner of the field should leave [the amount of] pe'ah appropriate for the entire field. [The rationale is that] since he began harvesting [the field] he became obligated to [separate pe'ah for] the entire [field].42 If he sold [the portions of the field] before [he began harvesting], the purchaser should separate [pe'ah] for the portion he purchased and the owner for the remainder.

יח

המוכר מקומות מקומות משדהו לאנשים הרבה אם מכר כל השדה כל אחד ואחד נותן פאה אחת מחלקו שלקח ואם התחיל בעל השדה לקצור ומכר מקצת ושייר מקצת בעל השדה נותן פאה הראויה לכל שכיון שהתחיל לקצור נתחייב בכל ואם מכר תחלה מפריש הלוקח על מה שלקח ובעל השדה על מה ששייר:

19

Only a high fence that separates between [the branches of] the trees divides an orchard with regard [to the laws of pe'ah]. If, however, the fence separates on a lower level, but the branches and the trellises are intermingled above and touch the top of the fence, the orchard is considered a single entity and [only] one portion of pe'ah should be given.43

יט

שדה אילן אין מפסיק בה אלא גדר גבוה המבדיל בין האילנות אבל אם היה הגדר מבדיל מלמטה והבדים והפארות מעורבין מלמעלה ונוגעין בגדר על גבו הרי זה כשדה אחת ונותן פאה לכל:

20

When two people purchased one tree [in partnership], they should leave one portion of pe'ah from it. If one purchased the northern side [of a tree] and the other purchased [the southern side], each one should leave pe'ah individually.44

כ

שנים שלקחו אילן אחד נותנין ממנו פאה אחת לקח זה צפונו וזה דרומו זה נותן פאה לעצמו וזה נותן פאה לעצמו:

21

[The following laws apply to] carob trees:45 Whenever one person stands next to one carob tree and his colleague stands next to another carob tree and they can see each other, [the trees] are considered as in one field and one portion of pe'ah should be left for them.

[Different rules apply] if, however, those on the extremes can see those in the center, but those on the extremes cannot see each other, he may separate from those on the extremes for those on the center and from those in the center for those on the extremes.46 He may not, however, separate from those on one extreme for those on the other extreme.47

כא

החרובין כל שאדם עומד בצד חרוב זה וחבירו עומד בצד חרוב זה ורואין זה את זה הרי הן כלן שדה אחת ופאה אחת לכלן היו שני הצדדין רואין את האמצעיים ואין הצדדים רואין זה את זה מפריש מצד אחד מן הראשונים על האמצעיים ומן האמצעיים על הראשונים אבל לא יפריש מצד זה על הצד האחר:

22

[The following laws apply to] olive trees: All the trees on one of the sides of a city, e.g., all of the olive trees on the entire western side or the entire eastern side of a city are considered as being from one field and one portion of pe'ah should be left for all of them.

כב

הזיתים כל מה שיש מהן ברוח אחת מרוחות העיר כגון זיתים שיש במערב העיר כולן או במזרחה הרי הן כשדה אחת ופאה אחת לכלן:

23

A person who harvests a portion of his vineyard from either side in order to lessen [the demand] on the vines so that the other clusters will have more room and increase in size is called one who reduces.48 We already explained49 that a person who harvests from one side is not considered as one who reduces. Therefore he must leave the amount of pe'ah appropriate for the entire field even though he harvested [with the intent of selling the grapes in] the marketplace. If, however, he reduces [the produce on the vines with the intent of] selling [the produce] in the marketplace, he should not leave pe'ah for the produce that he took off.50 [Nevertheless,] if he reduces [the produce on the vines with the intent of] taking it home,51 he should leave the amount of pe'ah appropriate for the entire field from [the grapes] he left to be trodden for the vat.

כג

הבוצר את מקצת כרמו מכאן ומכאן כדי להקל מעל הגפן עד שימצאו שאר האשכולות ריוח ויוסיפו הוא הנקרא מידל וכבר בארנו שהבוצר מרוח אחת אינו מידל ולפיכך נותן מן הנשאר פאה הראויה לכל ואף על פי שבצר לשוק אבל אם הידל למכור בשוק אינו נותן פאה לזה שהידל הידל להביא בביתו נותן מן הנשאר שהניח לדרוך פאה אחת הראויה לכל:

Footnotes
1.

I.e., even if at the time the stream was dried out, the ravine itself constitutes a separation (Radbaz). The Kessef Mishneh, however, interprets the Rambam as referring to a stream with water.

2.

I.e., an irrigation ditch constitutes a separation only when water flows through it throughout the year.

3.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah (Pe'ah 2:2), the Rambam explains that this refers to a situation where a person standing on one side of the irrigation ditch cannot extend his hand and harvest the produce growing on the other.

4.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah (ibid.), the Rambam makes a distinction between a path owned by a private individual and one used by people at large, explaining that a path owned by a private person is continually used by him. Hence, even if it is narrow, it is considered a separation. The public, by contrast, has many paths at their disposal and will not necessarily follow a particular path. Hence, unless a public path is very wide or permanent, it is not considered as a separation.

