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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Kilaayim - Chapter 3, Kilaayim - Chapter 4, Kilaayim - Chapter 5

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Kilaayim - Chapter 3

1

There are certain species of plants which will divide into separate forms because of the difference in the place [where they grow] and the differences in the manner in which the earth is cultivated until they appear as two species. Nevertheless, since they are one species, they are not considered as kilayim with each other.

א

יש מינין בזרעין שיהיה המין האחד נפרד לצורות הרבה מפני שינוי מקומות והעבודה שעובדין הארץ עד שיראה כשני מינין ואע"פ שאין דומין זה לזה הואיל והן מין אחד אינן כלאים זה בזה:

2

And there are species of plants that resemble each other and whose form is close to being the same. Nevertheless, because they are two species, it is forbidden [to grow] them together.

ב

ויש בזרעים שני מינין שהן דומין זה לזה וצורת שניהן קרובה להיות צורה אחת ואעפ"כ הואיל והן שני מינין הרי אלו אסורים זה עם זה:

3

What is implied? Lettuce with wavy lettuce,1 endives and wild endives, leek and wild leek, coriander and mountain coriander, mustard and Egyptian mustard, Egyptian squash and squash of ashes,2 are not considered as kilayim with each other. Similarly, wheat and undomesticated wheat, barley and oats, rye and spelt, beans and white peas, fabaceae and leguminosaea,3 white beans with azuki beans, zucchini and cucumbers, cabbage and cauliflower, beets and sorrel are not kilayim with each other. But radishes and Israeli radishes,4 mustard and bitter cabbage, Greek squash and Egyptian squash, or and squash of ashes, although they resemble each other are kilayim with each other.

ג

כיצד החזרת עם חזרת גלים והעולשין עם עולשי שדה והכרישין עם כרישי שדה הכסבר עם כסבר הרים וחרדל עם חרדל מצרי ודלעת המצרית עם דלעת הרמוצה אינן כלאים זה בזה וכן החטין עם הזונין והשעורים עם שבולת שועל והכוסמין עם השיפון והפול עם הספיר והפורקדן עם הטופח ופול לבן עם השעועים והקשות עם המלפפון והכרוב עם התרובתור והתרדין עם הלעונין אינן כלאים זה עם זה אבל הצנון עם הנפוסין והחרדל עם הלפסן ודלעת יונית עם דלעת מצרית או עם דלעת הרמוצה אף על פי שדומים זה לזה הרי אלו כלאים זה בזה:

4

Similarly, with regard to trees, there are species which resemble each other with regard to their leaves or their fruit, but since they are separate species, they are kilayim. What is implied? Apples and crabapples, peaches and almonds, prunes and Arabian jujube, although they resemble each other are kilayim with each other. But apricots and white plums and quince and lavallei are not kilayim with each other.

ד

וכן באילן שיש שני מינין שדומין זה לזה בעלין או בפירות הואיל והן שני מינין הרי אלו כלאים כיצד התפוח עם החזרד והפרסקין עם השקדים והשזפין עם הרימין אע"פ שדומין זה לזה הרי הן כלאים זה בזה אבל האגסים עם הקרוסטמלים והפרישים עם העוזרדין אינן כלאים זה בזה:

5

Similarly, there are other plants and trees which [our Sages] did not classify as kilayim although they are inherently two different species, because the leaves of one resemble the leaves of the other or the fruit of one resembles the fruit of the other very closely to the extent that they appear as different shades of the same species. [The rationale is that] with regard to kilayim we follow the appearance alone.5

ה

וכן אם יש שם זרעים ואילנות אחרות אף על פי שהן שני מינין בטבען הואיל ועלין של זה דומין לעלין של זה או פרי של זה דומה לפרי של זה דמיון גדול עד שיראו כשני גוונין ממין אחד לא חששו להן לכלאים זה עם זה שאין הולכין בכלאים אלא אחר מראית העין:

6

What is implied? Turnips and radishes are not kilayim with each other because their fruits are similar.6 Turnips and Israeli radishes are not kilayim with each other, because their leaves resemble each other. But radishes and Israeli radishes are kilayim even though their fruits resembles each other and their leaves resemble each other, because the taste of the fruits are drastically different from each other.

ו

כיצד הלפת עם הצנון אינן כלאים זה בזה מפני שפרייהן שוין והלפת עם הנפוס אינן כלאים זה בזה מפני שהעלין שלהן שוין אבל צנון עם הנפוס אע"פ שהעלין דומין זה לזה והפרי דומה לפרי הרי אלו כלאים הואיל וטעם פרי זה רחוק מטעם פרי זה ביותר וכן כל כיוצא באלו:

7

How much is it necessary to separate between two species of plants so that they will not be considered as kilayim [when planting them in the same field]? So that [the two species] will look distinct from each other. If, however, they appear as if they were sown together, this is forbidden.7

ז

כמה מרחיקין בין שני מיני זרעים שהן כלאים זה עם זה כדי שיהיו נראים מובדלין זה מזה אבל אם נראין שנזרעו בערבוביא הרי זה אסור:

8

There are many different measures given with regard to the distance required to make this distinction. Everything depends on the size of the field that is being sown and the proliferation of leaves [the plants have] and the extent to which their branches spread out.

ח

ושיעורין רבים יש בהרחקה הזאת הכל לפי גודל השדה הנזרעת ולפי רוב העלין ושלוח היונקות:

9

What is implied? If a person had sown a species of grain in his field and he sought to sow another species of grain in another field at its side, he must make a separation the size of the area in which one can sow a quarter of a kav between the two. This is approximately8 ten and one fifth cubits by ten and one fifth by approximately ten and one fifth cubits. [This applies] whether [the space left empty ceases] in the midst [of these fields] or [continues along their entire] side.9 If there is less than this space between them, sowing [these crops] are forbidden, but he is not liable for lashes unless they are six handbreadths [or less] close to each other.10

ט

כיצד שדהו שהיתה זרועה מין תבואה ובקש לזרוע בצדה מין תבואה אחרת בשדה אחת מרחיק ביניהן בית רובע והוא כעשר אמות וחומש אמה על עשר אמות וחומש אמה מרובע בין מן האמצע בין מן הצד ואם לא היה ביניהן כשיעור הזה אסור ואינו לוקה עד שיהיו קרובין בתוך ששה טפחים:

10

If his field was sown with vegetables and he desired to sow another species of vegetables - even squash11 - in another field at its side, he must make a separation of a square six handbreadths by six handbreadths between the two whether [the space left empty ceases] in the midst [of these fields] or [continues along their entire] side. If there is less than this space between them, sowing [these crops] are forbidden, but he is not liable for lashes unless they are within a handbreadth of each other.12

י

היתה שדהו זרועה ירק ובקש לזרוע בצדה שדה ירק אחר אפילו דלעת מרחיק בין שתי השדות ששה טפחים על ששה טפחים מרובע בין מן הצד בין מן האמצע ופחות משיעור זה זה אסור ואינו לוקה עד שיהיו קרובין בתוך טפח:

11

If there was grain sown in one of two fields and vegetables or squash sown in the other, one must make a separation the size of the area in which one can sow a quarter of a kav between the two.13

יא

היתה אחת משתי השדות זרועה תבואה והשניה שבצדה ירק או דלעת מרחיק ביניהן בית רובע:

12

When does the need to make a distinction of the size mentioned above apply? Between two fields.14 If, however, he had sowed vegetables in his field and he desires to sow a row of another species of vegetables at their side,15 it is sufficient for him to leave a trench six handbreadths long16 with its width the same as its depth17 between the row and the field.

