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Klei Hamikdash - Chapter 1

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Klei Hamikdash - Chapter 1

Introduction to Hilchot Klei Hamikdash

They contain fourteen mitzvot: six positive commandments and eight negative commandments. They are:

1) To prepare the oil of anointment;
2) Not to make oil like it;
3) Not to anoint oneself with it;
4) Not to prepare a compound of spices after the formula of the incense;
5) Not to offer on the golden altar anything but the incense; 6) To bear the ark on the shoulder;
7) That the staves of the Ark shall not be removed from it;
8) That the Levite shall serve in the Sanctuary;
9) That no one in the Sanctuary shall do the work assigned to another;
10) To consecrate the priest for the service;
11) That, on the festivals, all the divisions shall take part equally in the services;
12) To put on priestly vestments for the service;
13) That the priests' robes shall not be rent;
14) That the breast-plate be not loosed from the Ephod.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות כלי המקדש והעובדין בו - הקדמה

יש בכללן ארבע עשרה מצוות: שש מצות עשה, ושמונה מצות לא תעשה. וזה הוא פרטן:

(א) לעשות שמן המשחה.
(ב) שלא לעשות כמוהו.
(ג) שלא לסוך ממנו.
(ד) שלא לעשות כמתכונת הקטורת.
(ה) שלא להקטיר על מזבח הזהב חוץ מן הקטורת.
(ו) לשאת הארון על הכתף.
(ז) שלא יסורו הבדים ממנו.
(ח) שיעבוד הלוי במקדש.
(ט) שלא יעשה אחד במלאכת חברו במקדש.
(י) לקדש הכהן לעבודה.
(יא) שיהיו כל המשמרות שוות ברגלים.
(יב) ללבוש בגדי כהונה לעבודה.
(יג) שלא יקרע המעיל.
(יד) שלא יזח החושן מעל האפוד.

וביאור מצוות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

It is a positive commandment to prepare1 the anointing oil so that it will be ready [to use] for those articles that require anointing,2 as [Exodus 30:25] states: "And you shall make it3 as the oil of sacred anointment."

א

מצות עשה לעשות שמן המשחה שיהיה מוכן לדברים שצריכין משיחה בו שנאמר ועשית אותו שמן משחת קדש:

2

While in the desert, Moses our teacher [had]4 it prepared. He took the equivalent of 500 shekel5 of the holy shekalim of musk, cinnamon, and costus6 and the equivalent of 250 shekel of fragrant cane. The Torah's statement [ibid.:23]: "And fragrant cinnamon, half its measure, 250," implies that [the entire quantity] should be weighed out in two measures, 250 each time. Each one should be ground separately, mixed together7 and then soaked in pure, sweet water until all of its power was extracted into the water. A hin - which is equivalent to twelve log with each log comprising four revi'iot8 - of oil was placed above the water.9 The entire mixture was then cooked over fire until the water boiled off and only the oil remained.10 It was then set aside for [future] generations.

ב

וככה עשהו משה רבינו במדבר לקח מן המור והקנמון והקדה מכל אחד משלשתן חמש מאות שקל בשקל הקודש ומקנה הבושם חמשים ומאתים וזהו שנאמר בתורה וקנמן בשם מחציתו חמשים ומאתים ששוקלים אותו בב' פעמים חמשים ומאתים בכל פעם ושוחק כל אחד ואחד לבדו ועירב הכל ושרה אותן במים זכין ומתוקין עד שיצא כל כחן במים ונתן על המים שמן זית הין והוא י"ב לוג כל לוג ד' רביעיות ובישל הכל על האש עד שאבדו המים ונשאר השמן והניחו בכלי לדורות:

3

Musk refers to the blood contained with a wild beast from India that is of universal renown which people everywhere use as a fragrance.11 Cinnamon is a tree that comes from the Indian islands which has a pleasant fragrance and which people use as incense. The term kidah refers to costus.12 Fragrant cane, this refers to thin canes13 like red straw that come from the Indian islands and have a pleasant fragrance. They are types of herbs which doctors place in balsam.