5.

We are speaking here about a situation where it is unnecessary to make a separation because of the laws of kilayim (mixed species; see Hilchot Kilayim, the latter part of ch. 3). If it is necessary to make a separation for that reason, that separation will be large enough to constitute a separation for pe'ah as well.

6.

As stated in Chapter 2, Halachah 7, one is not obligated to leave pe'ah for such a field if he harvested it in such a preliminary state. Nevertheless, unless he plows it, the harvest alone is not considered significant enough to have divided the field with regard to the other crops (Kessef Mishneh). Needless to say, if it already grew to a third of its development and hence required pe'ah for its own crop, it is only considered as a divider if the land was plowed (Radbaz).

7.

According to the Rambam's opinion, this is a far smaller figure, while according to the Ra'avad, the difference is not that great (Radbaz). The Ra'avad bases his interpretation on the treatment of this subject in the Jerusalem Talmud (Pe'ah 2:2), claiming that that text does not support the Rambam's ruling. The Kessef Mishneh explains that there is a version of the Jerusalem Talmud that supports the Rambam's position and maintains that the Ra'avad's version is in error.

8.

The latter measure is slightly more than ten and one fifth cubits by ten and one fifth by approximately ten and one fifth cubits (Hilchot Kilayim 3:9 and notes).

9.

Since the entire field is larger, the area which creates the separation must also be larger.

10.

The Radbaz questions why leniency is granted with regard to separation when another crop is sown and explains that it is uncommon to sow a small amount of a second crop in between two larger portions of one crop. Hence, one can assume that it was done so only for the sake of making a distinction.

11.

If, however, one does not plow the consumed portion, it is not considered as a separation (Menachot 71b).

12.

This follws the second interpretation given by the Rambam in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 2:2).

13.

Since the rock divides the field, it is considered as two separate entities. Hence, he must leave pe'ah for each portion of the field individually. The commentaries question why this instance is different than the terraces that are less than ten handbreadths higher than each other mentioned in the first clause, for there too, he must lift the plow and move it to the side while plowing. The Kessef Mishneh explains that the terraces are different because they can be sewn and hence they appear as a single field, while the rock cannot be sewn.

14.

The term the Rambam uses literally means "the mold used to make bricks." That term is employed because the squares resemble such a mold [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 3:1).

15.

I.e., had there not been trees in the field, the entire field would have been sown as a single entity. It was the presence of the trees alone that caused him to divide it. Thus since it is essentially one field, he leaves one portion of pe'ah.

16.

An area 50 cubits by 50 cubits (Hilchot Shabbat 16:3; Hilchot Kilayim 4:7).

17.

Instead, he considered each block separate for other reasons. Hence, pe'ah should be left for each one individually. The Ra'avad takes issue with the Rambam, basing his objections on the Jerusalem Talmud (Pe'ah 3:1). The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain that the Rambam had a different version of the Jerusalem Talmud and that accounts for the difference between their positions. They also maintain that the Rambam's position is sounder logically, for the larger the field, the more likely it is that each separate block should be considered an independent field.

18.

Needless to say, there must be a distinction between the vegetables and the onions so that the laws of kilayim, mixed species, are not violated.

19.

In this instance as well, the physical separation does not cause the squares to be considered as separate fields. The Radbaz suggests that the reason the principle stated in Halachah 4 - that if another crop separates between two plantings of one crop, separate portions of pe'ah should be left - does not apply here is that there is no obligation to leave pe'ah for vegetables.

20.

The commentaries note that the Rambam's statements here appear to contradict his statement in Hilchot Kilayim 1:9, in which he states that it is customary to sow entire fields of mustard seed. They are, however, reinforced by his statements in Hilchot Kilayim 3:18.

21.

And thus each square is considered as a separate field, requiring its own pe'ah.

22.

For the whole field will be considered as a single entity.

23.

For then it appears as a single field.

24.

For then each portion appears as a separate field. The Ra'avad disputes the Rambam's ruling based on his interpretation of the Jerusalem Talmud (Pe'ah 3:1). The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain the Rambam's position within the context of that passage.

25.

The commentaries note that there are some species of peas that are considered vegetables - and for which pe'ah need not be left - and others are considered as legumes. Here we are speaking about a species that are considered legumes.

26.

For each is considered as a separate harvest. The Radbaz explains that even if the person does not divide the field into separate portions, but rather harvests a small amount from each place both times, the two harvests are considered as separate. The difference in the time when they are harvested and the purpose for which they are harvested distinguishes them from each other.

27.

This halachah is speaking about a situation where a person transgressed and harvested his entire field and then desires to correct his actions by leaving pe'ah. The Radbaz states that the Rambam's ruling applies even if he makes these grain heaps at separate times.

28.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 2:5), the Rambam gives examples: "thin kernels or thick kernels, red wheat and green wheat."

29.