יב

בד"א שצריך להרחקה בשיעורין הללו בין שתי שדות אבל אם היתה שדהו זרועה ירק ורצה לזרוע בצדה שורה של ירק ממין אחר דיו לעשות בין השדה ובין השורה תלם אחד ארכו ששה טפחים בלבד ורחבו כעומקו:

13

When a field is sown with grain and a person desires to sow a row of vegetables - even squash whose leaves are long and become tangled - in its midst, he must leave a distance of six handbreadths between them.18 If the leaves of the squash became extended and entered into [the portion where] the grain [was sown] and became entangled with it, he should uproot enough of the grain in front of the squash so that the leaves will not become tangled.19 Needless to say, if he sowed one row of one species and another row of another species, it is sufficient for there to be one trench between them, as will be explained.20

יג

היתה שדהו זרועה תבואה ורצה לזרוע בתוכה שורה של ירק אפילו שורה של דלועין שעלין שלהן ארוכים ומסתבכין מרחיק ביניהן ששה טפחים ואם נמשכו העלים של דלעת ונכנסו לתבואה ונסתבכו בה יעקור מן התבואה שלפני הדלעת עד שלא יתערבו העלין ואין צריך לומר שאם זרע שורה ממין זה ושורה ממין אחר שדיו להיות ביניהן תלם אחד כמו שיתבאר:

14

If he made an appropriate separation between the two species, but one of the species became draped upon the other one - whether the grain became draped upon other grain, a vegetable upon another vegetable, a vegetable upon grain, or grain upon a vegetable - everything is permitted, for he made a separation of the appropriate measure. [There is one] exception, Greek squash, because it becomes extended very far. Therefore if it becomes draped upon [another species], one should uproot the species in front of it,21 as explained [in the previous halachah].

יד

הרחיק בין שני המינין הרחקה הראויה להן והיה מין זה נוטה על גבי מין זה בין שנטתה תבואה על התבואה או ירק על גבי ירק או ירק על התבואה או תבואה על הירק הכל מותר שהרי הרחיק כשיעור חוץ מדלעת יונית שהיא נמשכת הרבה לפיכך אם נטתה יעקר מלפניה כמו שבארנו:

15

If between two species there were [any of the following] - a cistern,22a plowed field left fallow, a stone fence, a path,23 a wooden fence that is ten handbreadths high, a trench that is ten handbreadths deep and four handbreadths wide, a tree whose branches hang to the earth,24 or a rock that is ten handbreadths high and four [handbreadths] wide - it is permissible to place the one species on one side of [the divider] and the other species on the other side [of the divider]. Since one of the above is separating between them, they appear distinct from each other.

טו

היה בין שני המינים בור או ניר או גפה או דרך או גדר שהוא גבוה עשרה טפחים או חריץ שהוא עמוק עשרה טפחים ורחב ארבעה או אילן שהוא מיסך על הארץ או סלע שהוא גבוה עשרה טפחים ורחב ארבעה הרי זה מותר לסמוך המין האחד לצד אחד מאלו והמין האחר לצד השני הואיל ואחד מכל אלו מבדיל ביניהן הרי הן נראים מובדלין זה מזה:

16

When is it necessary for there to be such a separation or a divider? When one is sowing [the two species] in his own field. If, however, one person sowed wheat in his field, his colleague is permitted to sow barley in a bordering [field], as [implied by] Leviticus 19:19]: "Do not sow mixed species in your field." The prohibition applies only to sowing mixed species in one's own field. For the Torah does not say: "Mixed species shall not be sown on the earth."25

Moreover, even if one planted barley in his own field next to wheat and extended the barley until it was adjacent to the field of his colleague which was planted with barley, it is permitted. [The rationale is that] the barley in his own field appears to be the end of his colleague's field.26

טז

במה דברים אמורים שצריך הרחקה או דבר המבדיל בשזרע בתוך שדהו אבל אם היתה שדהו זרועה חטים מותר לחבירו לזרוע בצדה שעורים שנאמר שדך לא תזרע כלאים אין האיסור אלא שיזרע שדהו כלאים שלא נאמר הארץ לא תזרע כלאים ולא עוד אלא אפילו זרע בתוך שדהו שעורים סמוך לחטים ומשך זרע השעורים עד שסמכו לשדה חבירו שהיא זרועה שעורים הרי זה מותר מפני שנראו השעורים שבתוך שדהו שהן סוף שדה חבירו:

17

If his field was planted with wheat and a colleague's field adjoining it was planted with wheat, he is permitted to sow one row of flax at the side of his wheat adjoining his colleague's field.27 [The rationale is that] an observer knows that it is not the common practice to sow only one row of flax and this person is merely testing his field to see if it is fit to plant flax or not. Thus he is sowing the seed with the intent of destroying it.28 Therefore,29 it is forbidden to sow another species30 between these two fields31 that are planted with one species until he makes a distinction [between the two species] within his own property.

יז

היתה שדהו זרועה חטים ושדה חבירו בצדה זרועה חטים מותר לו לזרוע תלם אחד של פשתן בצד חטים שלו סמוך לשדה חבירו שהרואה יודע שאין דרך העם לזרוע תלם אחד של פשתן ולא נתכוון זה אלא לבדוק שדהו אם ראויה היא לזרוע פשתן אם לא ונמצא כזורע להשחתה לפיכך אסור לזרוע מין אחר בין שתי שורות אלו שהן ממין אחד עד שירחיק בתוך שלו:

18

When a person's field and a colleague's field were sown with two [different] types of grain,32 he should not sow even one row of mustard seed or safflower seed, because it is customary to sow one row of these.33 If, however, there were two fields planted with different species of vegetables, it is permitted to sow mustard seed or safflower seed between them. For it is permitted to bring any species close to mustard seed or safflower seed with the exception of grain.34 [There is a stringency in the latter instance, because the mustard seed or safflower seed] do not have a harmful effect on [grain].

Similarly, if a corner [of a portion] of one's field [sown] with one species touches a block [of the field sown] with another species, it is permitted, because they appear separate from each other.35 Needless to say, if the corner [of a portion of one's field sown] with one species touches a corner [of the field sown] with another species, it is permitted without setting them apart or making a distinction as we explained,36because it appears that it is the end of one field that touched the end of another field.

יח

היתה שדהו ושדה חבירו שבצדה זרועין שני מיני תבואה לא יזרע ביניהם חרדל וחריע אפילו תלם אחד מפני שהעם זורעים מאלו תלם אחד אבל אם היו שתי השדות זרועין שני מיני ירקות מותר לזרוע ביניהן חרדל או חריע שמותר להקיף חרדל או חריע לכל מין חוץ מן התבואה מפני שאינן מזיקין אותה וכן אם היתה זוית של זרע זה נוגעת בצלע של זרע האחר בתוך שדהו הרי זה מותר מפני שהן נראין מובדלין זה מזה ואין צריך לומר אם היתה זוית של זרע זה נוגעת בזוית של זרע האחר מפני שהן נראין כסוף שדה שנגע בסוף שדה שהוא מותר בלא הרחקה ולא הבדלה כמו שבארנו:

Footnotes
1.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 1:2), the Rambam defines this as "mountain lettuce." The examples cited by the Rambam in this and following halachot are all taken from Kilayim, ch. 1. Our translation is largely dependent on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah and Rav Kappach's notes to that text.

2.

This squash has a bitter taste and is made edible only by putting it in a remetz, a pit filled with smoldering ashes (ibid.).

3.

Two types of wild beans.

4.

See Halachah 6.

5.

The Rambam also states this principle in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:1). According to his understanding, it is our perception which determines whether one is mixing species or not. Their biological nature is a secondary factor.

6.

The Ra'avad differs on the principle explained by the Rambam and considers these species as kilayim.

7.

The Rambam is stating a general principle with which he introduces the coming halachot.

8.

I.e., slightly more than that sum (Kessef Mishneh).

9.

Our translation is based on the gloss of the Kessef Mishneh who cites the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:3) as a source.

The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh cite the Jerusalem Talmud (Kilayim 2:7) which states that if one species surrounds the other on all four sides, such a separation is not sufficient. They say that one could understand the Rambam as alluding to that view. The Aruch HaShulchan 297:32, however, explains that the Rambam differs.

10.

I.e., unless it is less than the smaller figure, it is not forbidden by Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, as a safeguard, our Sages required an even greater separation.

11.

Whose leaves spread very far (see Halachah 13).

12.