ג

המור הוא הדם הצרור בחיה שבהודו הידוע לכל שמתבשמין בה בני אדם בכ"מ והקנמון הוא העץ שבא מאיי הודו שריחו טוב ומתגמרים בו בני אדם והקדה היא הקושט וקנה בושם הם הקנים הדקים כתבן האדומים הבאים מאיי הודו וריחן טוב והם ממיני הבשמים שנותנין אותם הרופאים בצרי:

4

One who willfully prepares anointing oil in this manner and with these measurements without adding or reducing [the quantity of the herbs] is liable for karet.14 If he prepares it unknowingly, he must bring a fixed sin-offering,15 [as ibid.:34] states: "One who makes such a compound shall be cut off from his nation." [The above applies] provided he prepared it for anointment. If, however, he prepared it for practice or to give to other people,16 he is exempt.17

ד

העושה שמן המשחה כמעשה הזה וכמשקל הזה ולא הוסיף ולא גרע במזיד חייב כרת בשוגג מביא חטאת קבועה שנאמר אשר ירקח כמוהו ונכרת מעמיו והוא שיעשה אותו להמשח בו אבל אם עשהו להתלמד או ליתנו לאחרים פטור:

5

One who anoints himself with an olive-sized portion18 of the oil of anointment willfully is liable for karet. If he [anoints himself] unknowingly, he must bring a fixed sin-offering, [as ibid.] states: "And one who applies it to an unauthorized person,19 shall be cut off from his nation."

One is liable only for anointing oneself with the oil of anointment made by Moses,20 as the prooftext states "from it," from [the oil] of which [ibid.:31] states "This will be oil for sacred anointing for Me." No other [anointing] oil was ever made aside from that made by Moses.21

ה

הסך משמן המשחה כזית במזיד חייב כרת ובשוגג מביא חטאת קבועה שנאמר ואשר יתן ממנו על זר ונכרת מעמיו ואין חייבין אלא על סיכת שמן המשחה שעשה משה שנאמר ממנו מזה שנאמר בו שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי ומעולם לא נעשה שמן אחר חוץ ממה שעשה משה:

6

[One is liable] whether he anoints himself or others,22 as [the prooftext] states: "And one who applies it to an unauthorized person." One who spreads it on utensils, an animal, a gentile - who is [halachicly equivalent] to an animal23 - or who spreads it on a corpse, is exempt, as [implied by ibid.:32]: "It should not be spread on the flesh of a man."24

ו

אחד הסך את עצמו ואחד הסך את אחרים שנאמר ואשר יתן ממנו על זר הסך כלים ובהמה ועכו"ם שהם כמותה או שסך מתים בו פטור שנאמר על בשר אדם לא ייסך:

7

For all time,25 we do not [use this oil] except to anoint the High Priest, the priest who leads the nation in war,26 and kings from the House of David.27 Even a High Priest who is the son of a High Priest should be anointed,28 as [Leviticus 6:15] states: "The priest from his sons anointed in place of him...."

ז

אין מושחין ממנו לדורות אלא כהנים גדולים ומשוח מלחמה ומלכי בית דוד בלבד אפילו כהן בן כהן מושחין אותו שנאמר והכהן המשיח תחתיו מבניו וגו':

8

Since there was no anointing oil [during] the Second Temple [era],29the High Priest was installed in his office by putting on the garments of the High Priest alone.

ח

בבית שני שלא היה שם שמן המשחה היה כ"ג מתרבה בלבישת בגדים בלבד שהיה לובש בגדי כהונה גדולה:

9

How was the High Priest anointed? The oil should be poured on his head and applied between his eyes in the form of the Greek letter chi,30 like this C as [Leviticus 8:12] states: "And he poured the anointing oil on Aaron's head and anointed him to sanctify him." The kings of the Davidic dynasty are anointed [with the oil] spread as a crown on their foreheads.31 They should not be anointed on other places [on their bodies], nor should one use an excessive amount of oil.