I.e., a point from the Oral Tradition for which there is no direct source in the Written Law.

30.

Before the harvesting of the field (Radbaz).

31.

As is the law concerning partners (Chapter 2, Halachah 3).

32.

For at the time the grain was harvested, there was no obligation to separate pe'ah from it, for the obligation to separate pe'ah applies to the standing grain (Chapter 2, Halachah 4). Hence the partner who receives the harvested grain considers the situation analogous to that of a person who harvests half a field and then sells the remainder, in which instance, the purchaser - i.e., the second partner - is obligated to separate pe'ah for the entire field (ibid.:5).

33.

The rationale is that the second partner does not accept that rationale. Instead, he claims that we apply the principle of bereirah - that retroactively, it is considered as if the two partner's portions were divided from the outset. Thus from the outset, he was never required to do more than divide pe'ah from his individual portion.

One might protest that in this situation, the outcome is that the poor people do not receive their pe'ah. Indeed, that is the case. Our Sages did not resolve whether the principle of bereirah should be applied or not. Hence, each partner can claim that the responsibility for leaving pe'ah for the first half of the field lies on the other partner and not on him. Neither is not obligated to pay from his own funds, because in financial matters, we follow the principle: When one desires to expropriate money from a colleague, the burden of proof is upon him.

34.

Before harvesting the second half of the field, agreeing that each one received half of the grain that was harvested and half of the grain to be harvested (Kessef Mishneh).

35.

Since they reestablished their partnership, one pe'ah can be left for the remaining portion of the field. Either of the partners may do this, leaving a portion for his own grain and that of his partner. He does not have to do this for the grain in the first part of the field, as the Rambam continues to explain.

36.

Since there was no pe'ah required to be left for it originally, there is no requirement to leave pe'ah for it now.

37.

And did not leave pe'ah for this harvest although he was obligated to do so.

38.

I.e., the crops that ripened initially, but were not harvested. Since they ripened at the same time as those which harvested first, they can be included in the same pe'ah.

39.

As above, since they ripened at the same time, they could be considered a single field. The Kessef Mishneh states that this is preferable, because as mentioned previously, pe'ah should be left from standing grain for the portions harvested previously.

40.

Since this portion ripened before the second portion was harvested, it and the second portion could be considered as part of a single field and one measure of pe'ah would be sufficient for them both.

41.

For each portion of the field is considered as a separate entity.

42.

Chulin 138a derives this from the exegesis of Leviticus 23:22: "When you reap the harvest of your land" which implies that the obligation to leave pe'ah begins when on starts reaping.

43.

Based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 2:3), it appears that if trees are separated by a fence that is ten handbreadths high, they are considered as in separate fields unless their branches are intermingled above. If their branches are intermingled above, they are considered as one field, regardless of the height of the fence.

44.

Since they are not partners, the portion of each one is considered individually.

45.

I.e., in contrast to other trees that are separated by fences, different laws apply with regard to carobs (Rav Yosef Corcus). The Ra'avad offers a different interpretation of this law.

The Ra'avad explains that carobs and olives (mentioned in the following halachah) are governed by different laws than other trees because they are tall and the branches of one tree are likely to become intermingled with another. The Radbaz does not accept this explanation, because palm trees are taller than carobs and olives and pear trees are also taller and more likely to be intermingled. He explains instead that these trees are singled out, because they are extremely common in Eretz Yisrael.

46.

Since they can see each other, the principles stated in the first clause apply.

47.

Because they cannot see each other.

48.

The owner is not obligated to leave pe'ah for the fruit harvested for this reason, as the Rambam proceeds to explain.

49.

Chapter 2, Halachah 6.

50.

For the primary reason he harvested it was to diminish the pressure on his vines. Since he is not interested in the harvest per se, he is not obligated to leave pe'ah.

51.

The fact that he takes the produce home demonstrates that his harvest is a calculated act and hence requires pe'ah.

Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 4

1

What is meant by leket? Produce that fall from the sickle when one is reaping or falls from his hand when he gathers the stalks [of grain]1 and harvests. [The above applies] provided only one or two stalks fell. If, however, three fell at the same time, the three belong to the owner of the field.2 If grain fell from behind the sickle or behind one's hand,3 it is not leket even if only one stalk fell.

א

איזהו לקט זה הנופל מתוך המגל בשעת קצירה או הנופל מתוך ידו כשמקבץ השבלים ויקצור והוא שיהיה הנופל שבלת אחת או שתים אבל אם נפלו שלש כאחד הרי שלשתן לבעל השדה והנופל מאחר המגל או מאחר היד אפילו שבלת אחת אינה לקט:

2

When he was harvesting by hand without a sickle, the stalks that fall from his hand are not leket.4 When, however, one pulls out crops that are usually pulled out by hand, those which fall from his hand are leket.5 If he was harvesting [with a sickle] or pulling out crops that are usually pulled out and after he harvested an armful [of produce] or after he pulled out a handful, [the produce] fell from his hand because he was struck by a thorn, [the produce] belongs to the owner.6

ב

היה קוצר ביד בלא מגל הנופל מתוך ידו אינו לקט אבל התולש דברים התולשים אותם הנופל מתחת ידו לקט היה קוצר או תולש דבר שדרכו להתלש ואחר שקצר מלא זרועו או תלש מלא קמצו הכהו קוץ ונפל מידו על הארץ הרי זה של בעל הבית:

3

[The following laws apply if a person] was harvesting and left a stalk of grain standing without harvesting it, although he harvested all the grain around it. If its tip could reach the standing grain at its side and it could be harvested with that grain, it belongs to the owner of the field.7 If not, it belongs to the poor.