Although the Ra'avad rules stringently, stating that the measures mentioned in the previous halachah apply in this instance as well, the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh justify the Rambam's approach.

13.

Since there is grain involved, we rule stringently (Radbaz).

14.

Here the Rambam does not define what constitutes a field. In Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 3:4, he states that a small field is 50 cubits by 2 cubits and in Hilchot Shechenim 1:4, he defines a field as a place that is fit to sow nine kabbim. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Bava Basra 1:6), he defines that as being 3750 sq. cubits.

15.

If he wants to sow this row in the middle of the field, he must leave such a trench on either side (Radbaz).

16.

For a separation this size is sufficient to set the row apart as a distinct entity [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:3)].

17.

The trench must be at least a handbreadth deep.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam's interpretation of this concept, but the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh substantiate the Rambam's understanding.

18.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 3, and notes.

19.

The Radbaz explains that he could also cut off the extensions of the squash plants, but apparently, he would suffer a greater loss from doing that than from uprooting the grain. Hence, the Rambam is simply giving him good advice.

20.

The Radbaz mentions that this also refers to the concepts mentioned in the previous halachah. It is, nevertheless, placed here to teach that even though there is grain involved (see Halachah 9), since we are speaking only of one row, there is no need for additional stringency.

21.

Even though there is an appropriate separation, the species appear to be mixed [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:11)].

22.

Our translation follows the gloss of the Radbaz. Others interpret the term bor as referring to an unplowed field.

23.

Which is four cubits wide (see Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 3:3).

24.

And thus it appears as a tent [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:11)].

25.

This ruling is an outgrowth of the rationale for the prohibition against mixed species: not to intermingle the different spiritual powers that give energy to the various crops (see the commentary of Rabbenu Bachaye to Leviticus 19:19). If the properties belong to two different people - even though the land on which the different crops grow are adjacent - the two spiritual mediums of nurture will not be intermingled (Yayin Malchut).

The Ra'avad does not accept the Rambam's ruling. He accepts the following clause - for it is an explicit mishnah (Kilayim 2:7) - but maintains that the sowing of the two species next to each other are acceptable in that instance, because at the outset, there was a clear distinction. In this instance, by contrast, there is no distinction at the outset, and it appears that a prohibition was violated. The Radbaz justifies the Rambam's ruling, stating that if one is allowed to sow mixed species in his own field, because it appears to be an extension of his colleague's field, certainly, his colleague is allowed to plant a different species in his own field.

26.

And thus they will not appear as mixed species to an onlooker.

27.

Despite the fact that the two fields appear to be one continuous field of wheat, planting the one row of flax is permitted for the rationale explained by the Rambam (Radbaz).

28.

I.e., he is not intending to reap any benefit from planting this flax. For this reason, the prohibition against kilayim does not apply.

29.

I.e., since the reason for the leniency is that everyone can see that he has no benefit from the row of flax, when that rationale does not apply, the leniency is not granted.

30.

I.e., a species other than flax that people might commonly sow only one row of.

31.

Our text is based on authoritative manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah. The version in the standard printed text is slightly different.

32.

Needless to say, this applies when the fields are sown with the same species (Radbaz).

33.

I.e., these are crops for which there is a benefit in sowing a single row. Hence, in contrast to the flax mentioned in the previous halachah, a prohibition exists.

The commentaries note that the Rambam's statements here appear to contradict his statement in Chapter 1, Halachah 9, in which he states that it is customary to sow entire fields of mustard seed. They are, however, reinforced by his statements in Hilchot Matnot Aniyim 3:11.

34.

Since mustard seed and safflower seed have a harmful effect on other crops, there is no prohibition. Significantly, in his Commentary on the Mishnah (Kilayim 2:8), the Rambam writes the direct opposite that mustard seed and safflower seed have a harmful effect on grain, but not on other crops.

Rav Yosef Corcus notes that from the previous halachah, one might think that it is permitted to plant only a row of flax, but not of other species, because only flax is planted as an experiment. And from this halachah, one might think only mustard seed and safflower seed are forbidden, for otherwise, there would be no reason to single them out individually, but other species are permitted. In resolution, he explains that here the emphasis is on mustard seed and flax seed individually. Since they are permitted next to other species, one might think that they are also permitted next to grain. Hence, it is necessary to emphasize that this is not so.

35.

Even though they are adjacent, the manner in which they are planted makes a clear distinction.

36.

In Halachah 16.

Kilaayim - Chapter 4

1

It is permitted to sow two rows of zucchini next to each other, next to them two rows of squash, next to them two rows of Egyptian beans, [provided] there is a trench1 between each species.2 One should not, however, sow one row of zucchini, one row of squash, and one row of Egyptian beans, even though there is a trench separating between each species, because the leaves of these species grow long and become extended and tangled. If they are sown one row next to another, everything will become intermingled and it will appear that he sowed [the crops] as a mixture.

א

מותר לזרוע שתי שורות זו בצד זו של קשואין ושתי שורות בצידן של דלועין ושתי שורות של פול המצרי ותלם בין כל מין ומין אבל לא יזרע שורה אחת של קשואין ושורה אחת של דלועין ושורה אחת של פול המצרי אף על פי שהתלם מבדיל בין כל מין ומין מפני שמינין אלו עלים שלהן ארוכין ונמשכין ומסתבכין ואם זרען שורה בצד שורה יתערב הכל ונראו כנזרעין בערבוביא:

2

If a person's field was planted with types of vegetables and he desired to plant several rows of squash3 in it, [he must do the following]: Rip up from the vegetables a place where he will plant a row of squash and separate between it and the vegetables with a trench. He then leaves a twelve cubit section of vegetables and plants a second row of squash, dividing between it and the vegetables with a trench. Similarly, [he should follow this pattern] until [he reaches] the place he desires. Thus there will be twelve cubits between each two rows of squash.4 If there is less than this measure, it is forbidden, because the leaves will become tangled with the vegetables between them on either side and it will appear that he sowed [the crops] as a mixture.

ב

היתה שדהו זרועה מין ממיני ירקות ובקש לזרוע בתוכה שורות שורות של דלועין עוקר מן הירק מקום שזורע בו שורה של דלועין ומבדיל בינה ובין הירק בתלם ומניח מן הירק רוחב שתים עשרה אמה ועושה שורה שניה של דלועין ומבדיל בינה ובין הירק בתלם וכן עד מקום שירצה שנמצא בין כל שתי שורות של דלועין שתים עשרה אמה אבל פחות מיכן אסור מפני העלין שמסתבכין מיכן ומיכן בירק שביניהם ונראה הכל כאילו נזרע בערבוביא:

3

When [a person has] a row of squash sown or even one squash [plant] and desires to plant grain next to it, he must [leave empty a portion] large enough to sow a fourth [of a kav],5 for [the squash plants'] leaves have become extended and are considered to have taken possession of a large area.6 Any entity, e.g., a grave, a rock,7 or the like, that exists within [the area] large enough to sow a fourth [of a kav] that is left empty as a separation between these two species is considered as part of the measure.

ג

היתה שורה של דלעת זרועה אפילו דלעת יחידית ובא לזרוע בצדה תבואה מרחיק בית רובע שהרי נמשכו עליה והחזיקה מקום גדול וכל דבר שיהיה בתוך בית רובע שמרחיקין בין שני המינין עולה מן המדה כגון הקבר והסלע וכיוצא בהן:

4

When a trench or an irrigation ditch are a handbreadth deep,8 one may sow three types of plants within them: one on each edge of the trench and one in the middle.9

ד

התלם או אמת המים שהן עמוקים טפח זורעין לתוכו שלשה מיני זרעים אחד על שפת התלם מיכן ואחד מיכן ואחד באמצע:

5

It is permitted to sow two species in one pit - even zucchini and squash10 - provided that one is leaning above one side of the pit and the other leans above the other side and thus they appear separate from each other.11 Similarly, if one planted four species in a pit and pointed them to each of the four directions, it is permitted.