ט

כיצד מושחין את הכהן צק את השמן על ראשו וסך ממנו על גבי עיניו כמין כי יוונית כזה שנאמר ויצק משמן המשחה על ראש אהרן וימשח אותו לקדשו ומלכי בית דוד מושחין אותן כמין נזר על ראשו ולא ימשח במקומות אחרות ולא ירבה בשמן:

10

A person who places the anointing oil on a king or High Priest who had been anointed previously is exempt, for [the prooftext] speaks of "one who applies it to an unauthorized person." And these individuals are not unauthorized with regard to this oil.32

If, however, one - even a king or a High Priest - spreads it [on his flesh], he is liable, for [the prooftext] states: "It should not be spread on the flesh of a man." This implies all men.33 When a High Priest takes the anointment oil from his head and spreads it on his belly, he is liable for karet,34 provided he spreads an olive-sized portion.35

י

הנותן משמן המשחה על גבי מלך או כהן גדול שכבר נמשחו פטור שנאמר ואשר יתן ממנו על זר ואין אלו זרים אצלו אבל הסך ממנו אפילו למלך וכהן גדול חייב שנאמר על בשר אדם לא ייסך כל אדם במשמע וכהן גדול שנטל שמן המשחה מראשו וסך במעיו חייב כרת והוא שיסוך ממנו בכזית:

11

A king should only be anointed next to a spring.36 We do not anoint the king who is the son of a king, for the kingship is a hereditary position for the king for all time,37 as [Deuteronomy 17:20] states: "[Thus] he and his descendants [will prolong their reign] in the midst of Israel." If there is a controversy, he should be anointed to resolve the controversy and to notify to all that he alone is the king, as Solomon was anointed because of the controversy [stirred up by] Adoniyahu.38 Yoash was anointed because of Atal'ya,39 and Yehoachaz was anointed because of his brother Yehoyakim.40 When Elisha had Yehu anointed,41 he did not have him anointed with the anointment oil, but with balsam oil. This is an accepted tradition among the sages.

יא

אין מושחין את המלך אלא על גבי המעיין ואין מושחין מלך בן מלך שהמלכות ירושה למלך לעולם שנאמר הוא ובניו בקרב ישראל ואם היתה שם מחלוקת מושחין אותו כדי לסלק המחלוקת ולהודיע לכל שזהו מלך לבדו כמו שמשחו שלמה מפני מחלוקת אדוניהו ויואש מפני עתליה ויהואחז מפני יהויקים אחיו וזה שמשח אלישע ליהוא לא בשמן המשחה משחו אלא בשמן אפרסמון ודבר זה מסורת ביד החכמים:

12

All of the vessels of the Sanctuary that were fashioned [at the command] of Moses were sanctified only by being anointed with the anointing oil,42 as [Numbers 7:1] states: "And he anointed them and sanctified them." This practiced was not followed in the coming generations. Instead, all of the utensils became sanctified when they were used for their purpose in the Temple, as [implied by Numbers 4:12] "...that they will serve with them in the Sanctuary," i.e., through service, they are sanctified.

יב

כל כלי המקדש שעשה משה במדבר לא נתקדשו אלא במשיחתן בשמן המשחה שנאמר וימשחם ויקדש אותם ודבר זה אינו נוהג לדורות אלא הכלים כולן כיון שנשתמשו בהן במקדש במלאכתן נתקדשו שנאמר אשר ישרתו בם בקודש בשירות הם מתקדשין:

13

The spoons and the bowls used to contain the meal offerings and similarly, the basins used to receive the blood, and the other vessels used [in the Sanctuary] were all made of silver and gold. It was permitted to make them from other metals, as we explained.43 They receive their holiness by being used for the [desired] tasks. If they were broken, they should be smelted down and another utensil made from them,44 for their holiness never departs from them.