ג

היה קוצר ונשארה שבלת אחת שלא נקצרה ונקצר כל שסביבותיה אם היה ראשה מגיע לקמה שבצדה ויכולה להקצר עם הקמה הרי היא של בעל השדה ואם לאו הרי היא של עניים:

4

[The following laws apply if] there were two stalks next to each other, the inner stalk could be harvested with [the remainder of] the standing grain8 and the outer could be harvested together with the inner stalk, but not with the standing grain. The inner stalk is retrieved9 and it retrieves the outer stalk.10 For it is considered as falling from the sickle, even though it was not harvested yet.11

Stalks that are among the straw belong to the owner of the field.12

ד

היו שתי שבולות זו בצד זו הפנימית יכולה להקצר עם הקמה והחיצונה יכולה להקצר עם הפנימית ואינה יכולה להקצר עם הקמה הפנימית נצלת ומצלת את החיצונה שהרי היא כנופלת מתוך המגל ואף על פי שעדיין לא נקצרה והשבלים שבקש הרי הן של בעל השדה:

5

[The following laws apply when] the wind scattered sheaves [of grain] and the harvest belonging to the owner becomes mixed with the leket. We estimate how much leket the field would produce and that amount is given to the poor. [A greater amount is not required]13 because this comes about due to forces beyond one's control. How much is this measure? Four kabbin for an area in which a kor of wheat would grow.14

ה

הרוח שפזרה את העומרים ונתערב קציר של בעל השדה עם הלקט אומדין את השדה כמה לקט היא ראויה לעשות ונותן לעניים מפני שזה אונס וכמה הוא שיעור זה ארבעה קבין תבואה לכל בית כור:

6

What should the owner of a field do if leket fell to the ground, it was not collected by the poor and he made a grainheap of his harvest on this earth?15He should move his grain pile to another place, [but] all the stalks that are touching the ground belong to the poor. [The rationale is that] we do not know which of them was leket and whenever there is a doubt concerning [whether produce] is from the presents for the poor, [it is given] to the poor.16 [This is implied by the term (Leviticus 23:22):] "Leave," i.e., leave from your produce for them.

ו

לקט שנפל לארץ ולא לקטוהו עניים ובא בעל השדה והגדיש את הקציר שלו על הארץ כיצד הוא עושה מפנה הגדיש שלו כולו למקום אחר וכל השבלים הנוגעות בארץ כולן לעניים מפני שאין אנו יודעים אי זו היא מהם שהיתה לקט וספק מתנות עניים לעניים שנאמר תעזוב הנח לפניהם משלך:

7

Why don't we make an estimation and give the poor [the amount that would be left as leket?17 Because [the owner] transgressed and made his grainheap on leket, he was penalized, even if he did so inadvertently. Even if the leket was barley and he made a grainheap of wheat upon it,18 even if he called for the poor [to collect the leket] and they did not come, and even if others made the grainheap without his knowledge, all of the produce touching the ground belongs to the poor.

ז

ולמה אין אומדין אותה וליתן לעניים מה שראויה לעשות לקט מפני שעבר והגדיש על הלקט קנסוהו ואפילו היה שוגג ואפילו היה הלקט שעורים והגדיש עליו חטין ואפילו קרא לעניים ולא באו אפילו הגדישוהו אחרים שלא מדעתו כל הנוגעות בארץ הרי הן לעניים:

8

[The following laws apply when a person] must fertilize his field before the poor collect the leket in it. If his loss will be greater than the loss to the poor, he is permitted to fertilize it. If the loss to the poor will be greater than his loss, it is forbidden for him to fertilize. If he collects all the leket and places it on the fence until a poor person comes and collects it, that is an expression of the quality of piety.

ח

הצריך לרבץ את שדהו קודם שילקטו העניים לקט שבה אם היזקו מרובה על הפסד הלקט מותר לרבץ ואם הפסד הלקט מרובה על הפסדו אסור לרבץ ואם קבץ את כל הלקט והניחו על הגדר עד שיבא העני ויטלנו הרי זה מדת חסידות:

9

When kernels of grain are found in ant holes, if the holes were located in the midst of the standing grain, [the kernels] belong to the owner of the field, for the poor people do not have a right to anything in the standing grain. If they were located in the place which was harvested,19 they belong to the poor, because perhaps they were taken from the leket. Even if the kernel [in the hole] is black,20 we do not say that it was from the previous year, because whenever there is a doubt concerning [whether produce] is leket,21 we consider it as leket.