ה

ומותר לנטוע שני מינין בתוך גומא אחת ואפילו קישות ודלעת והוא שיהיה מין זה נוטה מעל שפת הגומא לכאן והמין האחר נוטה לצד השני ויראו נבדלין זה מזה וכן אם נטע ארבעה מינין בתוך הגומא והפכן לארבע רוחותיה הרי זה מותר:

6

When a person desires to sow his field in many long rows of different species, he should make a separation of two cubits by two cubits [at the beginning of the rows]. He may then continually reduce the width of the empty space until at the end of the rows, there is only the slightest amount of empty space between them. [This is permitted,] because they do not look like they have been sown as a mixture.12

ו

הרוצה לזרוע שדהו משר משר מכל מין ומין מרחיק בין כל משר ומשר שתי אמות על שתי אמות ומיצר והולך עד שלא ישאר ביניהן בסוף המשר אלא כל שהוא שהרי הן נראין שלא נזרעו בערבוביא:

7

If a person wants to plant his field in squares13 of different species, he should not plant more than nine squares in a field large enough to sow a se'ah. Each square should be large enough to sow a quarter of a kav.14 Thus there will be approximately ten cubits minus a fourth of a cubit between each square, for the area in which a se'ah can be sown is fifty [cubits] by fifty [cubits].

ז

רצה לעשות שדהו קרחת קרחת מכל מין ומין לא יעשה בתוך כל בית סאה יתר על תשע קרחות כל קרחת מהן בית רובע ונמצא רחוק בין קרחת וקרחת קרוב לעשר אמות פחות רביע שכל בית סאה חמשים על חמשים:

8

What is the difference between the terms meishar and karachat?15 The former is long and the latter is square.

ח

ומה בין המשר לקרחת שהמשר ארוך והקרחת מרובעת:

9

[The following principle applies with regard to] species of vegetables that it is not customary for a person to sow in large amounts as we explained.16 It is permitted to sow even five types of these vegetables in one row that is six handbreadths by six handbreadths, provided he sows four species at the four sides17 of the row and one in the middle, leaving a handbreadth and a half between each species so that they will not derive nurture from each other.18 One should not, however, sow more than five species [in a row] even if he makes an appropriate separation, because it appears that they are sown as a mixture.

ט

מיני ירקות שאין דרך בני אדם לזרוע מהם אלא מעט מעט כמו שבארנו מותר לזרוע מהם אפילו חמשה מינין בתוך ערוגה אחת שהיא ששה טפחים על ששה טפחים והוא שיזרע ארבעה מינין בארבע רוחות הערוגה ואחד באמצע וירחיק בין מין ומין כמו טפח ומחצה כדי שלא יינקו זה מזה אבל יותר על חמשה מינין לא יזרע אף על פי שמרחיק ביניהם לפי שמינין הרבה בערוגה כזו הרי הן כנטועין בערבוביא:

10

When does the above apply? To a row planted in a ruin where there are no crops outside it. If, however, a row is planted among other rows [of produce], it is forbidden to sow five [different] species. For if he will sow all four sides of one row and all the sides of the rows around it, everything will appear as a mixture.19

If he caused the leaves of one row to lean to one side and those of the other row to lean to the other side so they appear distinct [from each other], it is permitted. Similarly, if he makes a trench between each row, it is permitted.20

י

בד"א בערוגה שהיא בחורבה ואין שם זרע חוצה לה אבל ערוגה בין ערוגות אסור לזרוע בה חמשה מינין שאם יזרע בכל רוח מערוגה זו ובכל רוח מערוגותיה שסביבותיה יראה הכל כמעורב ואם הטה עלין שבערוגה זו לכאן ועלין שבערוגה שבצדה מכאן עד שיראו מובדלים מותר וכן אם עשה תלם בין כל ערוגה וערוגה מותר:

11

It is forbidden to sow outside this row without a trench or without leaning [the plants to the side]. [This applies] even opposite the corners of the row in which there are no plants. This is a decree, [enacted] lest one sow the four species in the four corners of the row21 and sow other species outside of it, opposite the corners, and thus, everything would appear mixed.

יא

ואסור לזרוע חוץ לערוגה בלא תלם ובלא נטייה ואפילו כנגד הקרנות של ערוגה שאין בהן זרע גזירה שמא יזרע ארבעת המינין בארבע זויות ערוגה ויזרע מינין אחרים חוצה לה כנגד הזויות ונמצא הכל כמעורב:

12

If the row was six handbreadths by six handbreadths and it had a barrier a handbreadth high and a handbreadth wide around it, it is permitted to sow even eighteen species within it: three on each barrier22 and six in the middle. One must separate a handbreadth and a half between each species. One should not sow a turnip in the midst of the barrier, lest it fill it.23 He should not sow more than that.24

יב

היתה הערוגה ששה על ששה והיה לה גבול גבוה טפח ורחב טפח סביב מותר לזרוע בה אפילו שמנה עשר מינין שלשה על כל גבול וגבול וששה באמצע וירחיק בין כל מין ומין טפח ומחצה ולא יזרע ראש הלפת בתוך הגבול שמא ימלאהו יותר על זה לא יזרע:

13

It is forbidden to sow different seed plants25 in this manner, because they appear as kilayim.26 [More lenient laws apply to] species of vegetables. Since people generally sow only small amounts of them, it is permitted [to sow them in the manner] explained [above].

יג

ואסור לזרוע בערוגה מיני זרעים בענין זה מפני שהן נראין כלאים אבל מיני ירקות הואיל ואין דרך בני אדם לזרוע מהן אלא מעט מעט הרי זה מותר כמו שבארנו:

14

When there is a barrier a handbreadth wide and one sowed several species in it as we explained,27 if the height of the barrier was reduced,28 it is still acceptable since it was acceptable at the time when it was originally sown.29

יד

גבול שהיה גבוה טפח וזרעו בו מינין הרבה כמו שבארנו ונתמעט מטפח מאחר שנזרע בו כשר שהיה כשר מתחלתו:

15

When a person desires to fill his entire garden with different types of vegetables without making a separation between them, he should divide the entire garden into square rows, even six handbreadths by six handbreadths. He should then make five circles in every row, four for the four corners and one in the center. He may sow a species [of vegetables] in each circle and one in the center and he may sow four other species in the four corners.30 Thus there are nine species in each row and yet they appear separate from each other. He leaves empty only what is between the circles. This is left fallow so that the circles will appear distinct from the corners and distinct from each other.31

If he desires not to leave any empty space at all, he should do the following: If [the crops in] the circles are sown vertically, he should sow [crops in the space left] between them horizontally. If they are sown horizontally, he should sow [in the space] between them vertically so that they will appear distinct from each other.

טו

הרוצה למלאות כל גנתו מיני ירקות רבים ולא ירחיק ביניהם עושה כל הגנה ערוגות מרובעות אפילו ששה על ששה ועושה בכל ערוגה חמשה עיגולין ארבעה בארבע רוחותיה ואחד באמצע וזורע מין בכל עיגול וזורע ארבעה מינים אחרים בארבעה קרנות ערוגה נמצאו תשעה מינין בכל ערוגה והן נראין מובדלין זה מזה ואינו מפסיד אלא מה שבין העיגולין בלבד שהוא מניחו חרב כדי שיראו העיגולין מובדלין מן הקרנות ומובדלין זה מזה ואם רצה שלא יפסיד כלום אם היו העיגולין זרועים שתי זורע מה שביניהן ערב ואם היו זרועין ערב זורע מה שביניהן שתי כדי שיראו מובדלין:

16

From all of the above, the following principles become apparent for you. When there is sufficient space32 between two species so that they will not derive nurture, we are not concerned with the appearance as we explained.33 And when they appear separate from each other, we are not concerned with the fact that they derive nurture from each other, even if they are next to each other as we just explained.

טז

מכל אלו הדברים נתבאר לך שבזמן שיש בין שני המינין הרחקה הראויה להם כדי שלא יינקו זה מזה אין חוששין למראית העין כמו שבארנו ובזמן שיראו מובדלים זה מזה אין חוששים ליניקתן אפילו הן זה בצד זה כמו שנתבאר עתה:

Footnotes
1.