יג

הכפות והקערות שמקבלין בהם המנחות וכן המזרקות שמקבלין בהן הדם ושאר כלי השרת כולן של כסף ושל זהב היו ומותר לעשותן משאר מיני מתכות כמו שביארנו וכולן מתקדשין במלאכתן ואם נשברו מתיך אותם ועושה אותן כלי אחר ואין קדושתן מסתלקת מהן לעולם:

14

If the sacred utensils became perforated or cracked, the cracks are not plugged close. Instead, the utensils should be smelted down and new utensils made.45

יד

כלי הקדש שנקבו או שנסדקו אין סותמין אותן אלא מתיכין אותן ועושין אותן חדשים:

15

When a knife has become dislodged from its shaft or blemished, it is not returned to its shaft, nor is it sharpened. Instead, it should be entombed on the side of the Temple, between the Sanctuary and the Entrance Hall on the south46 and new ones should be made. For [conduct bespeaking] poverty is not [appropriate] in a place where wealth [is in place].

טו

סכין שנשמט מן הנצב או שנפגם אין מחזירין אותו ואין משחיזין אותו אלא גונזין אותו בצד ההיכל בין הקודש והאולם לדרום ועושין אחרים שאין עניות במקום עשירות:

16

There were two containers for dry measure in the Temple: an isaron and a half an isaron.47 The isaron was for the meal offering48 and the half isaron to separate the meal offering brought by the High Priest every day.49

טז

שתי מדות של יבש היו במקדש עשרון וחצי עשרון העשרון למנחות וחצי העשרון לחלק בו מנחת כ"ג שבכל יום:

17

There were seven containers of liquid measure: a hin,50 a half a hin, a third of a hin, a fourth of a hin, a log, a half a log, and a fourth of a log. 51

Why were there measures of a half a hin, a third of a hin, a fourth of a hin? To measure out the wine libations for the sacrifices.52 A log was necessary to measure the oil for the meal offerings.53 A half a log was necessary to measure out the oil for every lamp of the lamps of the Menorah.54 And a fourth [of a log] to divide the oil for [the High Priest's] chavitan offering.55

יז

ושבע מדות של לח היו שם: הין וחצי ההין ושלישית ההין ורביעית ההין ולוג וחצי לוג ורביעית ולמה היו חצי ההין ושלישית ההין ורביעית ההין למדידת הנסכים של זבחים ולוג למדידת שמן המנחות וחצי לוג למדידת שמן לכל נר מנרות המנורה ורביעית לחלק בה השמן לחביתין:

18

There is nothing that is measured with a hin. Why [then] was it there? [It remained, because] it had been in the Sanctuary from the time of Moses who used it to measure the oil for the anointing oil.56 With the measure of a half a log that was in the Temple, water was measured for the Sotah water57 and oil for the thanksgiving offerings.58 With the measure of a fourth [of a log], oil was measured for the bread brought by a nazirite59 and water for the purification of a metzora.60 It is not that through these deeds the measures became sanctified,61 but rather because of the tasks [performed] in the Sanctuary that were mentioned [in the preceding halachah].

יח

ואין לנו דבר למדוד בו הין ולמה היה שם הואיל והיה במקדש מימי משה שמדד בו שמן לשמן המשחה ובחצי לוג שיהיה במקדש היו מודדין מים למי סוטה ושמן לתודה וברביעית שהיתה שם היו מודדין שמן לחם הנזיר ומים לטהרת מצורע ולא מפני מעשים אלו נתקדשו אלא מפני המלאכות של מקדש שאמרנו:

19

All of these measures are consecrated and are considered as sacred utensils. [There is, however a difference between them.] The liquid measures were anointed on both the inside and the outside, while the dry measures were anointed only on the inside. Therefore the overflow of the liquid measures was consecrated,62 and the overflow of the dry measures was not consecrated.63

יט

כל המדות האלו קודש ומכלי השרת אלא שמדות הלח נמשחו מבפנים ומבחוץ וכלי היבש לא נמשחו אלא בפנים לפיכך בירוצי מדות הלח קודש ובירוצי מדות היבש חול:

Footnotes
1.

