1

The produce of the Sabbatical year is designated for the sake of eating, drinking,1smearing oneself [with oil],2 kindling lamps, and dyeing. According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that the word tihiyeh3 implies that it may be used even for kindling lamps, and dyeing.4

2

What is meant by [the license to use the produce of the Sabbatical year] for eating and drinking? One should eat those foods that are normally eaten and drink the beverages that are normally drunken, as is the law with regard to terumah and the second tithe.5

3

He should not change the natural function of produce as he does not with regard to terumah and the second tithe, i.e., something that is normally eaten raw should not be eaten cooked. Something that is normally eaten cooked should not be eaten raw. For this reason, animal fodder6 should not be cooked, nor should one press himself to eat a cooked dish that has spoiled or bread that has become moldy, as he does not eat such foods that are terumah or the second tithe.7

4

We do not cook vegetables from the Sabbatical year in oil that is terumah lest it disqualify it.8 If one cooked a little and ate it immediately, it is permitted,9 because he did not leave it aside so that it become disqualified.

5

Produce that is set aside for human consumption should not be fed to domesticated animals, beasts, and fowl. If an animal went under a fig tree under its own initiative and began eaten the fruit, we do not require [the owner] to bring it back, for [Leviticus 25:7] states: "And for the animal and the beast in your land shall be all the produce to eat."10

6

What is meant by [the license to] smear oneself [with produce from the Sabbatical year]? One may smear oneself with produce with which it is common to smear oneself. He should not smear wine or vinegar, but he may smear oil.11 We do not place fragrant herbs in oil,12 nor should one apply oil in a bathhouse.13 He may, however, apply oil outside and then enter.14

7

Oil from the Sabbatical year should not be used to seal an oven or a range,15nor should it be applied to a shoe or a sandal.16 One should not apply [such oil] with impure hands.17 If the oil fell on his flesh, he may rub it in with impure hands.18 One should not apply [such] oil to his foot while it is in a shoe,19 He may, however, smear [such oil] on his foot and put on a shoe or smear his entire body and then roll on a new [leather] mat.20

8

What is meant by [the license to] kindle a lamp [with produce from the Sabbatical year]? One may kindle a lamp with oil from the Sabbatical year itself. If one sold [oil from the Sabbatical year] and used the proceeds21 to purchase other oil or exchanged [oil from the Sabbatical year] for other oil,22 they are both forbidden to be used for kindling, for we may not use money received in return for the produce of the Sabbatical year for kindling.23

One should not place oil directly into a fire.24 Instead, one should light it in a lamp.25

9

What is meant by [the license to use produce from the Sabbatical year] for dyeing? Produce which is ordinarily used as dye even though it is also used as food for people may be used as dye for man's sake.26 We may not, however, use the produce of the Sabbatical year - even animal fodder - as dye for the sake of an animal. For the holiness of the Sabbatical year does not rest on dye for animals.

10

The holiness of the Sabbatical year falls on [natural] detergents - e.g., borit and ehel,27 - and we may launder with them,28 as [Leviticus 25:6] states: "And [the produce that grows] while the land is resting shall be yours," i.e., for all your needs. Nevertheless, the fruit of the Sabbatical year should not be used as a detergent,29 nor should it be used to produce a compress,30 for [the above verse] states: "...shall be yours to eat,"31 i.e., and not for a compress, nor to sprinkle,32 induce regurgitation, soak flax, or use as a detergent.

11

A great principle was stated with regard to the produce of the Sabbatical year: Whatever is distinguished as being for human consumption, e.g., wheat, figs, grapes, and the like, should not be used as a compress or a bandage, even for a person, as implied by the phrase: "yours to eat," i.e., whatever is distinguished as being for you, should be used as food33 and not for medicinal purposes. Anything that is not distinguished as being for human consumption, e.g., soft thorns and brambles, may be used as a compress for a person, but not for an animal.34

If it is not distinguished as being for either of the above purposes - e.g., za'ater, oregano,35 and thyme,36 [the ruling depends] on the person's intent. If he thought to use it as kindling wood, it is considered as kindling wood.37 If he intended that it be used as food [for humans], it is considered as produce.38

If it is distinguished as being for both of the above purposes, we treat it with both the stringencies incumbent on food for humans - and compresses are not made with it - and those incumbent on animal fodder - that they may not be cooked.39

12

It is permitted to sell food for humans and animal fodder and use the proceeds to purchase food for humans. We may not, however, sell animal fodder to purchase other animal fodder.40 Needless to say, we may not sell food for humans to purchase animal fodder. If [animal fodder] was purchased with [such produce] or food for humans was exchanged for animal fodder, [the animal fodder] is considered like food for humans and it may not be used to make a compress for a person.