Chapter 3, Halachah 12, states that these trenches must be as wide as they are deep. The Aruch HaShulchan writes that the trench must be at least four handbreadths wide.

2.

Although these species are considered as kilayim, sowing them in this manner is permitted, because of the precautions that are taken. For each block of a particular crop appears as a separate field [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:4)].

Although in the following halachah, a twelve cubit stretch of each crop is required, that is because one is sowing only one row of the squash. Hence, it does not look like a field of squash and sowing a larger stretch of vegetables is required (Radbaz).

3.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid.:6), the Rambam writes that a row of squash is four cubits wide.

4.

In such an instance, each block of vegetables appears as a separate field, as stated above (Radbaz).

The width of the trench is not counted because it does not have a specific measure, nor must it extend over the entire length of the field (Rav Yosef Corcus).

5.

10 and one fifth cubits by 10 and one fifth cubits. This stringency is required because the laws governing grain are stricter than those governing vegetables.

6.

The Radbaz notes that in Chapter 3, Halachah 13, the Rambam speaks of making a separation of six handbreadths between grain and squash and here, he requires a much larger figure. He explains that here we are speaking about a situation in which the squash has already grown and its leaves are extended, while there we are speaking of squash that is just beginning to grow.

7.

I.e., a rock that is less the ten handbreadths high and four handbreadths wide. If it is of the latter size, it alone is considered a sufficient divider, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 15.

8.

If they are not this deep, they are considered to be flush with the earth and the leniency mentioned in this halachah does not apply.

9.

For each type of plant appears distinct.

10.

Whose leaves spread and become entangled [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:5)].

11.

And the foundation of the prohibition of Kilayim is the impression created (ibid.).

12.

I.e., the separation made initially is sufficient to distinguish the crops sown throughout the field.

13.

The Ra'avad notes that the Rambam uses the term karachat which usually means "bald patch" to refer, not to the area of the field that is left empty, but the area which is planted.

14.

Ten and one fifth cubits, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 10.

15.

The Hebrew terms used in the two preceding halachot.

16.

Chapter 1, Halachah 9.

17.

Note the accompanying diagrams, taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:1).

18.

This is the measure in which plants derive nurture from the earth (ibid.). The Rambam, however, does not always focus on this point, because he views the impression created of equal significance, as stated at the conclusion of the chapter.

19.

Even if he does not fill up the borders, it is forbidden as a decree, lest he come to do so (Kessef Mishneh).

20.

For the trench appears as a distinction.

21.

See the accompanying diagram, taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah.

22.

I.e. since the species are sown on the barrier, they are distinct from those sown within the trench. Note the following diagram, taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah.

23.

I.e., lest the turnip grow large and fill up the empty space on the border.

24.

For it will be cluttered and appear as a mixture (Radbaz).

25.

E.g., mustard or smooth peas (Kilayim 3:2).

26.

It is customary to sow larger plots of these crops. Hence if one sows a row of the above size with different species of these crops, it will appear to be a mixture of species.

27.

Halachah 12.

28.

I.e., some of its earth was taken away.

29.

It is, however, forbidden to sow crops on the side of the barrier until its height is restored [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:2)]. There, however, the Rambam interprets the barrier as referring to a divider between two types of crops, not a barrier around a row.

30.

I.e., the area between the circles and the perimeter of the square.

31.

The Ra'avad objects to this ruling. The Rambam's rationale depends on the principle explained in the following halachah: that when crops appear distinct, we are not concerned that they derive nurture from each other.

32.

A handbreadth and a half.

33.

Halachah 9.

Kilaayim - Chapter 5

1

When a person sows two types of grain or two types of vegetables1 together with [grape] seeds, he is liable for two sets of lashes:2 one for [violating the prohibition (Leviticus 19:19)]: "You shall not sow your field with mixed species,"3 and one for [violating the prohibition (Deuteronomy 22:9)]:4"You shall not sow your vineyard with mixed species."

א

הזורע שני מיני תבואה או שני מיני ירקות עם זרע הכרם הרי זה לוקה שתים אחת משום שדך לא תזרע כלאים ואחת משום לא תזרע כרמך כלאים:

2

A person does not receive lashes for sowing kilayim in a vineyard unless he sows a handful of wheat, barley,5 and grape seed in Eretz Yisrael.6 Similarly, one who covers such seeds with earth is worthy of lashes. And one who sows two types of vegetable seeds or a vegetable seed, a grain seed, and a grape seed from one hand is worthy of lashes.

ב

ואינו לוקה משום זורע כלאי הכרם עד שיזרע בארץ ישראל חטה ושעורה וחרצן במפולת יד וכן אם חפה אותם בעפר לוקה וכן אם זרע שני מיני ירק וחרצן או זרע אחד ירק וזרע אחד מין תבואה וחרצן במפולת יד הרי זה לוקה:

3

He is not liable according to Scriptural Law unless [he sows] hemp and wild onions or the like from seeds that will mature together with the produce of the vineyard.7 Other types of seeds are forbidden according to Rabbinic decree. Similarly, according to Rabbinic decree, it is forbidden to sow kilayim in a vineyard in the Diaspora.

ג

ואינו חייב מן התורה אלא על קנבוס ולוף וכיוצא בהן מזרעים שנגמרים עם תבואת הכרם אבל שאר הזרעים אסורים מדבריהם וכן אסור מדבריהם לזרוע כלאי הכרם בחוצה לארץ:

4

Why did [the Sages] forbid planting mixed species in a vineyard in the Diaspora, but not mixed species in a field?8 Because [the prohibition against] mixed species in a vineyard is more severe. For if they were to be sown in Eretz Yisrael, it would be forbidden to benefit from them.9 Since it is forbidden to benefit from them in Eretz Yisrael, it is forbidden to sow them in the Diaspora.

ד

ולמה אסרו כלאי הכרם [בחוצה לארץ ולא אסרו כלאי זרעים] מפני שכלאי הכרם חמורין הם שאם נזרעו בארץ ישראל הרי הן אסורין בהנאה וכיון שהן אסורין בהנאה בארץ אסרו לזרען בחוצה לארץ:

5

We may not hoe with a gentile with mixed produce,10 but one may uproot the produce11 with him in order to eliminate the undesirable substances.12

ה

ואין עודרין עם הנכרי בכלאים אבל עוקרין עמו כדי למעט התיפלה:

6

The prohibition against mixed species in a vineyard applies only to species of grain and species of vegetables. Other types of plants,13 by contrast, are permitted to be sown in a vineyard. Needless to say, [this applies with regard] to other trees.14

ו

אין אסור משום כלאי הכרם אלא מיני תבואה ומיני ירקות בלבד אבל שאר מיני זרעים מותר לזרעם בכרם ואין צריך לומר שאר אילנות:

7

It is forbidden to sow vegetables or grain next to vines or to plant a vine next to vegetables or grain.15 If one does this, although he is not liable for lashes,16 [the produce] is hallowed and it is forbidden to benefit from both the grain or vegetables and the vines.17 They must both be burnt, as [Deuteronomy 22:9] states: "Lest the fullness of the seed... become hallowed."

It is forbidden to benefit from even the straw of this grain and the wood from these vines.18 They must be burnt. One should not use them as fuel for an oven19 or a range and one should not [use them] for cooking while they are being burnt.