The Rambam's wording here represents a change from his wording in Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 35) where he describes the mitzvah in passive terms: "having the oil made in a unique fashion available for anointing." Perhaps he chose that wording for, as explained in Halachah 5, after the oil was made at Moses' command, no other such oil was ever made and the mitzvah was merely "to have it."

2.

Sefer HaMitzvot (ibid.) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 107) includes this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. See the gloss of the Radbaz who explains that anointing the kings and the High Priest is not considered one of the mitzvot, for there were times when this anointment was not practiced.

3.

The mixture of spices mentioned in the previous verses.

4.

This addition is necessary, for as indicated by Exodus 37:29, Moses himself did not prepare the anointment oil. It was prepared by Betzalel and the other craftsmen working with him.

5.

According to Scriptural Law, based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Bechorot 8:8), in modern measure a shekel of the Torah is equivalent to 16 grams of pure silver. Nevertheless, as the Rambam states in Hilchot Shekalim 1:2, in the era of the Second Temple, our Sages increased its measure by almost a fourth. Accordingly, the measure of silver required for the redemption of the firstborn and other obligations were a shekel is required is significantly larger.

6.

The Rambam describes these spices in the following halachah.

7.

The Kessef Mishneh states that the obligation to grind the herbs is derived from a comparison to the incense offering. The order in which they are ground and then mixed is a logical deduction. If they are ground first, they will be mixed more thoroughly and more effectively.

8.

A common halachic measure equivalent to approximately 86 cc according to Shiurei Torah and approximately 150 cc according to Chazon Ish. Thus a hin is 48 times this amount.

9.

For the oil will float above the water.

10.

Otherwise, the amount of oil used would not be sufficient to soak all the herbs (Rashi, in his commentary to Exodus 30:24).

11.

The Rambam is referring to a secretion of the abdominal gland of the male musk deer, a large animal that roams the mountains of Nepal and Tibet. The secretion is reddish-brown, with a honeylike consistency and a strong fragrance. After the gland is cut open, the secretion hardens, assumes a blackish-brown color, and when dry becomes granular.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's definition, stating that it is improper that the blood of a beast - and certainly, a non-kosher beast - be used in the Sanctuary. He interprets the term mor as referring to the fragrant herb, myrrh. The Kessef Mishneh supports the Rambam's view, explaining that the loathsome quality one would associate with the blood of a beast departs from it when the secretion dries and becomes granular. See also the Ramban's commentary to Exodus 30:23, where he discusses both positions.

12.

It is the root of a tall herb, whose botanical name is Saussurea lappa, which even today grows only in the highlands of Kashmir.

13.

In his notes to his translation of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Keritot 1:1), Rav Kapach identifies this as the acorus calamus plant. In his Living Torah, Rav Aryeh Kaplan identifies this as the cymbopogon martini or palmarosa plant.

14.

Literally, the soul's being cut off. This involves premature death in this world (before the age of 50, Mo'ed Kattan 28a) and the soul not meriting a portion in the world to come (Hilchot Teshuvah 8:1).

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 83) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 109) includes the prohibition against making such oil among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

15.

The term "fixed sin-offering" is used to differentiate between this offering and "an adjustable guilt offering" in which instance, the offering the person brings changes according to his financial capacity. See Hilchot Shegagot 1:4.

16.

Even if those people desire to use it for anointment. As long as he personally does not intend to use it for anointment, he is not liable (Radbaz).

17.

I.e., the act is forbidden, but he is not liable.

18.