ט

זרעים הנמצאים בחורי הנמלים אם היו החורים בתוך הקמה הרי הוא של בעל השדה שאין לעניים מתנה בתוך הקמה ואם היו במקום שנקצר הרי זה של עניים שמא מן הלקט גררוהו ואע"פ שנמצא שחור אין אומרים הרי זה משנה שעברה שספק הלקט לקט:

10

When a stalk of leket becomes intermingled with the grain heap, the owner must separate two stalks. On the first, he says: "If this is leket, it belongs to the poor. If it is not leket, may the tithes for which I am obligated from this stalk22 be fixed on the other stalk."23 He then goes back and makes this same stipulation on the second stalk. He then gives one of the stalks to the poor and the other one will be [part of] the tithes.

י

שבולת של לקט שנתערבה בגדיש הרי זה מפריש שתי שבולות ואומר על אחת מהן אם הלקט היא זו הרי היא לעניים ואם אינה לקט הרי המעשרות (שהיא) שחייבת בהן שבולת זו קבועים בשבולת שנייה וחוזר ומתנה כן על שבולת שנייה ונותן אחת מהן לעני והאחרת תהיה מעשר:

11

A person should not hire a worker24 with the intent that his son collect the leket after him.25 Sharecroppers, tenant farmers, and a person who purchased standing grain from a colleague to harvest, by contrast, may have their sons collect after them.26 A worker may bring his wife and his children to collect leket after him.27 [This applies] even if he hired him with the intent that he receive half of the harvest, one third, or one fourth as his wage.28

יא

לא ישכור אדם את הפועל על מנת שילקט בנו אחריו אבל האריסין והחכירין והמוכר קמתו לחבירו לקצור ילקט בנו אחריו ויש לפועל להביא אשתו ובניו ללקט אחריו ואפילו שכרו ליטול חצי הקציר או שלישו או רביעו בשכרו:

12

A person who does not allow the poor to collect the leket, allows one but does not allow another, or helps one of them, [giving him an advantage] over his colleagues is considered as stealing from the poor.29

יב

מי שאינו מניח את העניים ללקט או שהוא מניח אחד ומונע אחד או שמסייע את אחד מהן על חבירו הרי זה גוזל את העניים:

13

It is forbidden for a person to have a lion or the like rest in his field so that the poor will fear and flee.30 When there are those among the poor who are not entitled to collect leket,31 if the owner can rebuke them, he should. If not, he should allow them [to collect it as an expression of] the ways of peace.

יג

ואסור לאדם להרביץ ארי וכיוצא בו בתוך שדהו כדי שיראו העניים ויברחו היו שם עניים שאינן ראויין ליטול לקט אם יכול בעל הבית למחות בידן ממחה ואם לאו מניחן מפני דרכי שלום:

14

If a person [desires to] declare [produce falling] as leket ownerness,32 if the majority33 has already fallen, it is not ownerless. [The rationale is that] once the majority has left his hand, he no longer has authority over it.34

יד

המפקיר את הלקט עם נפילת רובו אינו הפקר מאחר שנשר רובו אין לו בו רשות:

15

What is meant by peret?35 One grape or two grapes that separate from the cluster in the midst of the harvest. If three grapes fall at the same time, they are not peret.

טו

אי זהו פרט זה גרגר אחד או שני גרגרים הנפרטים מן האשכול בשעת הבצירה נפלו שלשה גרגרים בבת אחת אינו פרט:

16

When a person was reaping [his grape harvest] and cut off a cluster, [that cluster] became entangled with its leaves and it fell to the ground and became divided into individual grapes, it is not peret. If, however, [the reaper] was harvesting and throwing the clusters to the earth, [more stringent rules apply]. Even if half the cluster is discovered [broken into individual grapes], it is peret. Similarly, [even] if an entire cluster was broken up into individual grapes, they are peret.36 When a person places a basket below the vine at the time he is harvesting,37 he is stealing from the poor.

טז

היה בוצר וכרת את האשכול והוסבך בעליו ונפל לארץ ונפרט אינו פרט היה בוצר ומשליך לארץ כשמפנה האשכולות אפילו חצי אשכול הנמצא שם הרי הוא פרט (וכן אשכול שלם שנפרט שם הרי הוא פרט) והמניח את הכלכלה תחת הגפן בשעה שהוא בוצר הרי זה גוזל את העניים:

17

What is an olelet?38 This is a small cluster which is not thick like ordinary clusters and does not have a kataf, nor are its grapes notfot39 one on top of the other, but rather scattered. If it has a kataf, but not a nataf or a nataf, but not a kataf, it belongs to the owner of the vineyard. If there is a doubt, it should be given to the poor.