ז

אסור לזרוע ירקות או תבואה בצד הגפנים או ליטע גפן בצד הירק או תבואה ואם עשה כן אע"פ שאינו לוקה הרי זה קדש ונאסרו שניהם בהנאה הירק או התבואה או הגפנים ושורפין את שניהן שנאמר פן תקדש המלאה הזרע ואפילו הקש של תבואה והעצים של גפנים האלו אסורין בהנאה ושורפין אותם ולא יסיק בהן תנור וכירים ולא יבשל בהם בעת שריפתן:

8

[The prohibition applies equally] whether one plants or maintains kilayim; i.e., one saw that mixed substances grew in his vineyard and he left them [to grow], they become hallowed.20

A person may not hallow an article that is not his.21 Therefore if a person draped his vine over grain belonging to a colleague, he causes his vine to be hallowed, but not the grain. If he draped a vine belonging to a colleague over his grain, he causes his grain to be hallowed, but not his colleague's vine. If he draped a vine belonging to a colleague over grain belonging to a colleague, he does not cause either of them to become hallowed. For this reason, when a person sows [kilayim] in his vineyard in the Sabbatical year, he does not cause it to be hallowed.22

ח

אחד הנוטע ואחד המקיים כיון שראה כלאים צמחו בכרמו והניחם הרי זה קדש ואין אדם מקדש דבר שאינו שלו לפיכך המסכך גפנו על גבי תבואתו של חבירו קדש גפנו ולא נתקדשה התבואה סכך גפן חבירו על תבואתו קדש תבואה ולא קדש גפן חבירו סכך גפן חבירו על תבואת חבירו לא קדש אחד מהן ומפני זה הזורע כרמו בשביעית לא קדש:

9

When a person23 sees mixed species [growing] in a vineyard belonging to a colleague and maintained them, that observer is forbidden to benefit from them. Every other person is permitted. Were the owner of the vineyard to have maintained them, they would be hallowed for all people as explained.

ט

הרואה כלאים בכרם חבירו וקיימן הרי זה הרואה אסור בהנייתן וכל אדם מותרין בהן ואילו קיימן בעל הכרם היה מקדש אותן לכל אדם כמו שבארנו:

10

[The following laws apply when] a man of force24 sowed kilayim in a vineyard belonging to another person. If the owner hides out of fear,25 even though he does not despair over [ultimately receiving his property], [the produce] becomes hallowed according to Scriptural Law.26 If he does not hide, even though he does despair [the produce] becomes hallowed only according to Rabbinic Law.

י

האנס שזרע כלאים בכרם חבירו אם נשתקעו הבעלים אף על פי שלא נתייאשו הרי זה קדש מן התורה ואם לא נשתקעו הבעלים אע"פ שנתייאשו אינו מקדש אלא מדברי סופרים:

11

When wind uproots branches of a vine and blows them against grain, one should remove27 them immediately. If he did not remove them28 due to forces beyond his control, they are permitted and they do not become hallowed.29

יא

הרוח שעקרה פארות הגפן ושלחה אותן על התבואה יגדוד אותן מיד ואם אירעו אונס ולא סילקן הרי אלו מותרין ולא נתקדשו:

12

[The following laws apply when] a man of force30 sowed [kilayim] in a vineyard [and then departed, leaving the vineyard to its original owner]. When the man of force departs, [the owner] should harvest the crops immediately,31even during Chol HaMoed.32 If one cannot find workers, he should add even a third to their wages.33 If they demanded more than that or was unable to find workers, he may continue searching without pressure and harvest [the produce]. If the produce remained until it reached the point that it hallows [the vineyard],34 it is hallowed and both species are forbidden.

יב

אנס שזרע הכרם כשיצא האנס יקצור הזרע מיד ואפילו בחולו של מועד ואם לא מצא פועלין יוסיף להן עד שליש בשכרן בקשו ממנו יותר מיכן או שלא מצא פועלים הרי זה מבקש בנחת וקוצר ואם נשתהא הזרע עד שהגיע לעונת שיקדש הרי זה יקדש ויאסרו שניהם:

13

When do grain or vegetables become hallowed? When [the plants] develop roots. [When do] grapes? When they reach the size of a white bean, as [implied by Deuteronomy 22:9]: "Lest the fullness of the seed which you sowed and the produce of the vineyard become hallowed;" [i.e., the prohibition applies when] one sows this35and this36 becomes produce. If, however, the grain37has already dried to the degree necessary or grapes had matured to their full extent, they do not become hallowed.38

What is implied? When grain has already dried to the degree necessary and then one planted a vine in their midst or grapes had matured to their full extent and one planted grain or a vegetable next to them, although this is forbidden, they do not become hallowed.

יג

מאימתי תבואה או ירק מתקדשין משישרישו ענבים משיעשו כפול הלבן שנאמר המלאה הזרע אשר תזרע ותבואת הכרם עד שיזרע זה ויהיה זה תבואה אבל תבואה שיבשה כל צורכה וענבים שבשלו כל צורכן אינן מתקדשות [כיצד תבואה שיבשה כל צרכה ובא ונטע גפן בתוכה וכן ענבים שבשלו כל צרכן וזרע תבואה או ירק בצדן אע"פ שזה אסור אינן מתקדשות]:

14

[The following rules apply in] a vineyard whose grapes have not grown to the size of a white bean, but are still underdeveloped. If one sowed vegetables or grain there and they took root, they are not hallowed.39 Nevertheless, he is penalized and we forbid the growths.40 The underdeveloped grapes, by contrast, are permitted.41 If one uprooted the growths before the grapes became the size of a white bean, it is permitted to benefit from them.42

If some of [the grapes] have reached that size and some have not, those which have are hallowed and those which have not are not.43

יד

כרם שלא הגיעו ענביו להיות כפול הלבן אלא עדיין הן בוסר וזרע בתוכו ירק או תבואה והשרישו הרי זה לא קדש ואעפ"כ קונסין אותו ואוסרין הזרע אבל הבוסר מותר ואם עקר הזרע קודם שיעשו הענבים כפול הלבן הרי זה מותר בהנייה מקצתן נעשו כפול הלבן ומקצתן לא נעשו את שנעשו נתקדשו ואת שלא נעשו מותרין:

15

When grapes have grown to the size of a white bean and one planted grain or types of vegetables at their side and reaped the growths before they became rooted, it is permitted to benefit from them.44 If they became rooted, it is forbidden.

טו

ענבים שנעשו כפול הלבן וזרע בצדן תבואה או מיני ירקות ולקט הזרע קודם שישריש הרי זה מותר בהנאה ואם השריש אסור:

16

When a vine has dried out and its leaves have fallen as is frequent in the winter,45 it is forbidden to sow vegetables or grain next to it. If one sows them there, they do not become hallowed. Similarly, if one sows these species in a flowerpot that does not have a hole which is located in a vineyard, the produce is not hallowed.46 He, however, should be given stripes for rebellious conduct.47 If, however, the flowerpot has a hole, it is [as if he sowed] in the ground.48

טז

גפן שיבשו העלין שלה ונפלו כדרך שתיבש הגפן בימי הקור אסור לזרוע בצדה ירק או תבואה ואם זרע לא קדשו וכן הזורע בעציץ שאינו נקוב המונח בכרם לא קדש ומכין אותו מכת מרדות אבל עציץ נקוב הרי הוא כארץ:

17

[The following rules apply when a person] was passing through a vineyard and seeds fell from him49 or they were brought [into a field] with fertilizer or water, or one was sowing or winnowing in a field of grain and the wind carried the seeds behind him and the seeds fell into a vineyard and sprouted, they do not become hallowed. [This is derived from the prooftext cited above] which states "which you sowed," and this was not sowed.50 He is, [nevertheless,] obligated to uproot it when he sees it. If he maintains it, it becomes hallowed.51

If the wind carried the seeds before him and he saw them fall into the vineyard, he is considered to have sown them. What should he do if their grasses grow? He should turn them over with a plow; this is sufficient. If he discovered that they have already ripened,52 he should crush the portion that ripened,53 for it is forbidden to benefit from the entire54 [plant].55 If he discovers that grain has already sprouted,56 it must be burnt. If he saw it and maintained it, it must be burnt together with the vines adjacent to it.

