1

On Yom Kippur, a person is liable for eating [an amount of] food that is fit for humans to eat1 and is equivalent to the size of a large ripe date2 - i.e., slightly less than the size of an egg.3 All foods [that one eats] are combined to produce this measure.

Similarly, one who drinks a cheekful of liquid fit to be drunk by humans is liable. The size of a cheekful is [not a standard measure,] but rather dependent on the size of the cheek of every individual.

What is meant by a cheekful? Enough [liquid] for a person to swish to one side of his mouth and for his cheek to appear full. For an ordinary person, this measure is less than a revi'it.4

All liquids [that one drinks] are combined to produce this measure. Foods and liquids are not combined in a single measure.5

א

הָאוֹכֵל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מַאֲכָלִין הָרְאוּיִין לֶאֱכל לָאָדָם כְּכוֹתֶבֶת הַגַּסָּה שֶׁהִיא פָּחוֹת מִכְּבֵיצָה כִּמְעַט הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב. וְכָל הָאֳכָלִים מִצְטָרְפִין לְשִׁעוּר זֶה. וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין הָרְאוּיִין לִשְׁתִיַּת אָדָם כִּמְלוֹא לֻגְמָיו שֶׁל שׁוֹתֶה כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד לְפִי לֻגְמָיו חַיָּב. וְכַמָּה מְלוֹא לֻגְמָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּסַלְּקֵם לְצַד אֶחָד וְיֵרָאֶה מָלֵא לֻגְמָיו. וְשִׁעוּר זֶה בְּאָדָם בֵּינוֹנִי פָּחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית. וְכָל הַמַּשְׁקִין מִצְטָרְפִין לְשִׁעוּר זֶה. וְהָאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין לְשִׁעוּר אֶחָד:

2

One is liable for karet for eating on Yom Kippur if one eats food that is fit for human consumption, regardless of whether it is permitted or forbidden.6 [This includes] piggul,7 notar,8 tevel,9 the flesh of an animal that died without ritual slaughter, the flesh of an animal that is trefah,10 fat, or blood.11

ב

אֶחָד הָאוֹכֵל אֳכָלִים הַמֻּתָּרִים אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל דְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִין כְּגוֹן פִּגּוּל וְנוֹתַר וְטֶבֶל וּנְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת וְחֵלֶב אוֹ דָּם הוֹאִיל וְאָכַל אֳכָלִים הָרְאוּיִין לָאָדָם הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב כָּרֵת מִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים:

3

If a person eats or drinks less than the above-mentioned measures, he is not liable for karet. Although the Torah forbids partaking of less than the measure [for which punishment is given], one is not liable for karet unless [one partakes of] that measure.12

A person who eats or drinks less than the minimal measure is given "stripes for rebellion."

ג

אָכַל אוֹ שָׁתָה פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר זֶה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב כָּרֵת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה בַּחֲצִי שִׁעוּר אֵין חַיָּבִין כָּרֵת אֶלָּא עַל כַּשִּׁעוּר. וְהָאוֹכֵל אוֹ הַשּׁוֹתֶה חֲצִי שִׁעוּר מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

4

[The following rules apply when] a person eats a small amount, [pauses,] and eats again: If the time from when he begins eating until he concludes eating is less than the time it takes to eat an amount of bread and relish equal in size to three eggs, [the food that he eats] is included in the same measure.13 If not, it is not included in the same measure.14

[Similar rules apply when] a person drinks, [pauses,] and drinks again: If the time from when he begins drinking until he concludes drinking is less than the time it takes to drink a revi'it,15 [the liquid that he drinks] is included in the same measure. If not, it is not included in the same measure.

ד

אָכַל מְעַט וְחָזַר וְאָכַל אִם יֵשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת אֲכִילָה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַד סוֹף אֲכִילָה אַחֲרוֹנָה כְּדֵי אֲכִילַת שָׁלֹשׁ בֵּיצִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת לְכַשִּׁעוּר וְאִם לָאו אֵין מִצְטָרְפוֹת לְכַשִּׁעוּר. שָׁתָה מְעַט וְחָזַר וְשָׁתָה אִם יֵשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת שְׁתִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַד סוֹף שְׁתִיָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה כְּדֵי שְׁתִיַּת רְבִיעִית מִצְטָרְפִין לְשִׁעוּר וְאִם לָאו אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין:

5

When a person eats foods that are not fit for human consumption - e.g., bitter herbs or foul-tasting syrups - or drinks liquids that are not fit to to be drunk - e.g., fish brine, pickle brine16 or undiluted vinegar - he is not liable for karet17 even if he eats or drinks a substantial amount. He should, however, be given "stripes for rebellion."