יז

אי זו היא עוללת זה אשכול הקטן שאינו מעובה כאשכול שאין לו כתף ואין ענביו נוטפות זו על זו אלא מפוזרות יש לה כתף ואין לה נטף או יש לה נטף ואין לה כתף הרי היא של בעל הכרם ואם ספק לעניים:

18

What is kataf? Small clusters connected to the central stem40 [of the larger cluster], one on top of the other. [What is] nataf? Grapes connected to the center stem and hanging down. [The above applies] provided all of the individual grapes in the ollelot can touch the palm of his hand.41

Why is such [an underdeveloped cluster] called an ollel?42 Because it is comparable to a developed cluster in the same way an infant is comparable to an adult.

יח

אי זו היא כתף פסיגין המחוברות בשדרה זו על גבי זו נטף ענבים המחוברות בשדרה ויורדות והוא שיהיו כל הענבים שבעוללות נוגעין בפס ידו ולמה נקרא שמו עולל מפני שהוא לשאר האשכולות כעולל לאיש:

19

The owner of the vineyard is not obligated to harvest the underdeveloped clusters and give them to the poor.43 Instead, [he should leave them for the poor] to harvest themselves. An individual grape is considered as an ollelet.

יט

ואין בעל הבית חייב לבצור העוללות וליתנן לעניים אלא הן בוצרין אותן לעצמן וגרגר יחידי הרי היא עוללת:

20

[The following laws apply when] there was a cluster on a branch of a vine and an underdeveloped cluster on an offshoot of the branch. If [the offshoot] can be harvested with the cluster, it belongs to the owner of the vineyard.44 If not, it belongs to the poor.

כ

זמורה שהיה בה אשכול ובארכובה של זמורה עוללת אם נקרצה עם האשכול הרי היא של בעל הכרם ואם לאו הרי היא לעניים:

21

When a vineyard is comprised entirely of underdeveloped clusters, it belongs to the poor. [This is derived from Leviticus 19:10:] "Do not collect underdeveloped clusters in your vineyard," i.e., even if it comprises the entire vineyard. [The laws of] peret and ollelot apply only in a vineyard.45

כא

כרם שכולו עוללות הרי הוא לעניים שנאמר וכרמך לא תעולל אפילו כולו עוללות ואין הפרט והעוללות נוהגין אלא בכרם בלבד:

22

The poor do not have the right to take peret and ollelot until the owner of the vineyard begins harvesting his vineyard, as [Deuteronomy 24:21] states: "When you harvest your vineyard, do not collect underdeveloped clusters."46 How much must [the owner] harvest for [the poor] to receive this right? Three clusters that will produce a revi'it [of wine].

כב

אין העניים זוכין ליקח פרט ועוללות עד שיתחיל בעל הכרם לבצור כרמו שנאמר וכי תבצור כרמך לא תעולל וכמה יבצור ויהיו זוכין בהן שלשה אשכולות שהן עושין רביע:

23

When a person consecrates his vineyard before he becomes aware of the underdeveloped clusters, the underdeveloped clusters do not belong to the poor.47 If he has become aware of the underdeveloped clusters, the underdeveloped clusters belong to the poor.48 They must pay a fee wages for their [increase in value] while they grew49 to the Temple treasury.50

כג

המקדיש כרמו עד שלא נודעו העוללות אין העוללות לעניים ואם משנודעו העוללות העוללות לעניים ויתנו שכר גידולם להקדש:

24

When one prunes a vine after he became aware of ollelot, he may prune according to his ordinary pattern. Just as he cuts off [fully-formed] clusters, he cuts off underdeveloped clusters.51

כד

הזומר את הגפן אחר שנודעו העוללות הרי זה זומר כדרכו וכשם שכורת האשכולות כך כורת העוללות:

25

When a gentile sells his vineyard to a Jew to harvest, the Jew is obligated to leave the underdeveloped clusters.52 When a Jew and a gentile are partners in a vineyard, there is an obligation [to leave] ollelot in the portion belonging to the Jew. That belonging to the gentile is exempt.

כה

נכרי שמכר כרמו לישראל לבצור חייב בעוללות ישראל ונכרי שהיו שותפים בכרם חלקו של ישראל חייב ושל נכרי פטור:

26

When the tithes [of a vineyard] were given to a Levite while they were still tevel,53 he should give them to a poor person.54 If they can be harvested with the cluster, he may use them as terumat ma'aser55 for other crops.56

כו

בן לוי שנתנו לו מעשר טבל ומצא בו עוללות נותנן לעני ואם נקרצת עם האשכול יש לו לעשות תרומת מעשר על מקום אחר:

27

[The following laws apply when a person] has five vines, harvests them, and [brings the grapes] into his home. If his intent is to eat them while they are grapes, he is not obligated [to leave] peret, shichichah,57 and [neta] revai'i,58 but is obligated [to leave] the ollelot [for the poor].59 If he reaped them to make wine, he is obligated in all of the above unless he left a portion [unharvested].60

כז

מי שהיו לו חמש גפנים ובצרם לתוך ביתו אם לאכול ענבים פטור מן הפרט ומן השכחה ומן הרבעי וחייב בעוללות ואם בצרן לעשות יין חייב בכל אא"כ שייר מקצתן:

Footnotes
1.