יז

היה עובר בכרם ונפלו ממנו זרעים או שיצאו עם הזבלים או עם המים או שהיה זורע או זורה בשדה לבן וסערתו הרוח לאחוריו ונפלו הזרעים בכרם וצמחו הרי זה לא נתקדש שנאמר אשר תזרע וזה לא זרע וחייב לעקור כשיראה ואם קיימן הרי זה קדש סערתו הרוח לפניו ורואה הזרעים שנפלו לכרם הרי זה כזורע וכיצד יעשה אם צמחו העשבים יהפכם במחרישה ודיו ואם מצאן שנעשו אביב ינפץ אותו אביב כדי להשחיתו שהכל אסור בהנאה ואם מצאה שנעשית דגן הרי זו תשרף ואם ראה אותן וקיימן הרי אלו ישרפו עם הגפנים הסמוכות להן:

18

When a person sees an herb that [most] people would not plant [growing] in a vineyard, it does not become hallowed57 even though he desires that it be maintained [so that he will use it] for animal [fodder]58 or for medicinal purposes unless most people in that locale59 would maintain such a plant. What is implied? [When] a person maintains brush [growing] in his vineyard in Arabia, it becomes hallowed, [because there most people] desire the brush for their camels.

יח

הרואה בכרם עשב שאין דרך בני אדם לזורעו אף על פי שהוא רוצה בקיומו לבהמה או לרפואה הרי זה לא קדש עד שיקיים דבר שכמוהו מקיימין רוב העם באותו מקום כיצד המקיים קוצים בכרם בערב שרוצים בקוצים לגמליהם הרי זה קדש:

19

Mint, ivy, the king's lily, and other [similar] plants are not considered as kilayim in a vineyard. Hemp, artichokes,60 and cotton, are considered like other types of vegetables and they become hallowed in a vineyard. Similarly, all types of herbs that grow on their own accord in a field become hallowed in a vineyard. An Egyptian bean is considered as a plant and does not become hallowed. Bamboo, roses, and thornbushes are considered as species of trees and are not kilayim in a vineyard.61

יט

הארוס והקיסוס ושושנת המלך ושאר מיני זרעים אינן כלאים בכרם הקנבוס והקנרס וצמר גפן הרי הן כשאר מיני ירקות ומקדשים בכרם וכן כל מיני דשאים שעולין מאיליהן בשדה הרי הן מקדשין בכרם ופול המצרי מין זרעים הוא ואינו מקדש הקנים והוורד והאטדין מיני אילן הן ואינן כלאים בכרם:

20

This is the general principle: Whenever the leaves of a plant grow from its roots, it is considered a vegetable.62 If its leaves do not grow from its roots, it is not a vegetable. A caper tree is considered as a tree in all contexts.63

כ

זה הכלל כל המוציא עלין מעיקרו הרי זה ירק וכל שאינו מוציא עלין הרי זה אילן והצלף אילן לכל דבר:

21

When a person sees a vegetable [growing] in [his] vineyard and says: "When I reach it, I will take it out," it is permitted.64 Should he reach it and pass it by, saying: "When I return, I will take it out,"65 of he waits [the time it takes] to add 1/200th [to its size], it becomes hallowed.

כא

הרואה ירק בכרם ואמר כשאגיע לו אלקטנו מותר הגיע לו ועבר מעליו ואמר כשאחזור לו אלקטנו אם שהה עד שהוסיף אחד ממאתים הרי זה קדש:

22

How can we measure this degree [of growth]? We see how long it would take for this vegetable or grain to dry if its connection with the earth were severed.66 Let us say that it would take 100 hours to dry to the point that it retained no moisture. Thus if it remained in the ground for half an hour after he reached it, it will have added 1/200th [to its size] and it is forbidden. If he waited less than half an hour, it is permitted.

כב

וכיצד משערין שיעור זה רואין אם נחתך ירק זה או מין תבואה זה מן הארץ בכמה זמן ייבש הגע בעצמך שיבש עד שלא תשאר בו לחה במאה שעה אם נשתהה בארץ משהגיע לו חצי שעה הרי הוסיף במאתים לאסור ואם שהה פחות מחצי שעה מותר:

23

It is forbidden to carry a pot with a hole [at its bottom]67 in which a vegetable is growing through a vineyard.68 If one left [such a pot] under a vine on the earth for [the time it takes] to add 1/200th [to its size], it becomes hallowed.

כג

אסור לעבור בעציץ נקוב שזרוע בו ירק בתוך הכרם ואם הניחו תחת הגפן ונשתהה שם בארץ כדי להוסיף אחד ממאתים הרי זה קידש:

24

[The following law applies when one] sowed an onion in a vineyard,69 the vineyard was uprooted afterwards,70 and then the onions grew from the roots that were already planted. Even though the growths are more than 200 times the size of the root,71 the root remains forbidden, for the permitted growths cannot change the status of the forbidden root.72

כד

בצל שנטעו בכרם ואחר כך נעקר הכרם ואח"כ צמחו בצלים מן העיקר הנטוע אף על פי שרבו הגידולים על עיקרו במאתים הרי אותו העיקר באיסורו שאין גידולי היתר מעלין את העיקר האסור:

Footnotes
1.

The wording of the prooftext implies that one is sowing mixed species - i.e., two species that are themselves kilayim - in a vineyard, i.e., together with grape seeds (Radbaz).

2.

Provided he is given a warning for each of the prohibitions (ibid.).

3.

As explained in Chapter 1.

4.

I.e., he transgresses a negative commandment, included as one of the 365 negative commandments by Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 216) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 548).

5.

Not only wheat and barley, but all five species of grain are considered as mixed species when sown with grapes and forbidden according to Scriptural Law.

6.

For the only concept of kilayim that applies with regard to crops in the Diaspora is the prohibition against grafting different species of trees. The prohibition against mixed crops, like all the other laws concerning the crops of Eretz Yisrael, do not apply in the Diaspora.

7.

These species, like grapes, require three years before their produce appears. For the prohibition against mixed species to apply, the produce must resemble that of the grape vine.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 2:5), the Rambam writes that he does not see how it is possible for there to be a vegetable plant that does not produce fruit for three years. That is a common phenomenon for trees and vines, but not for vegetables. He writes that these species of vegetables do remain in the ground for several years and continue to produce fruit and that appears to be the Rambam's intent.

8.

As stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 3.

9.

As mentioned in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 10:6, Deuteronomy 22:9 states: ...Lest the fullness of the seed which you sowed and the produce of the vineyard become hallowed.' ['Becom[ing] hallowed'] means being set apart and forbidden."

In contrast, mixed species in the field are forbidden to be eaten, but it is permitted to benefit from them, as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 7.

10.

This applies even on land belonging to a gentile. The Radbaz maintains that, according to the Rambam, this prohibition applies even on land belonging to a gentile in the Diaspora. Since it is forbidden for a Jew to plant such crops there according to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to help a gentile.

11.

With the intent of destroying it.

12.

The Radbaz asks: Since mixed substances that grow on a gentile's land are not prohibited, why are they referred to as undesirable substances? He explains that since they are forbidden when growing on a Jew's land, they are considered as undesirable even when growing on a gentile's land.

13.

I.e., plants that do not produce edible produce. This applies even according to Rabbinic Law (Kessef Mishneh). See Halachah 19 for illustrations of this principle.

14.

I.e., all types of trees may be planted in a vineyard.

15.

The Beit Yosef (Yoreh De'ah 296) states that the Rambam's wording implies that only one species of vegetable or grain is present. Although Halachah 1 states that to be liable for lashes, he must sow two mixed species together, a prohibition is involved when even one is present.

16.

For as stated in Halachah 2, he is not liable for lashes unless he sows the mixed species together.

17.

From the Rambam's wording, it is clear that he does not consider this as a Rabbinic safeguard, but rather the violation of a Scriptural prohibition.

18.

I.e., the prohibition does not apply only to the produce, but to the plants themselves. See the gloss of the Radbaz.

19.

Moreover, if a new oven is fired with them, it is forbidden to benefit from the oven itself. For firing a new oven completes it (Pesachim 26a).

20.

The owner of the field is not, however, liable for lashes, because he did not perform a deed.

21.

We find this principle in several other contexts (e.g., Hilchot Nazirut 9:9; Hilchot Arachin 4:26). Nevertheless, in those instances, the consecration of the article does not reflect a physical change in its state, but rather its designation as being holy. It is logical to conceive that only the owner of an article can make such a designation. In the present instance, by contrast, the different species of produce become hallowed because of the fact that they grow together. Seemingly, it makes no difference why they grow together, whether they were planted by the owner or by another person. Indeed, if a person puts milk into a pot cooking with meat belonging to his colleague, the food becomes prohibited.