For to be liable, one must benefit from a minimum measure and that minimum measure is, as is true with regard to partaking of forbidden substances, an olive-sized portion.

19.

I.e., someone other than a High Priest, a king, and the priest who lead the people in war, as stated in Halachah 7.

20.

And not a copy, even if it was made in the exact same manner.

21.

That oil remained throughout the majority of the First Temple period until it was entombed by King Josiah together with the ark, as the Rambam relates in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 4:1. From that point onward, neither the High Priests or kings were anointed.

On the surface, one might ask: Since no other oil was ever made, why is making the oil considered one of the 613 mitzvot? For as the Rambam clarifies several times in Sefer HaMitzvot, if an obligation is not ongoing, it is not appropriate to consider it as a mitzvah. On that basis, a number of commands, for example, the command to wage war against Midian (Numbers 7:2), were excluded from this reckoning.

The Minchat Chinuch (positive mitzvah 107) notes that the prooftext quoted by the Rambam concludes "for your generations," i.e., for all time. The mitzvah was to have the oil made by Moses available at all time. After the oil was entombed by King Josiah, new oil was not made, because the oil which Moses made is still available. At the coming of Mashiach, that oil will surface and again be used.

22.

The Radbaz maintains that if the others willfully allow the oil to be applied to their flesh, they are also liable. The Tosefta, Makkot, ch. 3, also rules in this manner.

23.

See Kiddushin 68a; Hilchot Eruvin 2:9.

24.

And none of the above are halachicly equivalent to a man.

25.

I.e., in contrast to the era of Moses where this oil was also used to anoint the priestly garments and the vessels of the Sanctuary, as stated in Halachah 12.

26.

See Hilchot Melachim, ch. 7, which states that a priest is appointed to speak before the nation and inspire them in war.

27.

The kings of the ten tribes, by contrast, were not anointed with this anointing oil, only balsam oil, as stated in Hilchot Melachim 1:10. According to the Rambam (ibid.:7), King Saul was also anointed with this oil. He is not mentioned, because his regal line did not continue for posterity.

28.

In contrast, the kings were anointed only when there is a dispute over the inheritance or during a civil war (ibid.:12 and Halachah 11 of this chapter).

29.

As mentioned above, the anointing oil was entombed toward the conclusion of the First Temple Era.

30.

Our text follows the manuscript versions of the Mishneh Torah and the manuscript versions of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 6:3). Most of the later printings of the Mishneh Torah replace the C with an X, for in fact, this is the form of the Greek letter. Kin'at Eliyahu suggests that although the Rambam speaks about the Greek letter, perhaps his intent was the Roman letter.

31.

The translation of rosho as "forehead" rather than "head," is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Keritot 1:1).

32.

For we are obligated to apply it to them.

33.

Including a High Priest or king.

34.

Even though the oil was placed on his flesh, since it should not have been applied to this portion of the body, doing so is included in the above prohibition.

35.

The Ra'avad objects to this qualification, maintaining that once he places an olive-sized portion of the oil on his skin, he is liable even if he spreads a smaller measure. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh note that the simple meaning of Keritot 6b appears to support the Ra'avad's position. Nevertheless, they also provide interpretations that support the Rambam's understanding.

36.

Horiot 12a explains that the king was anointed there as an sign that his dynasty should be perpetuated, just as a stream continues in a never-ending flow. This symbolism is only appropriate for kings of the Davidic dynasty, whose dynasty will continue for-ever. In contrast, the dynasties of the kings of Israel will eventually be interrupted [see Hilchot Melachim 1:9 (Kessef Mishneh)].

Accordingly, King David ordered that Solomon be anointed at the Gichon Stream (1 Kings 1:33).

37.