I.e., he was gathering several stalks of grain together in his hand in order to cut them with a sickle. In the process, some fell from his hand. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 4:10), the Rambam summarizes the principle as follows: "[Crops] encompassed by the hand or by the sickle that fall are leket."

2.

For three is a significant quantity that the owner would not be willing to abandon willfully.

3.

I.e., that fell when he moved the sickle or his hand back.

4.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Pe'ah 4:5) derives this from exegesis of the phrase (Leviticus 23:22): "You shall not gather the gleanings of your harvest." "Your harvest" implies crops cut with a sickle.

5.

This does not contradict the concept stated in the previous note. Since this is the usual way these crops are harvested, the laws of leket apply when produce falls from one's hands.

6.

Since it did not fall from his hand as a by-product of the harvesting process.

7.

The Sifri derives this law from the exegesis of the phrase (Deuteronomy 24:19): "Do not return to take it." As long as the stalk of grain can be harvested together with the standing grain, one is not "going back" to harvest it. A question, however, arises: Why does the Rambam (and his source, Pe'ah 5:2) mention this law in the context of the laws of leket and not together with those governing shichichah (the subject of the verse cited)? This question is resolved in Halachah 4.

8.

And thus meets the criteria mentioned in the previous halachah.

9.

I.e., it is considered as the owner's.

10.

Since it can be harvested together with the inner stalk, it is governed by the laws that apply to it.

11.

This refers to the previous halachah and serves as an explanation why these stalks are considered as leket (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh).

12.

Because, generally, the laws of leket do not apply to grain that was not harvested.

13.

As in the following halachot, where the owner is penalized for mixing his harvest with the leket.

14.

This area is 75000 sq. cubits. Shiurei Torah 3:31 states that according to the Rambam, a kav is equivalent to 1626 grams.

15.

Thus mixing his harvest with the leket.

16.

The Radbaz writes that, as stated in the following halachah, this measure is a penalty imposed upon the owner. Hence, even when there is no doubt involved, as exemplified there, we give the poor all the stalks that are touching the ground. Hence, the Rambam's words must be interpreted as meaning: Since we penalized the owner, the produce is taken from him in the case of a doubt.

17.

As in Halachah 5.

18.

And thus there is no doubt which is leket and which is ordinary produce.

19.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 4:11), the Rambam speaks of the grain "behind the reapers."

20.

And thus appears to have been there for a long time.

21.

For it is possible that the black kernel is from the present year, but from inferior grain.

22.

There is no obligation to separate tithes from leket. The stipulation is necessary because tithes must be separated while the produce is still in one's possession, before the stalk is given to the poor.

23.

We have translated the Rambam's words directly, although there is an obvious difficulty with them. If we say, as implied by his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 5:2), that one of the stalks will be designated for the tithes, then since the identity of that stalk is not known and one of the stalks will be given to the poor, it is possible that the poor will be given the stalk that contains the tithes. Furthermore, leket cannot be used for tithes.

Therefore, the commentaries (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh, et al) suggest that we are speaking about a third stalk which would also be used for the tithes of the entire field. The stipulations are made separately on the two stalks and then one is given to the poor and the other to the owner. And the third stalk is used for the tithes of the field.

24.

I.e., a poor man who is entitled to collect leket.

25.

I.e., this would be like a tip for the worker. In addition to his wages, he would receive the leket his son would collect. This is, however, considered as stealing from the poor, because the worker is likely to hire himself out for a lower wage in return for this consideration. As indicated by the continuation of the halachah, there is no difficulty with the worker's family collecting the leket. Since he - and/or they - are poor, they have that privilege. The difficulty is with stipulating it in his contract.

26.

Since they are not being paid a wage, but instead receive the produce and give a major share back to the owner, there is no difficulty in having the son collect the leket from the field, for they will not reduce their share for the license to have their son collect the leket. The other poor do not feel that the share-cropper is infringing upon their rights, because they expect that - were they to have the opportunity - their sons would be given the same privilege.

27.

As stated above, since the worker is poor, both his wife and his children are given this privilege.

28.

The Tzaphnat Paneach differentiates between this instance and that of the share-cropper mentioned in the previous clause, noting that here the worker's wife is mentioned and there she is not. He states that the wife of the sharecropper or the like is not entitled to collect the leket. Since he owns the produce, he is not entitled to collect a share. And since he is not entitled to collect a share, his wife may not do so either. His son may, however, because he is an independent person. The rationale is that the share-cropper is the owner of the harvest and he pays a share to the owner of the land. In this instance, by contrast, the harvest belongs to the owner and he pays a share to the worker. Hence, the worker is poor and his wife has the right to collect the leket.

29.

For unlike terumah and other agricultural obligations, the owner has no right to control who will be the recipient of leket.

30.

And thus abandon the leket.

31.

See Chapter 9, Halachah 13.

32.

I.e., instead of leaving it to be the property of the poor, he desires to declare it ownerless so that it can be acquired by the rich as well as the poor.

33.

I.e., once the majority has fallen, the status of the entire quantity is defined (Radbaz).

34.

But instead, it belongs to the poor (see Temurah 25a).

35.

Individual grapes that fall that must be left for the poor, as stated in Leviticus 19:10.

36.

This law follows the same logic which motivates Halachot 6-7 which states that an owner who makes a grainheap on the place where leket has fallen must give all the stalks touching the ground to the poor. In this instance as well, since his grapes become mixed with those which fell as peret, we penalize him and preventing him from taking any of the individual grapes.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Pe'ah 6:4) mentions two opinions: one which states that this stringency applies only to half a cluster and one that it applies even to the entire cluster. The Rambam follows the latter view.

37.

So that all the individual grapes will fall into it.

38.

An underdeveloped grape cluster which should be left for the poor, as stated in Leviticus, loc. cit..

39.

These two Hebrew terms are defined in the following halachah.

40.

The Hebrew term used by the Rambam literally means "backbone."

41.

I.e., the small clusters are not large enough to prevent all the individual grapes from touching his palm.

The Ra'avad offers a different interpretation of this phrase which is taken from the Jerusalem Talmud (Pe'ah 7:4). The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's interpretation.

42.

Which means "infant" in Hebrew.

43.

As stated above with regard to pe'ah (Chapter 2, Halachah 15). Here too, the command for the mitzvah uses the term "leave," implying that the mitzvah is not to give the underdeveloped clusters to the poor, but to allow them to collect them.

The Radbaz writes that if a vine is elevated to a high trestle and it would be dangerous for the poor to climb up and collect the underdeveloped clusters, the owner should harvest them for the poor. Note the parallel in Chapter 2, Halachah 16.

44.

Thus this ruling parallels the ruling in Chapter 4, Halachah 3, with regard to leket.

45.

I.e., and not to any other type of fruit.

46.

I.e., the obligation to observe these mitzvot begins "When you harvest..." and not before.

47.

Instead, they are included in his consecration.

48.

Once he becomes aware of the underdeveloped clusters, they become the property of the poor and the owner cannot consecrate them, because a person cannot consecrate property that does not belong to him (the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Pe'ah 7:8, based on the Jerusalem Talmud and Arachin 28a).

Tosafot Yom Tov asks: Since, as stated in the previous halachah, the poor are not entitled to the produce until the owner begins his harvest, seemingly, it remains the property of the owner and he has the right to consecrate it. He explains that although the poor do not have the right to collect it until the harvest begins, these clusters belong to them and not the owner and he does not have the right to consecrate them.

49.

I.e., for their increase in value from the time they were consecrated until they became ripe (ibid.).

50.

Because the grapes from the clusters belonging to the poor are deriving benefit from land and vine consecrated to the Temple treasury.

51.

I.e., just as he shows no concern for the clusters that will ultimately be his, he may ignore those that will ultimately belong to the poor. For until the harvest, there is no prohibition against cutting them off. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Pe'ah 7:5.

52.

For the obligation to leave ollelot takes effect only at the time of the harvest and the person performing the harvest is Jewish.

The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh note that the Rambam's source, the Tosefta (Pe'ah, the conclusion of ch. 3) also states the converse: that if a Jew sells his field to a gentile, the obligation to leave ollelot no longer applies and they question why the Rambam's omits this point.

53.

Produce from which terumah has not been separated.

54.

They belong to the poor and tithes need not be separated from them.

55.

The tenth which the Levites must separate from the tithes that they receive and give to the priests.

56.

I.e., as stated in Halachah 20, they are the Levite's private property and he can do with them as he sees fit. The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, but the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain the Rambam's position.

57.

The Ra'avad adds that he is also not obligated to leave pe'ah. The Kessef Mishneh states that, as indicated by Chapter 2, Halachah 67, the Rambam would also accept this ruling.

58.

Neta Revai'i refers to the produce of the fourth year of a tree's growth which must be brought to Jerusalem and eaten in a state of ritual purity or exchanged for money that is brought to Jerusalem and used to purchase food that must be eaten in a state of ritual purity (see Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni, chs. 9-10).

The owner is not considered as having harvested the grapes, but rather as having picked them for immediate use, e.g., as a snack. Hence he is freed from these obligations. Rambam LeAm accepts this explanation with regard to peret and shichichah, but not neta revai'i. With regard to the first two, the obligations are dependent on harvesting and he is not considered to have harvested his grapes, but neta revai'i is not connected with harvesting, but rather is an obligation incumbent on the crops themselves.

59.

For the ollelot belong to the poor and are not dependent on whether one harvests the grapes to use as wine or as fruit.

60.

In which instance, he is not obligated for those he picked first, since he is not harvesting but taking the grapes for immediate use. The Ra'avad differs with this point and requires that the pe'ah for the entire crop be separated from the produce that remains and to leave peret and shichichah. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain the Rambam's position.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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