For this reason, although the Rambam accepts the above principle in other contexts. He found it problematic with regard to kilayim. Thus in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 7:4), he originally favored the opinions which maintain that the above principle does not apply in this instance. Only later in life did he change his view and rule, as above, that it does apply. According to Rav Kappach, at that time, he also amended his Commentary to the Mishnah.

22.

For in the Sabbatical year, the field is not his own. Instead, it is ownerless. As above, in this instance as well, the Rambam deviated from his original ruling in his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.:5).

The Radbaz notes that the above ruling applies to the produce, but not the wood growing in the vineyard, because the wood does not become ownerless. Therefore it is forbidden.

23.

The Ra'avad (based on the Jerusalem Talmud, Kilayim 7:5) interprets this as referring to a situation where the person is working for the owner of the field. Otherwise, he maintains there is no reason to rule that he should be forbidden to benefit. Rav Yosef Corcus and the Radbaz explain the Rambam's ruling. Rav Yosef Corcus states that it applies to a person who has the right to enter his colleague's field even thought he is not working there (see also Turei Zahav 296:3). Otherwise, he would not have any effect on it, even for himself. The Radbaz states that the Rambam's ruling applies even to a person at large. Since he did not notify the owner about the problem, it is as if he took a vow to personally consider the produce as forbidden.

24.

In the time of the Roman occupation, it was common for landed property to be taken by force. Our Sages addressed the possible halachic problems that arise in such a situation.

25.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 7:6). Others interpret the term as meaning that the land is no longer referred to as belonging to the original owner.

26.

The Radbaz explains that since the owner is forced to hide, even though in his own heart, he hopes to have the land returned, it is as if he has already given up hope (Radbaz). Although generally, we follow the ruling that land cannot be stolen (Hilchot Gezeilah 8:14), but instead, is always considered as belonging to the original owner, in this instance, because of the severity of the prohibition against kilayim, we rule stringently.

27.

Our translation is based on authentic manuscripts and early printings of the Mishneh Torah. It also follows the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (according to Rav Kappach's version). The standard printed text of the Mishneh Torah - and also that followed by the Kessef Mishneh - follows a different version. In all cases, the basic intent remains the same.

28.

I.e., and in the time he did not remove them, they grew 1/200th, as stated in Halachah 22.

29.

For, as evident from Halachah 21, a person does not cause produce to be considered kilayim unless he willfully allows the mixed species to grow.

30.

In the time of the Roman occupation, it was common for landed property to be taken by force. Our Sages addressed the possible halachic problems that arise in such a situation.

31.

Lest he be liable for maintaining kilayim.

32.

The intermediate days of a festival, when there are restrictions against performing work in one's fields (see Hilchot Sh'vitat Yom Tov, ch. 7). Nevertheless, in this instance, he is required to do so, to avoid the violation of the prohibition against kilayim.

33.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 7:6), the Rambam gives an example. If the worker's wage was normally three zuz a day, he should be paid four.

34.

I.e., it grows 1/200th.

35.

Wheat or vegetables.

36.

The grapes.

37.

Before grain is ready to be harvested, the kernels dry out and harden.

38.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid.:7), the Rambam explains that the prooftext describing the prohibition speaks of "the seed" and "the produce." The Hebrew terms imply produce that is in the process of developing and not produce that has already developed fully and is ready to be harvested.

39.

I.e., according to Scriptural Law, neither the vines, nor the grain or the vegetables are forbidden.

40.

According to Rabbinic decree. Not only may one not partake of them, it is forbidden to benefit from them.

41.

The Ra'avad states that it is permitted to benefit from the produce of the vine, implying that it is forbidden to partake of it. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, differ and maintain that it is permitted even to partake of it.

42.

The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh state that this ruling appears to contradict the Rambam's statements made previously, that "he is penalized and we forbid the growths," implying that it is forbidden to benefit from them. They each suggest possible resolutions of the issue.

43.

This is speaking about a situation where the grain or the vegetables have taken root. The grain or the vegetables are forbidden, as above.

44.

It appears that, according to the Rambam, it is forbidden to partake of their produce immediately. The Ra'avad permits one to partake of it. His rationale is that since they did not take root, it is as if they were never planted. The Radbaz explains that the prohibition against partaking of the produce is a Rabbinic safeguard.

45.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 7:2), the Rambam emphasizes that we are speaking about a vine that is alive and will produce grapes in the future and not one that has dried out entirely. If the vine is totally dried out, it is permissible to sow other species near it (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh, commenting on the gloss of the Ra'avad).

46.

As indicated by Chapter 1, Halachah 2, this reflects a general principle applicable in many contexts of agricultural law: If a flowerpot has a hole at its bottom, it is considered as being a part of the field, because it derives nurture there. If it does not have such a hole, it is considered as a separate entity.

47.

The punishment administered for the violation of a Rabbinic commandment.

48.

For it derives nurture from the ground through the hole. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 5:10).

49.

Without his knowledge.

50.

On the contrary, they fell in the vineyard against his will [ibid. (Kilayim 5:7)].

51.

For whenever mixed species are maintained in a vineyard, they become hallowed, as stated in Halachah 8.

52.

But had not seen them beforehand.

53.

Although generally, kilayim should be destroyed by fire, an exception is made in this instance, because - since the newly grown crops are moist and not appropriate to be burnt.

54.

I.e., even its straw (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh; this ruling appears to contradict the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.).

55.

The grain is forbidden from the time it becomes rooted in the ground. The vines are not forbidden unless they grow 1/200th of their size. Alternatively, since he did not purposely plant the grain, even if the vines grew that much, they are not forbidden as long as the person did not willfully maintain the mixed species (Radbaz).

56.

For whenever mixed species are maintained in a vineyard, they become hallowed, as stated in Halachah 8.

57.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 5:8), the Rambam explains that this is also derived from the prooftext cited above. "Which you sowed" implies "what is customary for you to sow."

58.

Compare to Chapter 1, Halachah 4.

59.

I.e., everything depends on the prevailing local practice. What the person thinks individually is not of consequence.

60.

Our translation is taken from Rav Kappach's notes to the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Uktzin 1:6).

61.

As stated in Halachah 6, all types of trees may be planted in a vineyard.

62.

In such an instance, each year, the trunk changes.

63.

Compare to Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 1:7. See also Hilchot Berachot 8:6.

64.

I.e., he need not hurry to uproot it immediately, but may proceed at his ordinary pace, provided he does not delay.

65.

He has transgressed, because he has maintained mixed produce in a vineyard.

66.

As the Jerusalem Talmud (Kilayim 5:6) explains, a plant will grow at the same rate that it will dry out. (As the Radbaz points out, this applies over the entire span. The particular phases of its growth and drying will vary.)

67.

As stated in the notes to Halachah 16, when such a flowerpot is left on the ground, it is considered as if the pot is connected to the earth and it as if the plants growing in it are part of the vineyard. As a safeguard, our Rabbis forbade even carrying such a flowerpot through a vineyard.

68.

According to the Rambam, however, the produce growing in it does not become hallowed.

69.

And thus it became forbidden as kilayim.

70.

But the forbidden onion plant was left in the ground.

71.

And mixed species are nullified in a mixture 200 times the size of the original amount.

72.

Instead, despite the growth of the onion plant, the root remains forbidden. Rabbi Akiva Eiger notes that the Rambam rules in this manner in Hilchot Neta Reva'i 10:16. In Hilchot Terumah 11:22, he rules otherwise.

The Rambam's wording could be interpreted as implying that the plant that grows from the root is permitted. This is the conclusion of Rav Yosef Corcus. There are other Rishonim who maintain that the entire plant is forbidden. Kin'at Eliyahu notes that in Hilchot Nedarim 5:15, the Rambam rules: "If it was an entity whose seed does not decompose, even the produce that grows from the produce that grows from them is forbidden." Seemingly, the same principles would apply here.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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