When mentioning this law, Hilchot Melachim 1:7 continues: "Not only the monarchy, but all other positions of authority and appointments in Israel, are transferred to one's children and grand-children as inheritances forever." The order of inheritance of the crown follows the order of inheritance of property as explained in Hilchot Nachalot, ch. 1. The first in line for the monarchy are the deceased king's sons, in order of age. Should none of his sons be alive, the right is passed to his grandchildren. The children of the elder son are granted preference. If the king has no male descendents, the monarchy is given to his brothers. If they are not alive, it is granted to their sons. From them, the right to the throne passes to the deceased king's nephews (his sister's sons), then to his uncles, to his first cousins.

38.

1 Kings, Chapter l, describes Adoniyahu's abortive attempt to declare himself as David's successor.

39.

II Kings, Chapter 11, describes Atal'ya's murder of the children of King Achazyahu, her assumption of the throne, and the revolt which established Yoash as king.

40.

Yehoachaz was younger than Yehoyakim. Nevertheless, he was given the throne, because he was more capable than his brother, and better suited to serve in his father's position. See the commentaries to II Kings, ch. 23.

41.

See II Kings, ch. 9.

42.

The Radbaz uses this concept to reinforce his thesis that the Rambam does not consider applying the anointing oil as a mitzvah, because it did not apply for all time.

43.

Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 1:18-19. There the Rambam explains that it is preferable to make them from precious metals. Nevertheless, if this is beyond the financial capacity of the community, they can be made from base metals. Indeed, when the Hasmoneans conquered Jerusalem, it is said that they first made a Menorah of iron coated with tin.

44.

Note a similar ruling in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 8:21.

45.

For patchwork is not becoming to the Temple.

46.

This portion of the Temple was called Beit HaChalafot, "the Chamber of the Knives," for this reason (Middot 4:7).

47.

An isaron is the size of 43.2 eggs. According to modern measure, the size of an egg is considered to be 57.6 cc according to Shiurei Torah and 99.5 cc according to Chazon Ish.

48.

For as stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:5, the meal offerings were measured out using an isaron as the basic measure.

49.

As stated in ibid. 12:4, 13:2, each day the High Priest would bring a meal offering and he would divide it in half. Half was offered in the morning, and half in the afternoon.

50.

See Halachah 2.

51.

As mentioned above, a revi'it, a fourth of a log, is a common halachic measure equivalent to approximately 86 cc according to Shiurei Torah and approximately 150 cc according to Chazon Ish.

52.

As Numbers 28:14 states, the wine libation for a bull was half a hin, for a ram, one third of a hin, and for a ewe, one fourth of a hin. See also Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbonot 2:4.

53.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbonot 12:7, a log of oil is poured over all the different meal offerings.

54.

For as stated in Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 3:11, this quantity of oil was placed in the lamps every day of the year.

55.

For as indicated by Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:3, a fourth of a log of oil is poured on each of the cakes the High Priest brings.

56.

As stated in Halachah 2 above.

57.

A sotah, a woman accused of adultery, was forced to drink water in which a scroll containing a curse with God's name had been blotted out. See Hilchot Sotah 3:9.

58.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbonot 9:20, a log of oil was used in the baking processes of the different types of wafers used for this offering. Kin'at Eliyahu asks: Since there were specific measures employed in making each type of wafer, why weren't smaller measures used to measure out this oil?

59.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:23, a fourth of a log of oil was used in the preparation of this bread.

60.

A person with a physical affliction similar to - but not identical with - leprosy. As related in Hilchot Tuma'at Tzara'at 11:1, as part of such a person's purification process, a bird was slaughtered and its blood poured over water.

61.

I.e., receiving the blood of a sacrificial animal is an act of service. Therefore it consecrates the container. Preparing the meal offerings, by contrast, is not an act of service. Therefore it does not sanctify the container.

62.

Because it had touched a sacred utensil, the outside of the measure. These liquids were collected and used as libations or sold and the proceeds used to bring sacrifices for the altar. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbonot 2:9-11.

See also Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 3:20.

63.

Because it never touched a sacred utensil.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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