ה

אָכַל אֳכָלִים שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לְמַאֲכַל אָדָם כְּגוֹן עֲשָׂבִים הַמָּרִים אוֹ שְׂרָפִים הַבְּאוּשִׁין אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתָה מַשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לִשְׁתִיָּה כְּגוֹן צִיר אוֹ מוּרְיָס וְחֹמֶץ חַי אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל וְשָׁתָה מֵהֶן הַרְבֵּה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַכָּרֵת. אֲבָל מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

6

A person who drinks vinegar mixed with water is liable. One who chews dried pepper, dried ginger, or the like is not liable. [If, however, one chews] fresh ginger, one is liable.18

A person who eats the leaves of the vine is not liable,19 but one who eats the buds of the vine is liable.20 What is meant by the buds of the vine? The buds that have sprouted in Eretz Yisrael from Rosh HaShanah until Yom Kippur. If they sprouted earlier, they are considered as wood, and the person is not liable. The same rules apply in all analogous situations.

ו

שָׁתָה חֹמֶץ מָזוּג בְּמַיִם חַיָּב. הַכּוֹסֵס פִּלְפְּלִין וְזַנְגְּבִיל יָבֵשׁ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן פָּטוּר. אֲבָל זַנְגְּבִיל רָטֹב חַיָּב. אָכַל עֲלֵי גְּפָנִים פָּטוּר. לוּלְבֵי גְּפָנִים חַיָּב. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן לוּלְבֵי גְּפָנִים כָּל שֶׁלִּבְלְבוּ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְעַד יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. יֶתֶר עַל זֶה הֲרֵי הֵן כְּעֵצִים וּפָטוּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּאֵלּוּ:

7

When a person eats roast meat that has been salted, the salt is included in the mass of the meat.21 Similarly, brine on a vegetable is included,22 because condiments that make food fit to be eaten and are mixed together with the food are considered to be part of the food.

If a person was already sated [because he] had overeaten to the extent that he was jaded by food, and then ate more,23 he is not liable. It is comparable to a person who eats food that is not fit for consumption. Although this additional amount is fit to be eaten by a person who is hungry, it is not fit for a person who is sated to this extent.24

ז

אָכַל צָלִי בְּמֶלַח מִצְטָרֵף הַמֶּלַח לַבָּשָׂר. צִיר שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי יָרָק מִצְטָרֵף. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּכְשִׁירֵי הָאֹכֶל הַמְעֹרָבִים עִם הָאֹכֶל כְּאֹכֶל הֵן חֲשׁוּבִים. הָיָה שָׂבֵעַ מֵאֲכִילָה גַּסָּה שֶׁאָכַל עַד שֶׁקָּץ בִּמְזוֹנוֹ וְאָכַל יֶתֶר עַל שָׂבְעוֹ פָּטוּר כְּמִי שֶׁאָכַל אֳכָלִין שֶׁאֵינָם רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה הַמַּאֲכָל הַיָּתֵר רָאוּי לְרָעֵב אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְכָל מִי שֶׁשָּׂבֵעַ כְּזֶה:

8

When a person who is dangerously ill25 asks to eat on Yom Kippur, he should be fed26 because of his request until he says, "It is enough,"27 even though expert physicians say that it is unnecessary.28

When the sick person says that it is unnecessary for him to eat,29 and a physician says that it is necessary, he should be fed according to [the physician's] instructions, provided the physician is an expert.30

When one physician says that it is necessary [for a sick person to eat], and another physician says that it is unnecessary, the person should be fed. If several physicians say that it is necessary [for a sick person to eat], and other physicians say that it is unnecessary, [the ruling] follows the majority, or those with the most expertise.31 [This applies] provided the sick person does not himself say that it is necessary [for him to eat]. If, however, he makes such a statement, he should be fed.

If the sick person does not say that he must [eat], the physicians were divided on the issue, they were all experts, and an equal number took each side, he should be fed.