13

The produce of the Sabbatical year may not be transported from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora, not even to Syria.41 It cannot be fed to a gentile,42 nor to a hired worker.43 If he was hired for an entire week, an entire year, or an entire month or an agreement regarding his food was established, he is considered as a member of one's household and he may be fed [the produce of the Sabbatical year]. We may feed a guest44 the produce of the Sabbatical year.45

14

The court does not allot produce of the Sabbatical year to a woman,46 because this is considered as paying a debt with the produce of the Sabbatical year.47 She may, however, take her livelihood from [produce of the Sabbatical year] in her husband's possession.48

15

We do not harvest the produce of the Sabbatical year when it is not yet ripe.49 [This is derived from Leviticus 25:12 which states:] "And you shall partake of its produce," [implying that the fruits] may not be eaten until they are considered as produce.50 One may, however, partake of a small amount of them in the field while they are underdeveloped, as one partakes [of such produce] in other years.51 One should not bring the produce into one's home until it reaches the stage when the obligation to separate tithes takes effect.52

16

From when is it permitted to partake of the fruit of trees in the field in the Sabbatical year? With regard to underdeveloped figs, when their surface will become shiny,53 he may eat his bread with them in the field. The same applies in all analogous situations With regard to underdeveloped grapes,54 when sap flows in them, they may be eaten in the fields. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

With regard to olives, when a se'ah of olives would produce a revi'it of a log55 of oil, one may break them open56 and eat them in the fields.57 [If such an amount of olives] would produce half a log [of oil], one may crush them and smear oneself in the field. [If they reach the stage where they] produce one third [of the amount they ordinarily produce], it is permitted to bring them to his home, because they have reached a third of their growth.

17

It is permitted to cut down trees for their wood in the Sabbatical year, before they produce fruit. Once they have begun to produce fruit, however, they should not be cut down, for doing so spoils [the fruit], and [the fruit of the Sabbatical year is granted] "to eat,"58 and not to spoil.59 If it produced fruit and they reached the stage at which an obligation to separate tithes exists, it is permitted to cut them down, for it has already produced its fruit and the laws of the Sabbatical year no longer apply to it.60

18

From when is it forbidden to cut down a tree in the Sabbatical year?61 For carobs, when a chain of carobs will be formed.62 For grapes, when the fruit produces seeds. For olives, when they bud. For all other fruit trees, when they produce underdeveloped fruit.

It is forbidden to cut off underdeveloped clusters of dates63 in the Sabbatical year, because one is spoiling the fruit. If these clusters will not produce dates, merely buds, it is permitted to cut off those clusters.64

19

We may not use hay and straw of the Sabbatical year for kindling,65 because it is fit for animal fodder.66 We may, however, use the wastes of olives and grapes of the Sabbatical year for fuel.67

20

When a bathhouse has been heated with hay and straw of the Sabbatical year, it is permitted to bathe there68 [even] when payment is required.69 An important person, however, is forbidden to do so, lest they also mix other [herbs]70 into the kindling for him, so that it will produce a fragrant scent.71 Thus they will destroy the produce of the Sabbatical year.72

21

The holiness of the produce of the Sabbatical year does not fall on the types of shells and seeds that are permitted to non-priests with regard to terumah.73 Instead, they are considered like wood, unless they are fit for dyeing.74 The holiness of the Sabbatical year falls on the hearts of palms.75

22

[The following rules apply when a person] places spices from the Sabbatical year in a wrapping and inserts them into cooked food. If their flavor is nullified,76 they are permitted.77 If they retain their flavor, the holiness of the Sabbatical year is still invested in them.

23

Straw and hay from the Sabbatical year should not be placed in a pillow or in mud.78 If one did place them there, they are considered as if they have been destroyed.79 When an oven has been heated with straw and hay from the Sabbatical year, it should be allowed to cool.80

Once the second wave of rains81 descend in the eighth year, we are allowed to benefit from straw and hay of the Sabbatical year and use it for kindling.82