ח

חוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה שֶׁשָּׁאַל לֶאֱכל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרוֹפְאִים הַבְּקִיאִין אוֹמְרִין אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ עַל פִּי עַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר דַּיִּי. אָמַר הַחוֹלֶה אֵינִי צָרִיךְ וְהָרוֹפֵא אוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ עַל פִּיו. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רוֹפֵא בָּקִי. רוֹפֵא אֶחָד אוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ. מִקְצָת הָרוֹפְאִין אוֹמְרִין צָרִיךְ וּמִקְצָתָן אוֹמְרִין אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הָרֹב אוֹ אַחַר הַבְּקִיאִין. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר הַחוֹלֶה צָרִיךְ אֲנִי. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר צָרִיךְ אֲנִי מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ. לֹא אָמַר הַחוֹלֶה שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ וְנֶחְלְקוּ הָרוֹפְאִים וְהָיוּ כֻּלָּם בְּקִיאִין וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאָמְרוּ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּמִנְיָן שֶׁאָמְרוּ צָרִיךְ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ:

9

When a pregnant woman smells food, [and is overcome by desire for it,] we should whisper in her ear that today is Yom Kippur.32If this reminder is sufficient to calm her senses, it is desirable; if not, she should be fed until her desire ceases.

Similarly, if a person is overcome by ravenous hunger,33 he should be fed until he sees clearly. He should be fed immediately, even if it necessitates giving him non-kosher meat34 or [meat from a] loathsome species.35 We do not require that he wait until permitted food becomes available.

ט

עֻבָּרָה שֶׁהֵרִיחָה לוֹחֲשִׁין לָהּ בְּאָזְנָהּ שֶׁיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הוּא. אִם נִתְקָרְרָה דַּעְתָּהּ בְּזִכָּרוֹן זֶה מוּטָב וְאִם לָאו מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ עַד שֶׁתִּתְיַשֵּׁב נַפְשָׁהּ. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁאָחֲזוֹ בֻּלְמוֹס מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּאוֹרוּ עֵינָיו. וַאֲפִלּוּ נְבֵלוֹת וּשְׁקָצִים מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד וְאֵין מַשְׁהִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּמְצְאוּ דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִין:

10

[From the time] a child is nine or ten years old36 [onward], he should be trained [to fast] for several hours. What is implied? If he is used to eating two hours after daybreak, he should be fed in the third hour. If he is used [to eating] after three hours, he should be fed in the fourth. According to the child's stamina, we should add hours to his anguish.

When a child is eleven years old, whether male or female,37 it is a Rabbinic ordinance that he complete his fast so that he be trained in [the observance of] the mitzvot.

י

קָטָן בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וּבֶן עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים מְחַנְּכִין אוֹתוֹ לְשָׁעוֹת. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה רָגִיל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁתֵּי שָׁעוֹת בַּיּוֹם מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשָׁלֹשׁ. הָיָה רָגִיל בְּשָׁלֹשׁ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ בְּאַרְבַּע. לְפִי כֹּחַ הַבֵּן מוֹסִיפִין לְעַנּוֹת אוֹתוֹ בְּשָׁעוֹת. בֶּן אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בֵּין זָכָר בֵּין נְקֵבָה מִתְעַנֶּה וּמַשְׁלִים מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּדֵי לְחַנְּכוֹ בְּמִצְוֹת:

11

A female who is twelve years old and one day38 and a male who is thirteen years old and one day, who manifest [signs of physical maturity - i.e.,] two [pubic] hairs, are considered to be adults with regard to [the observance of] all the mitzvot, and are obligated to complete their fast according to the Torah. If, however, they did not manifest [signs of physical maturity], they are still considered to be minors, and are obligated to complete their fast only by virtue of Rabbinic decree.39

A child who is less than nine years old should not be afflicted at all on Yom Kippur, lest this lead to danger.40

יא

בַּת שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד וּבֶן שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת הֲרֵי הֵן כִּגְדוֹלִים לְכָל הַמִּצְוֹת וּמַשְׁלִימִין מִן הַתּוֹרָה. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הֵבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת עֲדַיִן קְטַנִּים הֵן וְאֵינָם מַשְׁלִימִין אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. קָטָן שֶׁהוּא פָּחוֹת מִבֶּן תֵּשַׁע אֵין מְעַנִּין אוֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי סַכָּנָה: